381 relations: Aérospatiale SA 321 Super Frelon, Abba Eban, Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Abdul Rahman Arif, Abu Ageila, Abu Tor, Afula, Air supremacy, Ajloun, AK-47, Al-Aqsa Mosque, Albert Mandler, Alea iacta est, Alexandria, Allenby Bridge, American Colony, Jerusalem, American–Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, Amman, Amos Oz, AMX-13, An-Nekhel Fortress, Anti-aircraft warfare, Anti-runway penetration bomb, Antonov An-12, Anwar Sadat, Arab Legion, Arab–Israeli conflict, Arabic, Ariel Sharon, Arish, Armoured fighting vehicle, Armoured personnel carrier, Artillery, As-Samu, Asad Ghanma, Avraham Sela, Avraham Yoffe, B-10 recoilless rifle, B-11 recoilless rifle, Baal teshuva movement, Baby boom, Baghdad, Bangalore torpedo, Battalion, Battle of Ammunition Hill, Benny Morris, Berghahn Books, Bethlehem, Bethoron, ..., BM-21 Grad, Bofors 40 mm gun, Brigade, BTR-152, BTR-40, BTR-50, BTR-60, Cabinet of Israel, Cairo, Camp David Accords, Canada, Casus belli, Catch 67, Cave of the Patriarchs, Ceasefire, Centurion (tank), Chabad, Chaim Herzog, Cheryl Rubenberg, Chief of Naval Operations, Civil defense siren, Cobra (missile), Collective security, Combined Arms Research Library, Conspiracy theories in the Arab world, Controversies relating to the Six-Day War, Damascus, Damia Bridge, Dan (ancient city), Dan, Israel, Danny Matt, Dassault Mirage III, Dassault Mystère IV, Dassault Ouragan, Dassault Super Mystère, David Ben-Gurion, David Elazar, David Rubinger, Dean Rusk, Demilitarisation, Derek Hopwood, Division (military), DShK, East Jerusalem, Egypt, Egyptian Air Force, Eitan Haber, El Qantara, Egypt, Elad Peled, Eli Cohen, Encyclopædia Britannica, Etzioni Brigade, Ezer Weizman, Fedayeen, Flag of Syria, FN FAL, FN MAG, Fog of war, Foreign relations of Mauritania, Fouga CM.170 Magister, France, French Hill, Friendly fire, Frogman, Galilee, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Gary A. 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Johnson, M113 armored personnel carrier, M2 Browning, M2 half-track car, M3 Half-track, M4 Sherman, M40 recoilless rifle, M47 Patton, M48 Patton, Maginot Line, Mahmoud Riad, Mandelbaum Gate, Martin van Creveld, Mechanized infantry, Mediterranean Sea, Medium bomber, Menachem Begin, Menachem Mendel Schneerson, Michael Oren, Middle East, Middle East Policy, Middle East Review of International Affairs, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-19, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21, Mil Mi-4, Mil Mi-6, MIM-23 Hawk, Minesweeper, Missile boat, Mitla Pass, Mohamed Abdel Ghani el-Gamasy, Mohamed Hassanein Heikal, Mordechai Gur, Mordechai Hod, Moshe Dayan, Mossad, Mount Scopus, Nablus, Nadav Safran, Nahal Oz, Napalm, National Security Agency, National unity government, Naval Infantry (Russia), Negative (photography), Negev Nuclear Research Center, Nekhel, Netanya, New Historians, Nirim, Nord Noratlas, Norman Finkelstein, North Yemen Civil War, Nureddin al-Atassi, Odd Bull, Old City (Jerusalem), Operation Focus, Origins of the Six-Day War, Pakistan Air Force, Palestine Liberation Organization, Palestinians, Panhard AML, Panzer IV, Paratrooper, Paul Schutzer, Phillip Adams, Pincer movement, Port Said, Preemptive war, PT-76, Purple Line (ceasefire line), Quneitra, Rachel's Tomb, Radar, Radio National, Rafael Eitan, Rafah, Ramallah, Ramat David Airbase, Ramat Rachel, Ramla, Ras Sedr, Reconnaissance, Red Sea, RL-83 Blindicide, Robert McNamara, Rockefeller Museum, Royal Jordanian Air Force, Royal Jordanian Army, Royal Ordnance L7, RPD machine gun, RPK, S-75 Dvina, Saiful Azam, Salah Jadid, Samu Incident, Samuel Segev, Satchel, Sea of Galilee, Sharm El Sheikh, Shayetet 13, She'ar Yashuv, Sheikh Zuweid, Shlomo Erell, Shmuel Gonen, Shuafat, Signals intelligence, Sikorsky H-34, Sinai Peninsula, Six Days of War, Sortie, South Africa, Soviet Union, SS.10, Steven Pressfield, Strafing, Straits of Tiran, Strategic depth, SU-100, Submachine gun, Sud Aviation Vautour, Suez Canal, Suez Crisis, Sukhoi Su-7, Super Sherman, Surface-to-surface missile, Syria, Syrian Air Force, Syrian Navy, Syrian towns and villages depopulated in the Arab–Israeli conflict, T-34, T-54/T-55, Tank, Tank destroyer, Tefillin, Tel Aviv, Temple Mount, Territorial waters, The Age, The New York Times, The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, The Washington Post, Thomas Hinman Moorer, Time (magazine), Tripoli, Tupolev Tu-16, U Thant, United Arab Republic, United Kingdom, United Nations Emergency Force, United Nations Security Council, United Nations Security Council Resolution 242, United States, United States Army Combined Arms Center, United States Department of State, United States Marine Corps, United States Navy, United States Secretary of State, Universal Newsreel, USS Liberty (AGTR-5), USS Liberty incident, Uzi, Uzi Narkiss, Waqf, Warsaw, West Bank, Western Wall, Yekutiel Adam, Yeshayahu Gavish, Yigal Allon, Yitzhak Rabin, Yom Kippur War, Yossi Peled, Zaid ibn Shaker, Ze'ev Schiff, ZSU-57-2, 122 mm howitzer 2A18 (D-30), 130 mm towed field gun M1954 (M-46), 152 mm howitzer-gun M1937 (ML-20), 155 mm Gun M1, 1929 Hebron massacre, 1948 Arab–Israeli War, 1949 Armistice Agreements, 1968 Polish political crisis, 55th Paratroopers Brigade, 7th Armored Brigade (Israel), 8th Armored Brigade (Israel). 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The Aérospatiale (formerly Sud Aviation) SA 321 Super Frelon ("Super Hornet") is a three-engined heavy transport helicopter produced by aerospace manufacturer Sud Aviation (later Aérospatiale) of France.
Abba Eban (אבא אבן; born Aubrey Solomon Meir Eban; later adopted Abba Solomon Meir Eban; 2 February 1915 – 17 November 2002) was an Israeli diplomat and politician, and a scholar of the Arabic and Hebrew languages.
Mohamed Abdel Hakim Amer (محمد عبد الحكيم عامر,; 11 December 1919 – 13 September 1967) was an Egyptian general and political leader.
Abdul Munim Riad (22 October 1919 – 9 March 1969) (عبد المنعم رياض) was a general and chief of staff of the Egyptian Armed Forces.
Hajj Abdul Rahman Mohammed Arif Aljumaily (Arabic عبد الرحمن محمد عارف الجميلي; April 14, 1916August 24, 2007) was President of Iraq, from April 16, 1966, to July 17, 1968.
Abu Ageila is a strategically important road junction and dam in the north of the Sinai peninsula, because of its proximity to the border with Israel, approximately 25 km from Auja al-Hafir and 45 km southeast of El Arish.
Abu Tor (أبو طور or الثوري, אבו תור) (lit. "Father of the Bull") is a mixed Jewish and Arab neighborhood in Jerusalem, south of the Old City.
Afula (עֲפוּלָה, العفولة) is a city in the Northern District of Israel, often known as the "Capital of the Valley" due to its strategic location in the Jezreel Valley.
Air supremacy is a position in war where a side holds complete control of air warfare and air power over opposing forces.
Ajloun (عجلون, ‘Ajlūn), also spelled Ajlun, is the capital town of the Ajloun Governorate, a hilly town in the north of Jordan, located 76 kilometers (around 47 miles) north west of Amman.
The AK-47, or AK as it is officially known, also known as the Kalashnikov, is a gas-operated, 7.62×39mm assault rifle, developed in the Soviet Union by Mikhail Kalashnikov.
Al-Aqsa Mosque (Al-Masjid al-Aqṣā,, "the Farthest Mosque"), located in the Old City of Jerusalem, is the third holiest site in Islam.
Avraham Albert Mandler (אברהם מנדלר; 3 May 1929 in Linz, Austria – 13 October 1973, in Sinai, Egypt) was an Israeli major general.
Alea iacta est ("The die is cast") is a Latin phrase attributed by Suetonius (as iacta alea est) to Julius Caesar on January 10, 49 B.C. as he led his army across the Rubicon river in Northern Italy.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
The Allenby Bridge (גשר אלנבי Gesher Allenby, also known as the King Hussein Bridge جسر الملك حسين Jisr al-Malek Hussein), is a bridge that crosses the Jordan River near the city of Jericho, and connects the West Bank with Jordan.
The American Colony was a colony established in Jerusalem in 1881 by members of a Christian utopian society led by Anna and Horatio Spafford.
The American–Israeli Cooperative Enterprise (AICE) is a non-profit 501(c)(3) U.S.-based organization established in 1993 "to strengthen the U.S.-Israel relationship.".
Amman (عمّان) is the capital and most populous city of Jordan, and the country's economic, political and cultural centre.
Amos Oz (עמוס עוז; born Amos Klausner; May 4, 1939) is an Israeli writer, novelist, journalist and intellectual.
The AMX-13 is a French light tank produced from 1952 to 1987.
The Fortress of an-Nekhel is a Ksar (castle) located in the Nekhel Municipality of the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt.
Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is defined by NATO as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action."AAP-6 They include ground-and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements and passive measures (e.g. barrage balloons).
Anti-runway penetration bombs are systems involving bombs or bomblets designed to disrupt the surface of an airfield runway and make it unusable for flight operations.
The Antonov An-12 (Russian: Антонов Ан-12; NATO reporting name: Cub) is a four-engined turboprop transport aircraft designed in the Soviet Union.
Muhammad Anwar el-Sadat (محمد أنور السادات, Egyptian muħæmmæd ˈʔɑnwɑɾ essæˈdæːt; 25 December 1918 – 6 October 1981) was the third President of Egypt, serving from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981.
The Arab Legion was the regular army of Transjordan and then Jordan in the early part of the 20th century.
The Arab–Israeli conflict refers to the political tension, military conflicts and disputes between a number of Arab countries and Israel.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Ariel Sharon (אריאל שרון;,, also known by his diminutive Arik, אַריק, born Ariel Scheinermann, אריאל שיינרמן‎; February 26, 1928 – January 11, 2014) was an Israeli general and politician who served as the 11th Prime Minister of Israel from March 2001 until April 2006.
Arish or el Arīsh (العريش, Hrinokorura) is the capital and largest city (with 164,830 inhabitants) of the Egyptian governorate of North Sinai, as well as the largest city on the entire Sinai Peninsula, lying on the Mediterranean coast of the Sinai peninsula, northeast of Cairo.
An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is an armed combat vehicle protected by armour, generally combining operational mobility with offensive and defensive capabilities.
An armoured personnel carrier (APC) is a type of armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) designed to transport infantry to the battlefield.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
As Samu' or es-Samu' (السموع) is a town in the Hebron Governorate of the West Bank, Palestine, 12 kilometers south of the city of Hebron and 60 kilometers southwest of Jerusalem.
Asad Ghanma (14 February 1930 – 18 July 2006) (أسعد غنما) was a Jordanian Orthodox Christian general.
Avraham Sela is an Israeli historian and scholar on the Middle East and international relations.
Avraham Yoffe (אברהם יפה, born 25 October 1913, died 11 April 1983) was an Israeli general during the Six-Day War.
The B-10 recoilless rifle (Bezotkatnojie orudie-10, known as the RG82 in East Germany) is a Soviet 82 mm smoothbore recoilless rifle.
The B-11 recoilless rifle (It is also known as RG107) is a Soviet 107 mm smoothbore recoilless rifle.
The Baal Teshuva movement is a description of the return of secular Jews to religious Judaism.
A baby boom is a period marked by a significant increase of birth rate.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
A Bangalore torpedo is an explosive charge placed within one or several connected tubes.
A battalion is a military unit.
Ammunition Hill (גבעת התחמושת, Giv'at HaTahmoshet) was a fortified Jordanian military post in the northern part of Jordanian-ruled East Jerusalem and the western slope of Mount Scopus.
Benny Morris (בני מוריס; born 8 December 1948) is an Israeli historian.
Berghahn Books is a publisher of scholarly books and academic journals in the humanities and social sciences, with a special focus on social & cultural anthropology, European history, politics, and film & media studies.
Bethlehem (بيت لحم, "House of Meat"; בֵּית לֶחֶם,, "House of Bread";; Bethleem; initially named after Canaanite fertility god Lehem) is a Palestinian city located in the central West Bank, Palestine, about south of Jerusalem.
Bethoron (also Beth-Horon) (House of Horon) was an ancient biblical town strategically located on the Gibeon-Aijalon road, guarding the "ascent of Beth-Horon".
The BM-21 "Grad" (БМ-21 "Град"), is a Soviet truck-mounted 122 mm multiple rocket launcher.
--> The Bofors 40 mm gun, often referred to simply as the Bofors gun, is an anti-aircraft/multi-purpose autocannon designed in the 1930s by the Swedish arms manufacturer AB Bofors.
A brigade is a major tactical military formation that is typically composed of three to six battalions plus supporting elements.
The BTR-152 (also known as BTR-140) was a six-wheeled Soviet armored personnel carrier (БТР, from Бронетранспортер/Bronetransporter, literally "armored transporter"), built on the chassis and drive train of a ZiS-151 utility truck.
The BTR-40 (БТР, from Бронетранспортер, or Bronetransporter, literally "armoured transporter".) is a Soviet non-amphibious, wheeled armoured personnel carrier and reconnaissance vehicle.
The BTR-50 (BTR stands for Bronetransporter (БТР, Бронетранспортер), literally "armored transporter") is a Soviet amphibious armored personnel carrier (APC) based on the PT-76 light tank.
The BTR-60 is the first vehicle in a series of Soviet eight-wheeled armoured personnel carriers (APCs).
The Government of Israel (officially: ממשלת ישראל Memshelet Yisrael) exercises executive authority in the State of Israel.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
The Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on 17 September 1978, following twelve days of secret negotiations at Camp David.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Casus belli is a Latin expression meaning "an act or event that provokes or is used to justify war" (literally, "a case of war").
Catch 67 (translit) is a 2017 book by Israeli philosopher of Jewish thought Micah Goodman on Israeli internal conflict over the West Bank occupation.
The Cave of the Patriarchs, also called the Cave of Machpelah (Hebrew: מערת המכפלה,, trans. "cave of the double tombs") and known by Muslims as the Sanctuary of Abraham or the Ibrahimi Mosque (الحرم الإبراهيمي), is a series of subterranean chambers located in the heart of the old city of Hebron (Al-Khalil) in the Hebron Hills. According to tradition that has been associated with the Holy Books Torah, Bible and Quran, the cave and adjoining field were purchased by Abraham as a burial plot. The site of the Cave of the Patriarchs is located beneath a Saladin-era mosque, which had been converted from a large rectangular Herodian-era Judean structure. Dating back over 2,000 years, the monumental Herodian compound is believed to be the oldest continuously used intact prayer structure in the world, and is the oldest major building in the world that still fulfills its original function. The Hebrew name of the complex reflects the very old tradition of the double tombs of Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebecca, Jacob and Leah, considered the Patriarchs and Matriarchs of the Jewish people. The only Jewish matriarch missing is Rachel, described in one biblical tradition as having been buried near Bethlehem. The Arabic name of the complex reflects the prominence given to Abraham, revered by Muslims as a Quranic prophet and patriarch through Ishmael. Outside biblical and Quranic sources there are a number of legends and traditions associated with the cave. In Acts 7:16 of the Christian Bible the cave of the Patriarchs is located in Shechem (Neapolis; Arabic: Nablus).
A ceasefire (or truce), also called cease fire, is a temporary stoppage of a war in which each side agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions.
The Centurion was the primary British main battle tank of the post-Second World War period.
Chabad, also known as Lubavitch, Habad and Chabad-Lubavitch, is an Orthodox Jewish, Hasidic movement.
Major-General Chaim Herzog (חיים הרצוג; 17 September 1918 – 17 April 1997) was an Israeli politician, general, lawyer and author who served as the sixth President of Israel between 1983 and 1993.
Cheryl A. Rubenberg (born January 3, 1946) is a writer and researcher specializing in the Middle East, formerly an associate professor in the Department of Political Science at Florida International University.
The Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) is the most senior officer in the United States Navy.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
A civil defense siren (also known as an air-raid siren or tornado siren) is a siren used to provide emergency population warning of approaching danger and sometimes to indicate when the danger has passed.
The Cobra was a Swiss/West German anti-tank missile designed by the Oerlikon-Contraves and Bölkow GmbH companies.
Collective security can be understood as a security arrangement, political, regional, or global, in which each state in the system accepts that the security of one is the concern of all, and therefore commits to a collective response to threats to, and breaches to peace.
The Combined Arms Research Library (CARL) at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas is a United States Army library which supports the United States Army Command and General Staff College.
Conspiracy theories are a prevalent feature of Arab culture and politics - particularly fuelling anti-semitism in the Arab World.
The Six-Day War was fought between June 5 and June 10, 1967, by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt, Jordan, and Syria.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
Damia Bridge (also Prince Muhammad Bridge) known in Israel as Gesher Adam (גשר אדם) is a bridge over the Jordan River between the West Bank and Jordan.
Dan (דן), is a city mentioned in the Hebrew Bible, described as the northernmost city of the Kingdom of Israel, and belonging to the tribe of Dan.
Dan (דָּן) is a kibbutz in northern Israel.
Danny Matt (דני מט, December 10, 1927 – December 5, 2013) was a decorated career Israeli military officer who served in the Israel Defense Forces from 1948 until 1992.
The Dassault Mirage III is a family of single-seat, single-engine, fighter aircraft developed and manufactured by French aircraft company Dassault Aviation.
The Dassault MD.454 Mystère IV is a 1950s French fighter-bomber aircraft, the first transonic aircraft to enter service with the French Air Force.
The Dassault M.D.450 Ouragan (Hurricane) is a French fighter-bomber developed and produced by Dassault Aviation.
The Dassault Super Mystère is a French fighter-bomber and was the first Western European supersonic aircraft to enter mass production.
David Ben-Gurion (דָּוִד בֶּן-גּוּרִיּוֹן;, born David Grün; 16 October 1886 – 1 December 1973) was the primary national founder of the State of Israel and the first Prime Minister of Israel.
David "Dado" Elazar (דוד אלעזר; born 27 August 1925 – 15 April 1976) was the ninth Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF), serving in that capacity from 1972 to 1974.
David Rubinger (דוד רובינגר; 29 June 1924 – 2 March 2017) was an Israeli photographer and photojournalist.
David Dean Rusk (February 9, 1909December 20, 1994) was the United States Secretary of State from 1961 to 1969 under presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson.
Demilitarisation or demilitarization may mean the reduction of state armed forces.
Derek Hopwood OBE is an Emeritus Fellow of St Antony's College, Oxford, and University Reader in Modern Middle Eastern Studies.
A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.
The DShK 1938 (ДШК, for Дегтярёва-Шпагина Крупнокалиберный, Degtyaryova-Shpagina Krupnokaliberny, "Degtyaryov-Shpagin Large-Calibre") is a Soviet heavy machine gun firing the 12.7×108mm cartridge.
East Jerusalem or Eastern Jerusalem is the sector of Jerusalem that was occupied by Jordan in 1948 and had remained out of the Israeli-held West Jerusalem at the end of the 1948–49 Arab–Israeli War and has been occupied by Israel since the 1967 Arab-Israeli War.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Egyptian Air Force (EAF) (القوات الجوية المصرية), is the aviation branch of the Egyptian Armed Forces, is responsible for all airborne defence missions and operates all military aircraft, including those used in support of the Egyptian Army, Egyptian Navy and the Egyptian Air Defense Forces, created as a separate command in the 1970s, coordinates with the Air Force to integrate air and ground-based air defense operations.
Eitan Haber (איתן הבר, born 12 March 1940) is an Israeli journalist and publicist.
El Qantara (the bridge) is a northeastern Egyptian city on both sides of the Suez Canal located in the Egyptian governorate of Ismailia, northeast of Cairo and south of Port Said.
Elad Peled (אלעד פלד; born 1927) is a former Israeli general.
Eliyahu Ben-Shaul Cohen (אֱלִיָּהוּ בֵּן שָׁאוּל כֹּהֵן‎, إيلي كوهين‎; 26 December 1924 – 18 May 1965), commonly known as Eli Cohen, was an Israeli spy.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The Etzioni Brigade (חֲטִיבַת עֶצְיוֹנִי, Hativat Etzyoni), also 6th Brigade and Jerusalem Brigade, was an infantry brigade in the Haganah and Israel Defense Forces in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.
Ezer Weizman (עֵזֶר וַיצְמָן Ezer Vaytsman; 15 June 1924 – 24 April 2005) was the seventh President of Israel, first elected in 1993 and re-elected in 1998.
Fedayeen (فِدائيّين fidāʼīyīn) is a term used to refer to various military groups willing to sacrifice themselves.
As a result of the ongoing Syrian civil war, there are currently two governments claiming to be the de jure government of Syria, using different flags to represent the state.
The FN FAL (Fusil Automatique Léger, English: Light Automatic Rifle), is a battle rifle designed by Belgian small arms designers Dieudonné Saive and Ernest Vervier and manufactured by Fabrique Nationale d'Herstal (FN Herstal).
The FN MAG is a Belgian 7.62 mm general-purpose machine gun, designed in the early 1950s at Fabrique Nationale (FN) by Ernest Vervier.
The fog of war (Nebel des Krieges) is the uncertainty in situational awareness experienced by participants in military operations.
The foreign relations of The Islamic Republic of Mauritania have been dominated since independence by the issues of the Spanish Sahara (now Western Sahara or Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic) as well as recognition of its independence by its neighbours, particularly Morocco.
The Fouga CM.170 Magister is a 1950s French two-seat jet trainer aircraft, developed and manufactured by aircraft company Fouga.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
French Hill (הגבעה הצרפתית, HaGiv'a HaTzarfatit, التلة الفرنسية, at-tel al-faransiya), also Giv'at Shapira (גִּבְעַת שַׁפִּירָא) is a neighborhood and Israeli settlement in northern East Jerusalem.
Friendly fire is an attack by a military force on non-enemy, own, allied or neutral, forces while attempting to attack the enemy, either by misidentifying the target as hostile, or due to errors or inaccuracy.
A frogman is someone who is trained in scuba diving or swimming underwater in a tactical capacity that includes police or military work.
Galilee (הגליל, transliteration HaGalil); (الجليل, translit. al-Jalīl) is a region in northern Israel.
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970.
Gary A. Olson (born December 12, 1954),is a scholar of rhetoric and culture, a literary biographer, and President of Daemen College.
Gaza (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998),, p. 761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory in Palestine, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". غزة,; Ancient Ġāzā), also referred to as Gaza City, is a Palestinian city in the Gaza Strip, with a population of 515,556, making it the largest city in the State of Palestine.
The Gaza Strip (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p.761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory under the control of the Palestinian National Authority and Hamas, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". قطاع غزة), or simply Gaza, is a self-governing Palestinian territory on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, that borders Egypt on the southwest for and Israel on the east and north along a border.
George Lenczowski (pol. Jerzy Lenczowski; February 2, 1915 - February 19, 2000) was a lawyer, diplomat, scholar, and Professor of Political Science, Emeritus, at the University of California, Berkeley.
Gidi Pass (ممر جدي) is a strategically important pass in the Sinai.
Giv'at Ha'Em (גבעת האם) is a hill named for Henrietta Szold, known as the mother (em, אם) of Youth Aliya.
The Golan Heights (هضبة الجولان or مرتفعات الجولان, רמת הגולן), or simply the Golan, is a region in the Levant, spanning about.
The 1st "Golani" Brigade (חֲטִיבַת גּוֹלָנִי) is an Israeli regular service infantry brigade that is subordinated to the 36th Division and traditionally associated with the Northern Command.
Gush Emunim (גּוּשׁ אֱמוּנִים, Bloc of the Faithful) was an Israeli Orthodox Jewish, messianic, right-wing activist movement committed to establishing Jewish settlements in the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and the Golan Heights.
Gush Etzion (גּוּשׁ עֶצְיוֹן, Etzion Bloc) is a cluster of Jewish settlements located in the Judaean Mountains, directly south of Jerusalem and Bethlehem in the West Bank.
Guy Arnold (born 6 May 1932) is a British author based in Marylebone, London, and a specialist in north-south relations who writes mainly in the areas of African history and politics, and international affairs.
Haaretz (הארץ) (lit. "The Land ", originally Ḥadashot Ha'aretz – חדשות הארץ, – "News of the Land ") is an Israeli newspaper.
Hadassah Medical Center (מרכז רפואי הדסה) is an Israeli medical organization established in 1934 that operates two university hospitals at Ein Kerem and Mount Scopus in Jerusalem as well as schools of medicine, dentistry, nursing, and pharmacology affiliated with the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Hafez al-Assad (حافظ الأسد,; 6 October 1930 – 10 June 2000) was a Syrian politician and field marshal of the Syrian Armed Forces who served as President of Syria from 1971 to 2000.
Hans Tabor (April 25, 1922 – November 19, 2003) was a Danish diplomat and politician representing the Social Democratic Party.
Har Adar (הַר אֲדָר) is an Israeli settlement and local council in the Seam Zone and the Maccabim sub-region of the West Bank.
A hardened aircraft shelter (HAS) or protective aircraft shelter (PAS) is a reinforced hangar to house and protect military aircraft from enemy attack.
Harel Brigade (Hativat Harel) is a reserve brigade of the Israel Defense Forces, today part of the Northern Command.
Hatzor (חָצוֹר), officially Hatzor Ashdod, is a kibbutz in southern Israel.
The Hawker Hunter is a transonic British jet-powered fighter aircraft that was developed by Hawker Aircraft for the Royal Air Force (RAF) during the late 1940s and early 1950s.
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים, Ha-Universita ha-Ivrit bi-Yerushalayim; الجامعة العبرية في القدس, Al-Jami'ah al-Ibriyyah fi al-Quds; abbreviated HUJI) is Israel's second oldest university, established in 1918, 30 years before the establishment of the State of Israel.
Hebron (الْخَلِيل; חֶבְרוֹן) is a Palestinian.
On 1 January 1956 Anglo-Egyptian Sudan became the independent Republic of the Sudan.
The Hula Valley (עמק החולה, translit. Emek Ha-Ḥula; also transliterated as Huleh Valley) is an agricultural region in northern Israel with abundant fresh water.
Hussein bin Talal (الحسين بن طلال, Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ṭalāl; 14 November 1935 – 7 February 1999) reigned as King of Jordan from 11 August 1952 until his death.
The Ilyushin Il-14 (NATO reporting name: Crate) was a Soviet twin-engine commercial and military personnel and cargo transport aircraft that first flew in 1950, and entered service in 1954.
The Ilyushin Il-18 (Илью́шин Ил-18; NATO reporting name: Coot) is a large turboprop airliner that first flew in 1957 and became one of the best known and durable Soviet aircraft of its era.
The Ilyushin Il-28 (Илью́шин Ил-28 NATO reporting name: Beagle) is a jet bomber of the immediate postwar period that was originally manufactured for the Soviet Air Forces.
An infantry fighting vehicle (IFV), also known as a mechanized infantry combat vehicle (MICV), is a type of armoured fighting vehicle used to carry infantry into battle and provide direct-fire support.
The Institute of National Remembrance – Commission for the Prosecution of Crimes against the Polish Nation (Instytut Pamięci Narodowej – Komisja Ścigania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi Polskiemu; IPN) is a Polish government-affiliated research institute with lustration prerogatives, as well as prosecution powers.
The Iraqi Air Force (IQAF or IrAF; Arabic: القوات الجوية العراقية, Al Quwwat al Jawwiya al Iraqiya) is the aerial warfare service branch of the Iraqi Armed Forces, responsible for the policing of international borders and surveillance of national assets.
The Iraqi Republic (الجمهورية العراقية) was a state forged in 1958 under the rule of President Muhammad Najib ar-Ruba'i and Prime Minister Abd al-Karim Qasim.
Al-Issawiya (العيساوية) is an urban, Arab neighborhood in Jerusalem.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israel Defense Forces (IDF; צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, lit. "The Army of Defense for Israel"; جيش الدفاع الإسرائيلي), commonly known in Israel by the Hebrew acronym Tzahal, are the military forces of the State of Israel.
Israel Tal (ישראל טל, September 13, 1924, – September 8, 2010) also known as Talik (Hebrew: טליק), was an Israel Defense Forces (IDF) general known for his knowledge of tank warfare and for leading the development of Israel's Merkava tank.
The Israel–Jordan peace treaty or in full "Treaty of Peace Between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan" (הסכם השלום בין ישראל לירדן; transliterated: Heskem Ha-Shalom beyn Yisra'el Le-Yarden; معاهدة السلام الأردنية الإسرائيلية; Arabic transliteration: Mu'ahadat as-Salaam al-'Urdunniyah al-Isra'yliyah), sometimes referred to as Wadi Araba Treaty, was signed in 1994.
The Israeli Air Force (IAF; זְרוֹעַ הָאֲוִיר וְהֶחָלָל, Zroa HaAvir VeHahalal, "Air and Space Arm", commonly known as, Kheil HaAvir, "Air Corps") operates as the aerial warfare branch of the Israel Defense Forces.
The Israeli Combat Engineering Corps (חיל ההנדסה הקרבית, Heil HaHandasa HaKravit) is the combat engineering forces of the Israel Defense Forces.
The Israeli disengagement from Gaza (תוכנית ההתנתקות,; in the Disengagement Plan Implementation Law), also known as "Gaza expulsion" and "Hitnatkut", was the withdrawal of the Israeli army from inside the Gaza Strip, and the dismantling of all Israeli settlements in the Gaza Strip in 2005.
Israeli MIA are members of the Israel Defense Forces who are missing in action.
The Israeli Navy (חיל הים הישראלי, Ḥeil HaYam HaYisraeli (English: Sea Corps of Israel); البحرية الإسرائيلية) is the naval warfare service arm of the Israel Defense Forces, operating primarily in the Mediterranean Sea theater as well as the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea theater.
Israeli settlements are civilian communities inhabited by Israeli citizens, almost exclusively of Jewish ethnicity, built predominantly on lands within the Palestinian territories, which Israel has militarily occupied since the 1967 Six-Day War, and partly on lands considered Syrian territory also militarily occupied by Israel since the 1967 war.
The Israeli-occupied territories are the territories occupied by Israel during the Six-Day War of 1967.
The Israeli–Palestinian conflict (Ha'Sikhsukh Ha'Yisraeli-Falestini; al-Niza'a al-Filastini-al-Israili) is the ongoing struggle between Israelis and Palestinians that began in the mid-20th century.
The ISU-152 is a Soviet self-propelled gun developed and used during World War II.
Jabel Mukaber (جبل مكبر, ג'בל מוכאבר) is a predominantly Arab neighborhood in southern East Jerusalem.
Jenin (جنين) is a Palestinian city in the northern West Bank.
Jericho (יְרִיחוֹ; أريحا) is a city in the Palestinian Territories and is located near the Jordan River in the West Bank.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jerusalem Day (יום ירושלים, Yom Yerushalayim) is an Israeli national holiday commemorating the reunification of Jerusalem and the establishment of Israeli control over the Old City in the aftermath of the June 1967 Six-Day War.
The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tfutza, תְּפוּצָה) or exile (Hebrew: Galut, גָּלוּת; Yiddish: Golus) is the dispersion of Israelites, Judahites and later Jews out of their ancestral homeland (the Land of Israel) and their subsequent settlement in other parts of the globe.
The Jezreel Valley (עמק יזרעאל, translit. Emek Yizra'el), (Marj Ibn Āmir) is a large fertile plain and inland valley south of the Lower Galilee region in Israel.
John B. Quigley (born 1940) is a professor of law at the Moritz College of Law at the Ohio State University, where he is the Presidents' Club Professor of Law.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
The Jordan River (also River Jordan; נְהַר הַיַּרְדֵּן Nahar ha-Yarden, ܢܗܪܐ ܕܝܘܪܕܢܢ, نَهْر الْأُرْدُنّ Nahr al-Urdunn, Ancient Greek: Ιορδάνης, Iordànes) is a -long river in the Middle East that flows roughly north to south through the Sea of Galilee (Hebrew: כנרת Kinneret, Arabic: Bohayrat Tabaraya, meaning Lake of Tiberias) and on to the Dead Sea.
The Jordan Valley (עֵמֶק הַיַרְדֵּן, Emek HaYarden; الغور, Al-Ghor or Al-Ghawr) forms part of the larger Jordan Rift Valley.
The Jordanian annexation of the West Bank was the occupation and consequent annexation of the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) by Jordan (formerly Transjordan) in the aftermath of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.
The Jordan Armed Forces (القوات المسلحة الأردنية), also referred to as the Arab Army (الجيش العربي), are the military forces of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.
Joseph's Tomb (קבר יוסף, Qever Yosef, قبر يوسف, Qabr Yūsuf) is a funerary monument located at the eastern entrance to the valley that separates Mounts Gerizim and Ebal, 300 metres northwest of Jacob's Well, on the outskirts of the West Bank city of Nablus, near Tell Balata, the site of Shakmu in the Late Bronze Age and later biblical Shechem.
Judea or Judæa (from יהודה, Standard Yəhuda, Tiberian Yəhûḏāh, Ἰουδαία,; Iūdaea, يهودا, Yahudia) is the ancient Hebrew and Israelite biblical, the exonymic Roman/English, and the modern-day name of the mountainous southern part of Canaan-Israel.
Kfar Saba (כְּפַר סָבָא), officially Kefar Sava, is a city in the Sharon region, of the Central District of Israel.
Kfar Sirkin or Kefar Syrkin (כְּפַר סִירְקִין) is a moshav in central Israel.
Khan Yunis (خان يونس, also spelled Khan Younis or Khan Yunus; translation: Caravansary Jonah) is a city in the southern Gaza Strip.
The Khartoum Resolution of 1 September 1967 was issued at the conclusion of the 1967 Arab League summit convened in the wake of the Six-Day War, in Khartoum, the capital of Sudan.
A kibbutz (קִבּוּץ /, lit. "gathering, clustering"; regular plural kibbutzim /) is a collective community in Israel that was traditionally based on agriculture.
The Kingdom of Libya (المملكة الليبية; Libyan Kingdom; Regno di Libia), originally called the United Kingdom of Libya, came into existence upon independence on 24 December 1951 and lasted until a coup d'état led by Muammar Gaddafi on 1 September 1969 overthrew King Idris and established the Libyan Arab Republic.
Kissufim (כִּסּוּפִים, lit. Yearning) is a community in the northwestern Negev desert in Israel.
The Knesset (הַכְּנֶסֶת; lit. "the gathering" or "assembly"; الكنيست) is the unicameral national legislature of Israel.
Land for peace is a legalistic interpretation of UN Security Council Resolution 242 which has been used as the basis of subsequent Arab-Israeli peace making.
Latrun (לטרון, Latrun; اللطرون, al-Latrun) is located at a strategic hilltop in the Latrun salient in the Ayalon Valley.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (a; Леоні́д Іллі́ч Бре́жнєв, 19 December 1906 (O.S. 6 December) – 10 November 1982) was a Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982 as the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), presiding over the country until his death and funeral in 1982.
Levi Eshkol (לֵוִי אֶשְׁכּוֹל;, born Levi Yitzhak Shkolnik (לוי יצחק שקולניק)‎ 25 October 1895 – 26 February 1969) was an Israeli statesman who served as the third Prime Minister of Israel from 1963 until his death from a heart attack in 1969.
This is a list of modern conflicts in the Middle East ensuing in the geographic and political region known as the Middle East.
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
The M113 is a fully tracked armored personnel carrier (APC) that was developed by Food Machinery Corp (FMC).
The M2 Machine Gun or Browning.50 Caliber Machine Gun is a heavy machine gun designed toward the end of World War I by John Browning.
The M2 half-track car was a half-track armored vehicle produced by the United States during World War II.
The M3 Half-track, known officially as the Carrier, Personnel Half-track M3, was an American armored personnel carrier half-track widely used by the Allies during World War II and in the Cold War.
The M4 Sherman, officially Medium Tank, M4, was the most widely used medium tank by the United States and Western Allies in World War II.
The M40 recoilless rifle is a lightweight, portable, crew-served 105 mm weapon intended primarily as an anti-tank weapon made in the United States.
The M47 Patton was an American main battle tank, a development of the M46 Patton mounting an updated turret, and was in turn further developed as the M48 Patton.
The M48 Patton is a main battle tank (MBT) that was designed in the United States.
The Maginot Line (Ligne Maginot), named after the French Minister of War André Maginot, was a line of concrete fortifications, obstacles, and weapon installations built by France in the 1930s to deter invasion by Germany and force them to move around the fortifications.
Mahmoud Riad (محمود رياض) (January 8, 1917 – January 25, 1992) was an Egyptian diplomat.
Mandelbaum Gate is a former checkpoint between Israeli and Jordanian sectors of Jerusalem, just north of the western edge of the Old City along the Green Line.
Martin Levi van Creveld (מרטין ון קרפלד; born 5 March 1946) is an Israeli military historian and theorist.
Mechanized infantry are infantry equipped with armored personnel carriers (APCs) or infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs) for transport and combat (see also mechanized force).
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
A medium bomber is a military bomber aircraft designed to operate with medium-sized bombloads over medium range distances; the name serves to distinguish this type from larger heavy bombers and smaller light bombers.
Menachem Begin (Menaḥem Begin,; Menakhem Volfovich Begin; 16 August 1913 – 9 March 1992) was an Israeli politician, founder of Likud and the sixth Prime Minister of Israel.
Menachem Mendel Schneerson (April 18, 1902 OS – June 12, 1994 / AM 11 Nissan 5662 – 3 Tammuz 5754), known to many as the Lubavitcher Rebbe or simply as the Rebbe, was a Russian Empire–born American Orthodox Jewish rabbi, and the last rebbe of the Lubavitcher Hasidic dynasty.
Michael Bornstein Oren (Hebrew: מיכאל אורן; born Michael Scott Bornstein; May 20, 1955) is an American-born Israeli historian, author, politician, former ambassador to the United States (2009–2013), and current member of the Knesset for the Kulanu party and Deputy Minister in the Prime Minister's Office.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Middle East Policy is an academic peer-reviewed journal on the Middle East region in the field of foreign policy founded in 1982, published quarterly by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Middle East Policy Council.
Middle East Review of International Affairs (MERIA) is a quarterly, peer-reviewed, journal on Middle East issues founded by the late Barry Rubin and edited by Dr.
The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 (Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-15; USAF/DoD designation: Type 14; NATO reporting name: Fagot) is a jet fighter aircraft developed by Mikoyan-Gurevich for the Soviet Union.
The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17 (Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-17; NATO reporting name: Fresco) is a high-subsonic fighter aircraft produced in the USSR from 1952 and operated by numerous air forces in many variants.
The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-19 (Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-19; NATO reporting name: Farmer) is a Soviet second generation, single-seat, twin jet-engined fighter aircraft.
The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 (Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-21; NATO reporting name: Fishbed) is a supersonic jet fighter and interceptor aircraft, designed by the Mikoyan-Gurevich Design Bureau in the Soviet Union.
The Mil Mi-4 (USAF/DoD reporting name "Type 36", NATO reporting name "Hound") is a Soviet transport helicopter that served in both military and civilian roles.
The Mil Mi-6 (NATO reporting name Hook), given the article number izdeliye 50 and company designation V-6, was a Soviet/Russian heavy transport helicopter that was designed by the Mil design bureau.
The Raytheon MIM-23 Hawk is an American medium-range surface-to-air missile.
A minesweeper is a small naval warship designed to engage in minesweeping.
A missile boat or missile cutter is a small fast warship armed with anti-ship missiles.
The Mitla Pass (ممر متلة, מיתלה) is a 480 meter-high, 32 km-long snaky pass in the Sinai of Egypt, wedged between mountain ranges to the north and south, located about 50 km east of Suez.
Mohamed Abdel Ghani el-Gamasy (Arabic: محمد عبد الغني الجمسي, 9 September 1921 – 7 June 2003) was an Egyptian Field Marshal (Mushir) and The Commander in Chief of The Armed Forces.
Mohamed Hassanein Heikal (محمد حسنين هيكل‎; 23 September 1923 – 17 February 2016) was an Egyptian journalist.
Aluf (Maj. Gen.) Mordechai (Motti) Hod (Hebrew: מרדכי הוד; 28 September 1926 – 29 June 2003) was the Commander of the Israeli Air Force during the 1967 Six-Day War.
Moshe Dayan (משה דיין; 20 May 1915 – 16 October 1981) was an Israeli military leader and politician.
Mossad (הַמוֹסָד,; الموساد,,; literally meaning "the Institute"), short for (המוסד למודיעין ולתפקידים מיוחדים, meaning "Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations"), is the national intelligence agency of Israel.
Mount Scopus (הַר הַצּוֹפִים Har HaTsofim, "Mount of the Watchmen/Sentinels"; جبل المشارف Ǧabal al-Mašārif, lit. "Mount Lookout", or جبل المشهد Ǧabal al-Mašhad "Mount of the Scene/Burial Site", or جبل الصوانة is a mountain (elevation: 2710 feet or 826 meters above sea level) in northeast Jerusalem. In the wake of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, Mount Scopus became a UN-protected Israeli exclave within Jordanian-administered territory until the Six-Day War in 1967. Today, Mount Scopus lies within the municipal boundaries of the city of Jerusalem.
Nablus (نابلس, שכם, Biblical Shechem ISO 259-3 Škem, Νεάπολις Νeapolis) is a city in the northern West Bank, approximately north of Jerusalem, (approximately by road), with a population of 126,132.
Professor Nadav Safran (نداف صفران, נדב ספרן, August 25, 1925, Cairo – July 5, 2003, State College, PA) was an expert in Arab and Middle East politics and a director of Harvard’s Center for Middle Eastern Studies.
Nahal Oz (נַחַ"ל עֹז, lit. "Mighty Stream," also "Strength of the Nahal") is a kibbutz in southern Israel.
Napalm is a mixture of a gelling agent and either gasoline (petrol) or a similar fuel.
The National Security Agency (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence.
A national unity government, government of national unity, or national union government is a broad coalition government consisting of all parties (or all major parties) in the legislature, usually formed during a time of war or other national emergency.
The Russian Naval Infantry (Marines, Морская пехота, Morskaya Pekhota), is the amphibious force of the Russian Navy.
In photography, a negative is an image, usually on a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film, in which the lightest areas of the photographed subject appear darkest and the darkest areas appear lightest.
The Negev Nuclear Research Center (קריה למחקר גרעיני – נגב, officially Nuclear Research Center – Negev or NRCN, unofficially sometimes referred to as the Dimona reactor) is an Israeli nuclear installation located in the Negev desert, about thirteen kilometers south-east of the city of Dimona.
Nekhel (نِخِل; also spelled and pronounced Nakhl) is the capital of Nekhel Municipality of North Sinai Governorate, Sinai, Egypt.
Netanya (נְתַנְיָה, lit., "God gave"; نتانيا) is a city in the Northern Central District of Israel, and is the capital of the surrounding Sharon plain.
The New Historians (ההיסטוריונים החדשים, HaHistoryonim HaChadashim) are a loosely defined group of Israeli historians who have challenged traditional versions of Israeli history, including Israel's role in the Palestinian Exodus in 1948 and Arab willingness to discuss peace.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Nirim (נִירִים, lit. Meadows) is a kibbutz in the northwestern Negev in Israel.
The Nord Noratlas was a dedicated military transport aircraft, developed and manufactured by French aircraft manufacturer Nord Aviation.
Norman Gary Finkelstein (born December 8, 1953) is an American political scientist, activist, professor, and author.
The North Yemen Civil War (ثورة 26 سبتمبر, Thawra 26 Sabtambar, "26 September Revolution") was fought in North Yemen from 1962 to 1970 between royalist partisans of the Mutawakkilite Kingdom and supporters of the Yemen Arab Republic.
Noureddin Mustafa Ali al-Atassi (11 January 1929 – 3 December 1992) (نور الدين بن محمد علي الأتاسي Nūr ad-Dīn Muṣṭafā al-'Atasī) was President of Syria from February 1966 to November 1970.
General Odd Bull (1907–1991) was a career officer in the Royal Norwegian Air Force who eventually rose to the position of Chief of Air Staff.
The Old City (הָעִיר הָעַתִּיקָה, Ha'Ir Ha'Atiqah, البلدة القديمة, al-Balda al-Qadimah) is a walled area within the modern city of Jerusalem.
Operation Focus (מבצע מוקד, Mivtza Moked) was the opening airstrike by Israel at the start of the Six-Day War in 1967.
The origins of the Six-Day War, which was fought between June 5 and June 10, 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known then as the United Arab Republic, UAR), Jordan, and Syria, include both longstanding and immediate issues.
The Pakistan Air Force (PAF) (پاک فِضائیہ—, or alternatively پاکیستان هاوایی فوج, reporting name: PAF) is the aerial warfare branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces, tasked primarily with the aerial defence of Pakistan, with a secondary role of providing air support to the Pakistan Army and the Pakistan Navy.
The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO; منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية) is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle, with much of its violence aimed at Israeli civilians.
The Palestinian people (الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī), also referred to as Palestinians (الفلسطينيون, al-Filasṭīniyyūn, פָלַסְטִינִים) or Palestinian Arabs (العربي الفلسطيني, al-'arabi il-filastini), are an ethnonational group comprising the modern descendants of the peoples who have lived in Palestine over the centuries, including Jews and Samaritans, and who today are largely culturally and linguistically Arab.
The Panhard AML (Auto Mitrailleuse Légère, or "Light Armoured Car") is a fast, long-ranged, and relatively cheap first-generation armoured car with excellent reconnaissance capability.
The Panzerkampfwagen IV (PzKpfw IV), commonly known as the Panzer IV, was a German medium tank developed in the late 1930s and used extensively during the Second World War.
Paratroopers are military parachutists—military personnel trained in parachuting into an operation and usually functioning as part of an airborne force.
Paul Schutzer (1930 – 5 June 1967) was a photojournalist for Life magazine, famous for his "The Blunt Reality of the War in Vietnam" cover photo.
Phillip Andrew Hedley Adams, AO, FAHA, FRSA (born 12 July 1939) is an Australian humanist, social commentator, broadcaster, public intellectual and farmer.
The pincer movement, or double envelopment, is a military maneuver in which forces simultaneously attack both flanks (sides) of an enemy formation.
Port Said (بورسعيد, the first syllable has its pronunciation from Arabic; unurbanized local pronunciation) is a city that lies in north east Egypt extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, north of the Suez Canal, with an approximate population of 603,787 (2010).
A preemptive war is a war that is commenced in an attempt to repel or defeat a perceived imminent offensive or invasion, or to gain a strategic advantage in an impending (allegedly unavoidable) war shortly before that attack materializes.
The PT-76 is a Soviet amphibious light tank that was introduced in the early 1950s and soon became the standard reconnaissance tank of the Soviet Army and the other Warsaw Pact armed forces.
The purple line was the ceasefire line between Israel and Syria after the 1967 Six-Day War and serves as the de facto border between the two countries.
Quneitra (also Al Qunaytirah, Qunaitira, or Kuneitra; القنيطرة al-Qunayṭrah) is the largely destroyed and abandoned capital of the Quneitra Governorate in south-western Syria.
Rachel's Tomb (קבר רחל translit. Qever Raḥel, قبر راحيل Qabr Rāḥīl) is the site revered as the burial place of the matriarch Rachel.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
ABC Radio National, known on-air as RN, is an Australia-wide Public Service Broadcasting radio network run by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
Rafael "Raful" Eitan (רפאל "רפול" איתן, born 11 January 1929 – 23 November 2004) was an Israeli general, former Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces and later a politician, a Knesset member government minister.
Rafah (رفح) is a Palestinian city and refugee camp in the southern Gaza Strip.
Ramallah (رام الله) is a Palestinian city in the central West Bank located north of Jerusalem at an average elevation of above sea level, adjacent to al-Bireh. It currently serves as the de facto administrative capital of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA). Ramallah was historically an Arab Christian town. Today Muslims form the majority of the population of nearly 27,092 in 2007, with Christians making up a significant minority.
Ramat David Israeli Air Force Base (בָּסִיס חֵיל-הַאֲוִיר רָמַת דָּוִד Basis Kheil HaAvir Ramat David) is one of three principal airbases of the Israeli Air Force, located southeast of Haifa, close to kibbutz Ramat David and Megiddo in the Jezreel Valley.
Ramat Rachel (רָמַת רָחֵל, lit. Rachel's Heights) is a kibbutz in central Israel.
Ramla (רַמְלָה, Ramla; الرملة, ar-Ramlah) (also Ramlah, Ramle, Remle and sometimes Rama) is a city in central Israel.
Ras Sedr (Also spelled: Ras Sidr, Ras Sudr, or Ras Sudar; راس سدر) is an Egyptian town located on the Gulf of Suez and the Red Sea coast.
In military operations, reconnaissance or scouting is the exploration outside an area occupied by friendly forces to gain information about natural features and other activities in the area.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
The RL-83 Blindicide is primarily an antitank rocket launcher but other rounds could be fired.
Robert Strange McNamara (June 9, 1916 – July 6, 2009) was an American business executive and the eighth Secretary of Defense, serving from 1961 to 1968 under Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson.
The Rockefeller Museum, formerly the Palestine Archaeological Museum, is an archaeology museum located in East Jerusalem that houses a large collection of artifacts unearthed in the excavations conducted in Mandate Palestine, in the 1920s and 1930s.
The Royal Jordanian Air Force (RJAF; Arabic: سلاح الجو الملكي الأردني, transliterated Silāḥ ul-Jawu al-Malakī ’al-Urdunī) is the air force of the Jordanian Armed Forces.
The Royal Jordanian Army (Arabic: القوّات البرية الاردنيّة, "Jordanian Ground Forces") is part of the Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF).
The Royal Ordnance L7 is the basic model of Britain's most successful tank gun.
The RPD (Russian: ручной пулемёт Дегтярёва Ruchnoy Pulemyot Degtyaryova, English: Degtyaryov hand-held machine gun) is a 7.62mm light machine gun developed in the Soviet Union by Vasily Degtyaryov for the 7.62×39mm M43 intermediate cartridge.
The RPK (Ruchnoy Pulemyot Kalashnikova, Ручной пулемёт Калашникова or "Kalashnikov hand-held machine gun") is a 7.62×39mm light machine gun of Soviet design, developed by Mikhail Kalashnikov in the late 1950s, parallel with the AKM assault rifle.
The S-75 (Russian: С-75; NATO reporting name SA-2 Guideline) is a Soviet-designed, high-altitude air defence system, built around a surface-to-air missile with command guidance.
Saiful Azam (born 1941) is a retired Pakistani/Bangladeshi air force officer, who served as a fighter pilot with the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) (1960-1971) and the Bangladesh Air Force (BAF) (1971-1979).
Salah Jadid (1926 – 19 August 1993, صلاح جديد) was a Syrian general and political figure in the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party in Syria, and the country's de facto leader from 1966 until 1970.
The Samu incident or Battle of Samu was a large cross-border assault on 13 November 1966 by Israeli military on the Jordanian-controlled West Bank village of Samu in response to an al-Fatah land mine attack two days earlier near the West Bank border, which killed 3 Israeli soldiers on a border patrol.
Samuel Segev (15 April 1926 - 9 August 2012) was an Israeli journalist and author.
A satchel is a bag, often with a strap.
The Sea of Galilee, also Kinneret or Kinnereth, Lake of Gennesaret, or Lake Tiberias (יָם כִּנֶּרֶת, Judeo-Aramaic: יַמּא דטבריא; גִּנֵּיסַר بحيرة طبريا), is a freshwater lake in Israel.
Sharm El Sheikh (شرم الشيخ) is a city on the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula, in South Sinai Governorate, Egypt, on the coastal strip along the Red Sea.
Shayetet 13 (שייטת 13, lit. Flotilla 13) is a unit of the Israeli Navy and one of the primary special operations units of the Israel Defense Forces.
She'ar Yashuv (שְׁאָר יָשׁוּב) is a moshav in northern Israel.
Sheikh Zuweid (also spelled Sheikh Zoweid or Shaykh Zuwayd; الشيخ زويد) is a Bedouin town in the North Sinai Governorate of Egypt near the border with the Gaza Strip.
Shlomo Erell (born November 20, 1920) was a Major General in the IDF, and the seventh Commander of the Israeli Navy.
Shmuel "Gorodish" Gonen (שמואל גונן; 1930 – 30 September 1991) was an Israeli general and Chief of the Southern Command of the Israel Defense Forces during the Yom Kippur War.
Shuafat (شعفاط), also Shu'fat and Sha'fat, is a mostly Arab neighborhood of East Jerusalem, forming part of north-eastern Jerusalem.
Signals intelligence (SIGINT) is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether communications between people (communications intelligence—abbreviated to COMINT) or from electronic signals not directly used in communication (electronic intelligence—abbreviated to ELINT).
The Sikorsky H-34 (company designation S-58) is a piston-engined military helicopter originally designed by American aircraft manufacturer Sikorsky as an anti-submarine warfare (ASW) aircraft for the United States Navy.
The Sinai Peninsula or simply Sinai (now usually) is a peninsula in Egypt, and the only part of the country located in Asia.
Six Days of War: June 1967 and the Making of the Modern Middle East is a 2002 non-fiction book by American-born Israeli historian and Israeli ambassador to the United States, Michael Oren, chronicling the events of the Six-Day War fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors.
A sortie (from the French word meaning ''exit'') is a deployment or dispatch of one military unit, be it an aircraft, ship, or troops, from a strongpoint.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Nord Aviation SS.10 was a MCLOS wire-guided anti-tank missile designed by the French engineer Jean Bastien-Thiry.
Steven Pressfield (born September 1943) is an American author of historical fiction, non-fiction, and screenplays.
Strafing is the military practice of attacking ground targets from low-flying aircraft using aircraft-mounted automatic weapons Less commonly, the term can be used—by extension—to describe high-speed firing runs by any land or naval craft (e.g. fast boats) using smaller-caliber weapons and targeting stationary or slow-moving targets.
The Straits of Tiran (مضيق تيران) are the narrow sea passages between the Sinai and Arabian peninsulas which separate the Gulf of Aqaba from the Red Sea proper.
Strategic depth is a term in military literature that broadly refers to the distances between the front lines or battle sectors and the combatants' industrial core areas, capital cities, heartlands, and other key centers of population or military production.
The SU-100 (Samokhodnaya Ustanovka 100) was a Soviet tank destroyer armed with a 100 mm anti-tank gun in a casemate superstructure.
A submachine gun (SMG) is a magazine-fed, automatic carbine designed to fire pistol cartridges.
The Sud-Ouest Aviation (SNCASO) S.O. 4050 Vautour II (French for vulture) was a French jet-powered bomber, interceptor, and attack aircraft developed and manufactured by aircraft company Sud Aviation.
thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.
The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli War, also named the Tripartite Aggression (in the Arab world) and Operation Kadesh or Sinai War (in Israel),Also named: Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, Suez–Sinai war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Operation Musketeer (أزمة السويس /‎ العدوان الثلاثي, "Suez Crisis"/ "the Tripartite Aggression"; Crise du canal de Suez; מבצע קדש "Operation Kadesh", or מלחמת סיני, "Sinai War") was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France.
The Sukhoi Su-7 (NATO designation name: Fitter-A) was a swept wing, supersonic fighter aircraft developed by the Soviet Union in 1955.
The Sherman M-50 and the Sherman M-51, both often referred abroad as the Super Sherman, were modified versions of the American M4 Sherman tank that served with the Israel Defense Forces from the mid-1950s to early 1980s.
A surface-to-surface missile (SSM) or ground-to-ground missile (GGM) is a missile designed to be launched from the ground or the sea and strike targets on land or at sea.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Syrian Air Force, officially the Syrian Arab Air Force (القوات الجوية العربية السورية, Al Quwwat al-Jawwiyah al Arabiya as-Souriya), is the air force branch of the Syrian Armed Forces.
The Syrian Navy, officially the Syrian Arab Navy (البحرية العربية السورية), is the navy of the Syrian Armed Forces.
Before the Six-Day War and Yom Kippur War, the Golan Heights comprised 312 inhabited areas, including 2 towns, 163 villages, and 108 farms.
The T-34 is a Soviet medium tank that had a profound and lasting effect on the field of tank design.
The T-54 and T-55 tanks are a series of Soviet main battle tanks introduced in the years following the Second World War.
A tank is an armoured fighting vehicle designed for front-line combat, with heavy firepower, strong armour, tracks and a powerful engine providing good battlefield maneuverability.
A tank destroyer or tank hunter is a type of armoured fighting vehicle, armed with a direct-fire artillery gun or missile launcher, with limited operational capacities and designed specifically to engage enemy tanks.
Tefillin (Askhenazic:; Israeli Hebrew:, תפילין), also called phylacteries, are a set of small black leather boxes containing scrolls of parchment inscribed with verses from the Torah.
Tel Aviv (תֵּל אָבִיב,, تل أَبيب) is the second most populous city in Israel – after Jerusalem – and the most populous city in the conurbation of Gush Dan, Israel's largest metropolitan area.
The Temple Mount (הַר הַבַּיִת, Har HaBáyit, "Mount of the House "), known to Muslims as the Haram esh-Sharif (الحرم الشريف, al-Ḥaram al-Šarīf, "the Noble Sanctuary", or الحرم القدسي الشريف, al-Ḥaram al-Qudsī al-Šarīf, "the Noble Sanctuary of Jerusalem") and the Al Aqsa Compound is a hill located in the Old City of Jerusalem that for thousands of years has been venerated as a holy site, in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam alike.
Territorial waters or a territorial sea, as defined by the 2013 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, is a belt of coastal waters extending at most from the baseline (usually the mean low-water mark) of a coastal state.
The Age is a daily newspaper that has been published in Melbourne, Australia, since 1854.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Washington Institute for Near East Policy (WINEP) is an American think tank based in Washington, D.C., focused on the foreign policy of the United States as it pertains to the countries in the Near East.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Thomas Hinman Moorer (February 9, 1912 – February 5, 2004) was an admiral and naval aviator in the United States Navy who served as Chief of Naval Operations from 1967 to 1970, and as the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff from 1970 to 1974.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Tripoli (طرابلس,; Berber: Oea, or Wy't) is the capital city and the largest city of Libya, with a population of about 1.1 million people in 2015.
The Tupolev Tu-16 (NATO reporting name: Badger) was a twin-engined jet strategic heavy bomber used by the Soviet Union.
Thant (22 January 1909 – 25 November 1974), known honorifically as U Thant, was a Burmese diplomat and the third Secretary-General of the United Nations from 1961 to 1971, the first non-European to hold the position.
The United Arab Republic (UAR; الجمهورية العربية المتحدة) was, between 1958 and 1971, a sovereign state in the Middle East, and between 1958 and 1961, a short-lived political union consisting of Egypt (including the occupied Gaza Strip) and Syria.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The first United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) was established by United Nations General Assembly to secure an end to the Suez Crisis with resolution 1001 (ES-I) on November 7, 1956.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 (S/RES/242) was adopted unanimously by the UN Security Council on November 22, 1967, in the aftermath of the Six-Day War.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The U.S. Army Combined Arms Center (USACAC) is located at Fort Leavenworth and provides leadership and supervision for leader development and professional military and civilian education; institutional and collective training; functional training; training support; battle command; doctrine; lessons learned and specified areas the Commanding General, United States Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) designates in order to serve as a catalyst for change and to support developing relevant and ready expeditionary land formations with campaign qualities in support of the joint force commander.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The Secretary of State is a senior official of the federal government of the United States of America, and as head of the U.S. Department of State, is principally concerned with foreign policy and is considered to be the U.S. government's equivalent of a Minister for Foreign Affairs.
Universal Newsreel (sometimes known as Universal-International Newsreel or just U-I Newsreel) was a series of 7- to 10-minute newsreels that were released twice a week between 1929 and 1967 by Universal Studios.
USS Liberty (AGTR-5) was a ''Belmont''-class technical research ship (electronic spy ship) that was attacked by Israel Defense Forces during the 1967 Six-Day War.
The USS Liberty incident was an attack on a United States Navy technical research ship,, by Israeli Air Force jet fighter aircraft and Israeli Navy motor torpedo boats, on 8 June 1967, during the Six-Day War.
The Uzi (עוזי, officially cased as UZI) is a family of Israeli open-bolt, blowback-operated submachine guns.
Uzi Narkiss (עוזי נרקיס; January 6, 1925 – December 17, 1997) was an Israeli general.
A waqf (وقف), also known as habous or mortmain property, is an inalienable charitable endowment under Islamic law, which typically involves donating a building, plot of land or other assets for Muslim religious or charitable purposes with no intention of reclaiming the assets.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
The West Bank (الضفة الغربية; הגדה המערבית, HaGadah HaMa'aravit) is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, the bulk of it now under Israeli control, or else under joint Israeli-Palestinian Authority control.
The Western Wall, Wailing Wall, or Kotel, known in Arabic as Al-Buraq Wall, is an ancient limestone wall in the Old City of Jerusalem.
Yekutiel "Kuti" Adam (יקותיאל "קותי" אדם) (November 3, 1927 – June 10, 1982) was an Israeli general and former Deputy Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces.
Yeshayahu (Shaike) Gavish (ישעיהו גביש, August 25, 1925) was an Israel Defense Forces (IDF) Major General known for leading the IDF forces in the Sinai Peninsula front during the Six-Day War.
Yigal Allon (יגאל אלון; 10 October 1918 – 29 February 1980) was an Israeli politician, a commander of the Palmach, and a general in the IDF.
Yitzhak Rabin (יצחק רבין,; 1 March 1922 – 4 November 1995) was an Israeli politician, statesman and general.
The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War, or October War (or מלחמת יום כיפור,;,, or حرب تشرين), also known as the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, was a war fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, by a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel.
Yossi Peled (יוסי פלד, born 18 January 1941) is an Israeli general and politician, the former Aluf of the Northern Command in the Israel Defense Forces.
Zeid Ibn Shaker, GBE, CVO (4 September 1934 – 30 August 2002) (الامير زيد بن شاكر) served as commander-in-chief of the Jordanian military for more than twelve years and Prime Minister of Jordan three times.
Ze'ev Schiff (1 July 1932 in Lille, France – 19 June 2007 in Tel Aviv, Israel) was an Israeli journalist and military correspondent for Haaretz.
The ZSU-57-2 Ob'yekt 500 is a Soviet self-propelled anti-aircraft gun (SPAAG), armed with two 57 mm autocannons.
The 122-mm howitzer D-30 (GRAU index 2A18) is a Soviet howitzer that first entered service in the 1960s.
The 130 mm towed field gun M-46 (130-мм пушка M-46) is a manually loaded, towed 130 mm artillery piece, manufactured in the Soviet Union in the 1950s.
The 152 mm howitzer-gun M1937 (ML-20) (152-мм гаубица-пушка обр.), is a Soviet heavy gun-howitzer.
The 155 mm Gun M1 was a 155 millimeter caliber field gun developed and used by the United States military.
The Hebron massacre refers to the killing of sixty-seven or sixty-nine Jews on 24 August 1929 in Hebron, then part of Mandatory Palestine, by Arabs incited to violence by rumors that Jews were planning to seize control of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem.
The 1948 Arab–Israeli War, or the First Arab–Israeli War, was fought between the State of Israel and a military coalition of Arab states over the control of Palestine, forming the second stage of the 1948 Palestine war.
The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of armistice agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and neighboring Egypt, UN Doc S/1264/Corr.1 23 February 1949 Lebanon, UN Doc S/1296 23 March 1949 Jordan, UN Doc S/1302/Rev.1 3 April 1949 and Syria UN Doc S/1353 20 July 1949 to formally end the official hostilities of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, and establish armistice lines between Israeli forces and Jordanian-Iraqi forces, also known as the Green Line. The United Nations established supervising and reporting agencies to monitor the established armistice lines.
The Polish 1968 political crisis, also known in Poland as March 1968 or March events (Marzec 1968; wydarzenia marcowe), pertains to a series of major student, intellectual and other protests against the government of the Polish People's Republic.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
The Israel Defense Forces 55th Paratroopers Brigade, also known as the "Tip of The Spear Brigade" (עֻצְבַּת חוד החנית, Utzbat Hod Ha-Hanit), is a reserve-service infantry Brigade in the Israeli Defense Forces.
The 7th Armored Brigade (חטיבה שבע, Hativa Sheva) is a military formation of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF).
The 8th Armored Brigade (חטיבה שמונה, Hativa Shmoneh) was an Israeli mechanized brigade headquartered near Jerusalem.
1967 Arab War, 1967 Arab-Israeli War, 1967 Arab-Israeli conflict, 1967 Arab-Israeli war, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, 1967 Israeli-Arab war, 1967 Middle East war, 1967 Six Day War, 1967 War, 1967 ceasefire, 6 Day War, 6 Day war, 6 day war, 6 days war, 6-Day War, 6-Days War, 6-day War, 6DW, Accusations on the Six-Day War, Accusations regarding the Six-Day War, An-Naksah, An‑Naksah, Background to Six-Day War, June 1967 war, June War, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim, Milhemet Sheshet Ha‑Yamim, Six Day War, Six Day war, Six Days War, Six day war, Six days war, Six days' war, Six-Day Arab-Israeli War, Six-Day war, Six-Days War, Six-day War, Six-day war, Six-days war, The Six Day War, The Six-Day War, Third Arab-Israeli War, Third Arab–Israeli War, מלחמת ששת הימים, حرب 1967, حرب الأيام الستة, Ḥarb 1967, Ḥarb al‑Ayyam, Ḥarb al‑Ayyam as‑Sitta.