82 relations: Acetylcholine, Action potential, Artery, Arthur Keith, Atrium (heart), Beta-1 adrenergic receptor, Blood, Blood vessel, Brain, Calcium, Calcium sparks, CAMP-dependent pathway, Cardiac action potential, Cardiac muscle, Cardiac pacemaker, Cardiology, Cell (biology), Chronotropic, Circulation Research, Circumflex branch of left coronary artery, Collagen, Connective tissue, Connexin, Coronary artery disease, Crista terminalis, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, Depolarization, Electrical conduction system of the heart, England, Fat, Gi alpha subunit, Gs alpha subunit, HCN channel, Heart, Heart (journal), Heart block, Heart rate, Inferior vena cava, Ion, Ischemia, Kent, L-type calcium channel, Left coronary artery, Martin Flack, Membrane potential, Mitochondrion, Mole (animal), Mount Sinai Hospital (Manhattan), Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2, Muscle contraction, ..., Myocardial infarction, Myocyte, Nerve, Norepinephrine, Pacemaker current, Pacemaker potential, Parasympathetic nervous system, Potassium, Repolarization, Resting potential, Right coronary artery, Sarcolemma, Sarcoplasmic reticulum, SERCA, Sick sinus syndrome, Sinoatrial block, Sinoatrial nodal artery, Sinus bradycardia, Sinus tachycardia, Sinus venosus, Sodium, Sodium-calcium exchanger, Spinal nerve, Superior vena cava, Sympathetic nervous system, T-type calcium channel, Terminal sulcus (heart), Threshold potential, Vagus nerve, Vein, Ventricle (heart), Venule. Expand index (32 more) » « Shrink index
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).
Sir Arthur Keith FRS (5 February 1866 – 7 January 1955) was a Scottish anatomist and anthropologist, and a proponent of scientific racism.
The atrium is the upper chamber in which blood enters the heart.
The beta-1 adrenergic receptor (β1 adrenoceptor), also known as ADRB1, is a beta-adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
A calcium spark is the microscopic release of calcium (Ca2+) from a store known as the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), located within muscle cells.
In the field of molecular biology, the cAMP-dependent pathway, also known as the adenylyl cyclase pathway, is a G protein-coupled receptor-triggered signaling cascade used in cell communication.
The cardiac action potential is a brief change in voltage (membrane potential) across the cell membrane of heart cells.
Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is one of the three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle.
Image showing the cardiac pacemaker or SA node, the normal pacemaker within the electrical conduction system of the heart. The contraction of cardiac muscle (heart muscle) in all animals is initiated by electrical impulses known as action potentials.
Cardiology (from Greek καρδίᾱ kardiā, "heart" and -λογία -logia, "study") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Chronotropic effects (from chrono-, meaning time, and tropos, "a turn") are those that change the heart rate.
Circulation Research is a biweekly peer-reviewed medical journal published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins and edited by Roberto Bolli.
The "LCX", or left circumflex artery (or circumflex artery, or circumflex branch of the left coronary artery) is an artery of the heart.
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue.
Connexins (Cx), or gap junction proteins, are structurally related transmembrane proteins that assemble to form vertebrate gap junctions.
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
The crista terminalis represents the junction between the sinus venosus and the heart in the developing embryo.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.
In biology, depolarization is a change within a cell, during which the cell undergoes a shift in electric charge distribution, resulting in less negative charge inside the cell.
The electrical conduction system of the heart transmits signals generated usually by the sinoatrial node to cause contraction of the heart muscle.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
Gi alpha subunit (Gαi, or Gi/G0 or Gi protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that inhibits the production of cAMP from ATP.
The Gs alpha subunit (Gαs, Gsα, or Gs protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by activating adenylyl cyclase.
Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide–gated (HCN) channels are intermembrane proteins that serve as nonselective voltage-gated cation channels in the plasma membranes of heart and brain cells.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Heart is a biweekly peer-reviewed medical journal covering all areas of cardiovascular medicine and surgery.
Heart block is a disease or inherited condition that causes a fault within the heart's natural pacemaker due to some kind of obstruction (or "block") in the electrical conduction system of the heart.
Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (bpm).
The inferior vena cava (or IVC) is a large vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the lower and middle body into the right atrium of the heart.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ischemia or ischaemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen that is needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive).
Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties.
The L-type calcium channel (also known as the dihydropyridine channel, or DHP channel) is part of the high-voltage activated family of voltage-dependent calcium channel.
The left coronary artery (abbreviated LCA) is an artery that arises from the aorta above the left cusp of the aortic valve and feeds blood to the left side of the heart.
Martin William Flack (20 March 1882 – 16 August 1931) was a British physiologist who co-discovered the sinoatrial node with Sir Arthur Keith in 1907.
The term "membrane potential" may refer to one of three kinds of membrane potential.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
Moles are small mammals adapted to a subterranean lifestyle (i.e., fossorial).
Mount Sinai Hospital, founded in 1852, is one of the oldest and largest teaching hospitals in the United States.
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2, also known as the cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2, is a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor that in humans is encoded by the CHRM2 gene.
Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
A myocyte (also known as a muscle cell) is the type of cell found in muscle tissue.
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
The pacemaker current (or If, or IKf, also referred to as the funny current) is an electric current in the heart that flows through the HCN channel or pacemaker channel.
In the pacemaking cells of the heart (e.g., the sinoatrial node), the pacemaker potential (also called the pacemaker current) is the slow, positive increase in voltage across the cell's membrane (the membrane potential) that occurs between the end of one action potential and the beginning of the next action potential.
The parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system (a division of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)), the other being the sympathetic nervous system.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
In neuroscience, repolarization refers to the change in membrane potential that returns it to a negative value just after the depolarization phase of an action potential has changed the membrane potential to a positive value.
The relatively static membrane potential of quiescent cells is called the resting membrane potential (or resting voltage), as opposed to the specific dynamic electrochemical phenomena called action potential and graded membrane potential.
In the coronary circulation, the right coronary artery (RCA) is an artery originating above the right cusp of the aortic valve, at the right aortic sinus in the heart.
The sarcolemma (sarco (from sarx) from Greek; flesh, and lemma from Greek; sheath) also called the myolemma, is the cell membrane of a striated muscle fiber cell.
The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is a membrane-bound structure found within muscle cells that is similar to the endoplasmic reticulum in other cells.
SERCA, or sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, or SR Ca2+-ATPase, is a calcium ATPase-type P-ATPase.
Sick sinus syndrome (SSS), also called sinus dysfunction, or sinoatrial node disease ("SND"), is a group of abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) presumably caused by a malfunction of the sinus node, the heart's primary pacemaker.
The initial impulse in a heart is usually formed in the Sinoatrial (SA) node and carried through the atria, down the internodal atrial pathways, and to the Atrioventricular (AV) node.
The sinoatrial nodal artery (or sinuatrial nodal artery or sinoatrial artery) is an artery of the heart which supplies the sinoatrial node, the natural pacemaker center of the heart, and arises from the right coronary artery in around 60% of people.
Sinus bradycardia is a sinus rhythm with a rate that is lower than normal.
Sinus tachycardia (also colloquially known as sinus tach or sinus tachy) is a sinus rhythm with an elevated rate of impulses, defined as a rate greater than 100 beats/min (bpm) in an average adult.
The sinus venosus is a large quadrangular cavity which precedes the atrium on the venous side of the chordate heart.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
The sodium-calcium exchanger (often denoted Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, NCX, or exchange protein) is an antiporter membrane protein that removes calcium from cells.
A spinal nerve is a mixed nerve, which carries motor, sensory, and autonomic signals between the spinal cord and the body.
The superior vena cava (SVC) is the superior of the two venae cavae, the great venous trunks that return deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation to the right atrium of the heart.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
T-type calcium channels are low-voltage activated calcium channels that open during membrane depolarization.
The terminal sulcus is a groove in the right atrium of the heart.
In neuroscience, the threshold potential is the critical level to which a membrane potential must be depolarized to initiate an action potential.
The vagus nerve, historically cited as the pneumogastric nerve, is the tenth cranial nerve or CN X, and interfaces with parasympathetic control of the heart, lungs, and digestive tract.
Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.
A ventricle is one of two large chambers in the heart that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the peripheral beds within the body and lungs.
A venule is a very small blood vessel in the microcirculation that allows blood to return from the capillary beds to drain into the larger blood vessels, the veins.
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