37 relations: Abstand and ausbau languages, Co-articulated consonant, Colognian dialect, Digraph (orthography), Doubly articulated consonant, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Germany, Index of phonetics articles, International Phonetic Alphabet, International Phonetic Association, Labialization, Labiodental consonant, Manner of articulation, Palate, Peter Ladefoged, Phoneme, Phonetics, Place of articulation, Polish language, Postalveolar consonant, Ripuarian language, Roundedness, Soft palate, Standard German, Studentlitteratur, Swedish dialects, Swedish language, Swedish orthography, Swedish phonology, Tongue, University of Cologne, Velar consonant, Velarization, Voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative, Voiceless labialized velar approximant, Voicelessness.
In sociolinguistics, an abstand language is a language variety or cluster of varieties with significant linguistic distance from all others, while an ausbau language is a standard variety, possibly with related dependent varieties.
Co-articulated consonants or complex consonants are consonants produced with two simultaneous places of articulation.
Colognian or Kölsch (natively Kölsch Platt) is a small set of very closely related dialects, or variants, of the Ripuarian Central German group of languages.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
Doubly articulated consonants are consonants with two simultaneous primary places of articulation of the same manner (both plosive, or both nasal, etc.). They are a subset of co-articulated consonants.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
The International Phonetic Association (IPA; in French, Association phonétique internationale, API) is an organization that promotes the scientific study of phonetics and the various practical applications of that science.
Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages.
In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.
In articulatory phonetics, the manner of articulation is the configuration and interaction of the articulators (speech organs such as the tongue, lips, and palate) when making a speech sound.
The palate is the roof of the mouth in humans and other mammals.
Peter Nielsen Ladefoged (17 September 1925 – 24 January 2006) was a British linguist and phonetician who travelled the world to document the distinct sounds of endangered languages and pioneered ways to collect and study data.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
In articulatory phonetics, the place of articulation (also point of articulation) of a consonant is the point of contact where an obstruction occurs in the vocal tract between an articulatory gesture, an active articulator (typically some part of the tongue), and a passive location (typically some part of the roof of the mouth).
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
Ripuarian (also Ripuarian Franconian or Ripuarisch Platt) is a German dialect group, part of the West Central German language group.
In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel.
The soft palate (also known as the velum or muscular palate) is, in mammals, the soft tissue constituting the back of the roof of the mouth.
Standard German, High German or more precisely Standard High German (Standarddeutsch, Hochdeutsch, or in Swiss Schriftdeutsch) is the standardized variety of the German language used in formal contexts, and for communication between different dialect areas.
Studentlitteratur is an academic publishing company based in Sweden and publishing mostly in Swedish.
Swedish dialects are the various forms of the Swedish language, particularly those that differ considerably from Standard Swedish.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Swedish orthography is the set of rules and conventions used for writing Swedish.
Swedish has a large vowel inventory, with nine vowels distinguished in quality and to some degree quantity, making 17 vowel phonemes in most dialects.
The tongue is a muscular organ in the mouth of most vertebrates that manipulates food for mastication, and is used in the act of swallowing.
The University of Cologne (Universität zu Köln) is a university in Cologne, Germany.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant.
The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some oral languages.
The voiceless labialized velar (labiovelar) approximant (traditionally called a voiceless labiovelar fricative) is a type of consonantal sound, used in spoken languages.
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
Simultaneous S and x, Simultaneous ʃ and x, Sje-sound, Swedish sje-sound, Voiceless Swedish fricative, Voiceless coarticulated velar and palatoalveolar fricative, Voiceless dorso-palatal fricative, Voiceless dorso-palatal velar fricative, Voiceless palatal-velar fricative, Voiceless postalveolar and velar fricative, Voiceless postalveolo-velar fricative, ɧ.