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E. B. Du Bois Institute, Wage labour, Wales in the Middle Ages, Walk Free Foundation, Wallachia, Walter Scheidel, Wang Mang, Welsh law, West Africa, West Africa Squadron, Westview Press, Wife selling, William L. Van Deburg, William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield, William Pitt the Younger, William Wells Brown, William Wilberforce, Woman, Working time, World War II, Yangban, Yeongjo of Joseon, Yoruba people, Yuan dynasty, Zanj, Zanj Rebellion, Zanzibar, Zimbabwe, 12 Years a Slave (film), 1860 United States Census, 1926 Slavery Convention, 500 Years Later. Expand index (587 more) » « Shrink index
ABC-CLIO, LLC is a publishing company for academic reference works and periodicals primarily on topics such as history and social sciences for educational and public library settings.
Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by removing an embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus.
Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
Abraham Skorka (born July 5, 1950, in Buenos Aires) is an Argentine biophysicist, rabbi and book author.
Abū Yūsuf Ya‘qūb al-Manṣūr (c. 1160 Morocco – 23 January 1199 Marrakesh, Morocco), also known as Moulay Yacoub, was the third Almohad Caliph.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
The Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves of 1807 (enacted March 2, 1807) is a United States federal law that stated that no new slaves were permitted to be imported into the United States.
Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
The African Great Lakes (Maziwa Makuu) are a series of lakes constituting the part of the Rift Valley lakes in and around the East African Rift.
Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
The Akkadian Empire was the first ancient Semitic-speaking empire of Mesopotamia, centered in the city of Akkad and its surrounding region, also called Akkad in ancient Mesopotamia in the Bible.
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
Alexander Murray Palmer Haley (August 11, 1921 – February 10, 1992) was an American writer and the author of the 1976 book Roots: The Saga of an American Family. ABC adapted the book as a television miniseries of the same name and aired it in 1977 to a record-breaking audience of 130 million viewers.
Alex Haley's Queen (also known as Queen) is a 1993 American television miniseries that aired in three installments on February 14, 16, and 18 on CBS.
Alexis Charles Henri Clérel, Viscount de Tocqueville (29 July 180516 April 1859) was a French diplomat, political scientist and historian.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.
Allyn & Bacon, founded in 1868, is a higher education textbook publisher in the areas of education, humanities and social sciences.
The Almohad Caliphate (British English:, U.S. English:; ⵉⵎⵡⴻⵃⵃⴷⴻⵏ (Imweḥḥden), from Arabic الموحدون, "the monotheists" or "the unifiers") was a Moroccan Berber Muslim movement and empire founded in the 12th century.
Altishahr (Traditional spelling: آلتی شهر, Uyghur Cyrillic alphabet: Алтә-шәһәр, Uyghur Latin alphabet: Altä-shähär or Altishähär, Modern Uyghur alphabet: ئالتە شەھەر) is a historical name for the Tarim Basin region used in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Aluku is a Bushinengue ethnic group living mainly on the riverbank in Maripasoula in southwest French Guiana.
Amazing Grace is a 2006 British-American biographical drama film directed by Michael Apted, about the campaign against the slave trade in the British Empire, led by William Wilberforce, who was responsible for steering anti-slave trade legislation through the British parliament.
The American Anti-Slavery Group (AASG) is a non-profit coalition of abolitionist organizations that engages in political activism to abolish slavery in the world.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Amistad is a 1997 American historical drama film directed by Steven Spielberg, based on the true story of the events in 1839 aboard the slave ship La Amistad, during which Mende tribesmen abducted for the slave trade managed to gain control of their captors' ship off the coast of Cuba, and the international legal battle that followed their capture by a U.S. revenue cutter.
Amma Asante (born 13 September 1969) is a British screenwriter, film director, and former actress.
Anarcho-capitalism is a political philosophy and school of anarchist thought that advocates the elimination of centralized state dictum in favor of self-ownership, private property and free markets.
Anarcho-syndicalism (also referred to as revolutionary syndicalism) is a theory of anarchism that views revolutionary industrial unionism or syndicalism as a method for workers in capitalist society to gain control of an economy and with that control influence in broader society.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Angelique (original Angélique) is a series of 13 French historical adventure books by the novelist duo Anne and Serge Golon.
Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.
Animal rights is the idea in which some, or all, non-human animals are entitled to the possession of their own lives and that their most basic interests—such as the need to avoid suffering—should be afforded the same consideration as similar interests of human beings.
Anne Golon (17 December 1921 – 14 July 2017) was a French author, better known to English-speaking readers as Sergeanne Golon.
Anthony Johnson (1600 – 1670) was a black Angolan who achieved freedom in the early 17th-century Colony of Virginia after serving his term of indenture.
Anti-psychiatry is a movement based on the view that psychiatric treatment is often more damaging than helpful to patients.
Anti-Slavery International is an international non-governmental organization, registered charity and a lobby group, based in the United Kingdom.
The Anti-Slavery Society was the everyday name of two different British organisations.
The Arab slave trade was the practice of slavery in the Arab world, mainly in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Southeast Africa and Europe.
The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
The Aro Confederacy (1690–1902) was a political union orchestrated by the Aro people, Igbo subgroup, centered in Arochukwu in present-day southeastern Nigeria.
The Aryan race was a racial grouping used in the period of the late 19th century and mid-20th century to describe people of European and Western Asian heritage.
The Ashanti Empire (also spelled Asante) was an Akan empire and kingdom in what is now modern-day Ghana from 1670 to 1957.
Ashoka (died 232 BCE), or Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from to 232 BCE.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
An assembly line is a manufacturing process (often called a progressive assembly) in which parts (usually interchangeable parts) are added as the semi-finished assembly moves from workstation to workstation where the parts are added in sequence until the final assembly is produced.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly to the Americas.
Isidore Marie Auguste François Xavier Comte (19 January 1798 – 5 September 1857) was a French philosopher who founded the discipline of praxeology and the doctrine of positivism.
Aztec slavery, within the structure of the Mexica society, produced many slaves, known by the Nahuatl word, tlacotin. Within Mexica society, slaves constituted an important class.
The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.
Baig, also commonly spelled Beg, or Begh (Persian: بیگ, Bay, Turkish: Bey) was a title of Turko-Mongol origin, which is today used as a name to identify lineage.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
The Bantu peoples are the speakers of Bantu languages, comprising several hundred ethnic groups in sub-Saharan Africa, spread over a vast area from Central Africa across the African Great Lakes to Southern Africa.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
The Barbados Slave Code of 1661 was a law passed by the colonial English legislature to provide a legal basis for slavery in the Caribbean island of Barbados.
The Barbary pirates, sometimes called Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were Ottoman pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa, based primarily in the ports of Salé, Rabat, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli.
A barracoon (from Catalan barraca ('hut') through Spanish barracón) is a type of barracks used historically for the temporary confinement of slaves or criminals.
Bartolomé de las Casas (1484 – 18 July 1566) was a 16th-century Spanish historian, social reformer and Dominican friar.
Basra (البصرة al-Baṣrah), is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab between Kuwait and Iran.
The Battle of Lepanto was a naval engagement that took place on 7 October 1571 when a fleet of the Holy League, of which the Venetian Empire and the Spanish Empire were the main powers, inflicted a major defeat on the fleet of the Ottoman Empire in the Gulf of Patras, where Ottoman forces sailing westward from their naval station in Lepanto (the Venetian name of ancient Naupactus Ναύπακτος, Ottoman İnebahtı) met the fleet of the Holy League sailing east from Messina, Sicily.
Bayamo is the capital city of the Granma Province of Cuba and one of the largest cities in the Oriente region.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Belle is a 2013 British period drama film directed by Amma Asante, written by Misan Sagay and produced by Damian Jones.
Beloved is a 1998 American horror-drama film based on Toni Morrison's 1987 novel of the same name, directed by Jonathan Demme and starring Oprah Winfrey, Danny Glover, and Thandie Newton.
Benin (Bénin), officially the Republic of Benin (République du Bénin) and formerly Dahomey, is a country in West Africa.
Benjamin Robert Haydon (26 January 178622 June 1846) was an English painter who specialised in grand historical pictures, although he also painted a few contemporary subjects and portraits.
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
Bernard Borderie (10 June 1924 in Paris - 28 May 1978 in Paris), son of Raymond Borderie, one of the producers of Les Enfants du Paradis (Children of Paradise, 1945), was a French film director and screenwriter.
Bethwell Allan Ogot (born 1929) is a historian from Kenya.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
The Bight of Benin or Bay of Benin is a bight in the Gulf of Guinea area on the western African coast.
The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 in a population in a year or period.
Black people is a term used in certain countries, often in socially based systems of racial classification or of ethnicity, to describe persons who are perceived to be dark-skinned compared to other populations.
Bleeding Kansas, Bloody Kansas or the Border War was a series of violent civil confrontations in the United States between 1854 and 1861 which emerged from a political and ideological debate over the legality of slavery in the proposed state of Kansas.
The Blockade of Africa began in 1808 after the United Kingdom outlawed the Atlantic slave trade, making it illegal for British ships to transport slaves.
The Bombardment of Algiers (27 August 1816) was an attempt by Britain and the Netherlands to end the slavery practices of Omar Agha, the Dey of Algiers.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Bride kidnapping, also known as marriage by abduction or marriage by capture, is a practice in which a man abducts the woman he wishes to marry.
Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 456,000.
British America refers to English Crown colony territories on the continent of North America and Bermuda, Central America, the Caribbean, and Guyana from 1607 to 1783.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The Bronze Age in the Indian subcontinent begins around 3000 BCE, and in the end gives rise to the Indus Valley Civilization, which had its (mature) period between 2600 BCE and 1900 BCE.
A brothel or bordello is a place where people engage in sexual activity with prostitutes, who are sometimes referred to as sex workers.
Burn! (Italian: Queimada) is a 1969 Italian-French war drama film directed by Gillo Pontecorvo and starring Marlon Brando, Evaristo Márquez and Renato Salvatori.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Byzantine–Ottoman wars were a series of decisive conflicts between the Ottoman Turks and Byzantines that led to the final destruction of the Byzantine Empire and the rise of the Ottoman Empire.
Charles Ralph Boxer FBA (8 March 1904 at Sandown, Isle of Wight – 27 April 2000 at St. Albans, Hertfordshire) was a historian of Dutch and Portuguese maritime and colonial history.
Camagüey is a city and municipality in central Cuba and is the nation's third largest city with more than 321,000 inhabitants.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Canóvanas is a municipality in Puerto Rico (U.S.), located in the northeastern region, north of Juncos and Las Piedras; south of Loíza; east of Carolina; and west of Río Grande.
Cape Town (Kaapstad,; Xhosa: iKapa) is a coastal city in South Africa.
Carole Shammas (born October 21, 1943) is an American historian, academic and author.
Carolina is a municipality located on the northeast coast of Puerto Rico (U.S.). It lies immediately east of the capital San Juan and Trujillo Alto; north of Gurabo and Juncos; and west of Canóvanas and Loíza.
A cash crop or profit crop is an agricultural crop which is grown for sale to return a profit.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Córdoba, also called Cordoba or Cordova in English, is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba.
The Britons, also known as Celtic Britons or Ancient Britons, were Celtic people who inhabited Great Britain from the British Iron Age into the Middle Ages, at which point their culture and language diverged into the modern Welsh, Cornish and Bretons (among others).
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
Chân Không (born 1938) is an expatriate Vietnamese Buddhist nun, peace activist, and has worked closely with Thích Nhất Hạnh in the creation of Plum Village and helping conduct spiritual retreats internationally.
Chester (Caer) is a walled city in Cheshire, England, on the River Dee, close to the border with Wales.
The Chicago Tribune is a daily newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois, United States, owned by Tronc, Inc., formerly Tribune Publishing.
Biologically, a child (plural: children) is a human being between the stages of birth and puberty.
Child abandonment is the practice of relinquishing interests and claims over one's offspring in an extralegal way with the intent of never again resuming or reasserting guardianship over them.
Child sexual abuse, also called child molestation, is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a child for sexual stimulation.
Children in the military are children (defined by the Convention on the Rights of the Child as persons under the age of 18) who are associated with military organisations, such as state armed forces and non-state armed groups.
China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western writers on the Manchu Qing dynasty to express a distinction between the core and frontier regions of China.
Chiwetel Umeadi Ejiofor (born 10 July 1977) is a British actor.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Christiane Taubira or Christiane Taubira-Delannon (born 2 February 1952, Cayenne, French Guiana) is a French politician who on 15 May 2012, was appointed Minister of Justice of France in the Ayrault Government under President François Hollande.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
The chungin also jungin, were the upper middle class of the Joseon Dynasty in medieval and early modern Korean society.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
Circassia (Адыгэ Хэку, Черке́сия, ჩერქეზეთი, شيركاسيا, Çerkesya) is a region in the and along the northeast shore of the Black Sea.
The Circassians (Черкесы Čerkesy), also known by their endonym Adyghe (Circassian: Адыгэхэр Adygekher, Ады́ги Adýgi), are a Northwest Caucasian nation native to Circassia, many of whom were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century, especially after the Russian–Circassian War in 1864.
The African-American civil rights movement (1865–1896) was aimed at eliminating racial discrimination against African Americans, improving educational and employment opportunities, and establishing electoral power, just after the abolition of Slavery in the United States.
The city of Athens (Ἀθῆναι, Athênai a.tʰɛ̂ː.nai̯; Modern Greek: Ἀθῆναι, Athínai) during the classical period of Ancient Greece (508–322 BC) was the major urban center of the notable polis (city-state) of the same name, located in Attica, Greece, leading the Delian League in the Peloponnesian War against Sparta and the Peloponnesian League.
The Code Noir (Black Code) was a decree originally passed by France's King Louis XIV in 1685.
The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian code of law of ancient Mesopotamia, dated back to about 1754 BC (Middle Chronology).
Colonial Brazil (Brasil Colonial) comprises the period from 1500, with the arrival of the Portuguese, until 1815, when Brazil was elevated to a kingdom in union with Portugal as the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
The Comanche (Nʉmʉnʉʉ) are a Native American nation from the Great Plains whose historic territory, known as Comancheria, consisted of present-day eastern New Mexico, southeastern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, western Oklahoma, and most of northwest Texas and northern Chihuahua.
Comfort women were women and girls forced into sexual slavery by the Imperial Japanese Army in occupied territories before and during World War II.
Commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is a commercial transaction that involves the sexual exploitation of a child, such as the prostitution of children and child pornography.
Wage differential is a term used in labour economics to analyze the relation between the wage rate and the unpleasantness, risk, or other undesirable attributes of a particular job.
A conceptual model is a representation of a system, made of the composition of concepts which are used to help people know, understand, or simulate a subject the model represents.
Concubinage is an interpersonal and sexual relationship in which the couple are not or cannot be married.
The Confederate States of America (CSA or C.S.), commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.
The word coolie (also spelled koelie, kuli, cooli, cooly and quli); (Hindi: कुली, Tamil: கூலி, Telugu: కూలీ, Chinese: 苦力) meaning a labourer, has a variety of other implications and is sometimes regarded as offensive or a pejorative, depending upon the historical and geographical context.
The Coromandel Coast is the southeastern coast region of the Indian subcontinent, bounded by the Utkal Plains to the north, the Bay of Bengal to the east, the Kaveri delta to the south, and the Eastern Ghats to the west, extending over an area of about 22,800 square kilometres.
The Council of London was a Catholic church council convened by Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury, on Michaelmas in 1102.
Creationism is the religious belief that the universe and life originated "from specific acts of divine creation",Gunn 2004, p. 9, "The Concise Oxford Dictionary says that creationism is 'the belief that the universe and living organisms originated from specific acts of divine creation.'" as opposed to the scientific conclusion that they came about through natural processes.
Creole peoples (and its cognates in other languages such as crioulo, criollo, creolo, créole, kriolu, criol, kreyol, kreol, kriol, krio, kriyoyo, etc.) are ethnic groups which originated from creolisation, linguistic, cultural and racial mixing between colonial-era emigrants from Europe with non-European peoples, climates and cuisines.
The Crimean Khanate (Mongolian: Крымын ханлиг; Crimean Tatar / Ottoman Turkish: Къырым Ханлыгъы, Qırım Hanlığı, rtl or Къырым Юрту, Qırım Yurtu, rtl; Крымское ханство, Krymskoje hanstvo; Кримське ханство, Krymśke chanstvo; Chanat Krymski) was a Turkic vassal state of the Ottoman Empire from 1478 to 1774, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde.
Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
David Wark Griffith (January 22, 1875 – July 23, 1948) was an American director, writer, and producer who pioneered modern cinematic techniques.
The Kingdom of Dahomey was an African kingdom (located within the area of the present-day country of Benin) that existed from about 1600 until 1894, when the last king, Béhanzin, was defeated by the French, and the country was annexed into the French colonial empire.
Sir Daniel Michael Blake Day-Lewis (born 29 April 1957) is a retired English actor who holds both British and Irish citizenship.
David Livingstone (19 March 1813 – 1 May 1873) was a Scottish Christian Congregationalist, pioneer medical missionary with the London Missionary Society, an explorer in Africa, and one of the most popular British heroes of the late-19th-century Victorian era.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
In law and government, de jure (lit) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.
De Officiis (On Duties or On Obligations) is a treatise by Marcus Tullius Cicero divided into three books, in which Cicero expounds his conception of the best way to live, behave, and observe moral obligations.
Debt bondage, also known as debt slavery or bonded labour, is a person's pledge of labour or services as security for the repayment for a debt or other obligation, where there is no hope of actually repaying the debt.
Debt bondage in India or Bandhua Mazdoori (बंधुआ मज़दूरी) was legally abolished in 1976 but it remains prevalent, with weak enforcement of the law by governments.
The Deep South is a cultural and geographic subregion in the Southern United States.
Delaware is one of the 50 states of the United States, in the Mid-Atlantic or Northeastern region.
De La Démocratie en Amérique (published in two volumes, the first in 1835 and the second in 1840) is a classic French text by Alexis de Tocqueville.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.
The population of Africa has grown rapidly over the past century, and consequently shows a large youth bulge, further reinforced by a low life expectancy of below 50 years in some African countries.
In South and parts of Western India, a devadasi (deva (god)) or jogini is a girl "dedicated" to worship and service of a deity or a temple for the rest of her life.
Devshirme (دوشيرمه, devşirme, literally "lifting" or "collecting"), also known as the blood tax or tribute in blood, was chiefly the practice where by the Ottoman Empire sent military officers to take Christian boys, ages 8 to 18, from their families in Eastern and Southeastern Europe in order that they be raised to serve the state.
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
Dictionary.com is an online dictionary whose domain was first registered on May 14, 1995.
Django Unchained is a 2012 American revisionist Western film written and directed by Quentin Tarantino, starring Jamie Foxx, Christoph Waltz, Leonardo DiCaprio, Kerry Washington, and Samuel L. Jackson, with Walton Goggins, Dennis Christopher, James Remar, and Don Johnson in supporting roles.
Djimon Gaston Hounsou (born April 24, 1964) is a Beninese and American actor and model.
A documentary film is a nonfictional motion picture intended to document some aspect of reality, primarily for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a historical record.
Domesday Book (or; Latin: Liber de Wintonia "Book of Winchester") is a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror.
A domestic worker, domestic helper, domestic servant, manservant or menial, is a person who works within the employer's household.
The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation OP), also known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216.
Doris Helen Kearns Goodwin (born January 4, 1943) is an American biographer, historian, and political commentator.
Drapetomania was a conjectural mental illness that, in 1851, American physician Samuel A. Cartwright hypothesized as the cause of enslaved Africans fleeing captivity.
Dum Diversas (English: Until different) is a papal bull issued on 18 June 1452 by Pope Nicholas V. It authorized Afonso V of Portugal to conquer Saracens and pagans and consign them to "perpetual servitude".
Dutch Brazil, also known as New Holland, was the northern portion of the Portuguese colony of Brazil, ruled by the Dutch during the Dutch colonization of the Americas between 1630 and 1654.
A dysphemism is an expression with connotations that are offensive either about the subject matter or to the audience, or both.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
In microeconomics, economies of scale are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to their scale of operation (typically measured by amount of output produced), with cost per unit of output decreasing with increasing scale.
Wilhelm Peter Eduard Simon Rüppell (20 November 1794 – 10 December 1884) was a German naturalist and explorer.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The film El Cimarrón follows the lives of two African slaves brought to Puerto Rico during the era of slavery in the 19th Century.
Emancipation is any effort to procure economic and social rights, political rights or equality, often for a specifically disenfranchised group, or more generally, in discussion of such matters.
The Emancipation Proclamation, or Proclamation 95, was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863.
The Emirate of Bukhara (امارت بخارا; Buxoro amirligi) was a Central Asian state that existed from 1785 to 1920, which is now modern-day Uzbekistan.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
England in the High Middle Ages includes the history of England between the Norman Conquest in 1066 and the death of King John, considered by some to be the last of the Angevin kings of England, in 1216.
The English are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn ("family of the Angles"). Their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens. Historically, the English population is descended from several peoples the earlier Celtic Britons (or Brythons) and the Germanic tribes that settled in Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans, including Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become England (from the Old English Englaland) along with the later Danes, Anglo-Normans and other groups. In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain. Over the years, English customs and identity have become fairly closely aligned with British customs and identity in general. Today many English people have recent forebears from other parts of the United Kingdom, while some are also descended from more recent immigrants from other European countries and from the Commonwealth. The English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system, the common law system and numerous major sports such as cricket, football, rugby union, rugby league and tennis. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire.
Enslow Publishing is an American publisher of books and eBooks founded by Ridley M. Enslow, Jr.
Epirus is a geographical and historical region in southeastern Europe, now shared between Greece and Albania.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Ethnogenesis (from Greek ethnos ἔθνος, "group of people, nation", and genesis γένεσις, "beginning, coming into being"; plural ethnogeneses) is "the formation and development of an ethnic group." This can originate through a process of self-identification as well as come about as the result of outside identification.
In economics, an externality is the cost or benefit that affects a party who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit.
The Far East is a geographical term in English that usually refers to East Asia (including Northeast Asia), the Russian Far East (part of North Asia), and Southeast Asia.
The Federal Writers' Project (FWP) was a United States federal government project created to provide jobs for out-of-work writers during the Great Depression.
Feodosia (Феодо́сия, Feodosiya; Феодо́сія, Feodosiia; Crimean Tatar and Turkish: Kefe), also called Theodosia (from), is a port and resort, a town of regional significance in Crimea on the Black Sea coast.
The Fishery Resources Monitoring System (FIRMS) is a partnership of intergovernmental fisheries organizations that share a wide range of high-quality information on the global monitoring and management of marine fishery resources.
Flagellation (Latin flagellum, "whip"), flogging, whipping or lashing is the act of beating the human body with special implements such as whips, lashes, rods, switches, the cat o' nine tails, the sjambok, etc.
Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
Force-feeding is the practice of feeding a human or other animal against their will.
The use of forced labour and slavery in Nazi Germany and throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II took place on an unprecedented scale.
Forced marriage is a marriage in which one or more of the parties is married without his or her consent or against his or her will.
Forced prostitution, also known as involuntary prostitution, is prostitution or sexual slavery that takes place as a result of coercion by a third party.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Sir Francis Drake (– 28 January 1596) was an English sea captain, privateer, slave trader, naval officer and explorer of the Elizabethan era.
In the context of the history of slavery in the Americas, free people of color (French: gens de couleur libres, Spanish: gente libre de color) were people of mixed African and European descent who were not enslaved.
Free the Slaves is an international non-governmental organization and lobby group, established to campaign against the modern practice of slavery around the world.
A freedman or freedwoman is a former slave who has been released from slavery, usually by legal means.
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.
French West Africa (Afrique occidentale française, AOF) was a federation of eight French colonial territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea, Ivory Coast, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso), Dahomey (now Benin) and Niger.
A friar is a brother member of one of the mendicant orders founded since the twelfth or thirteenth century; the term distinguishes the mendicants' itinerant apostolic character, exercised broadly under the jurisdiction of a superior general, from the older monastic orders' allegiance to a single monastery formalized by their vow of stability.
The Gabo Reform, also known as the Kabo Reform, describes a series of sweeping reforms suggested to the government of Korea beginning in 1894 and ending in 1896 during the reign of Gojong of Korea in response to the Donghak Peasant Revolution.
Gale is an educational publishing company based in Farmington Hills, Michigan, in the western suburbs of Detroit.
The gang system is a system of division of labor within slavery on a plantation.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
The Gauls were Celtic people inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD).
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa.
Ghazi (غازي) is an Arabic term originally referring to an individual who participates in ghazw (غزو), meaning military expeditions or raiding; after the emergence of Islam, it took on new connotations of religious warfare.
Gilbert Moses III (August 20, 1942April 15, 1995) was an American stage, screen, and television director.
Gillo Pontecorvo (19 November 1919 – 12 October 2006) was an Italian filmmaker.
A gladiator (gladiator, "swordsman", from gladius, "sword") was an armed combatant who entertained audiences in the Roman Republic and Roman Empire in violent confrontations with other gladiators, wild animals, and condemned criminals.
Gladiator is a 2000 epic historical drama film directed by Ridley Scott and written by David Franzoni, John Logan, and William Nicholson.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Gone with the Wind is a 1939 American epic historical romance film, adapted from Margaret Mitchell's 1936 novel of the same name.
Google News is a news aggregator and app developed by Google.
Goryeo (918–1392), also spelled as Koryŏ, was a Korean kingdom established in 918 by King Taejo.
The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The Grand Duchy or Grand Principality of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское, Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye), also known in English simply as Muscovy from the Moscovia, was a late medieval Russian principality centered on Moscow and the predecessor state of the early modern Tsardom of Russia.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Gugulethu Sophia "Gugu" Mbatha-Raw (born 21 April 1983) is an English actress, known for her role as Kelly in Black Mirror, Dido Elizabeth Belle in Belle, Noni Jean in Beyond the Lights, and Plumette in Beauty and the Beast.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
The Haitian Revolution (Révolution haïtienne) was a successful anti-slavery and anti-colonial insurrection by self-liberated slaves against French colonial rule in Saint-Domingue, now the sovereign nation of Haiti.
Halle Maria Berry (born Maria Halle Berry; August 14, 1966) is an American actress.
The Han Chinese,.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Hatuey, also Hatüey (died February 2, 1512), was a Taíno cacique (chief) originally from the island of Hispaniola, who lived in the early sixteenth century and fled to Cuba during the Spanish conquest.
Havana (Spanish: La Habana) is the capital city, largest city, province, major port, and leading commercial center of Cuba.
Sir Henry Bartle Edward Frere, 1st Baronet (29 March 1815 – 29 May 1884) was a British colonial administrator.
Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro Altamirano, Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca (1485 – December 2, 1547) was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of what is now mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century.
Hispaniola (Spanish: La Española; Latin and French: Hispaniola; Haitian Creole: Ispayola; Taíno: Haiti) is an island in the Caribbean island group, the Greater Antilles.
The Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah were related kingdoms from the Iron Age period of the ancient Levant.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
The history of Portugal can be traced from circa 400,000 years ago, when the region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Homo heidelbergensis.
The history of slavery spans many cultures, nationalities, and religions from ancient times to the present day.
The Levant is a geographical term that refers to a large area in Southwest Asia, south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea in the west, the Arabian Desert in the south, and Mesopotamia in the east.
The history of the world is the history of humanity (or human history), as determined from archaeology, anthropology, genetics, linguistics, and other disciplines; and, for periods since the invention of writing, from recorded history and from secondary sources and studies.
The Hui people (Xiao'erjing: خُوِذُو; Dungan: Хуэйзў, Xuejzw) are an East Asian ethnoreligious group predominantly composed of Han Chinese adherents of the Muslim faith found throughout China, mainly in the northwestern provinces of the country and the Zhongyuan region.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
Human trafficking is the trade of humans for the purpose of forced labour, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
Hywel Dda (Hywel the Good) or Hywel ap Cadell (c.880 – 950) was a King of Deheubarth who eventually came to rule most of Wales.
The Illyrians (Ἰλλυριοί, Illyrioi; Illyrii or Illyri) were a group of Indo-European tribes in antiquity, who inhabited part of the western Balkans.
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.
The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, "The Four Regions"), also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America, and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century.
An indentured servant or indentured laborer is an employee (indenturee) within a system of unfree labor who is bound by a signed or forced contract (indenture) to work for a particular employer for a fixed time.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Indochina, originally Indo-China, is a geographical term originating in the early nineteenth century and referring to the continental portion of the region now known as Southeast Asia.
Infanticide (or infant homicide) is the intentional killing of infants.
Infobase Publishing is an American publisher of reference book titles and textbooks geared towards the North American library, secondary school, and university-level curriculum markets.
The International Day for the Abolition of Slavery is a yearly event on December 2, organized by the United Nations General Assembly.
Involuntary servitude or involuntary slavery is a United States legal and constitutional term for a person laboring against that person's will to benefit another, under some form of coercion other than the worker's financial needs.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
IRIN (formerly Integrated Regional Information Networks) is a news agency focusing on humanitarian stories in regions that are often forgotten, under-reported, misunderstood or ignored.
The Irish people (Muintir na hÉireann or Na hÉireannaigh) are a nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry, identity and culture.
Adherents of Islam constitute the world's second largest religious group.
Iván Dariel Ortiz is a Puerto Rican film director.
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.
James Henry Hammond (November 15, 1807November 13, 1864) was an attorney, politician and planter from South Carolina.
The Jamestown settlement in the Colony of Virginia was the first permanent English settlement in the Americas.
Eric Marlon Bishop (born December 13, 1967), known professionally as Jamie Foxx, is an American actor, singer, songwriter, record producer, film producer, and comedian.
The Janissaries (يڭيچرى, meaning "new soldier") were elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops, bodyguards and the first modern standing army in Europe.
The Japanese invasions of Korea comprised two separate yet linked operations: an initial invasion in 1592, a brief truce in 1596, and a second invasion in 1597.
Jean-Baptiste Colbert (29 August 1619 – 6 September 1683) was a French politician who served as the Minister of Finances of France from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV.
Jeongjo of Joseon (28 October 1752 – 18 August 1800) was the 22nd ruler of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea (r. 1776-1800).
Jerry John Rawlings (born 22 June 1947) is a former head of state and president of Ghana.
Jesse Louis Jackson Sr. (né Burns; born October 8, 1941) is an American civil rights activist, Baptist minister, and politician.
Jewish views on slavery are varied both religiously and historically.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States.
Johannesburg (also known as Jozi, Joburg and Egoli) is the largest city in South Africa and is one of the 50 largest urban areas in the world.
John Brown (May 9, 1800 – December 2, 1859) was an American abolitionist who believed in and advocated armed insurrection as the only way to overthrow the institution of slavery in the United States.
John Casor (surname also recorded as Cazara and Corsala), a servant in Northampton County in the Virginia Colony, in 1655 became the first person of African descent in England's Thirteen Colonies to be declared as a slave for life as the result of a civil suit.
John Erman (born August 3, 1935) is an American television and film director, actor and producer.
John Donnelly Fage (3 June 1921 – 6 August 2002) was a British historian.
John Newton (– 21 December 1807) was an English Anglican clergyman who served as a sailor in the Royal Navy for a period, and later as the captain of slave ships.
John Punch (fl. 1630s, living 1640) was an enslaved African who lived in the Colony of Virginia during the seventeenth century.
Robert Jonathan Demme (February 22, 1944 – April 26, 2017) was an American film director, producer, and screenwriter.
The Joseon dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosun, 조선; officially the Kingdom of Great Joseon, 대조선국) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries.
Joseph Sturge (1793 – 14 May 1859) was an English Quaker, abolitionist and activist.
The Journal of Early Modern History is a peer-reviewed academic journal focusing on the early modern period.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
Kishori Saran Lal (1920–2002) was an Indian historian.
The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Қазақ, Qazaq, قازاق, Qazaqtar, Қазақтар, قازاقتار; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people who mainly inhabit the southern part of Eastern Europe and the Ural mountains and northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia and Mongolia), the region also known as the Eurasian sub-continent.
Kenneth Robert Livingstone (born 17 June 1945) is an English politician who served as the Leader of the Greater London Council (GLC) from 1981 until the council was abolished in 1986, and as Mayor of London from the creation of the office in 2000 until 2008.
Kenneth Howard Norton Sr. (August 9, 1943 – September 18, 2013) was an American professional boxer who competed from 1967 to 1981, and held the WBC heavyweight title in 1978.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
The Khanate of Khiva (Xiva xonligi, خانات خیوه) was a Central Asian Turkic state that existed in the historical region of Khwarezm from 1511 to 1920, except for a period of Afsharid occupation by Nadir Shah between 1740 and 1746.
A kholop (p) was a feudally dependent person in Russia between the 10th and early 18th centuries.
Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.
The Kingdom of France (Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe.
In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated.
Kirk Douglas (born Issur Danielovitch, December 9, 1916) is an American actor, producer, director, and author.
Korea under Japanese rule began with the end of the short-lived Korean Empire in 1910 and ended at the conclusion of World War II in 1945.
Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
The Kwinti are a "Maroon" Bushinengue ethnic group, descendants of runaway African slaves, living in the forested interior of Suriname on the bank of the Coppename River, and the eponymous term for their language, which has less than 1,000 speakers.
Kyle Onstott (January 12, 1887 in Du Quoin, Illinois – June 3, 1966) was an American novelist, known for his best-selling novel Mandingo (1957), which deals with slavery on an Alabama plantation with the fictional name of Falconhurst in the 1830s.
The Kyrgyz people (also spelled Kyrghyz and Kirghiz) are a Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily Kyrgyzstan.
is the third largest island of Japan and most southwesterly of its four main islands.
A laborer is a person who works in one of the construction trades, by tradition, considered unskilled manual labor or mansion —though in practice the laborers are a skilled trade that has reliability and strength as core characteristics.
Lagos is a city in the Nigerian state of Lagos.
Lagos (literally lakes; Lacobriga) is a municipality at the mouth of Bensafrim River and along the Atlantic Ocean, in the Barlavento region of the Algarve, in southern Portugal.
Laogai (勞改/劳改), the abbreviation for Láodòng Gǎizào (勞動改造/劳动改造), which means "reform through labor", is a slogan of the Chinese criminal justice system and has been used to refer to the use of penal labour and prison farms in the People's Republic of China (PRC).
A lascar was a sailor or militiaman from the Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, the Arab world, and other territories located to the east of the Cape of Good Hope, who were employed on European ships from the 16th century until the middle of the 20th century.
The Law Library of Congress is the law library of the United States Congress.
The Leyes de Burgos ("Laws of Burgos"), promulgated on 27 December 1512 in Burgos, Kingdom of Castile (Spain), was the first codified set of laws governing the behavior of Spaniards in the Americas, particularly with regard to the Indigenous people of the Americas ('native Caribbean Indians').
Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed Le Diplo by its French readers) is a monthly newspaper offering analysis and opinion on politics, culture, and current affairs.
Lectures on Jurisprudence, also called Lectures on Justice, Police, Revenue and Arms (1763) is a collection of Adam Smith's lectures, comprising notes taken from his early lectures.
Libertarianism (from libertas, meaning "freedom") is a collection of political philosophies and movements that uphold liberty as a core principle.
The second Libyan Civil War is an ongoing conflict among rival factions seeking control of the territory and oil of Libya.
Lillian Diana Gish (October 14, 1893 – February 27, 1993) was an American actress of the screen and stage, as well as a director and writer.
Lincoln is a 2012 American epic historical drama film directed and produced by Steven Spielberg, starring Daniel Day-Lewis as United States President Abraham Lincoln.
Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.
This is a list of islands in the Indian Ocean.
This is a list of kingdoms in pre-colonial Africa.
The Mongol invasion of Europe from the east took place over the course of three centuries, from the Middle Ages to the early modern period.
This article lists some of the states, empires, or dynasties that were ruled by a Muslim elite, or which were in some way central to or a part of a Muslim empire.
This list of pre-Columbian cultures includes those civilizations and cultures of the Americas which flourished prior to the European colonization of the Americas.
This list includes notable individuals for which there is a consensus of evidence of slave ownership.
Slavery is a social-economic system under which persons are enslaved: deprived of personal freedom and forced to perform labor or services without compensation.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.
Loíza is a town and municipality on the northeastern coast of Puerto Rico, north of Canóvanas; east of Carolina, Puerto Rico; and west of Río Grande, Puerto Rico.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
Louisiana (La Louisiane; La Louisiane française) or French Louisiana was an administrative district of New France.
Luanda, formerly named São Paulo da Assunção de Loanda, is the capital and largest city in Angola, and the country's most populous and important city, primary port and major industrial, cultural and urban centre.
Luc-Marie Constant Gnacadja or simply Luc Gnacadja is a Beninese politician and architect.
Luquillo is a municipality of Puerto Rico (U.S.) located in the northeast coast, northwest of Fajardo; and east of Rio Grande.
Macau, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Malabar District was an administrative district of Madras Presidency in British India and independent India's Madras State.
Mandingo is a 1975 American film directed by Richard Fleischer and released by Paramount Pictures.
Mandingo is a novel by Kyle Onstott, published in 1957.
Manual labour (in British English, manual labor in American English) or manual work is physical work done by people, most especially in contrast to that done by machines, and to that done by working animals.
Marco Kreuzpaintner is a German film director and screenwriter.
Marlon Brando Jr. (April 3, 1924 – July 1, 2004) was an American actor and film director.
Maroons were Africans who had escaped from slavery in the Americas and mixed with the indigenous peoples of the Americas, and formed independent settlements.
Marvin J. Chomsky (born May 23, 1929) is an American television and film director.
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east.
The Mason–Dixon line, also called the Mason and Dixon line or Mason's and Dixon's line, was surveyed between 1763 and 1767 by Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon in the resolution of a border dispute involving Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware in Colonial America.
Mātā Amṛtānandamayī Devī (born Sudhamani Idamannel; 27 September 1953), better known simply as Amma ("Mother"), is a Hindu spiritual leader and guru who is revered as a saint by her followers.
Mathieu Kérékou (2 September 1933 – 14 October 2015) was a Beninese politician who served as President of Benin from 1972 to 1991 and again from 1996 to 2006.
Mauritania (موريتانيا; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani; Mauritanie), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwestern Africa.
The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.
Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.
Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.
Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.
Mestizo is a term traditionally used in Spain, Latin America, and the Philippines that originally referred a person of combined European and Native American descent, regardless of where the person was born.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Michael David Apted, (born 10 February 1941) is an English director, producer, writer and actor.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Middle Passage was the stage of the triangular trade in which millions of Africans were shipped to the New World as part of the Atlantic slave trade.
The Mises Institute, short name for Ludwig von Mises Institute for Austrian Economics, is a tax-exempt educative organization located in Auburn, Alabama, United States.
Moldavia (Moldova, or Țara Moldovei (in Romanian Latin alphabet), Цара Мѡлдовєй (in old Romanian Cyrillic alphabet) is a historical region and former principality in Central and Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester River. An initially independent and later autonomous state, it existed from the 14th century to 1859, when it united with Wallachia (Țara Românească) as the basis of the modern Romanian state; at various times, Moldavia included the regions of Bessarabia (with the Budjak), all of Bukovina and Hertza. The region of Pokuttya was also part of it for a period of time. The western half of Moldavia is now part of Romania, the eastern side belongs to the Republic of Moldova, and the northern and southeastern parts are territories of Ukraine.
The monarchies of Malaysia refer to the constitutional monarchy system as practised in Malaysia.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.
Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi (20 October 2011), commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Multiracial is defined as made up of or relating to people of many races.
The Muscogee, also known as the Mvskoke, Creek and the Muscogee Creek Confederacy, are a related group of Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Mycenaean Greece (or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece, spanning the period from approximately 1600–1100 BC.
Nate Parker (born November 18, 1979) is an American actor, director, producer, writer, and musical performer who has appeared in Beyond the Lights, Red Tails, The Secret Life of Bees, The Great Debaters, ''Arbitrage'', ''Non-Stop'', ''Felon'', and Pride.
The National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic, the upper house being the Senate (Sénat).
National service is a system of either compulsory or voluntary government service, usually military service.
NBC News is the news division of the American broadcast television network NBC, formerly known as the National Broadcasting Company when it was founded on radio.
The Ndyuka people (pejoratively spelled 'Djuka') or Aukan people or Okanisi sama, are one of six Maroon People in the Republic of Suriname and one of the Maroon peoples in French Guiana.
The Neolithic Revolution, Neolithic Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population possible.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
New France (Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
North Borneo (usually known as British North Borneo, also known as the State of North Borneo) was a British protectorate located in the northern part of the island of Borneo.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
Nuba is a collective term used for the various indigenous peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains of South Kordofan state in Sudan.
Nucai (Manchu:, Mölendroff: aha) is a Chinese term that can be translated as, 'lackey', 'yes-man', 'servant', 'slave', or a 'person of unquestioning obedience'.
Olaudah Equiano (c. 1745 – 31 March 1797), known in his lifetime as Gustavus Vassa, was a writer and abolitionist from the Igbo region of what is today southeastern Nigeria according to his memoir, or from South Carolina according to other sources.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.
Oprah Winfrey (born Orpah Gail Winfrey; January 29, 1954) is an American media proprietor, talk show host, actress, producer, and philanthropist.
Ottobah Cugoano, also known as John Stuart (c. 1757 – after 1791), was an African abolitionist and natural rights philosopher from Ghana who was active in England in the latter half of the eighteenth century.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Ottoman Navy (Osmanlı Donanması or Donanma-yı Humâyûn), also known as the Ottoman Fleet, was established in the early 14th century after the Ottoman Empire first expanded to reach the sea in 1323 by capturing Karamürsel, the site of the first Ottoman naval shipyard and the nucleus of the future Navy.
The Ottoman wars in Europe were a series of military conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and various European states dating from the Late Middle Ages up through the early 20th century.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
The Oyo Empire was a Yoruba empire of what is today Western and North central Nigeria.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church.
Paramaribo (nickname: Par′bo) is the capital and largest city of Suriname, located on the banks of the Suriname River in the Paramaribo District.
Pedro Telemaco (born October 13, 1968) is a Puerto Rican actor, model and comedian.
A pejorative (also called a derogatory term, a slur, a term of abuse, or a term of disparagement) is a word or grammatical form expressing a negative connotation or a low opinion of someone or something, showing a lack of respect for someone or something.
Pemba Island (الجزيرة الخضراء al-Jazīra al-khadrā, literally "The Green Island"), is an island forming part of the Zanzibar Archipelago, lying within the Swahili Coast in the Indian Ocean.
Penal labour is a generic term for various kinds of unfree labour which prisoners are required to perform, typically manual labour.
Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
Peon (English, from the Spanish peón) usually refers to a person subject to peonage: any form of unfree labour or wage labor in which a laborer (peon) has little control over employment conditions.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
Personal property is generally considered property that is movable, as opposed to real property or real estate.
A plantation is a large-scale farm that specializes in cash crops.
A plantation economy is an economy based on agricultural mass production, usually of a few commodity crops grown on large farms called plantations.
Plantations were an important aspect of the history of the American South, particularly the antebellum (pre-American Civil War) era.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Pope Francis (Franciscus; Francesco; Francisco; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio; 17 December 1936) is the 266th and current Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State.
Pope Nicholas V (Nicholaus V) (13 November 1397 – 24 March 1455), born Tommaso Parentucelli, was Pope from 6 March 1447 until his death.
Port-au-Prince (Pòtoprens) is the capital and most populous city of Haiti.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
The State of India (Estado da Índia), also referred as the Portuguese State of India (Estado Português da Índia, EPI) or simply Portuguese India (Índia Portuguesa), was a state of the Portuguese Overseas Empire, founded six years after the discovery of a sea route between Portugal and the Indian Subcontinent to serve as the governing body of a string of Portuguese fortresses and colonies overseas.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
Private law is that part of a civil law legal system which is part of the jus commune that involves relationships between individuals, such as the law of contracts or torts (as it is called in the common law), and the law of obligations (as it is called in civil legal systems).
Property, in the abstract, is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing.
Property law is the area of law that governs the various forms of ownership and tenancy in real property (land as distinct from personal or movable possessions) and in personal property, within the common law legal system.
Prostitution is the business or practice of engaging in sexual activity in exchange for payment.
Puerto Rico (Spanish for "Rich Port"), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico") and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea.
The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.
Queen: The Story of an American Family is a 1993 partly factual historical novel by Alex Haley and David Stevens.
Quentin Jerome Tarantino (born March 27, 1963) is an American director, writer, and actor.
The Radhanites (also Radanites, Arabic الرذنية ar-Raðaniyya; Hebrew sing. רדהני Radhani, pl. רדהנים Radhanim) were medieval Jewish merchants.
Ransom is the practice of holding a prisoner or item to extort money or property to secure their release, or it may refer to the sum of money involved.
Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
Redleg is a term used to refer to poor whites that live on Barbados, St. Vincent, Grenada and a few other Caribbean islands.
Remuneration is considered the pay or other compensation provided in exchange for the services performed; not to be confused with giving (away), or donating, or the act of providing to.
Reparations for slavery is the idea that some form of compensatory payment needs to be made to the descendants of Africans who had been enslaved as part of the Atlantic Slave Trade.
A restavek (or restavec) is a child in Haiti who is sent by his or her parents to work for a host household as a domestic servant because the parents lack the resources required to support the child.
Richard O. Fleischer (December 8, 1916 – March 25, 2006) was an American film director known for such movies as The Narrow Margin (1952), Fantastic Voyage (1966) and Soylent Green (1973).
Sir Ridley Scott (born 30 November 1937) is an English film director and producer.
The right of asylum (sometimes called right of political asylum, from the Ancient Greek word ἄσυλον) is an ancient juridical concept, under which a person persecuted by his own country may be protected by another sovereign authority, such as another country or church official, who in medieval times could offer sanctuary.
Ritual servitude is a practice in Ghana, Togo, and Benin where traditional religious shrines (popularly called fetish shrines in Ghana) take human beings, usually young virgin girls, in payment for services or in religious atonement for alleged misdeeds of a family member.
Robert Carl-Heinz Shell (31 Jan 1949 - 3 Feb 2015) was a South African author, scholar, and professor of African Studies.
Robert Eric Wright (born January 1, 1969 in Rochester, N.Y.) is a business, economic, financial, and monetary historian and the inaugural Rudy and Marilyn Nef Family Chair of Political Economy at Augustana University in Sioux Falls, South Dakota.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
"Italia" was the name of the Italian Peninsula during the Roman era.
In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the Tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Romanus Pontifex, Latin for "The Roman Pontiff", is a papal bull written in 1454 by Pope Nicholas V to King Afonso V of Portugal.
Roots is an American television miniseries based on Alex Haley's 1976 novel Roots: The Saga of an American Family.
Roots: The Saga of an American Family is a novel written by Alex Haley and first published in 1976.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The four Rowntree Trusts are funded from the legacies of the Quaker chocolate entrepreneurs and social reformers Joseph Rowntree and Benjamin Seebohm Rowntree.
Russell Ira Crowe (born 7 April 1964) is an actor, film producer and musician.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
Sacred prostitution, temple prostitution, cult prostitution, and religious prostitution are general terms for a sexual rite consisting of sexual intercourse or other sexual activity performed in the context of religious worship, perhaps as a form of fertility rite or divine marriage (hieros gamos).
SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
Saint-Domingue was a French colony on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola from 1659 to 1804.
The sangmin were the common people of Joseon Korea.
Santa Fe Trail is a 1940 American western film directed by Michael Curtiz and starring Errol Flynn, Olivia de Havilland, Raymond Massey, Ronald Reagan and Alan Hale.
Santurce is one of the districts (or barrios) of San Juan, Puerto Rico, United States.
Ṣaqāliba (Arabic: صقالبة, sg. ṣaqlabī) refers to Slavs, captured on the coasts of Europe in raids or wars, as well as mercenaries in the medieval Muslim world, in the Middle East, North Africa, Sicily and Al-Andalus.
The Saramaka or Saramacca are one of six Maroon peoples (formerly called "Bush Negroes") in the Republic of Suriname and one of the Maroon peoples in French Guiana.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Scottish people (Scots: Scots Fowk, Scottish Gaelic: Albannaich), or Scots, are a nation and ethnic group native to Scotland. Historically, they emerged from an amalgamation of two Celtic-speaking peoples, the Picts and Gaels, who founded the Kingdom of Scotland (or Alba) in the 9th century. Later, the neighbouring Celtic-speaking Cumbrians, as well as Germanic-speaking Anglo-Saxons and Norse, were incorporated into the Scottish nation. In modern usage, "Scottish people" or "Scots" is used to refer to anyone whose linguistic, cultural, family ancestral or genetic origins are from Scotland. The Latin word Scoti originally referred to the Gaels, but came to describe all inhabitants of Scotland. Considered archaic or pejorative, the term Scotch has also been used for Scottish people, primarily outside Scotland. John Kenneth Galbraith in his book The Scotch (Toronto: MacMillan, 1964) documents the descendants of 19th-century Scottish pioneers who settled in Southwestern Ontario and affectionately referred to themselves as 'Scotch'. He states the book was meant to give a true picture of life in the community in the early decades of the 20th century. People of Scottish descent live in many countries other than Scotland. Emigration, influenced by factors such as the Highland and Lowland Clearances, Scottish participation in the British Empire, and latterly industrial decline and unemployment, have resulted in Scottish people being found throughout the world. Scottish emigrants took with them their Scottish languages and culture. Large populations of Scottish people settled the new-world lands of North and South America, Australia and New Zealand. Canada has the highest level of Scottish descendants per capita in the world and the second-largest population of Scottish descendants, after the United States. Scotland has seen migration and settlement of many peoples at different periods in its history. The Gaels, the Picts and the Britons have their respective origin myths, like most medieval European peoples. Germanic peoples, such as the Anglo-Saxons, arrived beginning in the 7th century, while the Norse settled parts of Scotland from the 8th century onwards. In the High Middle Ages, from the reign of David I of Scotland, there was some emigration from France, England and the Low Countries to Scotland. Some famous Scottish family names, including those bearing the names which became Bruce, Balliol, Murray and Stewart came to Scotland at this time. Today Scotland is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens.
Dom Sebastian I (Portuguese: Sebastião I; 20 January 1554 – 4 August 1578) was King of Portugal and the Algarves from 11 June 1557 to 4 August 1578 and the penultimate Portuguese monarch of the House of Aviz.
The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.
Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.
Service of process is the procedure by which a party to a lawsuit gives an appropriate notice of initial legal action to another party (such as a defendant), court, or administrative body in an effort to exercise jurisdiction over that person so as to enable that person to respond to the proceeding before the court, body, or other tribunal.
The Servile Wars were a series of three slave revolts ("servile" is derived from "servus", Latin for "slave") in the late Roman Republic.
Sexual slavery and sexual exploitation is attaching the right of ownership over one or more persons with the intent of coercing or otherwise forcing them to engage in one or more sexual activities.
Siddharth Kara is an author, activist and expert on modern day slavery and human trafficking.
Silves is a municipality in the Portuguese Algarve of southern Portugal.
The Slave Coast is a historical name formerly used for parts of coastal West Africa along the Bight of Benin.
A slave rebellion is an armed uprising by slaves.
In the history of the United States, a slave state was a U.S. state in which the practice of slavery was legal, and a free state was one in which slavery was prohibited or being legally phased out.
The Slave Trade Act 1807, officially An Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom prohibiting the slave trade in the British Empire.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
The Slavery Abolition Act 1833 (3 & 4 Will. IV c. 73) abolished slavery throughout the British Empire.
Slavery has historically been widespread in Africa, and still continues today in some countries.
Slavery in ancient Egypt existed at least since the New Kingdom (1550-1175 BC).
Slavery was a common practice in ancient Greece, as in other societies of the time.
Slavery in ancient Rome played an important role in society and the economy.
Slavery in Brazil began long before the first Portuguese settlement was established in 1532, as members of one tribe would enslave captured members of another.
The continent of Africa is one of the regions most rife with contemporary slavery.
There is evidence of the existence of slavery or personal circumstances resembling slavery and bonded-servitude since ancient times.
Slavery in Libya has a long history and a lasting impact on the Libyan culture.
Slavery has been called "deeply rooted" in the structure of the northwestern African country of Mauritania, and "closely tied" to the ethnic composition of the country.
Slavery had mostly died out in western Europe about the year 1000, replaced by serfdom.
Slavery in Niger involves a number of different practices which have been practiced in the Sahel region for many centuries and which persist to this day.
Abolition of serfdom in Russia was in 1861.
Slavery in Sudan began in ancient times, and recently had a resurgence during the 1983 to 2005 Second Sudanese Civil War.
Slavery in the Spanish American colonies was an economic and social institution central to the operations of the Spanish Empire - it bound Africans and indigenous people to a relationship of colonial exploitation.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
Solomon Northup (July 10, 1807 or 1808 –) was an American abolitionist and the primary author of the memoir Twelve Years a Slave.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
Somerset v Stewart (1772) (also known as Somersett's case, and in State Trials as v.XX Sommersett v Steuart) is a famous judgment of the Court of King's Bench in 1772, which held that chattel slavery was unsupported by the common law in England and Wales, although the position elsewhere in the British Empire was left ambiguous.
Song of the South is a 1946 American live-action/animated musical film produced by Walt Disney and released by RKO Radio Pictures.
Sons of Africa was a late 18th-century British group that campaigned to end slavery.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
In many ways, the history of Spain is marked by waves of conquerors who brought their distinct cultures to the peninsula.
Spaniards are a Latin European ethnic group and nation.
The overseas expansion under the Crown of Castile was initiated under the royal authority and first accomplished by the Spanish conquistadors.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
Spartacus (Σπάρτακος; Spartacus; c. 111–71 BC) was a Thracian gladiator who, along with the Gauls Crixus, Gannicus, Castus, and Oenomaus, was one of the escaped slave leaders in the Third Servile War, a major slave uprising against the Roman Republic.
Spartacus is a 1960 American epic historical drama film directed by Stanley Kubrick.
Stanley Kubrick (July 26, 1928 – March 7, 1999) was an American film director, screenwriter, and producer.
Statutes of limitations are laws passed by legislative bodies in common law systems to set the maximum time after an event within which legal proceedings may be initiated.
Steven Rodney McQueen (born 9 October 1969) is a British film director, producer, screenwriter, and video artist.
Steven Allan Spielberg (born December 18, 1946) is an American filmmaker.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
The Sultanate of Zanzibar (Usultani wa Zanzibar, translit), also known as the Zanzibar Sultanate, comprised the territories over which the Sultan of Zanzibar is the sovereign.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
The Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the full title of which is the Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery, is a 1956 United Nations treaty which builds upon the 1926 Slavery Convention, which is still operative and which proposed to secure the abolition of slavery and of the slave trade, and the Forced Labour Convention of 1930, which banned forced or compulsory labour, by banning debt bondage, serfdom, child marriage, servile marriage, and child servitude.
The Swahili Coast is a coastal area in Southeast Africa inhabited by the Swahili people.
The Swahili people (or Waswahili) are an ethnic and cultural group inhabiting East Africa.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Taíno people are one of the indigenous peoples of the Caribbean.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
Tartary (Latin: Tartaria) or Great Tartary (Latin: Tartaria Magna) was a name used from the Middle Ages until the twentieth century to designate the great tract of northern and central Asia stretching from the Caspian Sea and the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, settled mostly by Turko-Mongol peoples after the Mongol invasion and the subsequent Turkic migrations.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
A tax (from the Latin taxo) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or other legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures.
Territories of the United States are sub-national administrative divisions directly overseen by the United States (U.S.) federal government.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
Thích Nhất Hạnh (born as Nguyễn Xuân Bảo on October 11, 1926) is a Vietnamese Buddhist monk and peace activist.
The Bible contains several references to slavery, which was a common practice in antiquity.
The Birth of a Nation (originally called The Clansman) is a 1915 American silent epic drama film directed and co-produced by D. W. Griffith and starring Lillian Gish.
The Birth of a Nation is a 2016 American-Canadian period drama film based on the story of Nat Turner, the enslaved man who led a slave rebellion in Southampton County, Virginia, in 1831.
The Clansman: A Historical Romance of the Ku Klux Klan is a novel published in 1905.
The Last Supper (La última cena in Spanish) a 1976 Cuban historical film directed by Tomás Gutiérrez Alea, produced by the Instituto Cubano del Arte y la Industria Cinematográficos (ICAIC) and starring Nelson Villagra as the Count.
The New Cambridge History of India is a major multi-volume work of historical scholarship published by Cambridge University Press.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture written by David Brion Davis and published by Cornell University Press in 1966 won the Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction in 1967.
The Slave Hunters is a 2010 South Korean action historical drama set in the Joseon Dynasty about a slave hunter (played by Jang Hyuk) who is tracking down a general-turned-runaway slave (Oh Ji-ho) as well as searching for the woman he loves (Lee Da-hae).
The Third Servile War, also called by Plutarch the Gladiator War and The War of Spartacus, was the last in a series of slave rebellions against the Roman Republic, known collectively as the Servile Wars.
The Thirteen Colonies were a group of British colonies on the east coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries that declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States of America.
The Thirteenth Amendment (Amendment XIII) to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime.
Thomas Clarkson (28 March 1760 – 26 September 1846) was an English abolitionist, and a leading campaigner against the slave trade in the British Empire.
Thomas Frederick Dixon Jr. (January 11, 1864 – April 3, 1946) was a Southern Baptist minister, playwright, lecturer, North Carolina state legislator, lawyer, author, white supremacist and Ku Klux Klan apologist.
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.
The Thracians (Θρᾷκες Thrāikes; Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Eastern and Southeastern Europe.
A thrall (Old Norse/Icelandic: þræll, Norwegian: trell, Danish: træl, Swedish: träl) was a slave or serf in Scandinavian lands during the Viking Age.
The concept of the Three Kingdoms of Korea refers to the three kingdoms of Baekje (백제), Silla (신라) and Goguryeo (고구려).
The abolition of slavery occurred at different times in different countries.
Tomás Gutiérrez Alea (December 11, 1928 – April 16, 1996) was a Cuban filmmaker.
Toni Morrison (born Chloe Ardelia Wofford; February 18, 1931) is an American novelist, essayist, editor, teacher, and professor emeritus at Princeton University.
Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007.
was a preeminent daimyō, warrior, general, samurai, and politician of the Sengoku period who is regarded as Japan's second "great unifier".
Trade is a 2007 American-German drama film directed by Marco Kreuzpaintner and starring Kevin Kline.
Trans-Saharan trade requires travel across the Sahara (north and south) to reach sub-Saharan Africa from the North African coast, Europe, to the Levant.
The Treaty or Peace of Ryswick, also known as The Peace of Rijswijk was a series of agreements signed in the Dutch city of Rijswijk between 20 September and 30 October 1697, ending the 1689-97 Nine Years War between France and the Grand Alliance of England, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire and the Dutch Republic.
The Tuareg people (also spelt Twareg or Touareg; endonym: Kel Tamasheq, Kel Tagelmust) are a large Berber ethnic confederation.
The Tupi people were one of the most important indigenous peoples in Brazil.
Twelve Years a Slave is an 1853 memoir and slave narrative by American Solomon Northup as told to and edited by David Wilson.
Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.
The Underground Railroad was a network of secret routes and safe houses established in the United States during the early to mid-19th century, and used by African-American slaves to escape into free states and Canada with the aid of abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause.
Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will with the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), compulsion, or other forms of extreme hardship to themselves or members of their families.
Unguja (also referred to as Zanzibar Island or simply Zanzibar, in Ancient Greek Menuthias, Μενουθιάς - as mentioned in The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea) is the largest and most populated island of the Zanzibar archipelago, in Tanzania.
During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the Union, also known as the North, referred to the United States of America and specifically to the national government of President Abraham Lincoln and the 20 free states, as well as 4 border and slave states (some with split governments and troops sent both north and south) that supported it.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is a United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
The United States Presidential Election of 1860 was the nineteenth quadrennial presidential election to select the President and Vice President of the United States.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.
The University of London (abbreviated as Lond. or more rarely Londin. in post-nominals) is a collegiate and a federal research university located in London, England.
The University of North Carolina Press (or UNC Press), founded in 1922, is a university press that is part of the University of North Carolina.
Untermensch (underman, sub-man, subhuman; plural: Untermenschen) is a term that became infamous when the Nazis used it to describe non-Aryan "inferior people" often referred to as "the masses from the East", that is Jews, Roma, and Slavs – mainly ethnic Poles, Serbs, and later also Russians.
The terms Upland South and Upper South refer to the northern section of the Southern United States, in contrast to the Lower South or Deep South.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
Vermont is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
The W. E. B. Du Bois Institute for African and African-American Research is located at Harvard University and was established in 1969.
Wage labour (also wage labor in American English) is the socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer, where the worker sells his or her labour under a formal or informal employment contract.
Wales in the Middle Ages covers the history of the region that is now called Wales, from the departure of the Romans in the early fifth century, until the annexation of Wales into the Kingdom of England in the early sixteenth century.
The Walk Free Foundation is an organization attempting to end contemporary slavery and human trafficking.
Wallachia or Walachia (Țara Românească; archaic: Țeara Rumânească, Romanian Cyrillic alphabet: Цѣра Рȣмѫнѣскъ) is a historical and geographical region of Romania.
Walter Scheidel (born 9 July 1966) is an Austrian historian who teaches ancient history at Stanford University, California.
Wang Mang (c. 45 – 6 October 23 AD), courtesy name Jujun, was a Han Dynasty official and consort kin who seized the throne from the Liu family and founded the Xin (or Hsin, meaning "renewed") Dynasty (新朝), ruling 9–23 AD.
Welsh law is the primary and secondary legislation generated by the National Assembly for Wales, according to devolved authority granted in the Government of Wales Act 2006.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
The Royal Navy established the West Africa Squadron at substantial expense in 1808 after Parliament passed the Slave Trade Act of 1807.
Westview Press was an American publishing house.
Wife selling is the practice of a husband selling his wife and may include the sale of a female by a party outside a marriage.
William L. Van Deburg (born May 8, 1948) was the Evjue-Bascom Professor of Afro-American Studies at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield, PC, SL (2 March 1705 – 20 March 1793) was a British barrister, politician and judge noted for his reform of English law.
William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 – 23 January 1806) was a prominent British Tory statesman of the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
William Wells Brown (circa 1814 – November 6, 1884) was a prominent African-American abolitionist lecturer, novelist, playwright, and historian in the United States.
William Wilberforce (24 August 175929 July 1833) was an English politician known as the leader of the movement to stop the slave trade.
A woman is an adult female human being.
Working time is the period of time that a person spends at paid labor.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Yangban (양반, 兩班), were part of the traditional ruling class or gentry of dynastic Korea during the Joseon Dynasty.
Yeongjo of Joseon (31 October 1694 – 22 April 1776, reigned 16 October 1724 – 22 April 1776) was the 21st king of the Korean Joseon Dynasty.
The Yoruba people (name spelled also: Ioruba or Joruba;, lit. 'Yoruba lineage'; also known as Àwon omo Yorùbá, lit. 'Children of Yoruba', or simply as the Yoruba) are an ethnic group of southwestern and north-central Nigeria, as well as southern and central Benin.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
Zanj (زَنْج, meaning "Blacks"Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, Volume 131 (Kommissionsverlag F. Steiner, 1981), p. 130.) was a name used by medieval Muslim geographers to refer to both a certain portion of Southeast Africa (primarily the Swahili Coast), and to the area's Bantu inhabitants.
The Zanj Rebellion (ثورة الزنج) was a major uprising against the Abbasid Caliphate, which took place from 869 until 883.
Zanzibar is a semi-autonomous region of Tanzania.
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.
12 Years a Slave is a 2013 period drama film and an adaptation of the 1853 slave narrative memoir Twelve Years a Slave by Solomon Northup, a New York State-born free African-American man who was kidnapped in Washington, D.C. by two conmen in 1841 and sold into slavery.
The United States Census of 1860 was the eighth Census conducted in the United States starting June 1, 1860, and lasting five months.
The 1926 Slavery Convention or the Convention to Suppress the Slave Trade and Slavery was an international treaty created under the auspices of the League of Nations and first signed on 25 September 1926.
500 Years Later (፭፻ ዓመታት በኋላ) is an independent documentary film directed by Owen 'Alik Shahadah, written by M. K. Asante, Jr. and released in 2005.
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