102 relations: Actigraphy, Acupuncture, Advanced sleep phase disorder, African trypanosomiasis, Alcoholism, American Board of Sleep Medicine, Anxiety disorder, Bruxism, Cataplexy, Catathrenia, Chronotype, Circadian rhythm, Circadian rhythm sleep disorder, Clothing, Delayed sleep phase disorder, Dentistry, Depression (mood), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, DiGeorge syndrome, Disease, DSM-5, Dyssomnia, Eating, Enuresis, Excessive daytime sleepiness, Exploding head syndrome, Family medicine, Fear, Hallucination, Health effects from noise, Hypersomnia, Hypnic jerk, Hypnosis, Hypnotherapy, Hypopnea, Idiopathic disease, Idiopathic hypersomnia, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Insomnia, Internal medicine, International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Irregular sleep–wake rhythm, Jet lag, Kleine–Levin syndrome, List of phobias, Major depressive disorder, Massachusetts General Hospital, Mayo Clinic, Melatonin, Modafinil, ..., Mood disorder, Music therapy, Narcolepsy, Neurology, Night terror, Nocturia, Nocturnal enuresis, Non-24-hour sleep–wake disorder, Obstructive sleep apnea, Otorhinolaryngology, Panic, Panic disorder, Paralysis, Parasomnia, Pediatrics, Periodic limb movement disorder, Polysomnographic technologist, Polysomnography, Psychiatry, Psychosis, Psychotherapy, Questionnaire, Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, Restless legs syndrome, Schizophrenia, Shift work sleep disorder, Sleep, Sleep and breathing, Sleep apnea, Sleep deprivation, Sleep hygiene, Sleep medicine, Sleep onset latency, Sleep paralysis, Sleep sex, Sleep study, Sleepwalking, Snoring, Somatic symptom disorder, Somatosensory system, Somniloquy, Sound, Sundowning, Symptom, The Lancet, Traumatic brain injury, Tsetse fly, Upper airway resistance syndrome, Vegetative symptoms, Visual system, Western world, White noise machine. Expand index (52 more) » « Shrink index
Actigraphy is a non-invasive method of monitoring human rest/activity cycles.
Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine in which thin needles are inserted into the body.
Advanced sleep phase disorder (ASPD), also known as the advanced sleep-phase type (ASPT) of circadian rhythm sleep disorder or advanced sleep phase syndrome (ASPS), is a condition in which patients feel very sleepy and go to bed early in the evening (e.g. 6:00–8:00 p.m.) and wake up very early in the morning (e.g. around 3:00 a.m.).
African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is an insect-borne parasitic disease of humans and other animals.
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.
The American Board of Sleep Medicine (ABSM) says in its website, "The is an independent, nonprofit organization whose certifications are recognized throughout the world as a credential signifying a high level of competence for sleep medicine physicians, PhDs, behavioral sleep medicine specialists and sleep technologists." It shares office space and at least some staff with the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) at 2510 N. Forntage Rd., Darien, Illinois 60561.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.
Bruxism is excessive teeth grinding or jaw clenching.
Cataplexy is a sudden and transient episode of muscle weakness accompanied by full conscious awareness, typically triggered by emotions such as laughing, crying, or terror.
Catathrenia is a rapid eye movement sleep parasomnia consisting of end-inspiratory apnea (breath holding) and expiratory groaning during sleep.
Chronotype refers to the behavioral manifestation of underlying circadian rhythms of myriad physical processes.
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
Circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD) are a family of sleep disorders affecting (among other bodily processes) the timing of sleep.
Clothing (also known as clothes and attire) is a collective term for garments, items worn on the body.
Delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD), more often known as delayed sleep phase syndrome and also as delayed sleep-wake phase disorder, is a chronic dysregulation of a person's circadian rhythm (biological clock), compared to those of the general population and societal norms.
Dentistry is a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the oral cavity, commonly in the dentition but also the oral mucosa, and of adjacent and related structures and tissues, particularly in the maxillofacial (jaw and facial) area.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.
DiGeorge syndrome, also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, is a syndrome caused by the deletion of a small segment of chromosome 22.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) is the 2013 update to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the taxonomic and diagnostic tool published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).
Dyssomnias are a broad classification of sleeping disorders involving difficulty getting to sleep, remaining asleep, or of excessive sleepiness.
Eating (also known as consuming) is the ingestion of food, typically to provide a heterotrophic organism with energy and to allow for growth.
Enuresis (from the Ancient Greek ἐνούρησις enoúrēsis) is a repeated inability to control urination.
Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is characterized by persistent sleepiness and often a general lack of energy, even during the day after apparently adequate or even prolonged nighttime sleep.
Exploding head syndrome (EHS), alternately termed episodic cranial sensory shock, is a benign condition in which a person experiences unreal noises that are loud and short, like a bomb exploding or a gunshot, when falling asleep or waking up.
Family medicine (FM), formerly family practice (FP), is a medical specialty devoted to comprehensive health care for people of all ages; the specialist is named a family physician or family doctor.
Fear is a feeling induced by perceived danger or threat that occurs in certain types of organisms, which causes a change in metabolic and organ functions and ultimately a change in behavior, such as fleeing, hiding, or freezing from perceived traumatic events.
A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.
Noise health effects are the physical and psychological health consequences of regular exposure, to consistent elevated sound levels.
Hypersomnia, or hypersomnolence, is a neurological disorder of excessive time spent sleeping or excessive sleepiness.
A hypnic jerk, hypnagogic jerk, sleep start, sleep twitch, myoclonic jerk, or night start is an involuntary twitch which occurs when a person is beginning to fall asleep, often causing them to jump and awaken suddenly for a moment.
Hypnosis is a state of human consciousness involving focused attention and reduced peripheral awareness and an enhanced capacity to respond to suggestion.
Hypnotherapy is a type of complementary and alternative medicine in which the mind is used in an attempt to help with a variety of problems, such as breaking bad habits or coping with stress.
hypopnoea is overly shallow breathing or an abnormally low respiratory rate.
An idiopathic disease is any disease with an unknown cause or mechanism of apparently spontaneous origin.
Idiopathic hypersomnia is a neurological disorder which is characterized primarily by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS).
Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust is an NHS trust based in London, United Kingdom.
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.
Internal medicine or general medicine (in Commonwealth nations) is the medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases.
The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD) is "a primary diagnostic, epidemiological and coding resource for clinicians and researchers in the field of sleep and sleep medicine".
Irregular sleep–wake rhythm is a rare form of circadian rhythm sleep disorder.
Jet lag is a physiological condition which results from alterations to the body's circadian rhythms caused by rapid long-distance trans-meridian (east–west or west–east) travel.
Kleine–Levin syndrome (KLS), also known as Sleeping Beauty syndrome, is a rare sleep disorder characterized by persistent episodic hypersomnia and cognitive or mood changes.
The English suffixes -phobia, -phobic, -phobe (from Greek φόβος phobos, "fear") occur in technical usage in psychiatry to construct words that describe irrational, abnormal, unwarranted, persistent, or disabling fear as a mental disorder (e.g. agoraphobia), in chemistry to describe chemical aversions (e.g. hydrophobic), in biology to describe organisms that dislike certain conditions (e.g. acidophobia), and in medicine to describe hypersensitivity to a stimulus, usually sensory (e.g. photophobia).
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Massachusetts General Hospital (Mass General or MGH) is the original and largest teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School and a biomedical research facility located in the West End neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts.
The Mayo Clinic is a nonprofit academic medical center based in Rochester, Minnesota focused on integrated clinical practice, education, and research.
Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine, is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals and regulates sleep and wakefulness.
Modafinil, sold under the brand name Provigil among others, is a medication to treat sleepiness due to narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In OSA continuous positive airway pressure is the preferred treatment. While it has seen off-label use as a purported cognitive enhancer, evidence for any benefit is lacking. It is taken by mouth. Common side effects include headache, anxiety, trouble sleeping, and nausea. Serious side effects may include allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, abuse, or hallucinations. It is unclear if use during pregnancy is safe. The amount of medication used may need to be adjusted in those with kidney or liver problems. It is not recommended in those with an arrhythmia, significant hypertension, or left ventricular hypertrophy. How it works is not entirely clear. One possibility is that it may affect the areas of the brain involved with the sleep cycle. Modafinil was approved for medical use in the United States in 1998. In the United States it is classified as a schedule IV controlled substance due to concerns about addiction. In the United Kingdom it is a prescription only medication. It is avaliable as a generic medication. In the United Kingdom it costs the NHS about £105.21 a month as of 2018. In the United States the wholesale cost per month is about 34.20 USD as of 2018.
Mood disorder, also known as mood (affective) disorders, is a group of conditions where a disturbance in the person's mood is the main underlying feature.
Music therapy is the clinical and evidence-based use of music interventions to accomplish individualized goals within a therapeutic relationship by a credentialed professional who has completed an approved music therapy program.
Narcolepsy is a long-term neurological disorder that involves a decreased ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
Night terror, also known as sleep terror, is a sleep disorder, causing feelings of terror or dread, and typically occurs during the first hours of stage 3–4 non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep.
Nocturia (derived from Latin nox, night, and Greek ούρα, urine), also called nycturia (Greek νυκτουρία), is defined by the International Continence Society (ICS) as “the complaint that the individual has to wake at night one or more times for voiding (i.e. to urinate).” Its causes are varied and, in many patients, difficult to discern.
Nocturnal enuresis, also called bedwetting, is involuntary urination while asleep after the age at which bladder control usually occurs.
Non-24-hour sleep–wake disorder (non-24), is one of several chronic circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSDs).
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common type of sleep apnea and is caused by complete or partial obstructions of the upper airway.
Otorhinolaryngology (also called otolaryngology and otolaryngology–head and neck surgery) is a surgical subspecialty within medicine that deals with conditions of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) and related structures of the head and neck.
Panic is a sudden sensation of fear, which is so strong as to dominate or prevent reason and logical thinking, replacing it with overwhelming feelings of anxiety and frantic agitation consistent with an animalistic fight-or-flight reaction.
Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by reoccurring unexpected panic attacks.
Paralysis is a loss of muscle function for one or more muscles.
Parasomnias are a category of sleep disorders that involve abnormal movements, behaviors, emotions, perceptions, and dreams that occur while falling asleep, sleeping, between sleep stages, or during arousal from sleep.
Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents.
Periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), or periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS), previously known as nocturnal myoclonus, is a sleep disorder where the patient moves limb involuntarily during sleep, and has symptoms or problems related to the movement.
A polysomnographic technologist (formerly called a polysomnographic technician) performs overnight, daytime, or home sleep studies, polysomnograms, on people with suspected sleep disorders.
Polysomnography (PSG), a type of sleep study, is a multi-parametric test used in the study of sleep and as a diagnostic tool in sleep medicine.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.
Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.
A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions (or other types of prompts) for the purpose of gathering information from respondents.
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a sleep disorder (more specifically a parasomnia) in which people act out their dreams.
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder that causes a strong urge to move one's legs.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
Shift work sleep disorder (SWSD) is a circadian rhythm sleep disorder characterized by insomnia and excessive sleepiness affecting people whose work hours overlap with the typical sleep period.
Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.
Significant physiologic changes in breathing take place during normal sleep related to alterations in respiratory drive and musculature.
Sleep apnea, also spelled sleep apnoea, is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing or periods of shallow breathing during sleep.
Sleep deprivation is the condition of not having enough sleep; it can be either chronic or acute.
Sleep hygiene is the recommended behavioral and environmental practice that is intended to promote better quality sleep.
Sleep medicine is a medical specialty or subspecialty devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of sleep disturbances and disorders.
In sleep science, sleep onset latency (SOL) is the length of time that it takes to accomplish the transition from full wakefulness to sleep, normally to the lightest of the non-REM sleep stages.
Sleep paralysis is when, during awakening or falling asleep, a person is aware but unable to move or speak.
Sexsomnia, also known as sleep sex, is a distinct form of parasomnia, or an abnormal activity that occurs while an individual is asleep.
Sleep studies are tests that record the body activity during sleep.
Sleepwalking, also known as somnambulism or noctambulism, is a phenomenon of combined sleep and wakefulness.
Snoring is the vibration of respiratory structures and the resulting sound due to obstructed air movement during breathing while sleeping.
A somatic symptom disorder, formerly known as a somatoform disorder,(2013) " " dsm5.org.
The somatosensory system is a part of the sensory nervous system.
Somniloquy or sleep-talking is a parasomnia that refers to talking aloud while asleep.
In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.
Sundowning, or sundown syndrome, is a neurological phenomenon associated with increased confusion and restlessness in patients with delirium or some form of dementia.
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force injures the brain.
Tsetse, sometimes spelled tzetze and also known as tik-tik flies, are large biting flies that inhabit much of tropical Africa.
Upper airway resistance syndrome or UARS is a common sleep disorder characterized by the narrowing of the airway that can cause disruptions to sleep.
Vegetative symptoms are disturbances of a person's functions necessary to maintain life (vegetative functions).
The visual system is the part of the central nervous system which gives organisms the ability to process visual detail, as well as enabling the formation of several non-image photo response functions.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
A white noise machine is a device that produces a sound with a random character, which sounds like a rushing waterfall or wind blowing through trees.
Child sleep disturbance, Disorders of sleep, Sleep Disorder, Sleep abnormalities, Sleep abnormality, Sleep disorders, Sleep disorders, intrinsic, Sleep disturbance, Sleep disturbances, Sleep problem, Sleep problems, Sleep-wake disorder, Sleeping disorder, Sleeping disorders, Sleeping pattern, Somnipathy.