176 relations: Air chief marshal, Air commodore, Air Crew Europe Star, Air Force Cross (United Kingdom), Air Historical Branch, Air marshal, Air officer commanding, Air vice-marshal, Albert Speer, Allhallows College, Allies of World War II, Area bombardment, Area bombing directive, Avro Lancaster, Avro Manchester, Awdry Vaucour, Baronet, Battle of Berlin (RAF campaign), BBC Television, Beira, Mozambique, Berlin, Bernard Montgomery, Bernard Wasserstein, Bloemfontein, Bomber Harris (film), Bomber stream, Bombing of Cologne in World War II, Bombing of Dresden in World War II, Bombing of Hamburg in World War II, Bombing of Pforzheim in World War II, Brazil, British Army, British Film Institute, British South Africa Company, Brooklands, Bugle, Butt Report, Cabinet of the United Kingdom, Camberley, Cape Town, Charles Hubert Boulby Blount, Charles Portal, 1st Viscount Portal of Hungerford, Charles Rumney Samson, Cheltenham, Chief of the Air Staff (United Kingdom), Close air support, Cologne, Commander-in-chief, Company rule in Rhodesia, Continental Europe, ..., Cork (city), Croix de Guerre 1939–1945 (France), Delay-action bomb, Deputy Chief of the Air Staff, Devon, Distinguished Service Medal (U.S. Army), East African Campaign (World War I), Emirate of Transjordan, English school holidays, Enigma machine, Ernest Norton (RAF officer), Eton College, Firestorm, Flying boat, Flying officer, Fox hunting, France and Germany Star, Frederick Lindemann, 1st Viscount Cherwell, Frederick Taylor (historian), Gloucestershire, Godfrey Huggins, Goring-on-Thames, Governor of Southern Rhodesia, Group captain, Handley Page Halifax, Harris baronets, Henry H. Arnold, Home front, Indian Civil Service (British India), Inside the Third Reich, Iran, ITV (TV network), Jack Baldwin (RAF officer), John D'Albiac, John Salmond, John Slessor, John Thaw, Kammhuber Line, Kent, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Kingdom of Egypt, Laurence Olivier, Legion of Honour, Legion of Merit, List of national archives, Major (United Kingdom), Mandatory Palestine, Manicaland Province, Maritz rebellion, Marshal of the Royal Air Force, Mashonaland, Mazowe, Mentioned in dispatches, Middle East Command, Mutare, Nazi Germany, No. 191 Squadron RAF, No. 210 Squadron RAF, No. 31 Squadron RAF, No. 4 Group RAF, No. 44 Squadron RAF, No. 45 Squadron RAF, No. 5 Group RAF, No. 50 Squadron RAF, No. 58 Squadron RAF, Norman Bottomley, Norway, Nuremberg, Operation Overlord, Order of Polonia Restituta, Order of Suvorov, Order of the Bath, Order of the British Empire, Order of the Southern Cross, Otto von Bismarck, Oxfordshire, Peerage, Pierre van Ryneveld, Precision bombing, Presidencies and provinces of British India, Quebec Conference, 1943, Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, RAF Bomber Command, RAF Digby, RAF Iraq Command, RAF Pembroke Dock, Rhodesia, Rhodesia Regiment, River Thames, Robert Leckie (RCAF officer), Roderic Hill, Royal Air Force, Royal Artillery, Royal Flying Corps, Royal Navy, Safmarine, Sebastian Cox, Second lieutenant, Sherborne School, Sholto Douglas, 1st Baron Douglas of Kirtleside, Short Stirling, Sopwith 1½ Strutter, Sopwith Camel, South West Africa campaign, Southern Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia in World War I, Squadron leader, St Clement Danes, Staff College, Camberley, Strategic bombing during World War II, Strategic Studies Institute, Tønsberg, The Blitz, The World at War, Total war, Transaction Publishers, Ultra, United Kingdom, United States Army Center of Military History, Vickers Vernon, Western Front (World War I), Wing commander (rank), Winston Churchill, World War I, World War II, 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine. Expand index (126 more) » « Shrink index
Air chief marshal (Air Chf Mshl or ACM) is a four-star air officer rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force, where it is the most senior peacetime air force rank.
Air commodore (abbreviated as Air Cdre in the RAF, IAF and PAF; AIRCDRE in the RNZAF and RAAF) is a one-star rank and the most junior general rank of the air-officer which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force.
The Air Crew Europe Star is a military campaign medal, instituted by the United Kingdom in May 1945 for award to subjects of the British Commonwealth for service in the Second World War, specifically Commonwealth air crew who participated in operational flights over Europe from bases in the United Kingdom.
The Air Force Cross (AFC) is a military decoration awarded to personnel of the United Kingdom Armed Forces, and formerly also to officers of the other Commonwealth countries, for "an act or acts of valour, courage or devotion to duty whilst flying, though not in active operations against the enemy".
The Air Historical Branch (AHB) is the historical archive and records service of the Royal Air Force.
Air Marshal (Air Mshl or AM) is a three-star air-officer rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force.
Air officer commanding (AOC) is a title given in the air forces of Commonwealth (and some other) nations to an air officer who holds a command appointment which typically comprises a large, organized collection of air force assets.
Air vice-marshal (AVM) is a two-star air officer rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force.
Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer (March 19, 1905 – September 1, 1981) was a German architect who was, for most of World War II, Reich Minister of Armaments and War Production for Nazi Germany.
Allhallows College, previously known as Allhallows School, was an independent public school for boys in Devon, in the west of England.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
In military aviation, area bombardment (or area bombing) is a type of aerial bombardment that targeted indiscriminately at a large area, such as a city block or an entire city.
The Area Bombing Directive was a directive from the wartime British Government's Air Ministry to the Royal Air Force which ordered RAF bombers to attack the German industrial workforce and the morale of the German populace through bombing German cities and their civilian inhabitants.
The Avro Lancaster is a British four-engined Second World War heavy bomber.
The Avro 679 Manchester was a British twin-engine medium bomber developed and manufactured by the Avro aircraft company in the United Kingdom.
Major Awdry Morris Vaucour (8 March 1890 – 16 July 1918) was a First World War flying ace credited with seven aerial victories.
A baronet (or; abbreviated Bart or Bt) or the rare female equivalent, a baronetess (or; abbreviation Btss), is the holder of a baronetcy, an hereditary title awarded by the British Crown.
The Battle of Berlin was the British bombing campaign on Berlin from November 1943 to March 1944.
BBC Television is a service of the British Broadcasting Corporation.
Beira is the third largest city in Mozambique.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, (17 November 1887 – 24 March 1976), nicknamed "Monty" and "The Spartan General", was a senior British Army officer who fought in both the First World War and the Second World War.
Bernard Wasserstein (born 22 January 1948 in London) historian, educated at the High School of Glasgow and Wyggeston Boys' Grammar School, Leicester.
Bloemfontein (Afrikaans and Dutch "fountain of flowers" or "blooming fountain"; also known as Bloem) is the capital city of the province of Free State of South Africa; and, as the judicial capital of the nation, one of South Africa's three national capitals (the other two being Cape Town, the legislative capital, and Pretoria, the administrative capital) and is the seventh largest city in South Africa.
Bomber Harris is a 1989 BBC television drama biography based on the life of Arthur Harris, who was Commander-in-chief of RAF Bomber Command during the Second World War.
The bomber stream was a saturation attack tactic developed by the Royal Air Force (RAF) Bomber Command to overwhelm the night time German aerial defences of the Kammhuber Line during World War II.
The German city of Cologne was bombed in 262 separate air raids at www.koelnarchitektur.de "Internet portal for the architecture of Cologne".
The bombing of Dresden was a British/American aerial bombing attack on the city of Dresden, the capital of the German state of Saxony, during World War II in the European Theatre.
The allied bombing of Hamburg during World War II included numerous attacks on civilians.
During the latter stages of World War II, Pforzheim, a town in southwestern Germany, was bombed a number of times.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
The British Film Institute (BFI) is a film and charitable organisation which promotes and preserves filmmaking and television in the United Kingdom.
The British South Africa Company (BSAC or BSACo) was established following the amalgamation of Cecil Rhodes' Central Search Association and the London-based Exploring Company Ltd which had originally competed to exploit the expected mineral wealth of Mashonaland but united because of common economic interests and to secure British government backing.
Brooklands was a motor racing circuit and aerodrome built near Weybridge in Surrey, England, United Kingdom.
The bugle is one of the simplest brass instruments, having no valves or other pitch-altering devices.
The Butt Report, released on 18 August 1941, was a report prepared during World War II, revealing the widespread failure of RAF Bomber Command aircraft to hit their targets.
The Cabinet of the United Kingdom is the collective decision-making body of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, composed of the Prime Minister and 21 cabinet ministers, the most senior of the government ministers.
Camberley is a town in Surrey, England, southwest of Central London, between the M3 and M4 motorways.
Cape Town (Kaapstad,; Xhosa: iKapa) is a coastal city in South Africa.
Air Vice Marshal Charles Hubert Boulby Blount, (26 October 1893 – 23 October 1940) was an English soldier, airman and first-class cricketer.
Marshal of the Royal Air Force Charles Frederick Algernon Portal, 1st Viscount Portal of Hungerford, (21 May 1893 – 22 April 1971) was a senior Royal Air Force officer.
Air Commodore Charles Rumney Samson, (8 July 1883 – 5 February 1931) was a British naval aviation pioneer.
Cheltenham, also known as Cheltenham Spa, is a regency spa town and borough which is located on the edge of the Cotswolds, an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty in Gloucestershire, England.
The Chief of the Air Staff (CAS) is the professional head of the Royal Air Force and a member of both the Chiefs of Staff Committee and the Air Force Board.
In military tactics, close air support (CAS) is defined as air action such as air strikes by fixed or rotary-winged aircraft against hostile targets that are in close proximity to friendly forces and which requires detailed integration of each air mission with fire and movement of these forces and attacks with aerial bombs, glide bombs, missiles, rockets, aircraft cannons, machine guns, and even directed-energy weapons such as lasers.
Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
The British South Africa Company's administration of what became Rhodesia was chartered in 1889 by Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, and began with the Pioneer Column's march north-east to Mashonaland in 1890.
Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.
Cork (from corcach, meaning "marsh") is a city in south-west Ireland, in the province of Munster, which had a population of 125,622 in 2016.
The Croix de guerre 1939–1945 (War Cross 1939–1945) is a French military decoration, a version of the Croix de guerre created on September 26, 1939, to honour people who fought with the Allies against the Axis forces at any time during World War II.
A delay-action bomb is an aerial bomb designed to explode some time after impact, with the bomb's fuzes set to delay the explosion for times ranging from very brief to several weeks.
The Deputy Chief of the Air Staff (DCAS) was a senior appointment in the Royal Air Force.
Devon, also known as Devonshire, which was formerly its common and official name, is a county of England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south.
The Distinguished Service Medal (DSM) is a military award of the United States Army that is presented to any person who, while serving in any capacity with the United States military, has distinguished himself by exceptionally meritorious service to the Government in a duty of great responsibility.
The East African Campaign in World War I was a series of battles and guerrilla actions, which started in German East Africa (GEA) and spread to portions of Portuguese Mozambique, Northern Rhodesia, British East Africa, the Uganda Protectorate, and the Belgian Congo.
The Emirate of Transjordan (إمارة شرق الأردن lit. "Emirate of east Jordan"), also hyphenated as Trans-Jordan and previously known as Transjordania or Trans-Jordania, was a British protectorate established in April 1921.
The English school year generally runs from early September to mid July of the following year.
The Enigma machines were a series of electro-mechanical rotor cipher machines developed and used in the early- to mid-20th century to protect commercial, diplomatic and military communication.
Air Commodore Ernest William Norton (14 May 1893 – 23 May 1966) was a British air officer of the Royal Air Force, who began his military career as a World War I flying ace credited with nine aerial victories.
Eton College is an English independent boarding school for boys in Eton, Berkshire, near Windsor.
A firestorm is a conflagration which attains such intensity that it creates and sustains its own wind system.
A flying boat is a fixed-winged seaplane with a hull, allowing it to land on water, that usually has no type of landing gear to allow operation on land.
Flying officer (Fg Off in the RAF and IAF; FLGOFF in the RAAF; FGOFF in the RNZAF; formerly F/O in all services and still frequently in the RAF) is a junior commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many countries which have historical British influence.
Fox hunting is an activity involving the tracking, chase and, if caught, the killing of a fox, traditionally a red fox, by trained foxhounds or other scent hounds, and a group of unarmed followers led by a "master of foxhounds" ("master of hounds"), who follow the hounds on foot or on horseback.
The France and Germany Star is a military campaign medal, instituted by the United Kingdom in May 1945 for award to subjects of the British Commonwealth who served in the Second World War, specifically for service in France, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands or Germany and adjacent sea areas between 6 June 1944 and 8 May 1945.
Frederick Alexander Lindemann, 1st Viscount Cherwell, (5 April 18863 July 1957) was a British physicist and an influential scientific adviser to the British government from the early 1940s to the early 1950s, particularly to Winston Churchill.
Frederick Taylor (born 28 December 1947 at Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire) is a British novelist and historian specialising in modern German history.
Gloucestershire (formerly abbreviated as Gloucs. in print but now often as Glos.) is a county in South West England.
Godfrey Martin Huggins, 1st Viscount Malvern (6 July 1883 – 8 May 1971) was a Rhodesian politician and physician.
Goring-on-Thames (or Goring) is a relatively large village and civil parish on the River Thames in South Oxfordshire, England, about south of Wallingford and north-west of Reading.
The Governor of Southern Rhodesia was the representative of the British monarch in the self-governing colony of Southern Rhodesia from 1923 to 1980.
Group captain is a senior commissioned rank in many air forces.
The Handley Page Halifax was a Royal Air Force (RAF) four-engined heavy bomber of the Second World War.
There have been four Baronetcies created for persons with the surname Harris, two in the Baronetage of England and two in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom.
Henry Harley "Hap" Arnold (June 25, 1886 – January 15, 1950) was an American general officer holding the grades of General of the Army and General of the Air Force.
Home front is the informal term for the civilian populace of the nation at war as an active support system of their military.
The Indian Civil Service (ICS) for part of the 19th century officially known as the Imperial Civil Service, was the elite higher civil service of the British Empire in British India during British rule in the period between 1858 and 1947.
Inside the Third Reich (Erinnerungen, "Memories") is a memoir written by Albert Speer, the Nazi Minister of Armaments from 1942 to 1945, serving as Adolf Hitler's main architect before this period.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
ITV is a British commercial TV network.
Air Marshal Sir John Eustice Arthur Baldwin, (13 April 1892 – 28 July 1975) was a senior officer in the Royal Air Force during the Second World War.
Air Marshal Sir John Henry D'Albiac, (28 January 1894 – 20 August 1963) was a senior commander in the Royal Air Force during the Second World War.
Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir John Maitland Salmond, (17 July 1881 – 16 April 1968) was a British military officer who rose to high rank in the Royal Flying Corps and then the Royal Air Force.
Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir John Cotesworth Slessor, (3 June 1897 – 12 July 1979), sometimes known as Jack Slessor, was a senior commander in the Royal Air Force (RAF), serving as Chief of the Air Staff from 1950 to 1952.
John Edward Thaw, CBE (3 January 1942 – 21 February 2002) was an English actor.
The Kammhuber Line was the Allied name given to the German night air defense system established in July 1940 by Colonel Josef Kammhuber.
Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (abbreviated as KP; خیبر پختونخوا; خیبر پښتونخوا) is one of the four administrative provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country along the international border with Afghanistan.
The Kingdom of Egypt (المملكة المصرية; المملكه المصريه, "the Egyptian Kingdom") was the de jure independent Egyptian state established under the Muhammad Ali Dynasty in 1922 following the Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence by the United Kingdom.
Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, (22 May 1907 – 11 July 1989) was an English actor and director who, along with his contemporaries Ralph Richardson and John Gielgud, dominated the British stage of the mid-20th century.
The Legion of Honour, with its full name National Order of the Legion of Honour (Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte and retained by all the divergent governments and regimes later holding power in France, up to the present.
The Legion of Merit (LOM) is a military award of the United States Armed Forces that is given for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services and achievements.
A national archive(s) is a central archives maintained by a nation.
Major (Maj) is a military rank which is used by both the British Army and Royal Marines.
Mandatory Palestine (فلسطين; פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י), where "EY" indicates "Eretz Yisrael", Land of Israel) was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948.
Manicaland is a province in eastern Zimbabwe.
The Maritz rebellion, also known as the Boer revolt or Five Shilling rebellionGeneral De Wet publicly unfurled the rebel banner in October, when he entered the town of Reitz at the head of an armed commando.
Marshal of the Royal Air Force (MRAF) is the highest rank in the British Royal Air Force (RAF).
Mashonaland is a region in northern Zimbabwe.
Mazowe is a village in Mashonaland Central province in Zimbabwe.
A member of the armed forces mentioned in dispatches (or despatches, MiD) is one whose name appears in an official report written by a superior officer and sent to the high command, in which his or her gallant or meritorious action in the face of the enemy is described.
Middle East Command, later Middle East Land Forces, was a British Army Command established prior to the Second World War in Egypt.
Mutare (known as Umtali until 1983) is the fourth largest city in Zimbabwe, with an urban population of approximately 188,243 and rural population of approximately 260,567.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
45 Squadron is a flying squadron of the Royal Air Force.
Air Chief Marshal Sir Norman Howard Bottomley, (18 September 1891 – 13 August 1970) was the Yorkshire-born successor to Arthur 'Bomber' Harris as Commander-in-Chief of RAF Bomber Command in 1945.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is a city on the river Pegnitz and on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about north of Munich.
Operation Overlord was the codename for the Battle of Normandy, the Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied Western Europe during World War II.
The Order of Polonia Restituta (Order Odrodzenia Polski, Order of the Rebirth of Poland) is a Polish state order established 4 February 1921.
The Order of Suvorov (Russian Орден Суворова) is a military decoration of the Russian Federation named in honor of Russian Field Marshal Count Alexander Suvorov (1729–1800).
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath) is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725.
The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, and public service outside the Civil service.
The National Order of the Southern Cross (Ordem Nacional do Cruzeiro do Sul) is a Brazilian order of chivalry founded by Emperor Pedro I on 1 December 1822.
Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890.
Oxfordshire (abbreviated Oxon, from Oxonium, the Latin name for Oxford) is a county in South East England.
A peerage is a legal system historically comprising hereditary titles in various countries, comprising various noble ranks.
General Sir Hesperus Andrias van Ryneveld (2 May 1891 – 2 December 1972), known as Pierre van Ryneveld, was a South African military commander.
Precision bombing refers to the attempted aerial bombing of a target with some degree of accuracy, with the aim of maximising target damage or limiting collateral damage.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
The First Quebec Conference (codenamed "QUADRANT") was a highly secret military conference held during World War II between the British, Canadian and United States governments.
Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon (4 August 1900 – 30 March 2002) was the wife of King George VI and the mother of Queen Elizabeth II and Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon.
RAF Bomber Command controlled the RAF's bomber forces from 1936 to 1968.
Royal Air Force Digby otherwise known as RAF Digby is Royal Air Force station located near Scopwick and south east of Lincoln, in Lincolnshire, England.
Iraq Command was the Royal Air Force (RAF) commanded inter-service command in charge of British forces in Iraq in the 1920s and early 1930s, during the period of the British Mandate of Mesopotamia.
Royal Air Force Pembroke Dock or more simply RAF Pembroke Dock was a Royal Air Force Seaplane and Flying Boat station located at Pembroke Dock, Pembrokeshire, Wales.
Rhodesia was an unrecognised state in southern Africa from 1965 to 1979, equivalent in territory to modern Zimbabwe.
The Rhodesia Regiment (RR) was one of the oldest and largest regiments in the Rhodesian Army.
The River Thames is a river that flows through southern England, most notably through London.
Air Marshal Robert Leckie, (16 April 1890 – 31 March 1975) was an air officer in the Royal Air Force and the Chief of the Air Staff of the Royal Canadian Air Force from 1944 to 1947.
Air Chief Marshal Sir Roderic Maxwell Hill, (1 March 1894 – 6 October 1954) was a senior Royal Air Force commander during the Second World War.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
The Royal Regiment of Artillery, commonly referred to as the Royal Artillery (RA) and colloquially known as "The Gunners", is the artillery arm of the British Army.
The Royal Flying Corps (RFC) was the air arm of the British Army before and during the First World War, until it merged with the Royal Naval Air Service on 1 April 1918 to form the Royal Air Force.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
Safmarine (Safmarine Container Lines N.V.) is an international shipping business offering container and break-bulk shipping services worldwide.
Sebastian Cox, MA (born in 1956), is the Head of the Air Historical Branch (AHB) of the Royal Air Force, a specialist archive and history unit based at RAF Northolt, Middlesex, which seeks to maintain and preserve the historical memory of the RAF and to develop and encourage "an informed understanding of RAF and air power history by providing accurate and timely advice to Ministers, the RAF, other government departments and the general public".
Second lieutenant (called lieutenant in some countries) is a junior commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces, comparable to NATO OF-1b rank.
Sherborne School is a British independent boys' school, located in the town of Sherborne in north-west Dorset, England.
Marshal of the Royal Air Force William Sholto Douglas, 1st Baron Douglas of Kirtleside, (23 December 1893 – 29 October 1969) was a senior commander in the Royal Air Force.
The Short Stirling was a British four-engined heavy bomber of the Second World War.
The Sopwith 1½ Strutter was a British single or two-seat multi-role biplane aircraft of the First World War.
The Sopwith Camel was a British First World War single-seat biplane fighter aircraft introduced on the Western Front in 1917.
The South West Africa Campaign was the conquest and occupation of German South West Africa (Namibia) by forces from the Union of South Africa acting on behalf of the British Imperial Government at the beginning of the First World War.
The Colony of Southern Rhodesia was a self-governing British Crown colony in southern Africa from 1923 to 1980, the predecessor state of modern Zimbabwe.
When the United Kingdom declared war on Germany at the start of World War I in August 1914, settler society in Southern Rhodesia, then administered by the British South Africa Company, received the news with great patriotic enthusiasm.
Squadron leader (Sqn Ldr in the RAF; SQNLDR in the RAAF and RNZAF; formerly sometimes S/L in all services) is a commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many countries which have historical British influence.
St Clement Danes is an Anglican church in the City of Westminster, London.
Staff College, Camberley, Surrey, was a staff college for the British Army and the presidency armies of British India (later merged to form the Indian Army).
Strategic bombing during World War II was the sustained aerial attack on railways, harbours, cities, workers' housing, and industrial districts in enemy territory during World War II.
The Strategic Studies Institute (SSI) is the U.S. Army's institute for strategic and national security research and analysis.
Tønsberg is a city and municipality in Vestfold county, southern Norway, located around south-southwest of Oslo on the western coast of the Oslofjord near its mouth onto the Skagerrak.
The Blitz was a German bombing offensive against Britain in 1940 and 1941, during the Second World War.
The World at War (1973–74) is a 26-episode British television documentary series chronicling the events of the Second World War.
Total war is warfare that includes any and all civilian-associated resources and infrastructure as legitimate military targets, mobilizes all of the resources of society to fight the war, and gives priority to warfare over non-combatant needs.
Transaction Publishers was a New Jersey–based publishing house that specialized in social science books.
Ultra was the designation adopted by British military intelligence in June 1941 for wartime signals intelligence obtained by breaking high-level encrypted enemy radio and teleprinter communications at the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) at Bletchley Park.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States Army Center of Military History (CMH) is a directorate within the Office of the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army.
The Vickers Vernon was a British biplane troop carrier"Aircraft of the Royal Air Force Since 1918" Owen Thetford, Putnam & Co.
The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War.
Wing commander (Wg Cdr in the RAF, the IAF, and the PAF, WGCDR in the RNZAF and RAAF, formerly sometimes W/C in all services) is a senior commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many countries which have historical British influence, including many Commonwealth countries but not including Canada and South Africa.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine, later came to be known as "The Great Revolt", was a nationalist uprising by Palestinian Arabs in Mandatory Palestine against the British administration of the Palestine Mandate, demanding Arab independence and the end of the policy of open-ended Jewish immigration and land purchases with the stated goal of establishing a "Jewish National Home". The dissent was directly influenced by the Qassamite rebellion, following the killing of Sheikh Izz ad-Din al-Qassam in 1935, as well as the declaration by Hajj Amin al-Husseini of 16 May 1936 as 'Palestine Day' and calling for a General Strike. The revolt was branded by many in the Jewish Yishuv as "immoral and terroristic", often comparing it to fascism and nazism. Ben Gurion however described Arab causes as fear of growing Jewish economic power, opposition to mass Jewish immigration and fear of the English identification with Zionism.Morris, 1999, p. 136. The general strike lasted from April to October 1936, initiating the violent revolt. The revolt consisted of two distinct phases.Norris, 2008, pp. 25, 45. The first phase was directed primarily by the urban and elitist Higher Arab Committee (HAC) and was focused mainly on strikes and other forms of political protest. By October 1936, this phase had been defeated by the British civil administration using a combination of political concessions, international diplomacy (involving the rulers of Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Transjordan and Yemen) and the threat of martial law. The second phase, which began late in 1937, was a violent and peasant-led resistance movement provoked by British repression in 1936 that increasingly targeted British forces. During this phase, the rebellion was brutally suppressed by the British Army and the Palestine Police Force using repressive measures that were intended to intimidate the Arab population and undermine popular support for the revolt. During this phase, a more dominant role on the Arab side was taken by the Nashashibi clan, whose NDP party quickly withdrew from the rebel Arab Higher Committee, led by the radical faction of Amin al-Husseini, and instead sided with the British – dispatching "Fasail al-Salam" (the "Peace Bands") in coordination with the British Army against nationalist and Jihadist Arab "Fasail" units (literally "bands"). According to official British figures covering the whole revolt, the army and police killed more than 2,000 Arabs in combat, 108 were hanged, and 961 died because of what they described as "gang and terrorist activities". In an analysis of the British statistics, Walid Khalidi estimates 19,792 casualties for the Arabs, with 5,032 dead: 3,832 killed by the British and 1,200 dead because of "terrorism", and 14,760 wounded. Over ten percent of the adult male Palestinian Arab population between 20 and 60 was killed, wounded, imprisoned or exiled. Estimates of the number of Palestinian Jews killed range from 91 to several hundred.Morris, 1999, p. 160. The Arab revolt in Mandatory Palestine was unsuccessful, and its consequences affected the outcome of the 1948 Palestine war.Morris, 1999, p. 159. It caused the British Mandate to give crucial support to pre-state Zionist militias like the Haganah, whereas on the Palestinian Arab side, the revolt forced the flight into exile of the main Palestinian Arab leader of the period, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem – Haj Amin al-Husseini.
"Bomber" Harris, A T Harris, Air Marshal Harris, Arthur "Bomber" Harris, Arthur Bomber Harris, Arthur Harris (RAF officer), Arthur T. Harris, Arthur Travers Harris, Arthur Travers, 1st Baronet Harris, Auther Harris, Bomber Harris, Butcher Harris, Sir Arthur "Bomber" Harris, Sir Arthur Bomber Harris, Sir Arthur T Harris, Sir Arthur Travers Harris.