436 relations: A3 (Croatia), A5 (Croatia), ABC-CLIO, Adriatic Sea, Agnosticism, Agrokor, Alexander I of Yugoslavia, Aljmaš, Croatia, Allies of World War I, Alpine orogeny, Anno Domini, Anti-bureaucratic revolution, Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia, Antisemitism, Antun Gustav Matoš, Arab cuisine, Art Nouveau, Australia, Austria, Austria-Hungary, Austrian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Čazma, Đakovo, Đakovo Cathedral, Đuro Đaković (company), Šubić, Županja, Baden culture, Ban (title), Ban of Croatia, Banja Luka, Banovina of Croatia, Baranya (region), Baranya County (former), Baroque, Battle of Borovo Selo, Battle of Gvozd Mountain, Battle of Krbava Field, Battle of Mohács, Battle of Sisak, Battle of Vukovar, Bács-Bodrog County, Bećarac, Bela Čikoš Sesija, Beli Manastir, Belišće, Bilje, Black Sea, ..., BMJ (company), Borna (duke), Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosut (river), Brill Publishers, Brod Fortress, Brod-Posavina County, Burgenland Croats, Canada, Canning, Cardboard, Carpathian Mountains, Catholic Church, Cellulose, Celts, Cement, Cereal, Cernik, Brod-Posavina County, Chalcolithic, Charles T. 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The A3 motorway (Autocesta A3) is a major motorway in Croatia spanning.
The A5 motorway (Autocesta A5) is a motorway in Croatia spanning.
ABC-CLIO, LLC is a publishing company for academic reference works and periodicals primarily on topics such as history and social sciences for educational and public library settings.
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.
Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.
Agrokor is a conglomerate, largely centered in agribusiness, with headquarters in Zagreb, Croatia.
Alexander I (– 9 October 1934), also known as Alexander the Unifier, served as a prince regent of the Kingdom of Serbia from 1914 and later became King of Yugoslavia from 1921 to 1934 (prior to 1929 the state was known as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes).
Aljmaš is a village in the Erdut municipality in eastern Croatia.
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
The Alpine orogeny or Alpide orogeny is an orogenic phase in the Late Mesozoic (Eoalpine) and the current Cenozoic that has formed the mountain ranges of the Alpide belt.
The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
The Anti-bureaucratic revolution was a campaign of street protests ran between 1986 and 1989 in former Yugoslavia by supporters of Serbian leader Slobodan Milošević.
The Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia, known more commonly by its Yugoslav abbreviation AVNOJ (Serbo-Croatian: Antifašističko veće narodnog oslobođenja Jugoslavije – AVNOJ / Антифашистичко веће народног ослобођења Југославије – АВНОЈ), was the political umbrella organization for the national liberation councils of the Yugoslav resistance against the Axis occupation during World War II.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
Antun Gustav Matoš (13 June 1873 – 17 March 1914) was a Croatian poet, short story writer, journalist, essayist and travelogue writer.
Arab cuisine (مطبخ عربي) is the cuisine of the Arabs, defined as the various regional cuisines spanning the Arab world, from the Maghreb to the Fertile Crescent and the Arabian Peninsula.
Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.
The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (Ausgleich, Kiegyezés) established the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary.
Bosnia and Herzegovina fell under Austro-Hungarian rule in 1878 when the Congress of Berlin approved the occupation of the Bosnia Vilayet, which officially remained part of the Ottoman Empire.
Čazma is a town and municipality in Bjelovar-Bilogora County, Croatia.
Đakovo (Diakovár, Djakowar) is a town in the region of Slavonia, Croatia.
The Đakovo Cathedral or Cathedral basilica of St.
Đuro Đaković Holding d.d. is a Croatian metal mechanical engineering group based in Slavonski Brod, Croatia.
The Šubić were one of the twelve tribes which constituted Croatian statehood in the Middle Ages; they held the county of Bribir (Varvaria) in inland Dalmatia.
Županja is a town in eastern Slavonia, Croatia, located 254 km east of Zagreb.
The Baden culture, 3600–2800 BC, is a Chalcolithic culture found in Central and Southeast Europe.
Ban was a noble title used in several states in Central and Southeastern Europe between the 7th century and the 20th century.
Ban of Croatia (Croatian: Hrvatski ban; horvát bán) was the title of local rulers or office holders and after 1102 viceroys of Croatia.
Banja Luka (Бања Лука) or Banjaluka (Бањалука), is the second largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the de facto capital of the Republika Srpska entity.
The Banovina of Croatia or Banate of Croatia (Banovina Hrvatska, Бановина Хрватска) was an autonomous province (banovina) of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1939 and 1941.
Baranya or Baranja (Baranya,; Baranja,; Branau, Барања/Baranja) is a geographical region between the Danube and the Drava rivers.
Baranya (Baranya, Baranja, Барања, Branau) was an administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
The Battle of Borovo Selo on 2 May 1991 (known in Croatia as the Borovo Selo massacre, Pokolj u Borovom Selu and in Serbia as the Borovo Selo incident, Инцидент у Боровом Селу) was one of the first armed clashes in the conflict which became known as the Croatian War of Independence.
The Battle of Gvozd Mountain took place in the year 1097 and was fought between the army of Petar Svačić and King Coloman I of Hungary.
The Battle of Krbava Field (Bitka na Krbavskom polju, Korbávmezei csata, Krbava Muharebesi) was fought between the Ottoman Empire of Bayezid II and an army of the Kingdom of Croatia, at the time in personal union with the Kingdom of Hungary, on 9 September 1493, in the Krbava field, a part of the Lika region in Croatia.
The Battle of Mohács (Mohácsi csata, Mohaç Meydan Muharebesi) was one of the most consequential battles in Central European history.
The Battle of Sisak (Bitka kod Siska; Bitka pri Sisku; Schlacht bei Sissek; Kulpa Bozgunu) was fought on 22 June 1593 between Ottoman regional forces of Telli Hasan Pasha, a notable commander (Beglerbeg) of the Eyalet of Bosnia, and a combined Christian army from the Habsburg lands, mainly Kingdom of Croatia and Inner Austria.
The Battle of Vukovar was an 87-day siege of Vukovar in eastern Croatia by the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA), supported by various paramilitary forces from Serbia, between August and November 1991.
Bács-Bodrog County (Bács-Bodrog vármegye, Komitat Batsch-Bodrog, Bačko-bodroška županija) was the administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary from the 18th century to 1920.
Bećarac is a humorous form of folk song, originally from rural Slavonia, Croatia and eventually spreading across Serbia and into southern Hungary.
Bela Čikoš Sesija (27 January 1864 in Osijek – 11 February 1931 in Zagreb) was a Croatian Symbolist painter, art teacher and one of the founders of the Academy of Fine Arts in Zagreb.
Beli Manastir is a town and municipality in eastern Croatia.
Belišće is a town in Croatia, located in the region of Slavonia, Osijek-Baranja County, at the altitude of 93 m. The population of the city is 6,518 (2011), with 10,825 in the municipality.
Bilje ('Bellye') is a town and municipality in the Baranja region of Osijek-Baranja County, in north-eastern Croatia.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
BMJ (previously BMJ Group, rebranded in 2013), is a provider of journals, clinical decision support, events and medical education.
Borna was the Duke (dux, Slavic knez) of Dalmatia, a vassal of the Frankish Empire, mentioned in the Royal Frankish Annals in entries regarding 818–821.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
The Bosut (Босут) is a river in eastern Croatia and northwestern Serbia, a 186 km long left tributary of the Sava river.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
The Fortress of Brod is a fortress in Slavonski Brod, Croatia with significant cultural heritage.
Brod-Posavina County (Brodsko-posavska županija) is the southern Slavonian county in Croatia.
Burgenland Croats is the name for ethnic Croats in the Austrian state of Burgenland, along with Croats in neighboring Hungary and Slovakia.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Canning is a method of preserving food in which the food contents are processed and sealed in an airtight container.
Cardboard is a generic term for heavy-duty paper-based products having greater thickness and superior durability or other specific mechanical attributes to paper; such as foldability, rigidity and impact resistance.
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
A cement is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets, hardens and adheres to other materials, binding them together.
A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.
Cernik is a village and a municipality in the Brod-Posavina County.
The Chalcolithic (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998), p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BCE, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic... Also called Copper Age - Origin early 20th cent.: from Greek khalkos 'copper' + lithos 'stone' + -ic". χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and λίθος líthos, "stone") period or Copper Age, in particular for eastern Europe often named Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of copper"), was a period in the development of human technology, before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze, leading to the Bronze Age.
Charles T. Powers (1943–1996) was an American journalist and writer, chiefly remembered for his novel In the Memory of the Forest, set in Poland.
Christopher Lynn Hedges (born September 18, 1956) is an American journalist, Presbyterian minister, and visiting Princeton University lecturer.
Chuck Sudetic is a former writer and journalist from the United States whose work focused mainly on the lands and peoples of the now-defunct country of Yugoslavia and included books and articles on the Srebrenica massacre of 1995, international war-crimes prosecution efforts after the Balkan conflicts of the 1990s, and life from the fifth century B.C. to the present day in and around what is now the seaside town of Dubrovnik.
A Cistercian is a member of the Cistercian Order (abbreviated as OCist, SOCist ((Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis), or ‘’’OCSO’’’ (Ordo Cisterciensis Strictioris Observantiae), which are religious orders of monks and nuns. They are also known as “Trappists”; as Bernardines, after the highly influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux (though that term is also used of the Franciscan Order in Poland and Lithuania); or as White Monks, in reference to the colour of the "cuccula" or white choir robe worn by the Cistercians over their habits, as opposed to the black cuccula worn by Benedictine monks. The original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales. Over the centuries, however, education and academic pursuits came to dominate the life of many monasteries. A reform movement seeking to restore the simpler lifestyle of the original Cistercians began in 17th-century France at La Trappe Abbey, leading eventually to the Holy See’s reorganization in 1892 of reformed houses into a single order Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (OCSO), commonly called the Trappists. Cistercians who did not observe these reforms became known as the Cistercians of the Original Observance. The term Cistercian (French Cistercien), derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux, near Dijon in eastern France. It was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098, with the goal of following more closely the Rule of Saint Benedict. The best known of them were Robert of Molesme, Alberic of Cîteaux and the English monk Stephen Harding, who were the first three abbots. Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order. By the end of the 12th century, the order had spread throughout France and into England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Eastern Europe. The keynote of Cistercian life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict. Rejecting the developments the Benedictines had undergone, the monks tried to replicate monastic life exactly as it had been in Saint Benedict's time; indeed in various points they went beyond it in austerity. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, especially agricultural work in the fields, a special characteristic of Cistercian life. Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture. Additionally, in relation to fields such as agriculture, hydraulic engineering and metallurgy, the Cistercians became the main force of technological diffusion in medieval Europe. The Cistercians were adversely affected in England by the Protestant Reformation, the Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII, the French Revolution in continental Europe, and the revolutions of the 18th century, but some survived and the order recovered in the 19th century.
Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works such as roads, bridges, canals, dams, airports, sewerage systems, pipelines, and railways.
The coat of arms of the Republic of Croatia (Grb Republike Hrvatske) consists of one main shield and five smaller shields which form a crown over the main shield.
A college (Latin: collegium) is an educational institution or a constituent part of one.
Coloman the Learned, also the Book-Lover or the Bookish (Könyves Kálmán; Koloman; Koloman Učený; 10703February 1116) was King of Hungary from 1095 and King of Croatia from 1097 until his death.
The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and in the last edition, sold by the Gale Group.
Confectionery is the art of making confections, which are food items that are rich in sugar and carbohydrates.
Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos or Porphyrogenitus ("the Purple-born", that is, born in the purple marble slab-paneled imperial bed chambers; translit; 17–18 May 905 – 9 November 959) was the fourth Emperor of the Macedonian dynasty of the Byzantine Empire, reigning from 913 to 959.
Continental climates are defined in the Köppen climate classification as having the coldest month with the temperature never rising above 0.0° C (32°F) all month long.
Copernicus Publications (also: Copernicus GmbH) is a publisher of scientific literature based in Göttingen, Germany.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
The counties of Croatia (županije) are the primary administrative subdivisions of the Republic of Croatia.
The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
The Kingdom of Croatia (Regnum Croatiae; Hrvatsko kraljevstvo or Kraljevina Hrvatska) entered a personal union with the Kingdom of Hungary in 1102, after a period of rule of kings from the Trpimirović and Svetoslavić dynasties and a succession crisis following the death of king Demetrius Zvonimir.
Croatia proper (Hrvatska) is one of the four historical regions of the Republic of Croatia, together with Dalmatia, Slavonia, and Istria.
The Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts (Academia Scientiarum et Artium Croatica, Hrvatska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti, abbrev. HAZU) is the national academy of Croatia.
The Croatian Army (also Croatian Ground Army, Hrvatska kopnena vojska, Hrvatska vojska) is a branch of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia.
There are several types of Croatian bagpipes, they are.
The Croatian Bureau of Statistics (Državni zavod za statistiku or DZS) is the Croatian national statistics bureau.
Croatian Chamber of Economy (Hrvatska gospodarska komora, abbreviation HGK), is a professional association of businesspeople in Croatia, and the oldest institution of its kind on the Croatian territory.
Croatia held an independence referendum on 19 May 1991, following the Croatian parliamentary elections of 1990 and the rise of ethnic tensions that led to the breakup of Yugoslavia.
Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.
Meteorological and hydrological service of Croatia (acronym DHMZ, from Croatian: Državni hidrometeorološki zavod) is public entity for meteorology, hydrology and air quality in Croatia.
The Croatian Military Frontier (Hrvatska vojna krajina or Hrvatska vojna granica) was a district of the Military Frontier, a territory in the Habsburg Monarchy, first during the period of the Austrian Empire and then during Austria-Hungary.
The Croatian National Tourist Board (Hrvatska turistička zajednica or HTZ) is Croatia's national tourist organization founded with a view to promoting and creating the identity, and to enhance the reputation of, Croatian tourism.
The Croatian Parliament (Hrvatski sabor) or the Sabor is the unicameral representative body of the citizens of the Republic of Croatia; it is Croatia's legislature.
Parliamentary elections were held in the Socialist Republic of Croatia between 22 and 23 April 1990; the second round of voting occurred on 6–7 May.
Croatian Radiotelevision (Hrvatska radiotelevizija or HRT) is a Croatian public broadcasting company.
The Croatian Spring (Hrvatsko proljeće, also called masovni pokret or MASPOK, for "mass movement") was a cultural and political movement that emerged from the League of Communists of Croatia in the late 1960s which opposed the unitarisation and called for economic, cultural and political reforms in SFR Yugoslavia and therefore more rights for SR Croatia within Yugoslavia.
The Croatian State Archives (Hrvatski državni arhiv) are the national archives of Croatia located in its capital, Zagreb.
The Croatian War of Independence was fought from 1991 to 1995 between Croat forces loyal to the government of Croatia—which had declared independence from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY)—and the Serb-controlled Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) and local Serb forces, with the JNA ending its combat operations in Croatia by 1992.
In 926 a battle was fought in the Bosnian highlands between the armies the Bulgarian Empire, under the rule of Bulgarian Tsar Simeon I, who at the time also fought a war with the Byzantine Empire, and the Kingdom of Croatia under Tomislav, the first king of the Croatian state.
Croatian–Hungarian Settlement (Hrvatsko-ugarska nagodba, Horvát–magyar kiegyezés, Kroatisch-Ungarischer Ausgleich) was a pact signed in 1868, that governed Croatia's political status in the Hungarian-ruled part of Austria-Hungary.
Croatian–Ottoman Wars (Osmanlı-Hırvatistan Savaşları, Hrvatsko-osmanski ratovi) can refer to one of the several conflicts between the Kingdom of Croatia (in Kingdom of Hungary-Croatia and in Habsburg Monarchy) and the Ottoman Empire.
Croats (Hrvati) or Croatians are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Croatia.
The Crossbill Guides Foundation (CGF) is a European non-governmental organization for the conservation of the natural environment.
The term cultivarCultivar has two denominations as explained in Formal definition.
Cultural heritage is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and preserved for the benefit of future generations.
The Cvetković–Maček Agreement was a political agreement on the internal divisions in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia which was settled on August 26, 1939 by Yugoslav prime minister Dragiša Cvetković and Vladko Maček, a Croat politician.
A dairy is a business enterprise established for the harvesting or processing (or both) of animal milk – mostly from cows or goats, but also from buffaloes, sheep, horses, or camels – for human consumption.
Dalmatia (Dalmacija; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia and Istria.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
The Danube Swabians (Donauschwaben) is a collective term for the German-speaking population who lived in various countries of southeastern Europe, especially in the Danube River valley.
Darda is a village and a municipality just north of Osijek, Croatia.
De Administrando Imperio ("On the Governance of the Empire") is the Latin title of a Greek work written by the 10th-century Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine VII.
Demetrius Zvonimir (Dmitar Zvonimir,, Demetrius Suinnimir/Zuonimir/Sunimirio, died 20 April 1089) was King of Croatia and Dalmatia from 1075 until his death in 1089.
A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleaning properties in dilute solutions.
A dictatorship is an authoritarian form of government, characterized by a single leader or group of leaders with either no party or a weak party, little mass mobilization, and limited political pluralism.
Dilj is a low mountain in south-central Slavonia, located in eastern Croatia.
The Dinaric Alps, also commonly Dinarides, are a mountain range in Southern and Southeastern Europe, separating the continental Balkan Peninsula from the Adriatic Sea.
Dobriša Cesarić (10 January 1902 – 18 December 1980) was a Croatian poet and translator born in Požega.
Donji Miholjac (Alsómiholjác, Unter-Miholtz) is a town and municipality in the Slavonia region of Croatia, on the river Drava and the border with Hungary.
Dragutin Tadijanović (4 November 1905 – 27 June 2007) was a Croatian poet, and in his native Croatia he is referred to as a "Bard." Tadijanović was born in the village of Rastušje close to Slavonski Brod in the region of Slavonia.
A drainage divide, water divide, divide, ridgeline, watershed, or water parting is the line that separates neighbouring drainage basins.
The Drava or Drave by Jürgen Utrata (2014).
A duchy is a country, territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess.
"Duchy of Croatia" (also "Duchy of the Croats", Kneževina Hrvata; "Dalmatian Croatia", Dalmatinska Hrvatska; "Littoral Croatia", Primorska Hrvatska; Greek: Χρωβατία, Chrovatía), was a medieval Croatian duchy that was established in the former Roman province of Dalmatia.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
In accounting and finance, earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) is a measure of a firm's profit that includes all expenses except interest and income tax expenses.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
The economy of Croatia is a service-based economy with the tertiary sector accounting for 70% of total gross domestic product (GDP).
Einhard (also Eginhard or Einhart; Einhardus; 775 – March 14, 840 AD) was a Frankish scholar and courtier.
The election in Cetin (Cetinski sabor, meaning Parliament on Cetin or Parliament of Cetin) was an assembly of the Croatian Parliament in the Cetin Castle in 1527.
Eltz Manor (Dvorac Eltz, Schloss Eltz) is a Baroque castle in Vukovar, Croatia.
Erba-Odescalchi, or Odescalchi, is the name of an Italian noble family of princely rank.
The Erdut Agreement (Erdutski sporazum, Serbian: Erdutski sporazum or Ердутски споразум), officially the Basic Agreement on the Region of Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium, was an agreement reached on 12 November 1995 between the authorities of the Republic of Croatia and the local Serb authorities of the Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia region on the peaceful resolution to the Croatian War of Independence in eastern Croatia.
Esterházy (also spelled Eszterházy) is a Hungarian noble family with origins in the Middle Ages.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.
Ferdinand I (Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
A flood basalt is the result of a giant volcanic eruption or series of eruptions that covers large stretches of land or the ocean floor with basalt lava.
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
Food processing is the transformation of cooked ingredients, by physical or chemical means into food, or of food into other forms.
A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.
Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.
Franjo Tuđman, also written as Franjo Tudjman (14 May 1922 – 10 December 1999) was a Croatian politician and historian.
The Frankopan family (Frankopani, Frankapani; Frangipani, Frangepán. Frangepanus/Francopanus), was a Croatian noble family, whose members were among the great landowner magnates and high officers of the Kingdom of Hungary–Croatia.
Fruška Gora is a mountain in north Srem.
Furniture refers to movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating (e.g., chairs, stools, and sofas), eating (tables), and sleeping (e.g., beds).
Geomorphology (from Ancient Greek: γῆ, gê, "earth"; μορφή, morphḗ, "form"; and λόγος, lógos, "study") is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface.
Germanisation (also spelled Germanization) is the spread of the German language, people and culture or policies which introduced these changes.
Glass production involves two main methods – the float glass process that produces sheet glass, and glassblowing that produces bottles and other containers.
Gorjani (Gara; Gerendau, Görrach) is a municipality in Osijek-Baranja County, Croatia.
In geology, a graben is a depressed block of the Earth's crust bordered by parallel faults.
The Great Migrations of the Serbs (Velike seobe Srba/Велике сеобе Срба), also known as the Great Exodus of the Serbs, refers mainly to two large migrations of Serbs from the Ottoman Empire to the Habsburg Monarchy.
The Great Turkish War (Der Große Türkenkrieg) or the War of the Holy League (Kutsal İttifak Savaşları) was a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and the Holy League consisting of the Habsburg Empire, Poland-Lithuania, Venice and Russia.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
The growing season is the part of the year during which local weather conditions (i.e. rainfall and temperature) permit normal plant growth.
The gusle (гусле, гусла, lahuta, lăuta) is a single-stringed musical instrument (and musical style) traditionally used in the Dinarides region of Southeastern Europe.
A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Western and Central European culture of Early Iron Age Europe from the 8th to 6th centuries BC, developing out of the Urnfield culture of the 12th century BC (Late Bronze Age) and followed in much of its area by the La Tène culture.
Higher education (also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education) is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education.
Historical regions (or historical countries) are geographic areas which at some point in time had a cultural, ethnic, linguistic or political basis, regardless of present-day borders.
Historicism or also historism (Historismus) comprises artistic styles that draw their inspiration from recreating historic styles or imitating the work of historic artisans.
In physical geography and geology, a horst is a raised fault block bounded by normal faults.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
The Hundred Years' Croatian–Ottoman War (Stogodišnji hrvatsko-turski rat, Kratka politicka i kulturna povijest Hrvatske Stogodišnji rat protiv Turaka, Stogodišnji rat s Osmanlijama) is the name for a sequence of conflicts, mostly of relatively low-intensity, ("Small War", Croatian: Mali rat) between the Ottoman Empire and the medieval Kingdom of Croatia (ruled by the Jagiellon and Zápolya dynasties), and the later Habsburg Kingdom of Croatia.
Hungarian or Magyar cuisine is the cuisine characteristic of the nation of Hungary and its primary ethnic group, the Magyars.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
The Hungarian Revolution of 1848 ("1848–49 Revolution and War") was one of the many European Revolutions of 1848 and closely linked to other revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas.
Hungarians of Croatia are a recognized ethnic minority.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
An icebreaker is a special-purpose ship or boat designed to move and navigate through ice-covered waters, and provide safe waterways for other boats and ships.
Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic.
The Illyrian movement (Ilirski pokret, Ilirsko gibanje) was a pan-South-Slavist cultural and political campaign with roots in the early modern period, and revived by a group of young Croatian intellectuals during the first half of the 19th century, around the years of 1835–1849 (there is some disagreement regarding the official dates).
The Illyrians (Ἰλλυριοί, Illyrioi; Illyrii or Illyri) were a group of Indo-European tribes in antiquity, who inhabited part of the western Balkans.
Illyricum was a Roman province that existed from 27 BC to sometime during the reign of Vespasian (69–79 AD).
Ilok is the easternmost town and municipality in northeastern Croatia.
Ilok Castle (Iločki dvorac or Gradina Ilok) or Odescalchi Castle overlooks the town of Ilok in eastern Croatia.
(IYP) is a European city guide publisher and online tourist information provider.
INA-Industrija nafte, d.d. (INA, d.d.) is a Croatian multinational oil company.
The Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH; Unabhängiger Staat Kroatien; Stato Indipendente di Croazia) was a World War II fascist puppet state of Germany and Italy.
Indiana University Press, also known as IU Press, is an academic publisher founded in 1950 at Indiana University that specializes in the humanities and social sciences.
An institute of technology (also: university of technology, polytechnic university, technikon, and technical university) is a type of university which specializes in engineering, technology, applied science, and sometimes natural sciences.
The invasion of Yugoslavia, also known as the April War or Operation 25, was a German-led attack on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers which began on 6 April 1941 during World War II.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
The Iron Gates (Porțile de Fier, Đerdapska klisura, Железни врата, Eisernes Tor, Vaskapu) is a gorge on the river Danube.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Istria County (Istarska županija; Regione istriana, "Istrian Region") is the westernmost county of Croatia which includes the biggest part of the Istrian peninsula (out of, or 89%).
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Ivan Lenković (died 22 June 1569) was a Habsburg Croatian army general and the leader of the Uskoks.
Ivana Brlić-Mažuranić (18 April 1874 – 21 September 1938) was a Croatian writer.
The Jasenovac concentration camp (Logor Jasenovac/Логор Јасеновац,; יאסענאוואץ) was an extermination camp established in Slavonia by the authorities of the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) during World War II.
Johann Katzianer (Ivan Kacijanar), or Hans Katzianer, Freiherr zu Katzenstein und Fledingen (1491, Begunje (Vigaun) – 27 October 1539, Hrvatska Kostajnica) was a Carniolan aristocrat and an Imperial Army commander.
John R. Lampe is a professor of history at the University of Maryland.
Josip Broz (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз,; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (Cyrillic: Тито), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and political leader, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.
Josip Eugen Tomić (October 18, 1843 – July 13, 1906) was a Croatian writer.
Count Josip Jelačić von Bužim (16 October 180120 May 1859; also spelled Jellachich, Jellačić or Jellasics; in Croatian: Josip grof Jelačić Bužimski) was the Ban of Croatia between 23 March 1848 and 19 May 1859.
Josip Juraj Strossmayer (alt. Josip Juraj Štrosmajer) (Joseph Georg Strossmayer; 4 February 1815 – 8 May 1905) was a Croatian politician, Roman Catholic bishop and benefactor.
Josip Kozarac (March 18, 1858 - August 21, 1906) was a Croatian writer.
Jutarnji list is a Croatian daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in Zagreb since April, 6, 1998, by EPH (Europapress holding, owned by Ninoslav Pavić) which eventually changed name in Hanza Media, when bought by Marijan Hanžeković.
Kaptol is a village in central Slavonia, Croatia.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
The Kingdom of Croatia (Regnum Croatiae; Kraljevina Hrvatska, Hrvatsko Kraljevstvo) was a medieval kingdom in Central Europe comprising most of what is today Croatia (without western Istria and some Dalmatian coastal cities), as well as most of the modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia (Kraljevina Hrvatska i Slavonija; Horvát-Szlavón Királyság; Königreich Kroatien und Slawonien) was a nominally autonomous kingdom within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, created in 1868 by merging the kingdoms of Croatia and Slavonia following the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement.
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920).
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of Serbia (Краљевина Србија / Kraljevina Srbija), often rendered as Servia in English sources during the time of its existence, was created when Milan I, ruler of the Principality of Serbia, was proclaimed king in 1882.
The Kingdom of Slavonia (Kraljevina Slavonija; Königreich Slawonien; Regnum Sclavoniae; Szlavón Királyság) was a province of the Habsburg Monarchy and the Austrian Empire that existed from 1699 to 1868.
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija, Краљевина Југославија; Кралство Југославија) was a state in Southeast Europe and Central Europe, that existed from 1918 until 1941, during the interwar period and beginning of World War II.
Kneževo is a settlement in the region of Baranja, Croatia.
Kopački Rit (Kopački Tršćak), is a nature park in eastern Croatia in the municipalities of Bilje and Kneževi Vinogradi.
Krndija is a mountain in Slavonia, Croatia, extending eastwards from Papuk.
Kulen is a type of flavoured sausage made of minced pork that is traditionally produced in Croatia (Slavonia) and Serbia (Vojvodina).
The Kupa (Croatian and Serbian pronunciation) or Kolpa (or; from Colapis in Roman times) river, a right tributary of the Sava, forms a natural border between north-west Croatia and southeast Slovenia.
The settlements included in the administrative area of Kutjevo include.
The La Tène culture was a European Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel in Switzerland, where thousands of objects had been deposited in the lake, as was discovered after the water level dropped in 1857.
Ladislaus I or Ladislas I, also Saint Ladislaus or Saint Ladislas (I or Szent László; Ladislav I.; Svätý Ladislav I; Władysław I Święty; 1040 – 29 July 1095) was King of Hungary from 1077 and King of Croatia from 1091.
A landmark is a recognizable natural or artificial feature used for navigation, a feature that stands out from its near environment and is often visible from long distances.
The official name "Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen" ("a Szent Korona Országai") denominated the Hungarian territories of Austria-Hungary during the totality of the existence of the latter (30 March 1867 – 16 November 1918).
League of Communists of Croatia (Savez komunista Hrvatske or SKH) was the Croatian branch of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia (SKJ).
A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
Lightning Source is a business unit of Ingram Content Group.
Lipik is a town in western Slavonia, in the Požega-Slavonia County of northeastern Croatia.
This is a list of ancient tribes in the ancient territory of Illyria (Ancient Greek: Ἰλλυρία).
An urbanized area in Croatia can gain the status of grad (which can be translated as town or city as there is no distinction between the two terms in Croatian) if it meets one of the following requirements.
Croatia is a sovereign state between Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and the Mediterranean.
List of noble families of Croatia includes the old original ethnic Croatian noble families; families whose titles were granted by the kings of medieval Kingdom of Croatia and their successors; foreign noble families which were granted Croatian citizenship; and Croatian families which were granted their titles by foreign states.
This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.
This is a list of tributaries of the Danube by order of entrance.
Loess (from German Löss) is a clastic, predominantly silt-sized sediment that is formed by the accumulation of wind-blown dust.
The Lombards or Longobards (Langobardi, Longobardi, Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Louis II (Ludvík, Ludovik, Lajos, 1 July 1506 – 29 August 1526) was King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia from 1516 to 1526.
Lower Pannonia (Pannonia inferior) was an entity located in the southwestern parts of the former Roman province of Pannonia, held by Slavic rulers between the fall of the Avar Khaganate starting in the 790s, and the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin in the 890s.
M.E. Sharpe, Inc., an academic publisher, was founded by Myron Sharpe in 1958 with the original purpose of publishing translations from Russian in the social sciences and humanities.
A macroregion is a geopolitical subdivision that encompasses several traditionally or politically defined regions.
Magyarization (also Magyarisation, Hungarization, Hungarisation, Hungarianization, Hungarianisation), after "Magyar", the autonym of Hungarians, was an assimilation or acculturation process by which non-Hungarian nationals came to adopt the Hungarian culture and language, either voluntarily or due to social pressure, often in the form of a coercive policy.
A manor house was historically the main residence of the lord of the manor.
The meat packing industry handles the slaughtering, processing, packaging, and distribution of animals such as cattle, pigs, sheep and other livestock.
The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.
Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large-scale structures.
The Ministry of Construction and Spatial Planning of the Republic of Croatia (Ministarstvo graditeljstva i prostornog uređenja) is the ministry in the Government of Croatia which is in charge of construction.
The Ministry of Culture (Ministarstvo kulture) is a ministry of the Croatian government in charge of preserving the country's natural and cultural heritage and overseeing its development.
The Ministry of Environmental Protection and Energy of the Republic of Croatia (Ministarstvo zaštite okoliša i energetike) is the ministry in the Government of Croatia which is in charge of environmental protection.
The Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs of the Republic of Croatia (Ministarstvo vanjskih i europskih poslova or MVEP) is the ministry in the Government of Croatia which is responsible for the country's foreign relations, its diplomatic missions and relations to international organisations, especially the European Union.
The Ministry of Science and Education of the Croatia (Ministarstvo znanosti i obrazovanja or MZO) is the ministry in the Government of Croatia which is in charge of primary, secondary and tertiary education, research institutions and sports.
The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma).
Miroslav Kraljević (1885–1913) was a Croatian painter, printmaker and sculptor, active in the early part of the 20th century.
Mislav (Muisclavo) was the Duke of Croatia in.
Moslavačka Gora is a small mountain range located in central Croatia at the borders of Bjelovar-Bilogora County and Sisak–Moslavina County.
Municipalities in Croatia (općina; plural: općine) are the second lowest administrative unit of government in the country, and along with cities and towns (grad, plural: gradovi) they form the second level of administrative subdisivion, after counties.
The Mur or Mura (or;;; Prekmurje Slovene: MüraNovak, Vilko. 2006. Slovar stare knjižne prekmurščine. Ljubljana: ZRC SAZU, pp. 262, 269. or Möra) is a river in Central Europe rising in the Hohe Tauern national park of the Central Eastern Alps in Austria with its source being above sea level.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Našice is a town in eastern Croatia, located on the northern slopes of the Krndija mountain in eastern Slavonia, 51 km southwest of regional hub Osijek.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Nebbiolo (Italian), or Nebieul (Piedmontese) is an Italian red wine grape variety predominantly associated with its native Piedmont region, where it makes the Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG) wines of Barolo, Barbaresco, Roero, Gattinara and Ghemme.
Neoclassicism (from Greek νέος nèos, "new" and Latin classicus, "of the highest rank") is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of classical antiquity.
The Neogene (informally Upper Tertiary or Late Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that spans 20.45 million years from the end of the Paleogene Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the present Quaternary Period Mya.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Nova Gradiška is a city located in the Brod-Posavina County of Croatia, population 14,229 (2011).
Novska is a town in the Sisak-Moslavina County of Croatia.
Croatia (HR) is included in the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) of the European Union.
Oak is used in winemaking to vary the color, flavor, tannin profile and texture of wine.
Okučani is a village in western Slavonia, Croatia.
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
Operation Flash (Operacija Bljesak/Операција Бљесак) was a brief Croatian Army (HV) offensive conducted against forces of the self-declared Republic of Serbian Krajina (RSK) from 1–3 May 1995.
Operation Hurricane-91 (Operacija Orkan-91) was a military offensive undertaken by the Croatian Army (Hrvatska vojska – HV) against the Yugoslav People's Army (Jugoslovenska Narodna Armija – JNA) and SAO Western Slavonia Territorial Defense Forces in the Sava River valley, in the region of Western Slavonia during the Croatian War of Independence.
Operation Storm (Operacija Oluja, Операција Олуја) was the last major battle of the Croatian War of Independence and a major factor in the outcome of the Bosnian War.
Operation Swath-10 (Operacija Otkos-10) was a military offensive undertaken by the Croatian Army (Hrvatska vojska, or HV) against the SAO Western Slavonia Territorial Defense Forces on Bilogora Mountain in western Slavonia.
Orahovica is a town in Slavonia, Croatia.
Orljava is a river in Slavonia, eastern Croatia, a left tributary of Sava.
Osijek is the fourth largest city in Croatia with a population of 108,048 in 2011.
Osijek-Baranja County (Osječko-baranjska županija) is a county in Croatia, located in northeastern Slavonia and Baranja.
The Ostrogothic Kingdom, officially the Kingdom of Italy (Latin: Regnum Italiae), was established by the Ostrogoths in Italy and neighbouring areas from 493 to 553.
The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were the eastern branch of the later Goths (the other major branch being the Visigoths).
Otok is a town in eastern Croatia, located 20 km south of Vinkovci, in eastern Slavonia.
The Ottoman conquest of Bosnia and Herzegovina was a process that started roughly in 1386, when the first Ottoman attacks on the Kingdom of Bosnia took place.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Packaging is the science, art and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use.
Pakrac is a town in western Slavonia, Croatia, population 4,842, total municipality population 8,460 (census 2011).
The Pakrac clash, known in Croatia as the Battle of Pakrac (Bitka za Pakrac), was a bloodless skirmish that took place in the Croatian town of Pakrac in March 1991.
The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.
The ten Pan-European transport corridors were defined at the second Pan-European transport Conference in Crete, March 1994, as routes in Central and Eastern Europe that required major investment over the next ten to fifteen years.
The Pannonian Avars (also known as the Obri in chronicles of Rus, the Abaroi or Varchonitai at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine (Varchonites) or Pseudo-Avars in Byzantine sources) were a group of Eurasian nomads of unknown origin: "...
The Pannonian Basin, or Carpathian Basin, is a large basin in Central Europe.
The Pannonian island mountains (Panonske ostrvske planine, Панонске острвске планине, Croatian: Panonske otočne planine) is a term for isolated mountains scattered across the Pannonian Plain, chiefly its western and southern parts, in Hungary, Serbia and Croatia.
The Pannonian Sea was a shallow ancient sea located where the Pannonian Basin in Central Europe is now.
A paper mill is a factory devoted to making paper from vegetable fibres such as wood pulp, old rags and other ingredients.
Papuk is the largest mountain in the Slavonia region in eastern Croatia, near the city of Požega.
A paramilitary is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subculture, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military, but which is not included as part of a state's formal armed forces.
Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another.
The Pejačević or Pejácsevich family (Pejačevići, Pejácsevich or Pejácsevics, Пеячевичи Peyachevichi) is an old Croatian noble family, remarkable during the period in history marked by the Ottoman war in the Kingdom of Croatia and Austro-Hungarian Empire respectively.
Pejačević Castle in Virovitica is a late-baroque and neoclassicistic castle in the town of Virovitica, Virovitica–Podravina County, northern Croatia.
A permanent is one produced from plants which last for many seasons, rather than being replanted after each harvest.
Personal care or toiletries are consumer products used in personal hygiene and for beautification.
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.
Peter Krešimir IV, called the Great (Petar Krešimir IV., Petrus Cresimir) (died 1075), was King of Croatia and Dalmatia from 1059 to his death in 1074/5.
Philipp Karl von Eltz-Kempenich (26 October 1665 – 21 March 1743) was Archbishop-Elector of Mainz from 1732 to 1743.
Pickling is the process of preserving or expanding the lifespan of food by either anaerobic fermentation in brine or immersion in vinegar.
Piemonte wine is the range of Italian wines made in the region of Piedmont in the northwestern corner of Italy.
In geography, a plain is a flat, sweeping landmass that generally does not change much in elevation.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
Pleternica is a town in the region of Slavonia, Croatia, southeast of Požega, in the Požega Valley (Požeška kotlina).
Požeška Gora, lit.
The Požega Valley (Požeška kotlina) is a geographic microregion of Croatia, located in central Slavonia, encompassing the eastern part of the Požega-Slavonia County.
Požega is a city in western Slavonia, eastern Croatia, with a total population of 26,248 (census 2011).
Požega-Slavonia County (Požeško-slavonska županija) is a Croatian county in western Slavonia.
Podravka is a food company based in Koprivnica, Croatia.
A political faction is a group of individuals within a larger entity, such as a political party, a trade union or other group, or simply a political climate, united by a particular common political purpose that differs in some respect to the rest of the entity.
Pope John X (Ioannes X; d. 28 May 928) was Pope from March 914 to his death in 928.
Pope John XXIII (Ioannes; Giovanni; born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli,; 25 November 18813 June 1963) was head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 28 October 1958 to his death in 1963 and was canonized on 27 April 2014.
Prandau-Normann Castle or Valpovo Castle is a palace or castle in Valpovo, Croatia.
Prince Eugene of Savoy (French: François-Eugène de Savoie, Italian: Principe Eugenio di Savoia-Carignano, German: Prinz Eugen von Savoyen; 18 October 1663 – 21 April 1736) was a general of the Imperial Army and statesman of the Holy Roman Empire and the Archduchy of Austria and one of the most successful military commanders in modern European history, rising to the highest offices of state at the Imperial court in Vienna.
Privredni vjesnik (The Business Messenger) is the oldest weekly business and financial newspaper in Croatia.
Process manufacturing is a branch of manufacturing that is associated with formulas and manufacturing recipes,, BatchMaster Blog.
Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed proto-language of all the Slavic languages.
Psunj is a mountain in the southwestern Slavonia region in eastern Croatia.
A puppet state is a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power.
Purdue University Press, founded in 1960, is a university press that is part of Purdue University.
Quaternary is the current and most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic Era in the geologic time scale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS).
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a broadcasting organization that broadcasts and reports news, information, and analysis to countries in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East where it says that "the free flow of information is either banned by government authorities or not fully developed".
Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.
The Republic of Croatia is administratively organised into twenty counties, and is also traditionally divided into four historical and cultural regions: Croatia proper, Dalmatia, Slavonia, and Istria.
The Republic of Serbian Krajina or Serb Republic of Krajina (Република Српска Крајина / Republika Srpska Krajina or РСК/RSK)), known as Serb Krajina (Српска Крајина / Srpska Krajina) or simply Krajina, was a self-proclaimed Serb proto-state, a territory within the newly independent Croatia (formerly part of Yugoslavia), which it defied, active during the Croatian War (1991–95). It was not recognized internationally. The name Krajina ("Frontier") was adopted from the historical Military Frontier of the Habsburg Monarchy and Austria-Hungary, which had a substantial Serb population and existed up to the late 19th century. The RSK government waged a war for ethnic Serb independence from Croatia and unification with FR Yugoslavia and Republika Srpska (in Bosnia). The RSK was armed and funded by Serbia. The government of Krajina had de facto control over central parts of the territory while control of the outskirts changed with the successes and failures of its military activities. The territory was legally protected by the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR). Its main portion was overrun by Croatian forces in 1995 and the Republic of Serbian Krajina was ultimately disbanded as a result; a rump remained in eastern Slavonia under UNTAES administration until its peaceful reintegration into Croatia in 1998.
Republika Srpska (Република Српскa,; literally "Serb Republic") is one of two constitutional and legal entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
A reservoir (from French réservoir – a "tank") is a storage space for fluids.
Retail is the process of selling consumer goods or services to customers through multiple channels of distribution to earn a profit.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
A ridge or mountain ridge are geological features consisting of a chain of mountains or hills that form a continuous elevated crest for some distance.The sides of the ridge slope away from narrow top on either side.The line along the crest formed by the highest points, with the terrain dropping down on either side, is called the ridgeline.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
Romantic nationalism (also national romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of the unity of those it governs.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
Ruins are the remains of human-made architecture: structures that were once intact have fallen, as time went by, into a state of partial or total disrepair, due to lack of maintenance or deliberate acts of destruction.
The Sanjak of Pojega (Pojega Sancağı; Požeški sandžak) was an administrative territorial entity of the Ottoman Empire formed around 1538.
The Memorandum of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, known simply as the SANU Memorandum (Меморандум САНУ), was a draft document produced by a 16-member committee of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts (SANU) from 1985 to 1986.
The Serbian Autonomous Oblast of Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia (Srpska autonomna oblast Istočna Slavonija, Baranja i Zapadni Srijem; Српска аутономна област Источна Славонија, Барања и Западни Срем / Srpska autonomna oblast Istočna Slavonija, Baranja i Zapadni Srem) was a self-proclaimed Serbian Autonomous Oblast (SAO) in eastern Croatia, established during the Yugoslav Wars.
The Serbian Autonomous Oblast of Western Slavonia (Srpska autonomna oblast Zapadna Slavonija, Српска аутономна област Западна Славонија) was a Serbian self-proclaimed autonomous region (oblast) within Croatia.
The Sava (Сава) is a river in Central and Southeastern Europe, a right tributary of the Danube.
Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education scale.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.
The Serbian Orthodox Church (Српска православна црква / Srpska pravoslavna crkva) is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Christian Churches.
The Serbs of Croatia (Srbi u Hrvatskoj, Срби у Хрватској) or Croatian Serbs (Хрватски Срби/Hrvatski Srbi) constitute the largest national minority in Croatia.
Sirač is a settlement and municipality in Bjelovar-Bilogora County, Croatia.
Sisak (Sziszek; also known by other alternative names) is a city and episcopal see in central Croatia, located at the confluence of the Kupa, Sava and Odra rivers, southeast of the Croatian capital Zagreb, and is usually considered to be where the Posavina (Sava basin) begins, with an elevation of 99 m. The city's total population in 2011 was 47,768 of which 33,322 live in the urban settlement (naselje).
Slatina is a town in the Slavonia region of Croatia.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
The Slavonian Military Frontier (Slavonska vojna krajina or Slavonska vojna granica) was a district of the Military Frontier, a territory in the Habsburg Monarchy, first during the period of the Austrian Empire and then during the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy.
Slavonski Brod (literally Slavonian Crossing), commonly shortened to simply Brod, is a city in eastern Croatia, near the border with Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Slobodna Dalmacija is a Croatian daily newspaper published in Split.
Smoked meat is a method of preparing red meat (and fish) which originates in prehistory.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
The Socialist Republic of Croatia (Socijalistička Republika Hrvatska; Serbian: Социјалистичка Република Хрватска; Socijalistička Republika Hrvatska/Социјалистичка Република Хрватска) was a constituent republic and federated state of Yugoslavia. By its constitution, modern-day Croatia is its direct continuation. Along with five other Yugoslav republics, it was formed during World War II and became a socialist republic after the war. It had four full official names during its 48-year existence (see below). By territory and population, it was the second largest republic in Yugoslavia, after the Socialist Republic of Serbia. In 1990, the government dismantled the single-party system of government - installed by the Communist Party - and adopted a multi-party democracy. The newly elected government of Franjo Tuđman moved the republic towards independence, formally seceding from Yugoslavia in 1991 and thereby contributing to its dissolution.
The South Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the South Slavic languages.
Stara Gradiška was one of the most notorious concentration and extermination camps in Croatia during World War II, mainly due to the crimes committed there against women and children.
The Starčevo culture, sometimes included within a larger grouping known as the Starčevo–Körös–Criş culture, is an archaeological culture of Southeastern Europe, dating to the Neolithic period between c. 6200 and 4500 BCE.
The State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (Država Slovenaca, Hrvata i Srba/Држава Словенаца, Хрвата и Срба; Država Slovencev, Hrvatov in Srbov) was a short-lived entity formed at the end of World War I by Slovenes, Croats and Serbs residing in what were the southernmost parts of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Stephen II (Stjepan II) (died 1091) was the last member of the Trpimirović dynasty and last native Croatian king to rule the entire medieval Croatian Kingdom.
A stratovolcano, also known as a composite volcano, is a conical volcano built up by many layers (strata) of hardened lava, tephra, pumice and ash.
A style of office or honorific is an official or legally recognized title.
Subduction is a geological process that takes place at convergent boundaries of tectonic plates where one plate moves under another and is forced or sinks due to gravity into the mantle.
Subsidence is the motion of a surface (usually, the earth's surface) as it shifts downward relative to a datum such as sea level.
A sugar refinery is a refinery which processes raw sugar into white refined sugar or that processes sugar beet to refined sugar.
The Sutla (Croatian) or Sotla (Slovene) is a river flowing through Slovenia and Croatia, mostly forming their border.
Syrmia (Srem/Срем, Srijem) is a fertile region of the Pannonian Plain in Europe, which lies between the Danube and Sava rivers.
Tamburica or Tamboura (Tamburica, Tamburica, Тамбурица, meaning "little Tamboura"; Tambura; Ταμπουράς, sometimes written tamburrizza or tamburitza) refers to a family of long-necked lutes popular in Southern Europe and Central Europe, especially Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia (especially Vojvodina), Slovenia, and Hungary.
The textile industry is primarily concerned with the design, production and distribution of yarn, cloth and clothing.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Tikveš (Tökös) is a settlement in the region of Baranja, Croatia.
Tomislav (Tamisclaus) was the first King of Croatia.
The Transdanubian Mountains (sometimes also referred to as Bakony Forest, Dunántúl Highlands, Highlands of Dunántúl, Highlands of Transdanubia, Mountains of Dunántúl, Mountains of Transdanubia, Transdanubian Central Range, Transdanubian Hills, Transdanubian Midmountains or Transdanubian Mid-Mountains) are a mountain range in Hungary covering about 7000 km².
Transport or transportation is the movement of humans, animals and goods from one location to another.
The Treaty of Berlin (formally the Treaty between Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire for the Settlement of Affairs in the East) was signed on July 13, 1878.
The Treaty of Karlowitz was signed on 26 January 1699 in Sremski Karlovci, in modern-day Serbia, concluding the Austro-Ottoman War of 1683–97 in which the Ottoman side had been defeated at the Battle of Zenta.
The Treaty of Trianon was the peace agreement of 1920 that formally ended World War I between most of the Allies of World War I and the Kingdom of Hungary, the latter being one of the successor states to Austria-Hungary.
Trpimirović dynasty (Trpimirovići) was a native Croat dynasty that ruled, with interruptions, from 845 until 1091 in Croatia and was named after Trpimir I, the first member and the founder.
Turkish cuisine (Turkish: Türk mutfağı) is largely the heritage of Ottoman cuisine, which can be described as a fusion and refinement of Central Asian, Middle Eastern, Eastern European and Balkan cuisines.
Tvrđa (Citadel) is the Old Town of the city of Osijek in Croatia.
The Una is a river in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
UNESCO established its Lists of Intangible Cultural Heritage with the aim of ensuring better protection of important intangible cultural heritages worldwide and the awareness of their significance.
The United Nations Protection Force (French: Force de Protection des Nations Unies; UNPROFOR, also known by its French acronym FORPRONU), was the first United Nations peacekeeping force in Croatia and in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Yugoslav Wars.
The University of Ljubljana (Univerza v Ljubljani, acronym: UL, Universitas Labacensis) is the oldest and largest university in Slovenia.
The Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek (Sveučilište J.J. Strossmayera u Osijeku) is a university located in Osijek, Croatia.
The University of Rijeka (Sveučilište u Rijeci) is in the city of Rijeka with faculties in cities throughout the regions of Primorje, Istria and Lika.
The University of Zagreb (Sveučilište u Zagrebu,; Universitas Studiorum Zagrabiensis) is the largest Croatian university and the oldest continuously operating university in the area covering Central Europe south of Vienna and all of Southeastern Europe.
Valpovo is a town in Slavonia, Croatia.
The Variscan or Hercynian orogeny is a geologic mountain-building event caused by Late Paleozoic continental collision between Euramerica (Laurussia) and Gondwana to form the supercontinent of Pangaea.
A vassal state is any state that is subordinate to another.
Večernji list (also known as Večernjak, Evening paper) is a conservative Croatian daily newspaper published in Zagreb.
Vegetable oils, or vegetable fats, are fats extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
A viceroy is a regal official who runs a country, colony, city, province, or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory.
Viennese cuisine is the cuisine that is characteristic of Vienna, Austria, and a majority of its residents.
Vinkovci is a city in Slavonia, in the Vukovar-Srijem County in eastern Croatia.
The Viro sugar factory (Viro tvornica šećera), commonly referred to as just Viro, is a sugar refinery based in Virovitica, Croatia.
Virovitica is a Croatian city near the Hungarian border.
Virovitica-Podravina County (Virovitičko-podravska županija) is a northern Slavonian county in Croatia.
Vjesnik was a Croatian state-owned daily newspaper published in Zagreb which ceased publication in April 2012.
Vladislaus II, also known as Vladislav II, Władysław II or Wladislas II (1 March 1456 – 13 March 1516; Vladislav Jagellonský; II.; Władysław II Jagiellończyk; Vladislav II.; Vladislav II.), was King of Bohemia from 1471 to 1516, and King of Hungary and Croatia from 1490 to 1516.
Voćin is a village and municipality in western Slavonia, Croatia, located southwest of Slatina and east of Daruvar.
A volcanic arc is a chain of volcanoes formed above a subducting plate, positioned in an arc shape as seen from above.
The Vučedol culture (Vučedolska kultura) flourished between 3000 and 2200 BC (the Eneolithic period of earliest copper-smithing), centered in Syrmia and eastern Slavonia on the right bank of the Danube river, but possibly spreading throughout the Pannonian plain and western Balkans and southward.
Vuka is a river in eastern Croatia, a right tributary of the Danube river.
Vukovar (ВуковарThe official use of Serbian Cyrillic in Vukovar is subject to a dispute involving the local and national authorities, and is the source of a current political controversy. See #Minority languages.) is a city in eastern Croatia.
The Vukovar massacre, also known as the Vukovar hospital massacre or the Ovčara massacre, was the killing of Croatian prisoners of war and civilians by Serb paramilitaries, to whom they had been turned over by the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA), at the Ovčara farm southeast of Vukovar on 20 November 1991, during the Croatian War of Independence.
Vukovar-Srijem County (Vukovarsko-srijemska županija) is the easternmost Croatian county.
Welschriesling (also known as Laški Rizling, Olasz Riesling and Graševina) is a white wine grape variety, unrelated to the Rhine Riesling, that is grown throughout Central Europe.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.
A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem.
Wholesaling, jobbing, or distributing is the sale of goods or merchandise to retailers; to industrial, commercial, institutional, or other professional business users; or to other wholesalers and related subordinated services.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
A winery is a building or property that produces wine, or a business involved in the production of wine, such as a wine company.
Wood processing is an engineering discipline comprising the production of forest products, such as pulp and paper, construction materials, and tall oil.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun.
The Yugoslav Partisans,Serbo-Croatian, Macedonian, Slovene: Partizani, Партизани or the National Liberation Army,Narodnooslobodilačka vojska (NOV), Народноослободилачка војска (НОВ); Народноослободителна војска (НОВ); Narodnoosvobodilna vojska (NOV) officially the National Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia,Narodnooslobodilačka vojska i partizanski odredi Jugoslavije (NOV i POJ), Народноослободилачка војска и партизански одреди Југославије (НОВ и ПОЈ); Народноослободителна војска и партизански одреди на Југославија (НОВ и ПОЈ); Narodnoosvobodilna vojska in partizanski odredi Jugoslavije (NOV in POJ) was the Communist-led resistance to the Axis powers (chiefly Germany) in occupied Yugoslavia during World War II.
The Yugoslav People's Army (Jugoslovenska narodna armija / Југословенска народна армија / Jugoslavenska narodna armija; also Yugoslav National Army), often referred-to simply by the initialism JNA, was the military of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of Croatia.
Zemun (Земун) is a municipality of the city of Belgrade.
The 1974 Yugoslav Constitution was the fourth and final constitution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.