198 relations: Absorption (skin), Adaptive immune system, Adipocyte, Adipose tissue, Ageing, American bison, Amphibian, Anesthetic, Animal, Apocrine, Appendage, Arrector pili muscle, Arthropod exoskeleton, Autocrine signalling, Bacteria, Basement membrane, Biglycan, Biosynthesis, Bird, Blood, Blood vessel, Bone, Camouflage, Capillary, Carbon dioxide, Carotenoid, Cattle, Cell (biology), Cell division, Cell junction, Cellular differentiation, Cellular senescence, Chameleon, Chemical composition, Chondrichthyes, Chromatophore, Clothing, Collagen, Connective tissue, Cutaneous receptor, Cutaneous reflex in human locomotion, Cutaneous respiration, Cuticle, Cytokine, Decorin, Dermis, Desmosome, Desquamation, DNA damage (naturally occurring), Dolphin, ..., Ectoderm, Elastic fiber, Elasticity (physics), Elastin, Elephant, Epidermis, Epithelium, Estrogen, Evaporation, Extensibility, Extracellular matrix, Fat, Feather, Fiber, Fibroblast, Final good, Fish, Fish scale, Flounder, Frog, Fur, Gastrointestinal tract, Genitourinary system, Gland, Goat, Goatskin (material), Growth factor, Guanine, Hair, Hair follicle, Haptic perception, Heat, Hemodynamics, Hide (skin), Homeostasis, Horse, Human, Human body, Human skin, Hyaluronic acid, Injury, Integument, Integumentary system, Keratin, Keratinocyte, Keratinocyte growth factor, Langerhans cell, Leather, Ligament, Lipid, Loose connective tissue, Lymphatic vessel, Macrophage, Maintenance (technical), Mammal, Manuscript, Marine mammal, Mechanoreceptor, Melanin, Melanocyte, Merkel cell, Merocrine, Microfibril, Microorganism, Mitochondrion, Mitosis, Molecule, Moulting, Mucous gland, Mucus, Muscle, Nail (anatomy), Natural environment, Nerve, Nitrogen, Nociceptor, Nutrient, Organ (anatomy), Osmosis, Osteichthyes, Oxidative stress, Oxygen, Pangolin, Paracrine signalling, Parchment, Pathogen, Perfusion, Perlecan, Perspiration, Pheromone, Photophore, Physiology, Pig, Pigment, Poison, Pork rind, Porpoise, Pressure, Protein, Proteoglycan, Rawhide (material), Reaction–diffusion system, Reptile, Respiration (physiology), Respiratory system, Reticular fiber, Role of skin in locomotion, Scale (anatomy), Scar, Sebaceous gland, Secondary sex characteristic, Serous fluid, Sheep, Skin, Skin flora, Skull, Snakeskin, SOD2, Sole (foot), Somatosensory system, Sonic hedgehog, Staphylococcus, Stem cell, Stratum basale, Stratum corneum, Stratum granulosum, Stratum lucidum, Stratum spinosum, Strength of materials, Stress (biology), Subcutaneous tissue, Sweat gland, Temperature, Tetrapod, Thermal insulation, Thermoreceptor, Tissue (biology), Toad, Topical medication, Transforming growth factor, Uropygial gland, Venom, Versican, Vertebrate, Vibration, Vitamin D, Water, Whale. Expand index (148 more) » « Shrink index
Skin absorption is a route by which substances can enter the body through the skin.
The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth.
Adipocytes, also known as lipocytes and fat cells, are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat.
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.
Ageing or aging (see spelling differences) is the process of becoming older.
The American bison or simply bison (Bison bison), also commonly known as the American buffalo or simply buffalo, is a North American species of bison that once roamed the grasslands of North America in massive herds.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery, completely blocking any feeling as opposed to an analgesic.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Apocrine is a term used to classify exocrine glands in the study of histology.
In invertebrate biology, an appendage (or outgrowth) is an external body part, or natural prolongation, that protrudes from an organism's body (in vertebrate biology, an example would be a vertebrate's limbs).
The arrector pili muscles are small muscles attached to hair follicles in mammals.
Arthropods are covered with a tough, resilient integument or exoskeleton of chitin.
Autocrine signaling is a form of cell signaling in which a cell secretes a hormone or chemical messenger (called the autocrine agent) that binds to autocrine receptors on that same cell, leading to changes in the cell.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
The basement membrane is a thin, fibrous, extracellular matrix of tissue that separates the lining of an internal or external body surface from underlying connective tissue in metazoans.
Biglycan is a small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan (SLRP) which is found in a variety of extracellular matrix tissues, including bone, cartilage and tendon.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis).
A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carotenoids, also called tetraterpenoids, are organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria and fungi.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.
A cell junction (or intercellular bridge) is a type of structure that exists within the tissue of some multicellular organisms, such as animals.
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
Cellular senescence is one phenomenon by which normal cells cease to divide.
Chameleons or chamaeleons (family Chamaeleonidae) are a distinctive and highly specialized clade of Old World lizards with 202 species described as of June 2015.
Chemical composition refers to the identity and relative number of the chemical elements that make up any particular compound.
Chondrichthyes (from Greek χονδρ- chondr- 'cartilage', ἰχθύς ichthys 'fish') is a class that contains the cartilaginous fishes: they are jawed vertebrates with paired fins, paired nares, scales, a heart with its chambers in series, and skeletons made of cartilage rather than bone.
Chromatophores are pigment-containing and light-reflecting cells, or groups of cells, found in a wide range of animals including amphibians, fish, reptiles, crustaceans and cephalopods.
Clothing (also known as clothes and attire) is a collective term for garments, items worn on the body.
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue.
The cutaneous receptors are the types of sensory receptor found in the dermis or epidermis.
Cutaneous, or skin reflexes, are activated by skin receptors and play a valuable role in locomotion, providing quick responses to unexpected environmental challenges.
Cutaneous respiration, or cutaneous gas exchange, is a form of respiration in which gas exchange occurs across the skin or outer integument of an organism rather than gills or lungs.
A cuticle, or cuticula, is any of a variety of tough but flexible, non-mineral outer coverings of an organism, or parts of an organism, that provide protection.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
Decorin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DCN gene.
The dermis or corium is a layer of skin between the epidermis (with which it makes up the cutis) and subcutaneous tissues, that primarily consists of dense irregular connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain.
A desmosome ("binding body"), also known as a macula adhaerens (plural: maculae adhaerentes) (Latin for adhering spot), is a cell structure specialized for cell-to-cell adhesion.
Desquamation, also called skin peeling, is the shedding of the outermost membrane or layer of a tissue, such as the skin.
DNA damage is distinctly different from mutation, although both are types of error in DNA.
Dolphins are a widely distributed and diverse group of aquatic mammals.
Ectoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.
Elastic fibers (or yellow fibers) are bundles of proteins (elastin) found in extracellular matrix of connective tissue and produced by fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells in arteries.
In physics, elasticity (from Greek ἐλαστός "ductible") is the ability of a body to resist a distorting influence and to return to its original size and shape when that influence or force is removed.
Elastin is a highly elastic protein in connective tissue and allows many tissues in the body to resume their shape after stretching or contracting.
Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea.
The epidermis is the outer layer of the three layers that make up the skin, the inner layers being the dermis and hypodermis.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.
Extensibility is a software engineering and systems design principle where the implementation takes future growth into consideration.
In biology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by support cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
Feathers are epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds and other, extinct species' of dinosaurs.
Fiber or fibre (see spelling differences, from the Latin fibra) is a natural or synthetic substance that is significantly longer than it is wide.
A fibroblast is a type of biological cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, the structural framework (stroma) for animal tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing.
In economics, any commodity which is produced and subsequently consumed by the consumer, to satisfy his current wants or needs, is a consumer good or final good.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
The skin of most fishes is covered with scales, which, in many cases, are animal reflectors or produce animal coloration.
Flounders are a group of flatfish species.
A frog is any member of a diverse and largely carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura (Ancient Greek ἀν-, without + οὐρά, tail).
Fur is the hair covering of non-human mammals, particularly those mammals with extensive body hair that is soft and thick.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
The genitourinary system or urogenital system is the organ system of the reproductive organs and the urinary system.
A gland is a group of cells in an animal's body that synthesizes substances (such as hormones) for release into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland).
The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.
Goatskin refers to the skin of a goat, which by long term usage, is denoted by the term Morocco leather.
A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation.
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
Hair is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis.
The hair follicle is a dynamic organ found in mammalian skin.
Haptic perception (italics "palpable", haptikόs "suitable for touch") means literally the ability "to grasp something".
In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.
Hemodynamics or hæmodynamics is the dynamics of blood flow.
A hide or skin is an animal skin treated for human use.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
The human body is the entire structure of a human being.
The human skin is the outer covering of the body.
Hyaluronic acid (HA; conjugate base hyaluronate), also called hyaluronan, is an anionic, nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan distributed widely throughout connective, epithelial, and neural tissues.
Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.
In biology, integument is the natural covering of an organism or an organ, such as its skin, husk, shell, or rind.
The integumentary system comprises the skin and its appendages acting to protect the body from various kinds of damage, such as loss of water or abrasion from outside.
Keratin is one of a family of fibrous structural proteins.
A keratinocyte is the predominant cell type in the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin, constituting 90% of the cells found there.
The keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), also known as FGF7, is a growth factor present in the epithelialization-phase of wound healing.
Langerhans cells are dendritic cells (antigen-presenting immune cells) of the skin, and contain organelles called Birbeck granules.
Leather is a durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhides, mostly cattle hide.
A ligament is the fibrous connective tissue that connects bones to other bones.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
Loose connective tissue is a category of connective tissue which includes areolar tissue, reticular tissue, and adipose tissue.
The lymphatic vessels (or lymph vessels or lymphatics) are thin-walled vessels structured like blood vessels, that carry lymph.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
The technical meaning of maintenance involves operational and functional checks, servicing, repairing or replacing of necessary devices, equipment, machinery, building infrastructure, and supporting utilities in industrial, business, governmental, and residential installations.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand -- or, once practical typewriters became available, typewritten -- as opposed to being mechanically printed or reproduced in some indirect or automated way.
Marine mammals are aquatic mammals that rely on the ocean and other marine ecosystems for their existence.
A mechanoreceptor is a sensory receptor that responds to mechanical pressure or distortion.
Melanin (from μέλας melas, "black, dark") is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms.
Melanocytes are melanin-producing neural crest-derived cells located in the bottom layer (the stratum basale) of the skin's epidermis, the middle layer of the eye (the uvea), the inner ear, vaginal epithelium, meninges, bones, and heart.
Merkel cells, also known as Merkel-Ranvier cells or tactile epithelial cells, are oval-shaped mechanoreceptors essential for light touch sensation and found in the skin of vertebrates.
Merocrine (or eccrine) is a term used to classify exocrine glands and their secretions in the study of histology.
A microfibril is a very fine fibril, or fiber-like strand, consisting of glycoproteins and cellulose.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
In biology, moulting (British English), or molting (American English), also known as sloughing, shedding, or in many invertebrates, ecdysis, is the manner in which an animal routinely casts off a part of its body (often, but not always, an outer layer or covering), either at specific times of the year, or at specific points in its life cycle.
Mucous gland, also known as muciparous glands, are found in several different parts of the body, and they typically stain lighter than serous glands during standard histological preparation.
Mucus is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
A nail is a horn-like envelope covering the tips of the fingers and toes in most primates and a few other mammals.
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
A nociceptor is a sensory neuron that responds to damaging or potentially damaging stimuli by sending “possible threat” signals to the spinal cord and the brain.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a selectively permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.
Osteichthyes, popularly referred to as the bony fish, is a diverse taxonomic group of fish that have skeletons primarily composed of bone tissue, as opposed to cartilage.
Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Pangolins or scaly anteaters are mammals of the order Pholidota (from the Greek word φολῐ́ς, "horny scale").
Paracrine signaling is a form of cell-to-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, altering the behavior of those cells.
Parchment is a writing material made from specially prepared untanned skins of animals—primarily sheep, calves, and goats.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Perfusion is the passage of fluid through the circulatory system or lymphatic system to an organ or a tissue, usually referring to the delivery of blood to a capillary bed in tissue.
Perlecan (PLC) also known as basement membrane-specific heparan sulfate proteoglycan core protein (HSPG) or heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2 (HSPG2), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HSPG2 gene.
Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
A pheromone (from Ancient Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.
A photophore is a glandular organ that appears as luminous spots on various marine animals, including fish and cephalopods.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the even-toed ungulate family Suidae.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.
Pork rind is the culinary term for the skin of a pig.
Porpoises are a group of fully aquatic marine mammals that are sometimes referred to as mereswine, all of which are classified under the family Phocoenidae, parvorder Odontoceti (toothed whales).
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Proteoglycans are proteins that are heavily glycosylated.
Rawhide is a hide or animal skin that has not been exposed to tanning.
Reaction–diffusion systems are mathematical models which correspond to several physical phenomena: the most common is the change in space and time of the concentration of one or more chemical substances: local chemical reactions in which the substances are transformed into each other, and diffusion which causes the substances to spread out over a surface in space.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
In physiology, respiration is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
Reticular fibers, reticular fibres or reticulin is a type of fiber in connective tissue composed of type III collagen secreted by reticular cells.
Role of skin in locomotion describes how the integumentary system is involved in locomotion.
In most biological nomenclature, a scale (Greek λεπίς lepis, Latin squama) is a small rigid plate that grows out of an animal's skin to provide protection.
A scar is an area of fibrous tissue that replaces normal skin after an injury.
Sebaceous glands are microscopic exocrine glands in the skin that secrete an oily or waxy matter, called sebum, to lubricate and waterproof the skin and hair of mammals.
Secondary sex characteristics are features that appear during puberty in humans, and at sexual maturity in other animals.
In physiology, the term serous fluid or serosal fluid (originating from the Medieval Latin word serosus, from Latin serum) is any of various body fluids resembling serum, that are typically pale yellow and transparent and of a benign nature.
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
The term skin flora (also commonly referred to as skin microbiota) refers to the microorganisms which reside on the skin, typically human skin.
The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in vertebrates.
Snakeskin may either refer to the skin of a live snake, the shed skin of a snake after molting, or to a type of leather that is made from the hide of a dead snake.
Superoxide dismutase 2, mitochondrial (SOD2), also known as manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), is an enzyme which in humans is encoded by the SOD2 gene on chromosome 6.
The sole is the underside of the foot.
The somatosensory system is a part of the sensory nervous system.
Sonic hedgehog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SHH ("sonic hedgehog") gene.
Staphylococcus (from the σταφυλή, staphylē, "grape" and κόκκος, kókkos, "granule") is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria.
Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.
The stratum basale (basal layer, sometimes referred to as stratum germinativum) is the deepest layer of the five layers of the epidermis, the outer covering of skin in mammals.
The stratum corneum (Latin for 'horny layer') is the outermost layer of the epidermis, consisting of dead cells (corneocytes).
The stratum granulosum (or granular layer) is a thin layer of cells in the epidermis.
The stratum lucidum (Latin for "clear layer") is a thin, clear layer of dead skin cells in the epidermis named for its translucent appearance under a microscope.
The stratum spinosum (or spinous layer/prickle cell layer) is a layer of the epidermis found between the stratum granulosum and stratum basale.
Strength of materials, also called mechanics of materials, is a subject which deals with the behavior of solid objects subject to stresses and strains.
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
The subcutaneous tissue, also called the hypodermis, hypoderm, subcutis, or superficial fascia, is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system in vertebrates.
Sweat glands, also known as sudoriferous or sudoriparous glands,, are small tubular structures of the skin that produce sweat.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
The superclass Tetrapoda (from Greek: τετρα- "four" and πούς "foot") contains the four-limbed vertebrates known as tetrapods; it includes living and extinct amphibians, reptiles (including dinosaurs, and its subgroup birds) and mammals (including primates, and all hominid subgroups including humans), as well as earlier extinct groups.
Thermal insulation is the reduction of heat transfer (i.e. the transfer of thermal energy between objects of differing temperature) between objects in thermal contact or in range of radiative influence.
A thermoreceptor is a non-specialised sense receptor, or more accurately the receptive portion of a sensory neuron, that codes absolute and relative changes in temperature, primarily within the innocuous range.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Toad is a common name for certain frogs, especially of the family Bufonidae, that are characterized by dry, leathery skin, short legs, and large bumps covering the parotoid glands.
A topical medication is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body.
Transforming growth factor (sometimes referred to as Tumor growth factor, or TGF) is used to describe two classes of polypeptide growth factors, TGFα and TGFβ.
The uropygial gland, informally known as the preen gland or the oil gland, is a bilobate sebaceous gland possessed by the majority of birds.
Venomous Animals Venom is a form of toxin secreted by an animal for the purpose of causing harm to another.
Versican is a large extracellular matrix proteoglycan that is present in a variety of human tissues.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Vibration is a mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillations occur about an equilibrium point.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Whales are a widely distributed and diverse group of fully aquatic placental marine mammals.