217 relations: Adriatic Sea, Adriatic Veneti, Age of Enlightenment, Alps, Anti-Communist Volunteer Militia, Anton Tomaž Linhart, Anton Vovk, Arbitrariness, Argentina, Austria, Austria-Hungary, Austrian Empire, Austrian Littoral, Austrian State Treaty, Austrians, Austro-Hungarian Army, Austro-Slavism, Axis powers, Baroque, Battles of the Isonzo, Benito Mussolini, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, Black panther (symbol), Bosnians, Breakup of Yugoslavia, Carantania, Carantanians, Carinthia, Carinthia (disambiguation), Carinthian plebiscite, 1920, Carinthian Slovenes, Carolingian dynasty, Catholic Church, Central Slovenia Statistical Region, Chetniks, Chicago, Christianity, Circa, Cleveland, Collective farming, Commission for the Prevention of Corruption of the Republic of Slovenia, Committee for the Defence of Human Rights, Constitution of Slovenia, Contributions to the Slovenian National Program, Counter-Reformation, Croatia, Croats, Culture of Slovenia, Czechs, Dachau trials (Slovenia), ..., Drava Banovina, Dušan Pirjevec, Duchy of Carinthia, East Slavs, Eastern Bloc, Eastern Front (World War II), Edvard Kardelj, Edvard Kocbek, Elbe, Ethnic group, Ethnography, European Union, Extermination camp, First French Empire, Flag of Slovenia, Foibe massacres, France Prešeren, Franks, Free Territory of Trieste, Germanic peoples, Germanisation, Germans, Goli otok, Gonars concentration camp, Gorizia, Gottschee, Government of National Salvation, Grammar, Great Britain, Haplogroup R1a, History of Slovenia, Hungarian Slovenes, Hungarians, Hungary, Illyrian movement, Illyrian Provinces, Independent State of Croatia, Indigenism, Industrialisation, Internment, Iron Range, Islam in Slovenia, Istrian Italians, Istrian-Dalmatian exodus, Italian war crimes, Italianization, Italians, Jörg Haider, Jernej Kopitar, Jože Pučnik, Joliet, Illinois, Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, Josip Broz Tito, Julian March, Jurij Dalmatin, Karawanks, Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Kočevski Rog massacre, Labor camp, Landeshauptmann, League of Communists of Slovenia, Liberation Front of the Slovene Nation, List of Italian concentration camps, List of Slovenes, Ljubljana school of psychoanalysis, Lombards, Lower Carniola, Lower West Side, Chicago, Lutheranism, Maria Theresa, Mario Roatta, Market socialism, Matija Čop, Middle Ages, Milan Kučan, Minnesota, Mladina, Montenegrins, Moravia, Napoleonic Wars, Nation state, Nazi concentration camps, Nazi Germany, Nazism, Neue Slowenische Kunst, Nova revija (magazine), Novo Mesto, Pan-Slavism, Pannonian Avars, Pannonian Basin, Pittsburgh, Pluralism (political philosophy), Prekmurje Slovenes, Primož Trubar, Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca, Principality, Privatization, Protestantism, Protochronism, Province of Ljubljana, Rab concentration camp, Reformation, Refugee camp, Resistance movement, Revolutions of 1848, Rock Springs, Wyoming, Samo, Samo's Empire, Sardinia, Second Italo-Ethiopian War, Slavic settlement of the Eastern Alps, Slavs, Slovaks, Slovene Americans, Slovene Argentines, Slovene Australians, Slovene Canadians, Slovene Covenant, Slovene Home Guard, Slovene Istria, Slovene Lands, Slovene language, Slovene Littoral, Slovene minority in Italy, Slovene minority in Italy (1920–47), Slovene National Benefit Society, Slovene Partisans, Slovenia, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Socialist Republic of Slovenia, Sokol, Sorbs, South America, South Italy, South Slavs, Spanish Civil War, Stalinism, State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, States of Austria, Statistics Canada, Styria, Styria (Slovenia), Subdivisions of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Taras Kermauner, Ten-Day War, The Holocaust, Tito–Stalin Split, Treaty of Osimo, Treaty of Rapallo (1920), Trieste, Triglav, United Nations, United Slovenia, Upper Carniola, Vandals, Venetic theory, Wehrmacht, Wends, West Slavs, West Virginia, Windic March, Workers' self-management, World War I, Wyoming, Youngstown, Ohio, 2012–13 Slovenian protests. Expand index (167 more) » « Shrink index
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.
The Veneti (in Latin, also Heneti) were an Indo-European people who inhabited northeastern Italy, in an area corresponding to the modern-day region of Veneto.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.
The Anti-Communist Volunteer Militia (Milizia Volontaria Anti Comunista, MVAC) were local armed auxiliary units composed of Chetniks and Slovene anti-Partisans in Italian-occupied parts of Yugoslavia.
Anton Tomaž Linhart (11 December 1756 – 14/15 July 1795) was a Carniolan playwright and historian, best known as the author of the first comedy and theatrical play in general in Slovene, Županova Micka (Micka, the Mayor's Daughter).
The Archbishop Anton Vovk (19 May 1900 – 7 July 1963) was born in the village of Vrba in Upper Carniola in the same house where the poet France Prešeren had been born 100 years earlier (Vovk was Prešeren’s grand-nephew because his grandmother Marija “Mina” Volk was Prešeren’s sister).
Arbitrariness is the quality of being "determined by chance, whim, or impulse, and not by necessity, reason, or principle".
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.
The Austrian Littoral (Österreichisches Küstenland, Litorale Austriaco, Avstrijsko primorje, Austrijsko primorje, Osztrák Partvidék) was a crown land (Kronland) of the Austrian Empire, established in 1849.
The Austrian State Treaty (German) or Austrian Independence Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state.
Austrians (Österreicher) are a Germanic nation and ethnic group, native to modern Austria and South Tyrol that share a common Austrian culture, Austrian descent and Austrian history.
The Austro-Hungarian Army (Landstreitkräfte Österreich-Ungarns; Császári és Királyi Hadsereg) was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy from 1867 to 1918.
Austro-Slavism was a political concept and program aimed to solve problems of Slavic peoples in the Austrian Empire.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
The Battles of the Isonzo (known as the Isonzo Front by historians, soška fronta) were a series of 12 battles between the Austro-Hungarian and Italian armies in World War I mostly on the territory of present-day Slovenia, and the remainder in Italy along the Isonzo River on the eastern sector of the Italian Front between June 1915 and November 1917.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
Bethlehem is a city in Lehigh and Northampton counties in the Lehigh Valley region of the eastern portion of the U.S. state of Pennsylvania.
The black panther (črni panter), also known as the Carantanian panter (karantanski panter) after the Medieval principality of Carantania, is a Carinthian historical symbol, which represents a stilized heraldic panther.
Bosnians (Serbo-Croatian: Bosanci/Босанци; singular: Bosnian (Bosanac/Босанац) are people who live in Bosnia, or who are of Bosnian descent. Bosnia is one of two main regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina. According to the latest official population census made in Bosnia and Herzegovina, most of the people identified with Bosniak, Croat or Serb nationality. Some people identified with "Bosnian" nationality, however these are listed under the category "Others" (along with all the other options such as Jews, Romas etc.). According to the latest population census (2013), there were around 2.7% "Others". According to some, a Bosnian can be anyone who holds citizenship of the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and thus is largely synonymous with the all-encompassing national demonym Bosnians and Herzegovinians. This includes, but is not limited to, members of the constituent ethnic groups of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats. Those who reside in the smaller geographical region of Herzegovina usually prefer to identify as Herzegovinians. CIA factbook, used in this article as a source for numbers, does not mention a sole "Bosnian" nationality. Instead it mentions "Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)" thereby emphasizing the regional significance and equity between the terms. Ethnic minorities in this territory, such as Jews, Roma, Albanians, Montenegrins and others, may consider Bosnian as an adjective modifying their ethnicity (e.g. Bosnian Roma) to indicate place of residence. Other times they use (with equal rights) the term Herzegovinians. In addition, a sizable population in Bosnia and Herzegovina believe that the term "Bosnians" defines a people who constitute a distinct collective cultural identity or ethnic group. According to the latest (2013) census however, this population does not rise above 2.7%. According to a study conducted by University of Montenegro, Faculty for Sport and Physical Education, Nikšić, Montenegro and University of Novi Sad in Serbia, Bosnian people are the tallest in the world.
The breakup of Yugoslavia occurred as a result of a series of political upheavals and conflicts during the early 1990s.
Carantania, also known as Carentania (Karantanija, Karantanien, in Old Slavic *Korǫtanъ), was a Slavic principality that emerged in the second half of the 7th century, in the territory of present-day southern Austria and north-eastern Slovenia.
Carantanians (Quarantani; Karantanci) were a Slavic people of the Early Middle Ages (Latin: Sclavi qui dicuntur Quarantani, or "Slavs called Caranthanians").
Carinthia is a federal state of Austria.
The Carinthian plebiscite (Kärntner Volksabstimmung, Koroški plebiscit) was held on 10 October 1920 in the area predominantly settled by Carinthian Slovenes.
Carinthian Slovenes or Carinthian Slovenians (Koroški Slovenci; Kärntner Slowenen) are the indigenous Slovene-speaking population group in the Austrian state of Carinthia.
The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Central Slovenia Statistical Region (Osrednjeslovenska statistična regija) is a statistical region in central Slovenia.
The Chetnik Detachments of the Yugoslav Army, also known as the Yugoslav Army in the Homeland or The Ravna Gora Movement, commonly known as the Chetniks (Četnici, Четници,; Četniki), was a World War II movement in Yugoslavia led by Draža Mihailović, an anti-Axis movement in their long-term goals which engaged in marginal resistance activities for limited periods.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Circa, usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.
Cleveland is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio, and the county seat of Cuyahoga County.
Collective farming and communal farming are various types of "agricultural production in which multiple farmers run their holdings as a joint enterprise." That type of collective is often an agricultural cooperative in which member-owners jointly engage in farming activities.
The Commission for the Prevention of Corruption of the Republic of Slovenia (acronym CPC; "Komisija za preprečevanje korupcije Republike Slovenije", KPK) is an independent anti-corruption agency with a broad mandate in the field of preventing and investigating corruption, breaches of ethics and integrity of public office.
The Committee for the Defence of Human Rights (Odbor za varstvo človekovih pravic) was a civil society organization in Slovenia, which functioned during the so-called Slovenian Spring between 1988 and 1990.
The Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia (Ustava Republike Slovenije) is the fundamental law of the Republic of Slovenia.
Contributions to the Slovenian National Program (Prispevki za slovenski nacionalni program), also known as Nova revija 57 or 57th edition of Nova revija (57.) was a special issue of the Slovenian opposition intellectual journal Nova revija, published in January 1987.
The Counter-Reformation, also called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648).
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
Croats (Hrvati) or Croatians are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Croatia.
Among the modes of expression of the culture of Slovenia, a nation state in Central Europe, are music and dance, literature, visual arts, film and theatre.
The Czechs (Češi,; singular masculine: Čech, singular feminine: Češka) or the Czech people (Český národ), are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture, history and Czech language.
The Dachau trials (Dachauski procesi)Ivanič, Martin.
The Drava Banovina or Drava Banate (Dravska banovina) was a province (banovina) of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1929 and 1941.
Dušan Pirjevec, known by his nom de guerre Ahac (20 March 1921 – 4 August 1977), was a Slovenian resistance fighter, literary historian and philosopher.
The Duchy of Carinthia (Herzogtum Kärnten; Vojvodina Koroška) was a duchy located in southern Austria and parts of northern Slovenia.
The East Slavs are Slavic peoples speaking the East Slavic languages.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
Edvard Kardelj (27 January 1910 – 10 February 1979), also known under the pseudonyms Bevc, Sperans and Krištof, was a Yugoslav journalist from Ljubljana, Slovenia, and one of the leading members of the illegal Communist Party of Slovenia before World War II.
Edvard Kocbek (27 September 1904 – 3 November 1981) was a Slovenian poet, writer, essayist, translator, member of Christian Socialists in the Liberation Front of the Slovene Nation and Slovene Partisans.
The Elbe (Elbe; Low German: Elv) is one of the major rivers of Central Europe.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Nazi Germany built extermination camps (also called death camps or killing centers) during the Holocaust in World War II, to systematically kill millions of Jews, Slavs, Communists, and others whom the Nazis considered "Untermenschen" ("subhumans").
The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
The national flag of Slovenia features three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red, with the Slovenian coat of arms located in the upper hoist side of the flag centred in the white and blue bands.
The 'foibe massacres', or simply 'the foibe', literally refers to mass killings by which the corpses were thrown into foibas (deep natural sinkholes; by extension also mine shafts etc.), perpetrated mainly by Yugoslav Partisans (but possibly also by Germans or fascists), mainly in Venezia Giulia, Istria and Dalmatia, against the local Italian population, during and after World War II.
France Prešeren (2 or 3 December 1800 – 8 February 1849) was a 19th-century Romantic Slovene poet, best known as the poet who has inspired virtually all later Slovene literature and has been generally acknowledged as the greatest Slovene classical author.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
The Free Territory of Trieste (Territorio libero di Trieste, Svobodno tržaško ozemlje; Slobodni Teritorij Trsta) was an independent territory situated in Central Europe between northern Italy and Yugoslavia, facing the north part of the Adriatic Sea, under direct responsibility of the United Nations Security Council in the aftermath of World War II.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Germanisation (also spelled Germanization) is the spread of the German language, people and culture or policies which introduced these changes.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Goli otok (meaning "barren island"; Isola Calva) is a barren, uninhabited island that was the site of a political prison in use when Croatia was part of Yugoslavia.
Monument for Slovenes The Gonars concentration camp was one of the several Italian concentration camps and it was established on February 23, 1942, near Gonars, Italy.
Gorizia (Gorica, colloquially stara Gorica 'old Gorizia'; Görz, Standard Friulian: Gurize; Southeastern Friulian: Guriza; Bisiacco: Gorisia) is a town and comune in northeastern Italy, in the autonomous region of Friuli Venezia Giulia.
Gottschee (Kočevsko) refers to a former German-speaking region in Carniola, a crownland of the Habsburg Empire, part of the historical and traditional region of Lower Carniola, now in Slovenia.
The Government of National Salvation (Vlada narodnog spasa / Влада народног спаса; Regierung der nationalen Rettung), also referred to as the Nedić's regime (Nedićev režim / Недићев режим), was the second Serbian puppet government, after the Commissioner Government, established on the Territory of the (German) Military Commander in Serbia during World War II.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
Haplogroup R1a, or haplogroup R-M420, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup which is distributed in a large region in Eurasia, extending from Scandinavia and Central Europe to southern Siberia and South Asia.
The history of Slovenia chronicles the period of the Slovene territory from the 5th century BC to the present.
Hungarian Slovenes (Slovene: Madžarski Slovenci, Magyarországi szlovének) are an autochthonous ethnic and linguistic Slovene minority living in Hungary.
Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
The Illyrian movement (Ilirski pokret, Ilirsko gibanje) was a pan-South-Slavist cultural and political campaign with roots in the early modern period, and revived by a group of young Croatian intellectuals during the first half of the 19th century, around the years of 1835–1849 (there is some disagreement regarding the official dates).
The Illyrian Provinces was an autonomous province of France during the First French Empire that existed under Napoleonic Rule from 1809 to 1814.
The Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH; Unabhängiger Staat Kroatien; Stato Indipendente di Croazia) was a World War II fascist puppet state of Germany and Italy.
Indigenism can refer to several different ideologies associated with indigenous peoples, is used differently by a various scholars and activists, and can be used purely descriptively or carry political connotations.
Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.
Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges, and thus no trial.
Iron Range refers collectively or individually to a number of elongated iron-ore mining districts around Lake Superior in the United States and Canada.
The Muslims in Slovenia are ethnically mostly Bosniaks and other Slavic Muslims.
Istrian Italians are an ethnic group in the northern Adriatic region of Istria, related to the Italian people of Italy.
The term Istrian-Dalmatian exodus refers to the post-World War II expulsion and departure of ethnic Italians from the Yugoslav territory of Istria, as well as the cities of Zadar and Rijeka.
Italian war crimes have mainly been associated with Fascist Italy in the Pacification of Libya, the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, and World War II.
Italianization (Italianizzazione; talijanizacija; poitaljančevanje; Italianisierung; Ιταλοποίηση) is the spread of Italian culture, people, or language, either by integration or assimilation.
The Italians (Italiani) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula.
Jörg Haider (26 January 1950 – 11 October 2008) was an Austrian politician.
Jernej Bartol Kopitar (21 August 1780 – 11 August 1844) was a Slovene linguist and philologist working in Vienna.
Jože Pučnik (9 March 1932 – 11 January 2003) was a Slovenian patriot, public intellectual, sociologist and politician.
Joliet is a city in Will and Kendall counties in the U.S. state of Illinois, southwest of Chicago.
Joseph II (Joseph Benedikt Anton Michael Adam; 13 March 1741 – 20 February 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to his death.
Josip Broz (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз,; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (Cyrillic: Тито), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and political leader, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.
The Julian March (Serbo-Croatian, Slovene: Julijska krajina) or Julian Venetia (Venezia Giulia; Venesia Julia; Vignesie Julie; Julisch Venetien) is an area of southeastern Europe which is divided among Croatia, Italy and Slovenia.
Jurij Dalmatin (– 31 August 1589) was a Slovene Lutheran minister, reformer, writer and translator.
The Karawanks or Karavankas or Karavanks (Karavanke, Karawanken) are a mountain range of the Southern Limestone Alps on the border between Slovenia to the south and Austria to the north.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija, Краљевина Југославија; Кралство Југославија) was a state in Southeast Europe and Central Europe, that existed from 1918 until 1941, during the interwar period and beginning of World War II.
The Kočevski Rog massacre was a series of massacres near Kočevski Rog in late May 1945 in which thousands of members of the Nazi Germany–allied Slovene Home Guard and their families were executed without formal charges or trial by special units of the Yugoslav Partisans; other victims were Croat, Serb and Montenegrin collaborationists, Italian and German troops.
A labor camp (or labour, see spelling differences) or work camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are forced to engage in penal labor as a form of punishment under the criminal code.
Landeshauptmann (if male) or Landeshauptfrau (if female) ("state captain", plural Landeshauptleute) is the chairman of a state government and the supreme official of an Austrian state and the Italian autonomous provinces of South Tyrol and Trentino, corresponding to the title of minister-president or premier.
The League of Communists of Slovenia (Zveza komunistov Slovenije, ZKS; Savez komunista Slovenije) was the Slovenian branch of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, the sole legal party of Yugoslavia from 1945 to 1989.
The Liberation Front of the Slovene Nation (Osvobodilna fronta slovenskega naroda), or simply Liberation Front (Osvobodilna fronta, acronym OF), originally called the Anti-Imperialist Front (Protiimperialistična fronta, PIF), was the main anti-fascist Slovene civil resistance and political organization.
Italian concentration camps include camps from the Italian colonial wars in Africa as well as camps for the civilian population from areas occupied by Italy during World War II.
This is a list of Slovenes and people from Slovenia that are notable.
Ljubljana school of psychoanalysis (Ljubljanska psihoanalitska šola or Ljubljanska šola za psihoanalizo), also known as the Ljubljana Lacanian School (Ljubljanska lakanovska šola) is a popular name for a school of thought centred on the Society for Theoretical Psychoanalysis based in Ljubljana, Slovenia.
The Lombards or Longobards (Langobardi, Longobardi, Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.
Lower Carniola (Dolenjska; Unterkrain) is a traditional region in Slovenia, the southeastern part of the historical Carniola region.
Lower West Side is a community area on the West Side of Chicago, Illinois, United States.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina (Maria Theresia; 13 May 1717 – 29 November 1780) was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg.
Mario Roatta (2 February 1887 – 7 January 1968) was an Italian general, best known for his role in Italian Second Army's repression against civilians, that matched the German one in the Slovene- and Croatian-inhabited areas of the Italian-occupied Yugoslavia during World War II.
Market socialism is a type of economic system involving the public, cooperative or social ownership of the means of production in the framework of a market economy.
Matija Čop (26 January 1797 – 6 July 1835), also known in German as Matthias Tschop, was a Slovene linguist, literary historian and critic.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Milan Kučan (born 14 January 1941) is a Slovenian politician who was the first President of Slovenia from 1991 to 2002.
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States.
Mladina is a Slovenian weekly left-wing current affairs magazine.
Montenegrins (Montenegrin: Црногорци/Crnogorci, or), literally "People of the Black Mountain", are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Montenegro.
Moravia (Morava;; Morawy; Moravia) is a historical country in the Czech Republic (forming its eastern part) and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
Neue Slowenische Kunst (a German phrase meaning "New Slovenian Art"), a.k.a. NSK, is a controversial political art collective that formed in Slovenia in 1984, when Slovenia was part of Yugoslavia.
Nova revija (Slovene for New Review or New Journal) is a Slovene language literary magazine published in Slovenia.
Novo Mesto (Novo mesto; also known by other alternative names) is the city on a bend of the Krka River in the City Municipality of Novo Mesto in southeastern Slovenia, close to the border with Croatia.
Pan-Slavism, a movement which crystallized in the mid-19th century, is the political ideology concerned with the advancement of integrity and unity for the Slavic-speaking peoples.
The Pannonian Avars (also known as the Obri in chronicles of Rus, the Abaroi or Varchonitai at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine (Varchonites) or Pseudo-Avars in Byzantine sources) were a group of Eurasian nomads of unknown origin: "...
The Pannonian Basin, or Carpathian Basin, is a large basin in Central Europe.
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, and is the county seat of Allegheny County.
Pluralism as a political philosophy is the recognition and affirmation of diversity within a political body, which permits the peaceful coexistence of different interests, convictions and lifestyles.
The Prekmurje Slovenes (Prekmurci,Prekmürci, Prekmörci, Prekmörge) are Slovenes from Prekmurje in Slovenia and Vendvidék and Somogy in Hungary.
Primož Trubar or Primus Truber (1508 – 28 June 1586) was a Slovenian Protestant Reformer of the Lutheran tradition, mostly known as the author of the first Slovene language printed book, the founder and the first superintendent of the Protestant Church of the Duchy of Carniola, and for consolidating the Slovene language.
The Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca (Gefürstete Grafschaft Görz und Gradisca; Principesca Contea di Gorizia e Gradisca; Poknežena grofija Goriška in Gradiščanska) was a crown land of the Habsburg dynasty within the Austrian Littoral on the Adriatic Sea, in what is now a multilingual border area of Italy and Slovenia.
A principality (or princedom) can either be a monarchical feudatory or a sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a monarch with the title of prince or by a monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Protochronism (anglicized from the Protocronism, from the Ancient Greek terms for "first in time") is a Romanian term describing the tendency to ascribe, largely relying on questionable data and subjective interpretations, an idealized past to the country as a whole.
The Province of Ljubljana (Provincia di Lubiana, Ljubljanska pokrajina, Provinz Laibach) was the central-southern area of Slovenia.
The Rab concentration camp (Campo di concentramento per internati civili di Guerra – Arbe; Koncentracijski logor Rab; Koncentracijsko taborišče Rab) was one of the several Italian concentration camps and it was established during World War II, in July 1942, on the Italian-occupied island of Rab (now in Croatia).
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
A refugee camp is a temporary settlement built to receive refugees and people in refugee-like situations.
A resistance movement is an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to withstand the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability.
The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848.
Rock Springs is a city in Sweetwater County, Wyoming, United States.
Samo founded the first recorded political union of Slavic tribes, known as Samo's Empire (realm, kingdom, or tribal union), stretching from Silesia to present-day Slovenia, ruling from 623 until his death in 658.
Samo's Empire is the historiographical name for the West Slavic tribal union established by King ("Rex") Samo, which existed between 631 and 658.
The Second Italo-Ethiopian War, also referred to as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, was a colonial war from 3 October 1935 until 1939, despite the Italian claim to have defeated Ethiopia by 5 May 1936, the date of the capture of Addis Ababa.
The settlement of the Eastern Alps region by early Slavs took place during the 6th to 8th centuries.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
The Slovaks or Slovak people (Slováci, singular Slovák, feminine Slovenka, plural Slovenky) are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Slovakia who share a common ancestry, culture, history and speak the Slovak language.
Slovene Americans or Slovenian Americans are Americans of full or partial Slovene or Slovenian ancestry.
Argentines of Slovene descent, also Slovene Argentines or Argentine Slovenes (argentinski Slovenci) are the Slovenes residing in Argentina.
Slovenian Australians are Australian citizens who are fully or partially of Slovene descent or Slovenia-born people who reside in Australia.
Slovene Canadians (literally 'Canadian Slovenes') are Canadian citizens of Slovene descent or Slovenian-born people who reside in Canada.
The Slovene Covenant (Slovenska zaveza) was an underground anti-communist organisation formed in Slovenia in April 1942 by a number of non-communist political parties after the killing of Avgust Praprotnik by operatives from the Security and Intelligence Service (Varnostnoobveščevalna služba, VOS), a forerunner of the Yugoslav secret police.
The Slovene Home Guard (Slovensko domobranstvo; Slowenische Landeswehr) was a Slovene military anti-Partisan organization during the 1943-1945 German occupation of the formerly Italian-occupied Province of Ljubljana.
Slovene Istria (slovenska Istra, Istria slovena) is a region in southwest of Slovenia.
Slovene Lands or Slovenian Lands (Slovenske dežele or in short Slovensko) is the historical denomination for the territories in Central and Southern Europe where people primarily spoke Slovene.
Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.
The Slovene Littoral (Primorska,; Litorale; Küstenland) is one of the five traditional regions of Slovenia.
Slovene minority in Italy (Minoranza slovena in Italia, Slovenska manjšina v Italiji), also known as Slovenes in Italy (Sloveni in Italia, Slovenci v Italiji) is the name given to Italian citizens who belong to the autochthonous Slovene ethnic and linguistic minority living in the Italian autonomous region of Friuli – Venezia Giulia.
The Slovene minority in Italy (1920–1947) was the indigenous Slovene population—approximately 327,000 out of a total population of 1.3Lipušček, U. (2012) Sacro egoismo: Slovenci v krempljih tajnega londonskega pakta 1915, Cankarjeva založba, Ljubljana.
The Slovene National Benefit Society, known in Slovenian as Slovenska narodna podporna jednota, and by its Slovene initials S.N.P.J. is an ethnic fraternal benefit and social organization for Slovene immigrants and their descendants in the United States.
The Slovene Partisans (formally National Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Slovenia) were part of Europe's most effective anti-Nazi resistance movementJeffreys-Jones, R. (2013): In Spies We Trust: The Story of Western Intelligence, Oxford University Press,, Adams, Simon (2005): The Balkans, Black Rabbit Books,, led by Yugoslav revolutionary communists during World War II, the Yugoslav Partisans.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
The Socialist Republic of Slovenia (Socialistična republika Slovenija) was one of the six republics forming the post-World War II country of Yugoslavia.
The Sokol movement (falcon) is an all-age gymnastics organization first founded in Prague in the Czech region of Austria-Hungary in 1862 by Miroslav Tyrš and Jindřich Fügner.
Sorbs (Serbja, Serby, Sorben), known also by their former autonyms Lusatians and Wends, are a West Slavic ethnic group predominantly inhabiting their homeland in Lusatia, a region divided between Germany (the states of Saxony and Brandenburg) and Poland (the provinces of Lower Silesia and Lubusz).
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
South Italy (Italia meridionale or just Sud Italia) is one of the five official statistical regions of Italy used by the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT), a first level NUTS region and a European Parliament constituency.
The South Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the South Slavic languages.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
Stalinism is the means of governing and related policies implemented from the 1920s to 1953 by Joseph Stalin (1878–1953).
The State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (Država Slovenaca, Hrvata i Srba/Држава Словенаца, Хрвата и Срба; Država Slovencev, Hrvatov in Srbov) was a short-lived entity formed at the end of World War I by Slovenes, Croats and Serbs residing in what were the southernmost parts of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Austria is a federal republic made up of nine states, known in German as Länder.
Statistics Canada (Statistique Canada), formed in 1971, is the Government of Canada government agency commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture.
Styria (Steiermark,, Štajerska, Stájerország, Štýrsko) is a state or Bundesland, located in the southeast of Austria.
Styria (Štajerska), also Slovenian Styria (Slovenska Štajerska) or Lower Styria (Spodnja Štajerska; Untersteiermark), is a traditional region in northeastern Slovenia, comprising the southern third of the former Duchy of Styria.
The subdivisions of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (initially known as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes) existed successively in three different forms.
Taras Kermauner (13 April 1930 – 11 June 2008) was a Slovenian literary historian, critic, philosopher, essayist, playwright and translator.
The Ten-Day War (desetdnevna vojna) or the Slovenian Independence War (slovenska osamosvojitvena vojna), was a brief war of independence that followed the Slovenian declaration of independence on 25 June 1991.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Tito–Stalin Split, or Yugoslav–Soviet Split, was a conflict between the leaders of SFR Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union, which resulted in Yugoslavia's expulsion from the Communist Information Bureau (Cominform) in 1948.
The Treaty of Osimo was signed on 10 November 1975 by the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Italian Republic in Osimo, Italy, to definitely divide the Free Territory of Trieste between the two states.
The Treaty of Rapallo was a treaty between the Kingdom of Italy and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (renamed Yugoslavia in 1929), signed to solve the dispute over some territories in the former Austrian Littoral in the upper Adriatic, and in Dalmatia.
Trieste (Trst) is a city and a seaport in northeastern Italy.
Triglav (Terglau, Tricorno), with an elevation of, is the highest mountain in Slovenia and the highest peak of the Julian Alps.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
United Slovenia (Zedinjena Slovenija or Združena Slovenija) is the name of an unrealized political programme of the Slovene national movement, formulated during the Spring of Nations in 1848.
Upper Carniola (Gorenjska; Alta Carniola; Oberkrain) is a traditional region of Slovenia, the northern mountainous part of the larger Carniola region.
The Vandals were a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes that first appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland.
The Venetic theory (venetska teorija) is an autochthonist theory of the origin of the Slovenes that denies the Slavic settlement of the Eastern Alps in the 6th century, claiming that proto-Slovenes (also regarded as the Veneti people by the proponents of this theory) have inhabited the region since ancient times.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
Wends (Winedas, Old Norse: Vindr, Wenden, Winden, vendere, vender, Wendowie) is a historical name for Slavs living near Germanic settlement areas.
The West Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the West Slavic languages.
West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region of the Southern United States.
The Windic March (Windische Mark; also known as Wendish March) was a medieval frontier march of the Holy Roman Empire, roughly corresponding to the Lower Carniola (Dolenjska) region in present-day Slovenia.
Self-management or workers' self-management (also referred to as labor management, autogestión, workers' control, industrial democracy, democratic management and producer cooperatives) is a form of organizational management based on self-directed work processes on the part of an organization's workforce.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the western United States.
Youngstown is a city in and the county seat of Mahoning County in the U.S. state of Ohio, with small portions extending into Trumbull County.
The 2012–2013 Slovenian protests were an ongoing series of protests against the Slovenian political elite members, including the mayor Franc Kangler, the leader of right-wing government Janez Janša, and the leader of opposition Zoran Janković, all three of them in 2013 officially accused of corruption by Commission for the Prevention of Corruption.
People of Slovenia, Slovenci, Slovene identity, Slovene minorities, Slovene nation, Slovene national identity, Slovene people, Slovenec, Slovenehood, Slovenian identity, Slovenian nation, Slovenian people, Slovenians, Slovenke, Slovenske, Slovenské.