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Index Sleep

Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings. [1]

224 relations: ABCC9, Actigraphy, Adenosine, Adenosine triphosphate, Alarm clock, Albert Anker, Alcoholic drink, Alcoholism, Allan Hobson, American Academy of Sleep Medicine, American literature, American Revolution, Amphetamine, Anabolism, Analeptic, Antidepressant, Antihistamine, Armodafinil, Barbiturate, Bed, Benzodiazepine, BHLHE41, Biphasic and polyphasic sleep, Bipolar disorder, Bruxism, Caffeine, Cannabis (drug), Carbohydrate, Carel Fabritius, Catskill Mountains, Central sleep apnea, Cerebral cortex, Chronotype, Circadian clock, Circadian rhythm sleep disorder, Clinical trial, Co-sleeping, Cocaine, Coffee, Colonial history of the United States, Coma, Consciousness, Cortisol, Cortisol awakening response, Crete, Developed country, Diogenes Laërtius, Diphenhydramine, Diurnality, Doxylamine, ..., Dream, Dream interpretation, Dyssomnia, Electrocardiography, Electroencephalography, Electromyography, Electronic media and sleep, Electrooculography, Ellsworth Huntington, Empathogen–entactogen, Endocrine system, Entrainment (chronobiology), Epimenides, Eszopiclone, Ethanol, Explicit memory, Extended family, Fatal insomnia, Filí, Flaming June, Forebrain, Francisco Goya, Frederic Leighton, Free-running sleep, Frontal lobe, Glycogen, Greek mythology, Growth hormone, Homeostasis, Honoré Daumier, Hormone, HuffPost, Human body, Hunter-gatherer, Hypersomnia, Hypnos, Hypnosis, Hypnotic, Hypothesis, Ibuprofen, Ilya Repin, Imbas forosnai, Immediate family, Immune system, Industrial Revolution, Infant, Insomnia, Jérôme-Martin Langlois, Jean-François Millet, John Donne, John William Waterhouse, Lark (person), Legendary material in Christian hagiography, Lighting, Major depressive disorder, MDMA, Medical Hypotheses, Medical imaging, Meditation, Melatonin, Memory, Metabolism, Methylphenidate, Micronutrient, Microsleep, Modafinil, Morvan's syndrome, Mount Ida (Crete), Narcolepsy, Narrative, National Institutes of Health, National Sleep Foundation, Neural oscillation, Neutral spine, Night owl (person), Nightmare, Nocturnal penile tumescence, Nomad, Non-rapid eye movement sleep, Nonbenzodiazepine, Nutrient, Nyx, Obstructive sleep apnea, Old age, Oleamide, Optic chiasm, Oxford University Press, Paracetamol, Paralysis, Parasomnia, Paul Klimsch, PAX8, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Periodic limb movement disorder, Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire, Phase response curve, Phyllis Zee, Pineal gland, Polysomnography, Power nap, Procedural memory, Prolactin, Psychoanalysis, Radical (chemistry), Ramadan, Randomness, Rapid eye movement sleep, Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, Rebound effect, Rest in peace, Restless legs syndrome, Reticular formation, Rheum, Rip Van Winkle, Robert McCarley, Roger Ekirch, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Saturated fat, Sensory threshold, Seven Sleepers, Shift work, Siesta, Sigmund Freud, Skeletal muscle, Sleep and his Half-brother Death, Sleep apnea, Sleep cycle, Sleep deprivation, Sleep disorder, Sleep epidemiology, Sleep hygiene, Sleep in space, Sleep inertia, Sleep medicine, Sleep paralysis, Sleep state misperception, Sleep-learning, Sleeping positions, Sleepwalking, Slow-wave sleep, Somatic (biology), Somnology, Somnophilia, Stimulant, Stimulus (physiology), Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome, Sudden infant death syndrome, Suprachiasmatic nucleus, Thanatos, The Interpretation of Dreams, The Sentry (painting), The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent., The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters, Thermoregulation, Time in China, Time zone, Unconscious mind, Unconsciousness, Upper airway resistance syndrome, Ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, Vincent van Gogh, VRK2, Wakefulness, Washington Irving, Western world, White noise, Whole grain, William-Adolphe Bouguereau, World Sleep Day, Wound healing, Wrocław's dwarfs, Yoga nidra, Zaleplon, Zolpidem. Expand index (174 more) »


ATP-binding cassette, sub-family C member 9 (ABCC9) also known as sulfonylurea receptor 2 (SUR2) is an ATP-binding cassette transporter that in humans is encoded by the ABCC9 gene.

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Actigraphy is a non-invasive method of monitoring human rest/activity cycles.

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Adenosine is both a chemical found in many living systems and a medication.

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Adenosine triphosphate

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.

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Alarm clock

An alarm clock (or sometimes just an alarm) is a clock that is designed to alert an individual or group of individuals at specified time.

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Albert Anker

Albrecht Samuel Anker (April 1, 1831 – July 16, 1910) was a Swiss painter and illustrator who has been called the "national painter" of Switzerland because of his enduringly popular depictions of 19th-century Swiss village life.

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Alcoholic drink

An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.

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Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.

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Allan Hobson

John Allan Hobson (born June 3, 1933) is an American psychiatrist and dream researcher.

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American Academy of Sleep Medicine

The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) is a United States professional society for the medical subspecialty of sleep medicine which includes disorders of circadian rhythms.

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American literature

American literature is literature written or produced in the United States and its preceding colonies (for specific discussions of poetry and theater, see Poetry of the United States and Theater in the United States).

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American Revolution

The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.

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Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.

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Anabolism (from ἁνά, "upward" and βάλλειν, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units.

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An analeptic, in medicine, is a central nervous system stimulant.

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Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.

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Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.

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Armodafinil (trade name Nuvigil) is the enantiopure compound of the eugeroic modafinil (Provigil).

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A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.

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A bed is a piece of furniture which is used as a place to sleep or relax.

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Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.

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"Basic helix-loop-helix family, member e41", or BHLHE41, is a gene that encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor repressor protein in various tissues of both humans and mice.

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Biphasic and polyphasic sleep

Biphasic sleep (or diphasic, bimodal or bifurcated sleep) is the practice of sleeping during two periods over 24 hours, while polyphasic sleep refers to sleeping multiple times – usually more than two.

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Bipolar disorder

Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.

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Bruxism is excessive teeth grinding or jaw clenching.

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Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.

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Cannabis (drug)

Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.

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A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).

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Carel Fabritius

Carel Pietersz.

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Catskill Mountains

The Catskill Mountains, also known as the Catskills, are a physiographic province of the larger Appalachian Mountains, located in southeastern New York.

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Central sleep apnea

Central sleep apnea (CSA) or central sleep apnea syndrome (CSAS) is a sleep-related disorder in which the effort to breathe is diminished or absent, typically for 10 to 30 seconds either intermittently or in cycles, and is usually associated with a reduction in blood oxygen saturation.

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Cerebral cortex

The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.

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Chronotype refers to the behavioral manifestation of underlying circadian rhythms of myriad physical processes.

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Circadian clock

A circadian clock, or circadian oscillator, is a biochemical oscillator that cycles with a stable phase and is synchronized with solar time.

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Circadian rhythm sleep disorder

Circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD) are a family of sleep disorders affecting (among other bodily processes) the timing of sleep.

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Clinical trial

Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.

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Co-sleeping is a practice in which babies and young children sleep close to one or both parents, as opposed to in a separate room.

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Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.

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Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.

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Colonial history of the United States

The colonial history of the United States covers the history of European colonization of the Americas from the start of colonization in the early 16th century until their incorporation into the United States of America.

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Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.

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Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.

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Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.

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Cortisol awakening response

The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is an increase of about 50% in cortisol levels occurring 20–30 minutes after awakening in the morning in some people.

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Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.

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Developed country

A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

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Diogenes Laërtius

Diogenes Laërtius (Διογένης Λαέρτιος, Diogenēs Laertios) was a biographer of the Greek philosophers.

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Diphenhydramine is an antihistamine mainly used to treat allergies.

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Diurnality is a form of plant or animal behavior characterized by activity during the day, with a period of sleeping, or other inactivity, at night.

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Doxylamine is a first-generation antihistamine.

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A dream is a succession of images, ideas, emotions, and sensations that usually occur involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep.

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Dream interpretation

Dream interpretation is the process of assigning meaning to dreams.

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Dyssomnias are a broad classification of sleeping disorders involving difficulty getting to sleep, remaining asleep, or of excessive sleepiness.

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Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin.

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Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain.

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Electromyography (EMG) is an electrodiagnostic medicine technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles.

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Electronic media and sleep

The use of computers (including devices such as smartphones, tablet computers and laptops) by children and adolescents before bed has been associated with a reduction in the hours of sleep experienced by frequent users, along with a decreased quality of sleep, in most cases.

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Electrooculography (EOG) is a technique for measuring the corneo-retinal standing potential that exists between the front and the back of the human eye.

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Ellsworth Huntington

Ellsworth Huntington (September 16, 1876 – October 17, 1947) was a professor of geography at Yale University during the early 20th century, known for his studies on environmental determinism/climatic determinism, economic growth and economic geography.

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Empathogens or entactogens are a class of psychoactive drugs that produce experiences of emotional communion, oneness, relatedness, emotional openness—that is, empathy or sympathy—as particularly observed and reported for experiences with 3,4- Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA).

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Endocrine system

The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.

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Entrainment (chronobiology)

Entrainment, within the study of chronobiology, occurs when rhythmic physiological or behavioral events match their period to that of an environmental oscillation.

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Epimenides of Cnossos (Ἐπιμενίδης) was a semi-mythical 7th or 6th century BC Greek seer and philosopher-poet.

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Eszopiclone, marketed by Sunovion under the brand-name Lunesta, is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic agent used in the treatment of insomnia.

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Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.

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Explicit memory

Explicit memory (or declarative memory) is one of the two main types of long-term human memory.

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Extended family

An extended family is a family that extends beyond the nuclear family, consisting of parents like father, mother, and their children, aunts, uncles, and cousins, all living nearby or in the same household.

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Fatal insomnia

Fatal insomnia is an extremely rare sleep disorder which is typically inherited and results in death within a few months to a few years after onset.

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A filí was a member of an elite class of poets in Ireland, up until the Renaissance.

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Flaming June

Flaming June is a painting by Sir Frederic Leighton, produced in 1895.

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In the anatomy of the brain of vertebrates, the forebrain or prosencephalon is the rostral-most (forward-most) portion of the brain.

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Francisco Goya

Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (30 March 1746 – 16 April 1828) was a Spanish romantic painter and printmaker.

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Frederic Leighton

Frederic Leighton, 1st Baron Leighton, (3 December 1830 – 25 January 1896), known as Sir Frederic Leighton between 1878 and 1896, was an English painter and sculptor.

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Free-running sleep

Free-running sleep is a sleep pattern that is not adjusted (entrained) to the 24-hour cycle in nature nor to any artificial cycle.

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Frontal lobe

The frontal lobe, located at the front of the brain, is the largest of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the mammalian brain.

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Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.

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Greek mythology

Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.

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Growth hormone

Growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin (or as human growth hormone in its human form), is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals.

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Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.

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Honoré Daumier

Honoré-Victorin Daumier (February 26, 1808February 10, 1879) was a French printmaker, caricaturist, painter, and sculptor, whose many works offer commentary on social and political life in France in the 19th century.

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A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

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HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.

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Human body

The human body is the entire structure of a human being.

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A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.

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Hypersomnia, or hypersomnolence, is a neurological disorder of excessive time spent sleeping or excessive sleepiness.

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In Greek mythology, Hypnos (Ὕπνος, "sleep") is the personification of sleep; the Roman equivalent is known as Somnus.

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Hypnosis is a state of human consciousness involving focused attention and reduced peripheral awareness and an enhanced capacity to respond to suggestion.

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Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or surgical anesthesia.

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A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.

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Ibuprofen is a medication in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) class that is used for treating pain, fever, and inflammation.

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Ilya Repin

Ilya Yefimovich Repin (p; Ilja Jefimovitš Repin; r; – 29 September 1930) was a Russian realist painter.

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Imbas forosnai

Imbas forosnai, is a gift of clairvoyance or visionary ability practiced by the gifted poets of ancient Ireland.

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Immediate family

The immediate family is a defined group of relations, used in rules or laws to determine which members of a person's family are affected by those rules.

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Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.

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Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.

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Jérôme-Martin Langlois

Jerome-Martin Langlois (March 11, 1779 – December 28, 1838) was a French Neoclassical painter.

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Jean-François Millet

Jean-François Millet (October 4, 1814 – January 20, 1875) was a French painter and one of the founders of the Barbizon school in rural France.

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John Donne

John Donne (22 January 1572 – 31 March 1631) was an English poet and cleric in the Church of England.

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John William Waterhouse

John William Waterhouse (6 April 1849 – 10 February 1917) was an English painter known for working first in the Academic style and for then embracing the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood's style and subject matter.

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Lark (person)

A lark, early bird, morning person or, in Scandinavian countries, an A-person, is a person who usually gets up early in the morning and goes to bed early in the evening.

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Legendary material in Christian hagiography

A legendary, in Christian literature, is a collection of biographies of saints or other holy figures.

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Lighting or illumination is the deliberate use of light to achieve a practical or aesthetic effect.

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Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.

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3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (E), is a psychoactive drug used primarily as a recreational drug.

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Medical Hypotheses

Medical Hypotheses is a medical journal published by Elsevier.

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Medical imaging

Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).

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Meditation can be defined as a practice where an individual uses a technique, such as focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity, to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state.

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Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine, is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals and regulates sleep and wakefulness.

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Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Methylphenidate, sold under various trade names, Ritalin being one of the most commonly known, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine and piperidine classes that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.

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Micronutrients are essential elements required by organisms in small quantities throughout life to orchestrate a range of physiological functions to maintain health.

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A micro-sleep (MS) is a temporary episode of sleep or drowsiness which may last for a fraction of a second or up to 30 seconds where an individual fails to respond to some arbitrary sensory input and becomes unconscious.

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Modafinil, sold under the brand name Provigil among others, is a medication to treat sleepiness due to narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In OSA continuous positive airway pressure is the preferred treatment. While it has seen off-label use as a purported cognitive enhancer, evidence for any benefit is lacking. It is taken by mouth. Common side effects include headache, anxiety, trouble sleeping, and nausea. Serious side effects may include allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, abuse, or hallucinations. It is unclear if use during pregnancy is safe. The amount of medication used may need to be adjusted in those with kidney or liver problems. It is not recommended in those with an arrhythmia, significant hypertension, or left ventricular hypertrophy. How it works is not entirely clear. One possibility is that it may affect the areas of the brain involved with the sleep cycle. Modafinil was approved for medical use in the United States in 1998. In the United States it is classified as a schedule IV controlled substance due to concerns about addiction. In the United Kingdom it is a prescription only medication. It is avaliable as a generic medication. In the United Kingdom it costs the NHS about £105.21 a month as of 2018. In the United States the wholesale cost per month is about 34.20 USD as of 2018.

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Morvan's syndrome

Morvan's syndrome, or Morvan's fibrillary chorea (MFC), is a rare autoimmune disease named after the nineteenth century French physician Augustin Marie Morvan.

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Mount Ida (Crete)

Mount Ida, known variously as Idha, Ídhi, Idi, Ita and now Psiloritis (Ψηλορείτης, "high mountain"), at 2,456 m (8,057 feet), is the highest mountain on Crete.

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Narcolepsy is a long-term neurological disorder that involves a decreased ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles.

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A narrative or story is a report of connected events, real or imaginary, presented in a sequence of written or spoken words, or still or moving images, or both.

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National Institutes of Health

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.

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National Sleep Foundation

The National Sleep Foundation (NSF) is a U.S. nonprofit organization that promotes public understanding of sleep and sleep disorders.

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Neural oscillation

Neural oscillations, or brainwaves, are rhythmic or repetitive patterns of neural activity in the central nervous system.

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Neutral spine

A good posture refers to the "three natural curves are present in a healthy spine.". It is also called Neutral Spine.

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Night owl (person)

A night owl, evening person or simply owl, is a person who tends to stay up until late at night.

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A nightmare, also called a bad dream, Retrieved July 11, 2016.

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Nocturnal penile tumescence

Nocturnal penile tumescence (abbreviated as NPT) is a spontaneous erection of the penis during sleep or when waking up.

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A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.

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Non-rapid eye movement sleep

Non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) is, collectively, sleep stages 1–3, previously known as stages 1–4.

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Nonbenzodiazepines (sometimes referred to colloquially as "Z-drugs") are a class of psychoactive drugs that are very benzodiazepine-like in nature.

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A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.

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Nyx (Νύξ, "Night"; Nox) is the Greek goddess (or personification) of the night.

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Obstructive sleep apnea

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common type of sleep apnea and is caused by complete or partial obstructions of the upper airway.

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Old age

Old age refers to ages nearing or surpassing the life expectancy of human beings, and is thus the end of the human life cycle.

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Oleamide is an organic compound with the formula CH3(CH2)7CH.

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Optic chiasm

The optic chiasm or optic chiasma (Greek χίασμα, "crossing", from the Greek χιάζω 'to mark with an X', after the Greek letter 'Χ', chi) is the part of the brain where the optic nerves partially cross.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.

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Paralysis is a loss of muscle function for one or more muscles.

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Parasomnias are a category of sleep disorders that involve abnormal movements, behaviors, emotions, perceptions, and dreams that occur while falling asleep, sleeping, between sleep stages, or during arousal from sleep.

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Paul Klimsch

Hans Paul Klimsch (15 June 1868 in Frankfurt – 4 June 1917) was a German Impressionist painter and illustrator, best known for his landscapes and animals.

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Paired box gene 8, also known as PAX8, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the PAX8 gene.

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Percy Bysshe Shelley

Percy Bysshe Shelley (4 August 17928 July 1822) was one of the major English Romantic poets, and is regarded by some as among the finest lyric and philosophical poets in the English language, and one of the most influential.

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Periodic limb movement disorder

Periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), or periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS), previously known as nocturnal myoclonus, is a sleep disorder where the patient moves limb involuntarily during sleep, and has symptoms or problems related to the movement.

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Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire

Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire occurred intermittently over a period of over two centuries between the Great Fire of Rome in 64 AD under Nero Caesar and the Edict of Milan in 313 AD, in which the Roman Emperors Constantine the Great and Licinius legalised the Christian religion.

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Phase response curve

A phase response curve (PRC) illustrates the transient change in the cycle period of an oscillation induced by a perturbation as a function of the phase at which it is received.

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Phyllis Zee

Phyllis C. Zee, MD, PhD is the Benjamin and Virginia T. Boshes Professor in Neurology, the Director of the Center for Circadian and Sleep Medicine (CCSM) and the Chief of the Division of Sleep Medicine (neurology) at the Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago.

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Pineal gland

The pineal gland, also known as the conarium, kônarion or epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain.

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Polysomnography (PSG), a type of sleep study, is a multi-parametric test used in the study of sleep and as a diagnostic tool in sleep medicine.

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Power nap

A power nap is a short sleep which terminates prior the occurrence of deep sleep (slow-wave sleep (SWS)), intended to quickly revitalize the subject.

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Procedural memory

Procedural memory is a type of implicit memory (unconscious memory) and long-term memory which aids the performance of particular types of tasks without conscious awareness of these previous experiences.

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Prolactin (PRL), also known as luteotropic hormone or luteotropin, is a protein that is best known for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to produce milk.

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Psychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques related to the study of the unconscious mind, which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders.

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Radical (chemistry)

In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.

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Ramadan (رمضان,;In Arabic phonology, it can be, depending on the region. also known as Ramazan, romanized as Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (Sawm) to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief.

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Randomness is the lack of pattern or predictability in events.

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Rapid eye movement sleep

Rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep, REMS) is a unique phase of sleep in mammals and birds, distinguishable by random/rapid movement of the eyes, accompanied with low muscle tone throughout the body, and the propensity of the sleeper to dream vividly.

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Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a sleep disorder (more specifically a parasomnia) in which people act out their dreams.

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Rebound effect

The rebound effect, or rebound phenomenon, is the emergence or re-emergence of symptoms that were either absent or controlled while taking a medication, but appear when that same medication is discontinued, or reduced in dosage.

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Rest in peace

The phrase "Rest in peace", RIP, from Latin: Requiescat in pace) is used in traditional Christian services and prayers, such as in the Anglican, Lutheran, Methodist, and Roman Catholic denominations, sometimes to wish the soul of a decedent eternal rest and peace in Christ. It became ubiquitous on headstones in the 18th century, and is widely used today when mentioning someone's death.

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Restless legs syndrome

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder that causes a strong urge to move one's legs.

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Reticular formation

The reticular formation is a set of interconnected nuclei that are located throughout the brainstem.

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Rheum (from Greek: ῥεῦμα rheuma "a flowing, rheum"), also known as gound, is thin mucus naturally discharged from the eyes, nose, or mouth during sleep (cf. mucopurulent discharge).

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Rip Van Winkle

"Rip Van Winkle" is a short story by the American author Washington Irving first published in 1819.

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Robert McCarley

Robert W. McCarley, MD, (1937–2017) was Chair and Professor of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School and the VA Boston Healthcare System.

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Roger Ekirch


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Samuel Taylor Coleridge

Samuel Taylor Coleridge (21 October 177225 July 1834) was an English poet, literary critic, philosopher and theologian who, with his friend William Wordsworth, was a founder of the Romantic Movement in England and a member of the Lake Poets.

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Saturated fat

A saturated fat is a type of fat in which the fatty acid chains have all or predominantly single bonds.

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Sensory threshold

In psychophysics, sensory threshold is the weakest stimulus that an organism can detect.

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Seven Sleepers

In Christian and Islamic tradition, the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus (lit) is the story of a group of youths who hid inside a cave outside the city of Ephesus around 250 AD to escape a religious persecution and emerge 300 years later.

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Shift work

Shift work is an employment practice designed to make use of, or provide service across, all 24 hours of the clock each day of the week (often abbreviated as 24/7).

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A siesta (Spanish, meaning "nap") is a short nap taken in the early afternoon, often after the midday meal.

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Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.

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Skeletal muscle

Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.

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Sleep and his Half-brother Death

Sleep and his Half-brother Death is a painting by John William Waterhouse completed in 1874.

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Sleep apnea

Sleep apnea, also spelled sleep apnoea, is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing or periods of shallow breathing during sleep.

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Sleep cycle

The sleep cycle is an oscillation between the slow-wave and REM (paradoxical) phases of sleep, sometimes called the ultradian sleep cycle, sleep–dream cycle, or REM-NREM cycle, to distinguish it from the circadian alternation between sleep and wakefulness.

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Sleep deprivation

Sleep deprivation is the condition of not having enough sleep; it can be either chronic or acute.

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Sleep disorder

A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal.

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Sleep epidemiology

Sleep epidemiology is an emerging branch of the discipline of epidemiology.

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Sleep hygiene

Sleep hygiene is the recommended behavioral and environmental practice that is intended to promote better quality sleep.

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Sleep in space

Sleeping in space requires that travelers sleep in a crew cabin, a small room about the size of a shower stall.

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Sleep inertia

Sleep inertia is a physiological state of impaired cognitive and sensory-motor performance that is present immediately after awakening.

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Sleep medicine

Sleep medicine is a medical specialty or subspecialty devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of sleep disturbances and disorders.

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Sleep paralysis

Sleep paralysis is when, during awakening or falling asleep, a person is aware but unable to move or speak.

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Sleep state misperception

Sleep state misperception (SSM) is a term in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD) most commonly used for people who mistakenly perceive their sleep as wakefulness,Minecan, Daniela, and Antonio Culebras.

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Sleep-learning (also known as hypnopædia, or hypnopedia) is an attempt to convey information to a sleeping person, typically by playing a sound recording to them while they sleep.

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Sleeping positions

The sleeping position is the body configuration assumed by a person during or prior to sleeping.

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Sleepwalking, also known as somnambulism or noctambulism, is a phenomenon of combined sleep and wakefulness.

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Slow-wave sleep

Slow-wave sleep (SWS), often referred to as deep sleep, consists of stage three (combined stages 3 and 4) of non-rapid eye movement sleep.

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Somatic (biology)

The term somatic is often used in biology to refer to the cells of the body in contrast to the germ line cells which usually give rise to the gametes (ovum or sperm).

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Somnology is the scientific study of sleep.

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Somnophilia (from Latin "somnus".

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Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.

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Stimulus (physiology)

In physiology, a stimulus (plural stimuli) is a detectable change in the internal or external environment.

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Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome

Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS), also known as sudden adult death syndrome, sudden unexpected/unexplained death syndrome (SUDS), is a sudden unexpected death of adolescents and adults, mainly during sleep.

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Sudden infant death syndrome

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), also known as cot death or crib death, is the sudden unexplained death of a child less than one year of age.

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Suprachiasmatic nucleus

The suprachiasmatic nucleus or nuclei (SCN) is a tiny region of the brain in the hypothalamus, situated directly above the optic chiasm.

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In Greek mythology, Thanatos (Θάνατος, pronounced in "Death", from θνῄσκω thnēskō "to die, be dying") was the personification of death.

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The Interpretation of Dreams

The Interpretation of Dreams (Die Traumdeutung) is an 1899 book by the psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, in which the author introduces his theory of the unconscious with respect to dream interpretation, and discusses what would later become the theory of the Oedipus complex.

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The Sentry (painting)

The Sentry is a 1654 painting of a resting sentry and a dog by Carel Fabritius.

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The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent.

The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent., commonly referred to as The Sketch Book, is a collection of 34 essays and short stories written by the American author Washington Irving.

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The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters

__notoc__ The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters (El sueño de la razón produce monstruos) is an etching by the Spanish painter and printmaker Francisco Goya.

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Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.

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Time in China

The time in China follows a single standard time offset of UTC+08:00 (eight hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time), despite China spanning five geographical time zones.

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Time zone

A time zone is a region of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes.

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Unconscious mind

The unconscious mind (or the unconscious) consists of the processes in the mind which occur automatically and are not available to introspection, and include thought processes, memories, interests, and motivations.

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Unconsciousness is a state which occurs when the ability to maintain an awareness of self and environment is lost.

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Upper airway resistance syndrome

Upper airway resistance syndrome or UARS is a common sleep disorder characterized by the narrowing of the airway that can cause disruptions to sleep.

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Ventrolateral preoptic nucleus

The ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO), also known as the intermediate nucleus of the preoptic area (IPA), is a small cluster of neurons situated in the anterior hypothalamus, sitting just above and to the side of the optic chiasm in the brain of humans and other animals.

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Vincent van Gogh

Vincent Willem van Gogh (30 March 185329 July 1890) was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter who is among the most famous and influential figures in the history of Western art.

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Serine/threonine-protein kinase VRK2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the VRK2 gene.

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Wakefulness is a daily recurring brain state and state of consciousness in which an individual is conscious and engages in coherent cognitive and behavioral responses to the external world such as communication, ambulation, eating, and sex.

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Washington Irving

Washington Irving (April 3, 1783 – November 28, 1859) was an American short story writer, essayist, biographer, historian, and diplomat of the early 19th century.

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Western world

The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.

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White noise

In signal processing, white noise is a random signal having equal intensity at different frequencies, giving it a constant power spectral density.

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Whole grain

A whole grain is a grain of any cereal and pseudocereal that contains the endosperm, germ, and bran, in contrast to refined grains, which retain only the endosperm.

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William-Adolphe Bouguereau

William-Adolphe Bouguereau (30 November 1825 – 19 August 1905) was a French academic painter.

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World Sleep Day

World Sleep Day (the Friday before the northern hemisphere vernal equinox) is an annual event organized by the World Sleep Day Committee of the World Sleep Society, formerly World Association of Sleep Medicine (WASM), since 2008.

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Wound healing

Wound healing is an intricate process in which the skin repairs itself after injury.

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Wrocław's dwarfs

Wrocław’s dwarfs (krasnoludki) are small figurines (20-30 cm) that first appeared in the streets of Wrocław, Poland, in 2005.

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Yoga nidra

Yoga nidra (योग निद्रा) or yogic sleep) is a state of consciousness between waking and sleeping, like the "going-to-sleep" stage. It is a state in which the body is completely relaxed, and the practitioner becomes systematically and increasingly aware of the inner world by following a set of verbal instructions. This state of consciousness (yoga nidra) is different from meditation in which concentration on a single focus is required. In yoga nidra the practitioner remains in a state of light withdrawal of the 5 senses (pratyahara) with four of his or her senses internalised, that is, withdrawn, and only the hearing still connects to the instructions. The yogic goal of both paths, deep relaxation (yoga nidra) and meditation are the same, a state of meditative consciousness called samadhi. Yoga nidra is among the deepest possible states of relaxation while still maintaining full consciousness. In lucid dreaming, one is only, or mainly, cognizant of the dream environment, and has little or no awareness of one's actual environment. The practice of yoga relaxation has been found to reduce tension and anxiety. The autonomic symptoms of high anxiety such as headache, giddiness, chest pain, palpitations, sweating and abdominal pain respond well. It has been used to help soldiers from war cope with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Yoga nidra refers to the conscious awareness of the deep sleep state, referred to as prajna in Mandukya Upanishad.

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Zaleplon (marketed under the brand names Sonata, Starnoc, and Andante) is a sedative-hypnotic, almost entirely used for the management/treatment of insomnia.

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Zolpidem, sold under the brand name Ambien, among others, is a sedative primarily used for the treatment of trouble sleeping.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sleep

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