59 relations: Alabama v. Shelton, Alleyne v. United States, Apodaca v. Oregon, Apprendi v. New Jersey, Argersinger v. Hamlin, Arrest, Balancing test, Ballew v. Georgia, Barker v. Wingo, Betts v. Brady, Blakely v. Washington, Bounds v. Smith, Brewer v. Williams, Bruton v. United States, Bullcoming v. New Mexico, Change of venue, Chemist, Common law, Crawford v. Washington, Davis v. Washington, Double jeopardy, England, Faretta v. California, Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Gideon v. Wainwright, Godinez v. Moran, Hamilton v. Alabama (1961), Hearsay in United States law, Incorporation of the Bill of Rights, Indiana v. Edwards, Indictment, Johnson v. Zerbst, Juvenile court, Martinez v. Court of Appeal of California, Massiah v. United States, Melendez-Diaz v. Massachusetts, Michigan v. Bryant, Minor (law), Murder, Peña-Rodriguez v. Colorado, Peremptory challenge, Powell v. Alabama, Reasonable person, Scott v. Illinois, SCOTUSblog, Sheppard v. Maxwell, Silent witness rule, Supreme Court of the United States, Suspended sentence, Taylor v. Illinois, ..., Taylor v. Louisiana, Trial in absentia, United States Bill of Rights, United States Constitution, United States constitutional criminal procedure, United States courts of appeals, United States v. Cruikshank, Voir dire, Williams v. Florida. Expand index (9 more) » « Shrink index
Alabama v. Shelton,, was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court upheld the Alabama Supreme Court's ruling that counsel (a lawyer) must be provided for the accused in order to impose a suspended prison sentence.
Alleyne v. United States,, was a United States Supreme Court case that decided that, in line with Apprendi v. New Jersey (2000), all facts that increase a mandatory minimum sentence must be submitted to and found true by a jury (not merely determined to be true by a judge's discretion).
Apodaca v. Oregon,, was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court held that state juries may convict a defendant by less than unanimity even though federal law required that federal juries must reach criminal verdicts unanimously.
Apprendi v. New Jersey,, is a landmark United States Supreme Court decision with regard to aggravating factors in crimes.
Argersinger v. Hamlin,, is a United States Supreme Court decision holding that the accused cannot be subjected to actual imprisonment unless provided with counsel.
An arrest is the act of apprehending a person and taking them into custody, usually because they have been suspected of committing or planning a crime.
A balancing test is any judicial test in which the jurists weigh the importance of multiple factors in a legal case.
Ballew v. Georgia, 435 U.S. 223 (1978), was a case heard by the United States Supreme Court that held that a Georgia state statute authorizing criminal conviction upon the unanimous vote of a jury of five was unconstitutional.
Barker v. Wingo,, was a United States Supreme Court case involving the Sixth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, specifically the right of defendants in criminal cases to a speedy trial.
Betts v. Brady, 316 U.S. 455 (1942), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case that denied counsel to indigent defendants when prosecuted by a state.
Blakely v. Washington, 542 U.S. 296 (2004), held that, in the context of mandatory sentencing guidelines under state law, the Sixth Amendment right to a jury trial prohibited judges from enhancing criminal sentences based on facts other than those decided by the jury or admitted by the defendant.
Bounds v. Smith,, was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court tested the basic constitutional right of prison inmates’ access to legal documents prior to court.
Brewer v. Williams,, is a decision by the United States Supreme Court that clarifies what constitutes "waiver" of the right to counsel for the purposes of the Sixth Amendment.
Bruton v. United States is a 1968 United States Supreme Court ruling in which the Court held that a defendant was deprived of his rights under the Confrontation Clause if a confession by his codefendant was introduced in their joint trial, regardless of whether the jury received instructions only to consider it against the confessor.
Bullcoming v. New Mexico, 564 U.S. 647 (2011), is a significant 6th Amendment Confrontation Clause case decided by the United States Supreme Court.
A change of venue is the legal term for moving a trial to a new location.
A chemist (from Greek chēm (ía) alchemy; replacing chymist from Medieval Latin alchimista) is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
Crawford v. Washington, 541 U.S. 36 (2004), is a United States Supreme Court decision that reformulated the standard for determining when the admission of hearsay statements in criminal cases is permitted under the Confrontation Clause of the Sixth Amendment.
Davis v. Washington, 547 U.S. 813 (2006), was a case decided by the Supreme Court of the United States holding that hearsay statements made in a 911 call asking for aid were not "testimonial" in nature and thus their introduction at trial did not violate the Confrontation Clause as defined in Crawford v. Washington.
Double jeopardy is a procedural defence that prevents an accused person from being tried again on the same (or similar) charges and on the same facts, following a valid acquittal or conviction.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Faretta v. California, 422 U.S. 806 (1975), was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that criminal defendants have a constitutional right to refuse counsel and represent themselves in state criminal proceedings.
The Fourteenth Amendment (Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments.
Gideon v. Wainwright,, is a landmark case in United States Supreme Court history.
Godinez v. Moran, 509 U.S. 389 (1993),.
Hamilton v. Alabama, 368 U.S. 52 (1961), was a case heard by the Supreme Court of the United States.
Hearsay is the legal term for certain statements—offered as evidence during a trial or hearing for the purpose of attempting to prove the truth of the matter asserted in the statements—that were not made while testifying at the trial or hearing itself.
Incorporation, in United States law, is the doctrine by which portions of the Bill of Rights have been made applicable to the states.
Indiana v. Edwards,, was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court held that the standard for competency to stand trial was not linked to the standard for competency to represent oneself.
An indictment is a formal accusation that a person has committed a crime.
Johnson v. Zerbst, 304 U.S. 458 (1938), was a United States Supreme Court case, in which the petitioner, Johnson, had been convicted in federal court of feloniously possessing, uttering, and passing counterfeit money in a trial where he had not been represented by an attorney but instead by himself.
A juvenile court (or young offender's court) is a tribunal having special authority to pass judgements for crimes that are committed by children or adolescents who have not attained the age of majority.
Martinez v. Court of Appeal of California, 528 U.S. 152 (2000), is a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court decided an appellant who was the defendant in a criminal case cannot refuse the assistance of counsel on direct appeals.
Massiah v. United States, 377 U.S. 201 (1964), was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibits the government from eliciting statements from the defendant about themselves after the point that the Sixth Amendment right to counsel attaches.
Melendez-Diaz v. Massachusetts, 557 U.S. 305 (2009), is a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court held that it was a violation of the Sixth Amendment right of confrontation for a prosecutor to submit a chemical drug test report without the testimony of the person who performed the test.
Michigan v. Bryant,, was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court considered a criminal defendant's Confrontation Clause right regarding statements made by a deceased declarant.
In law, a minor is a person under a certain age, usually the age of majority, which legally demarcates childhood from adulthood.
Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought.
Peña-Rodriguez v. Colorado, 580 U.S. ___ (2017), was a United States Supreme Court decision holding that the Sixth Amendment requires a racial bias exception to the no-impeachment rule.
In English and American law, the right of peremptory challenge is a right in jury selection for the attorneys to reject a certain number of potential jurors without stating a reason.
In Powell v. Alabama, the United States Supreme Court reversed the convictions of nine young black men for allegedly raping two white women on a freight train near Scottsboro, Alabama.
In law, a reasonable person, reasonable man, or the man on the Clapham omnibus is a hypothetical person of legal fiction crafted by the courts and communicated through case law and jury instructions.
Scott v. Illinois,, was a case heard by the Supreme Court of the United States.
SCOTUSblog is a law blog written by lawyers, law professors, and law students about the Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes abbreviated "SCOTUS").
Sheppard v. Maxwell,, was a United States Supreme Court case that examined the rights of freedom of the press as outlined in the First Amendment when weighed against a defendant's right to a fair trial as required by the Sixth Amendment and the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
The silent witness rule is the use of "substitutions" when referring to sensitive information in the United States open courtroom jury trial system.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
A suspended sentence is a legal term for a judge's delaying of a defendant's serving of a sentence after they have been found guilty, in order to allow the defendant to perform a period of probation.
Taylor v. Illinois, 484 U.S. 400 (1988), is a United States Supreme Court decision in which the Court held that defense witnesses can be prevented from testifying under certain circumstances, even if that hurts the defense's case.
Taylor v. Louisiana,, is a landmark Supreme Court of the United States case, which held women could not be excluded from a venire, or jury pool, on the basis of having to register for jury duty.
Trial in absentia is a criminal proceeding in a court of law in which the person who is subject to it is not physically present at those proceedings.
The Bill of Rights is the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The United States Constitution contains several provisions regarding the law of criminal procedure.
The United States courts of appeals or circuit courts are the intermediate appellate courts of the United States federal court system.
United States v. Cruikshank, was an important United States Supreme Court decision in United States constitutional law, one of the earliest to deal with the application of the Bill of Rights to state governments following the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Voir dire is a legal phrase for a variety of procedures connected with jury trials.
Williams v. Florida, 399 U.S. 78 (1970), is a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court held that the Fifth Amendment does not entitle a defendant in a criminal trial to refuse to provide details of his alibi witnesses to the prosecution, and that the Sixth Amendment does not require a jury to have 12 members.
6th Amendment to the United States Constitution, Public trial clause, Sixth Amendment of the United States Constitution, Sixth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, Sixth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, Sixth Amendment's right to counsel, Sixth amendment rights, The Right to Trial by Jury, United States Constitution/Amendment Six.