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Index Smallpox

Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor. [1]

331 relations: Abraham Lincoln, ACAM2000, Adaptive immune system, Aethiopia, Airborne disease, Alastrim, Ali Maow Maalin, Allergy, Almaty, American Civil War, American Revolutionary War, Americas, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Egyptian funerary practices, Andrew Jackson, Ankylosis, Anne of Cleves, Antibody, Antithrombin, Antiviral drug, Antonine Plague, Arabs, Aral Sea, Aral smallpox incident, Aral, Kazakhstan, Arthritis, Artificial gene synthesis, Asymptomatic, Asymptomatic carrier, Atrophy, Australia, Aztecs, Bacteremia, Bacteria, Balmis Expedition, Bangladesh, Barbados, Basal (phylogenetics), Base pair, BBC History, Beijing, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, Bethesda, Maryland, Bill Gates, Biological warfare, Biopreparat, Biosafety level, Bioterrorism, Birmingham, Birth defect, ..., Bleeding, Blister, Blood, BMJ (company), Body fluid, Bone marrow, Bronchitis, Burn, Cambridge University Press, Case fatality rate, Catherine the Great, Cell nucleus, Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Charles II of England, Charles V of France, Chickenpox, Chlorocebus, Chordopoxvirinae, Chorioallantoic membrane, Cidofovir, Circassia, Clade, Clopton Havers, Coagulation, Common cold, Conjunctiva, Conjunctivitis, Cornea, Corneal ulcer, Cowpox, Crusades, Cuitláhuac, Cutaneous condition, Cytoplasm, Date Masamune, Depigmentation, Disease surveillance, DNA, DNA virus, Donald Henderson, Dryvax, Dutch East Indies, East India Company, Edward Jenner, Edward VI of England, Egypt, Electrolyte, Electron microscope, ELISA, Elizabeth I of England, Embryo, Emerging Infectious Diseases, Emperor Kōmei, Enanthem, Encephalitis, Endemic (epidemiology), Epiphysis, Eradication of infectious diseases, Erythema, Erythema multiforme, Euphemism, Far East, Ferenc Kölcsey, Fever, Fibula, Fluid replacement, Fomite, Food and Drug Administration, Frank Fenner, French and Indian Wars, Gastrointestinal tract, Genetics, Genome, Geoffrey L. Smith, George Washington, Globulin, Golgi apparatus, Gregory of Tours, Guru Har Krishan, Heart failure, Hemagglutinin, Henry VIII of England, Herpesviridae, Hippocrates, Hispaniola, Horn of Africa, Huayna Capac, Immune complex, Immune response, Immunity (medical), Imperial Japanese Army, Impetigo, Inca Empire, Incubation period, Indian subcontinent, Indigenous Australians, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Infection, Infectious disease (medical specialty), Influenza, Inoculation, Internal bleeding, Intravenous therapy, Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst, John Clinch, Jonathan Edwards (theologian), Joseph Stalin, Kangxi Emperor, Karel Raška, Ken Alibek, Keratitis, Kidney, Koltsovo, Novosibirsk Oblast, Kosovo, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Latin, Lesion, List of epidemics, Liver, Louis XIV of France, Louis XV of France, Lymph node, Lysis, Manchu people, Margaret Tudor, Martial law, Martin Lister, Mary I of England, Mary II of England, Mary, Queen of Scots, Maximilian III Joseph, Elector of Bavaria, Measles, Medical ventilator, Medicine in the medieval Islamic world, Microscope, Middle Ages, Ming dynasty, Molecular clock, Molluscum contagiosum, Monarch, Monkeypox, Mucous membrane, Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, Mummy, Myalgia, Nanometre, National Institutes of Health, Native Americans in the United States, Necrosis, New South Wales, New Testament, Nicasius of Rheims, Nuclear warfare, Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses, Office of Public Sector Information, Old Testament, Old World, Opacity (optics), Orthopoxvirus, Orthopoxvirus inclusion bodies, Osteomyelitis, Ottoman Empire, Outbreak, Ovary, Palate, Pan American Health Organization, Papule, Paul I of Russia, Pericardium, Periosteum, Petechia, Peter II of Russia, Peter III of Russia, Pharynx, Placenta, Plague of Athens, Platelet, Plymouth, Massachusetts, Pneumonia, Polymerase chain reaction, Poxviridae, Presidencies and provinces of British India, Prodrome, Prostration, Pulmonary edema, Qing dynasty, Rahima Banu, Ramesses V, Rash, Respiratory system, Restriction fragment length polymorphism, Retina, Rinderpest, RNA polymerase, Roman Empire, Root (linguistics), Royal Society, Russia, Russian Empire, Saliva, Sanskrit, Santa Fe, New Mexico, Scar, Scotland, Sepsis, Sergiyev Posad, Serology, Serous membrane, Shitala, Shock (circulatory), Shunzhi Emperor, Siege of Fort Pitt, Siege of Syracuse (397 BC), Sitting Bull, Smallpox 2002, Smallpox demon, Smallpox vaccine, Somalia, Sopona, Sores, Soviet Army, Soviet biological weapons program, Soviet Union, Spanish Empire, State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR, Stem-loop, Stockholm, Strategic National Stockpile, Sweden, Syphilis, Temperate climate, Tenochtitlan, Testicle, The Demon in the Freezer, The Guardian, The Killer That Stalked New York, The Moscow News, Therapy, Thomas Dimsdale, Thrombin, Thrombocytopenia, Tibia, Tlatoani, Tongzhi Emperor, Transmission electron microscopy, Trinity, Newfoundland and Labrador, Turbidity, Unit 731, United States Congress, University of Birmingham Medical School, Urinary bladder, Uveitis, Vaccination, Vaccination Act, Vaccine, Vaccine Act of 1813, Vaccinia, Variola Vera, Variolation, Vero cell, Viktor Zhdanov, Viral envelope, Viral replication, Viremia, Virus, Visual impairment, Voltaire, Vomiting, Vozrozhdeniya Island, Walking, Warhead, Western Hemisphere, William III of England, World Health Assembly, World Health Organization, World War II, Yoruba religion, Yuri Andropov, 1972 Yugoslav smallpox outbreak, 1978 smallpox outbreak in the United Kingdom. Expand index (281 more) »

Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.

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ACAM2000 is a smallpox vaccine developed by Acambis.

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Adaptive immune system

The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth.

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Ancient Aethiopia (Αἰθιοπία Aithiopia) first appears as a geographical term in classical documents in reference to the upper Nile region, as well as all certain areas south of the Sahara desert and south of the Atlantic Ocean.

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Airborne disease

An airborne disease is any disease that is caused by pathogens that can be transmitted through the air.

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Alastrim, also known as variola minor, was the milder strain of the variola virus that caused smallpox.

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Ali Maow Maalin

Ali Maow Maalin (also Mao Moallim and Mao' Mo'allim) (1954 – 22 July 2013) was a Somali hospital cook and health worker from Merca who is the last person known to be infected with naturally occurring Variola minor smallpox in the world.

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Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.

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Almaty (Алматы, Almaty; Алматы), formerly known as Alma-Ata (Алма-Ата) and Verny (Верный Vernyy), is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,797,431 people, about 8% of the country's total population.

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American Civil War

The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.

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American Revolutionary War

The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.

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The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Ancient Egyptian funerary practices

The ancient Egyptians had an elaborate set of funerary practices that they believed were necessary to ensure their immortality after death (the afterlife).

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Andrew Jackson

Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845) was an American soldier and statesman who served as the seventh President of the United States from 1829 to 1837.

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Ankylosis or anchylosis (from Greek ἀγκύλος, bent, crooked) is a stiffness of a joint due to abnormal adhesion and rigidity of the bones of the joint, which may be the result of injury or disease.

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Anne of Cleves

Anne of Cleves (Anna von Kleve; 22 September 1515 – 16 July 1557) was Queen of England from 6 January to 9 July 1540 as the fourth wife of King Henry VIII.

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An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.

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Antithrombin (AT) is a small protein molecule that inactivates several enzymes of the coagulation system.

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Antiviral drug

Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections rather than bacterial ones.

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Antonine Plague

The Antonine Plague of 165–180 AD, also known as the Plague of Galen (from the name of the Greek physician living in the Roman Empire who described it), was an ancient pandemic brought back to the Roman Empire by troops returning from campaigns in the Near East.

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Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.

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Aral Sea

The Aral Sea was an endorheic lake (one with no outflow) lying between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda Regions) in the north and Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan autonomous region) in the south.

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Aral smallpox incident

The Aral smallpox incident was a July 30, 1971 outbreak of the viral disease which occurred as a result of a field test at a Soviet biological weapons (BW) facility on an island in the Aral Sea.

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Aral, Kazakhstan

Aral, also known as Aralsk or Aral'sk, (Kazakh: Арал, Aral, ارال; Russian: Аральск, Araljsk) is a small city in south-western Kazakhstan, located in the oblast (region) of Kyzylorda.

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Arthritis is a term often used to mean any disorder that affects joints.

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Artificial gene synthesis

Artificial gene synthesis, sometimes known as DNA printing is a method in synthetic biology that is used to create artificial genes in the laboratory.

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In medicine, a disease is considered asymptomatic if a patient is a carrier for a disease or infection but experiences no symptoms.

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Asymptomatic carrier

An asymptomatic carrier (healthy carrier or just carrier) is a person or other organism that has become infected with a pathogen, but who display no signs nor symptoms.

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Atrophy is the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.

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Bacteremia (also bacteraemia) is the presence of bacteria in the blood.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Balmis Expedition

The Balmis Expedition (1803–1806) was a three-year mission to Spanish America and Asia led by Dr.

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Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.

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Barbados is an island country in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, in the Caribbean region of North America.

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Basal (phylogenetics)

In phylogenetics, basal is the direction of the base (or root) of a rooted phylogenetic tree or cladogram.

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Base pair

A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.

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BBC History

BBC History Magazine is a British publication devoted to history articles on both British and world history and are aimed at all levels of knowledge and interest.

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Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.

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Berkeley, Gloucestershire

Berkeley is a small town and parish in Gloucestershire, England.

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Bethesda, Maryland

Bethesda is an unincorporated, census-designated place in southern Montgomery County, Maryland, United States, located just northwest of the U.S. capital of Washington, D.C. It takes its name from a local church, the Bethesda Meeting House (1820, rebuilt 1849), which in turn took its name from Jerusalem's Pool of Bethesda.

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Bill Gates

William Henry Gates III (born October 28, 1955) is an American business magnate, investor, author, philanthropist, humanitarian, and principal founder of Microsoft Corporation.

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Biological warfare

Biological warfare (BW)—also known as germ warfare—is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with the intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war.

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Biopreparat (p, "Biological substance preparation") was the Soviet Union's major biological warfare agency from the 1970s on.

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Biosafety level

A biosafety level is a set of biocontainment precautions required to isolate dangerous biological agents in an enclosed laboratory facility.

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Bioterrorism is terrorism involving the intentional release or dissemination of biological agents.

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Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,101,360, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Birth defect

A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.

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Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.

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A blister is a small pocket of body fluid (lymph, serum, plasma, blood, or pus) within the upper layers of the skin, typically caused by forceful rubbing (friction), burning, freezing, chemical exposure or infection.

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Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

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BMJ (company)

BMJ (previously BMJ Group, rebranded in 2013), is a provider of journals, clinical decision support, events and medical education.

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Body fluid

Body fluid, bodily fluids, or biofluids are liquids within the bodies of living people.

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Bone marrow

Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.

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Bronchitis is inflammation of the bronchi (large and medium-sized airways) in the lungs.

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A burn is a type of injury to skin, or other tissues, caused by heat, cold, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Case fatality rate

In epidemiology, a case fatality rate (CFR)—or case fatality risk, case fatality ratio or just fatality rate—is the proportion of deaths within a designated population of "cases" (people with a medical condition) over the course of the disease.

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Catherine the Great

Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; –), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.

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Cell nucleus

In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy

The Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy (CIDRAP) is a center within the University of Minnesota that focuses on addressing public health preparedness and emerging infectious disease response.

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.

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Charles II of England

Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.

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Charles V of France

Charles V (21 January 1338 – 16 September 1380), called "the Wise" (le Sage; Sapiens), was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1364 to his death.

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Chickenpox, also known as varicella, is a highly contagious disease caused by the initial infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV).

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Chlorocebus is a genus of medium-sized primates from the family of Old World monkeys.

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Chordopoxvirinae is a subfamily of viruses, in the family Poxviridae.

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Chorioallantoic membrane

The chorioallantoic membrane — also called the chorioallantois or abbreviated to CAM — is a vascular membrane found in eggs of some amniotes, such as birds and reptiles.

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Cidofovir (brand name Vistide) is an injectable antiviral medication primarily used as a treatment for cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis (an infection of the retina of the eye) in people with AIDS.

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Circassia (Адыгэ Хэку, Черке́сия, ჩერქეზეთი, شيركاسيا, Çerkesya) is a region in the and along the northeast shore of the Black Sea.

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A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".

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Clopton Havers

Clopton Havers (24 February 1657 – April 1702) was an English physician who did pioneering research on the microstructure of bone.

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Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot.

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Common cold

The common cold, also known simply as a cold, is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract that primarily affects the nose.

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The conjunctiva lines the inside of the eyelids and covers the sclera (the white of the eye).

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Conjunctivitis, also known as pink eye, is inflammation of the outermost layer of the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelid.

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The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.

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Corneal ulcer

Corneal ulcer, or ulcerative keratitis, is an inflammatory or more seriously, infective condition of the cornea involving disruption of its epithelial layer with involvement of the corneal stroma.

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Cowpox is an infectious disease caused by the cowpox virus.

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The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.

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Cuitláhuac (c. 1476 – 1520) or Cuitláhuac (in Spanish orthography; Cuitlāhuac,, honorific form Cuitlahuatzin) was the 10th tlatoani (ruler) of the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan for 80 days during the year Two Flint (1520).

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Cutaneous condition

A cutaneous condition is any medical condition that affects the integumentary system—the organ system that encloses the body and includes skin, hair, nails, and related muscle and glands.

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In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.

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Date Masamune

was a regional ruler of Japan's Azuchi–Momoyama period through early Edo period.

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Depigmentation is the lightening of the skin, or loss of pigment.

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Disease surveillance

Disease surveillance is an epidemiological practice by which the spread of disease is monitored in order to establish patterns of progression.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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DNA virus

A DNA virus is a virus that has DNA as its genetic material and replicates using a DNA-dependent DNA polymerase.

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Donald Henderson

Donald Ainslie Henderson (September 7, 1928 – August 19, 2016) was an American medical doctor, educator, and epidemiologist who directed a 10-year international effort (1967–1977) that eradicated smallpox throughout the world and launched international childhood vaccination programs.

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Dryvax is a freeze-dried calf lymph smallpox vaccine.

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Dutch East Indies

The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; Nederlands(ch)-Indië; Hindia Belanda) was a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia.

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East India Company

The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.

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Edward Jenner

Edward Jenner, FRS FRCPE (17 May 1749 – 26 January 1823) was an English physician and scientist who was the pioneer of smallpox vaccine, the world's first vaccine.

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Edward VI of England

Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) was King of England and Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death.

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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.

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Electron microscope

An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.

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The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a test that uses antibodies and color change to identify a substance.

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Elizabeth I of England

Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.

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An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.

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Emerging Infectious Diseases

Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID) is an open-access, peer-reviewed journal published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

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Emperor Kōmei

was the 121st emperor of Japan,Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō): according to the traditional order of succession.

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Enanthem or enanthema is a rash (small spots) on the mucous membranes.

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Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain.

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Endemic (epidemiology)

In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic (from Greek ἐν en "in, within" and δῆμος demos "people") in a population when that infection is constantly maintained at a baseline level in a geographic area without external inputs.

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The epiphysis is the rounded end of a long bone, at its joint with adjacent bone(s).

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Eradication of infectious diseases

Eradication is the reduction of an infectious disease's prevalence in the global host population to zero.

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Erythema (from the Greek erythros, meaning red) is redness of the skin or mucous membranes, caused by hyperemia (increased blood flow) in superficial capillaries.

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Erythema multiforme

Erythema multiforme (EM) is a skin condition of unknown cause; it is a type of erythema possibly mediated by deposition of immune complexes (mostly IgM-bound complexes) in the superficial microvasculature of the skin and oral mucous membrane that usually follows an infection or drug exposure.

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A euphemism is a generally innocuous word or expression used in place of one that may be found offensive or suggest something unpleasant.

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Far East

The Far East is a geographical term in English that usually refers to East Asia (including Northeast Asia), the Russian Far East (part of North Asia), and Southeast Asia.

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Ferenc Kölcsey

Ferenc Kölcsey (archaically English: Francis Kolcsey, 8 August 1790 in Sződemeter – 24 August 1838) was a Hungarian poet, literary critic, orator, and politician, noted for his support of the liberal current inside the Habsburg Empire.

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Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.

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The fibula or calf bone is a leg bone located on the lateral side of the tibia, with which it is connected above and below.

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Fluid replacement

Fluid replacement or fluid resuscitation is the medical practice of replenishing bodily fluid lost through sweating, bleeding, fluid shifts or other pathologic processes.

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A fomes (pronounced) or fomite is any nonliving object or substance capable of carrying infectious organisms, such as viruses or bacteria, and hence transferring them from one individual to another.

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Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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Frank Fenner

Frank John Fenner, AC, CMG, MBE, FRS, FAA (21 December 1914 – 22 November 2010) was an Australian scientist with a distinguished career in the field of virology.

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French and Indian Wars

The French and Indian Wars is a name used in the United States for a series of conflicts that occurred in North America between 1688 and 1763 and were related to the European dynastic wars.

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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.

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Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

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In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.

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Geoffrey L. Smith

Geoffrey Lilley Smith (born 1955) FRS FMedSci FRSB is a British virologist and medical research authority in the area of Vaccinia virus and the family of Poxviruses.

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George Washington

George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.

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The globulins are a family of globular proteins that have higher molecular weights than albumins and are insoluble in pure water but dissolve in dilute salt solutions.

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Golgi apparatus

The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.

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Gregory of Tours

Saint Gregory of Tours (30 November c. 538 – 17 November 594) was a Gallo-Roman historian and Bishop of Tours, which made him a leading prelate of the area that had been previously referred to as Gaul by the Romans. He was born Georgius Florentius and later added the name Gregorius in honour of his maternal great-grandfather. He is the primary contemporary source for Merovingian history. His most notable work was his Decem Libri Historiarum (Ten Books of Histories), better known as the Historia Francorum (History of the Franks), a title that later chroniclers gave to it, but he is also known for his accounts of the miracles of saints, especially four books of the miracles of St. Martin of Tours. St. Martin's tomb was a major pilgrimage destination in the 6th century, and St. Gregory's writings had the practical effect of promoting this highly organized devotion.

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Guru Har Krishan

Guru Har Krishan (7 July 1656 – 30 March 1664) revered as the eighth Nanak, was the eighth of ten Gurus of the Sikh religion.

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Heart failure

Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.

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Hemagglutinin or haemagglutinin (British English)p refers to a substance that causes red blood cells (RBCs) to agglutinate.

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Henry VIII of England

Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.

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Herpesviridae is a large family of DNA viruses that cause diseases in animals, including humans.

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Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.

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Hispaniola (Spanish: La Española; Latin and French: Hispaniola; Haitian Creole: Ispayola; Taíno: Haiti) is an island in the Caribbean island group, the Greater Antilles.

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Horn of Africa

The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.

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Huayna Capac

Huayna Capac, Huayna Cápac, Guayna Capac (in Hispanicized spellings) or Wayna Qhapaq (Quechua wayna young, young man, qhapaq the mighty one, "the young mighty one") (1464/1468–1527) was the third Sapa Inca of the Inca Empire, born in Tomebamba sixth of the Hanan dynasty, and eleventh of the Inca civilization.

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Immune complex

An immune complex, sometimes called an antigen-antibody complex, is a molecule formed from the integral binding of an antibody to a soluble antigen.

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Immune response

The Immune response is the body's response caused by its immune system being activated by antigens.

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Immunity (medical)

In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.

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Imperial Japanese Army

The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA; Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun; "Army of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945.

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Impetigo is a bacterial infection that involves the superficial skin.

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Inca Empire

The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, "The Four Regions"), also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America, and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century.

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Incubation period

Incubation period is the time elapsed between exposure to a pathogenic organism, a chemical, or radiation, and when symptoms and signs are first apparent.

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Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.

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Indigenous Australians

Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to British colonisation.

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Indigenous peoples of the Americas

The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.

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Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.

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Infectious disease (medical specialty)

Infectious disease, also known as infectious diseases, infectious medicine, infectious disease medicine or infectiology, is a medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis, control and treatment of infections.

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Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.

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The terms inoculation, vaccination and immunization are often used synonymously to refer to artificial induction of immunity against various infectious diseases.

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Internal bleeding

Internal bleeding (also called internal hemorrhage) is a loss of blood that occurs from the vascular system into a body cavity or space.

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Intravenous therapy

Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).

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Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst

Field Marshal Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst, (29 January 1717 – 3 August 1797) served as an officer in the British Army and as Commander-in-Chief of the Forces.

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John Clinch


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Jonathan Edwards (theologian)

Jonathan Edwards (October 5, 1703 – March 22, 1758) was an American revivalist preacher, philosopher, and Congregationalist Protestant theologian.

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Joseph Stalin

Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.

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Kangxi Emperor

The Kangxi Emperor (康熙; 4 May 165420 December 1722), personal name Xuanye, was the fourth emperor of the Qing dynasty, the first to be born on Chinese soil south of the Shanhai Pass near Beijing, and the second Qing emperor to rule over that part of China, from 1661 to 1722.

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Karel Raška

Karel Raška (17 November 1909 – 21 November 1987) was a Czech physician and epidemiologist, who headed the successful international effort during the 1960s to eradicate smallpox.

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Ken Alibek

Colonel Kanatzhan "Kanat" Alibekov (Қанатжан Әлібеков, Qanatzhan Älibekov; Канатжан Алибеков, Kanatzhan Alibekov; born 1950) – known as Kenneth "Ken" Alibek since 1992 – is a former Soviet physician, microbiologist, and biological warfare (BW) expert.

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Keratitis is a condition in which the eye's cornea, the clear dome on the front surface of the eye, becomes inflamed.

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The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.

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Koltsovo, Novosibirsk Oblast

Koltsovo (Кольцо́во) is an urban locality (a work settlement) in Novosibirsky District of Novosibirsk Oblast, Russia, located about northeast of Akademgorodok and southeast of Novosibirsk's center.

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Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).

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Lady Mary Wortley Montagu

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (baptised 26 May 1689 – 21 August 1762) (née Pierrepont) was an English aristocrat, letter writer and poet.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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A lesion is any abnormal damage or change in the tissue of an organism, usually caused by disease or trauma.

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List of epidemics

This article is a list of epidemics of infectious disease.

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The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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Louis XIV of France

Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.

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Louis XV of France

Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774.

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Lymph node

A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.

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Lysis (Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") refers to the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic (that is, "lytic") mechanisms that compromise its integrity.

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Manchu people

The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.

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Margaret Tudor

Margaret Tudor (28 November 1489 – 18 October 1541) was Queen of Scots from 1503 until 1513 by marriage to James IV of Scotland and then, after her husband died fighting the English, she became regent for their son James V of Scotland from 1513 until 1515.

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Martial law

Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public.

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Martin Lister

Martin Lister FRS (12 April 1639 – 2 February 1712) was an English naturalist and physician.

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Mary I of England

Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558) was the Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death.

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Mary II of England

Mary II (30 April 1662 – 28 December 1694) was Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland, co-reigning with her husband and first cousin, King William III and II, from 1689 until her death; popular histories usually refer to their joint reign as that of William and Mary.

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Mary, Queen of Scots

Mary, Queen of Scots (8 December 1542 – 8 February 1587), also known as Mary Stuart or Mary I, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567.

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Maximilian III Joseph, Elector of Bavaria

Maximilian III Joseph (28 March 1727 – 30 December 1777) was a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire and Duke of Bavaria from 1745 to 1777.

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Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.

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Medical ventilator

A medical ventilator (or simply ventilator in context) is a mechanical ventilator, a machine designed to move breathable air into and out of the lungs, to provide breathing for a patient who is physically unable to breathe, or breathing insufficiently.

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Medicine in the medieval Islamic world

In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine is the science of medicine developed in the Islamic Golden Age, and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of Islamic civilization.

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A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Ming dynasty

The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.

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Molecular clock

The molecular clock is a technique that uses the mutation rate of biomolecules to deduce the time in prehistory when two or more life forms diverged.

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Molluscum contagiosum

Molluscum contagiosum (MC), sometimes called water warts, is a viral infection of the skin that results in small, raised, pink lesions with a dimple in the center.

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A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.

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Monkeypox is an infectious disease caused by the monkeypox virus.

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Mucous membrane

A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.

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Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi

Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī (Abūbakr Mohammad-e Zakariyyā-ye Rāzī, also known by his Latinized name Rhazes or Rasis) (854–925 CE), was a Persian polymath, physician, alchemist, philosopher, and important figure in the history of medicine.

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A mummy is a deceased human or an animal whose skin and organs have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or lack of air, so that the recovered body does not decay further if kept in cool and dry conditions.

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Myalgia, or muscle pain, is a symptom of many diseases and disorders.

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The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).

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National Institutes of Health

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.

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Native Americans in the United States

Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.

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Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.

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New South Wales

New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of:Australia.

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New Testament

The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.

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Nicasius of Rheims

Saint Nicasius or Nicaise of Rheims (Saint-Nicaise; d. 407 or 451) was a bishop of Rheims.

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Nuclear warfare

Nuclear warfare (sometimes atomic warfare or thermonuclear warfare) is a military conflict or political strategy in which nuclear weaponry is used to inflict damage on the enemy.

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Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses

The nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses, are a new order of viruses that contain the Megavirales or giant viruses.

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Office of Public Sector Information

The Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the body responsible for the operation of Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO) and of other public information services of the United Kingdom.

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Old Testament

The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.

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Old World

The term "Old World" is used in the West to refer to Africa, Asia and Europe (Afro-Eurasia or the World Island), regarded collectively as the part of the world known to its population before contact with the Americas and Oceania (the "New World").

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Opacity (optics)

Opacity is the measure of impenetrability to electromagnetic or other kinds of radiation, especially visible light.

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Orthopoxvirus is a genus of viruses in the family Poxviridae and subfamily Chordopoxvirinae.

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Orthopoxvirus inclusion bodies

Orthopoxvirus inclusion bodies are aggregates of stainable protein produced by poxvirus virions in the cell nuclei and/or cytoplasm of epithelial cells in humans.

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Osteomyelitis (OM) is an infection of bone.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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In epidemiology, an outbreak is a sudden increase in occurrences of a disease in a particular time and place.

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The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.

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The palate is the roof of the mouth in humans and other mammals.

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Pan American Health Organization

The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO; originally the Pan-American Sanitary Bureau) is an international public health agency working to improve health and living standards of the people of the Americas.

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A papule is a circumscribed, solid elevation of skin with no visible fluid, varying in area from a pinhead to 1 cm.

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Paul I of Russia

Paul I (Па́вел I Петро́вич; Pavel Petrovich) (–) reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801.

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The pericardium is a double-walled sac containing the heart and the roots of the great vessels.

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The periosteum is a membrane that covers the outer surface of all bones, except at the joints of long bones.

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A petechia, plural petechiae, is a small (1–2 mm) red or purple spot on the skin, caused by a minor bleed from broken capillary blood vessels.

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Peter II of Russia

Peter II Alexeyevich (Russian: Пётр II Алексеевич, Pyotr II Alekseyevich) (–) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 1727 until his death.

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Peter III of Russia

Peter III (21 February 1728 –) (Пётр III Фëдорович, Pyotr III Fyodorovich) was Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762.

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The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.

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The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.

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Plague of Athens

The Plague of Athens (Λοιμός των Αθηνών) was an epidemic that devastated the city-state of Athens in ancient Greece during the second year of the Peloponnesian War (430 BC) when an Athenian victory still seemed within reach.

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Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.

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Plymouth, Massachusetts

Plymouth (historically known as Plimouth and Plimoth) is a town in Plymouth County, Massachusetts, United States.

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Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.

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Polymerase chain reaction

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.

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Poxviridae is a family of viruses.

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Presidencies and provinces of British India

The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.

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In medicine, a prodrome is an early sign or symptom (or set of signs and symptoms), which often indicate the onset of a disease before more diagnostically specific signs and symptoms develop.

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Prostration is the placement of the body in a reverentially or submissively prone position as a gesture.

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Pulmonary edema

Pulmonary edema is fluid accumulation in the tissue and air spaces of the lungs.

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Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.

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Rahima Banu

Rahima Banu Begum (রহিমা বানু বেগুম.; born October 16 1972) is the last known person to have been infected with naturally occurring Variola major smallpox, the more deadly variety of the disease.

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Ramesses V

Usermaatre Sekheperenre Ramesses V (also written Ramses and Rameses) was the fourth pharaoh of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt and was the son of Ramesses IV and Queen Duatentopet.

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A rash is a change of the human skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture.

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Respiratory system

The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.

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Restriction fragment length polymorphism

In molecular biology, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) is a technique that exploits variations in homologous DNA sequences.

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The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.

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Rinderpest (also cattle plague or steppe murrain) was an infectious viral disease of cattle, domestic buffalo, and many other species of even-toed ungulates, including buffaloes, large antelope and deer, giraffes, wildebeests, and warthogs.

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RNA polymerase

RNA polymerase (ribonucleic acid polymerase), both abbreviated RNAP or RNApol, official name DNA-directed RNA polymerase, is a member of a family of enzymes that are essential to life: they are found in all organisms (-species) and many viruses.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Root (linguistics)

A root (or root word) is a word that does not have a prefix in front of the word or a suffix at the end of the word.

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Royal Society

The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Saliva is a watery substance formed in the mouths of animals, secreted by the salivary glands.

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Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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Santa Fe, New Mexico

Santa Fe (or; Tewa: Ogha Po'oge, Yootó) is the capital of the U.S. state of New Mexico.

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A scar is an area of fibrous tissue that replaces normal skin after an injury.

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Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.

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Sergiyev Posad

Sergiyev Posad (p) is a city and the administrative center of Sergiyevo-Posadsky District in Moscow Oblast, Russia.

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Serology is the scientific study of serum and other bodily fluids.

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Serous membrane

In anatomy, serous membrane (or serosa) is a smooth tissue membrane consisting of two layers of mesothelium, which secrete serous fluid.

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Shitala (Sheetala), also called Sitala (शीतला śītalā), is a folk deity, worshiped by many faiths in regions of North India, West Bengal, Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan.

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Shock (circulatory)

Shock is the state of low blood perfusion to tissues resulting in cellular injury and inadequate tissue function.

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Shunzhi Emperor

The Shunzhi Emperor; Manchu: ijishūn dasan hūwangdi; ᠡᠶ ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ |translit.

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Siege of Fort Pitt

The Siege of Fort Pitt took place during June and July 1763 in what is now the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States.

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Siege of Syracuse (397 BC)

The Siege of Syracuse in 397 BC was the first of four unsuccessful sieges Carthaginian forces would undertake against Syracuse from 397 to 278 BC.

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Sitting Bull

Sitting Bull (Tȟatȟáŋka Íyotake in Standard Lakota orthography, also nicknamed Húŋkešni or "Slow"; c. 1831 – December 15, 1890) was a Hunkpapa Lakota leader who led his people during years of resistance to United States government policies.

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Smallpox 2002

Smallpox 2002: Silent Weapon is a fictional docudrama produced by Wall to Wall, showing how a single act of bioterrorism leads to terrifying consequences globally.

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Smallpox demon

or smallpox devil is a demon which was believed to be responsible for causing smallpox in medieval Japan.

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Smallpox vaccine

Smallpox vaccine, the first successful vaccine to be developed, was introduced by Edward Jenner in 1796.

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Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.

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Sopona (or Shapona) is the god of smallpox in the Yoruba religion.

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Sores is a French surname, and may refer to.

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Soviet Army

The Soviet Army (SA; Советская Армия, Sovetskaya Armiya) is the name given to the main land-based branch of the Soviet Armed Forces between February 1946 and December 1991, when it was replaced with the Russian Ground Forces, although it was not taken fully out of service until 25 December 1993.

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Soviet biological weapons program

The Soviet Union began a biological weapons program in the 1920s.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Spanish Empire

The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.

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State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR

The State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR, also known as the Vector Institute, is a biological research center in Koltsovo, Novosibirsk Oblast, Russia.

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Stem-loop intramolecular base pairing is a pattern that can occur in single-stranded DNA or, more commonly, in RNA.

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Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.

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Strategic National Stockpile

The Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) is the United States' national repository of antibiotics, vaccines, chemical antidotes, antitoxins, and other critical medical equipment and supplies.

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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.

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Temperate climate

In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.

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Tenochtitlan (Tenochtitlan), originally known as México-Tenochtitlán (meːˈʃíʔ.ko te.noːt͡ʃ.ˈtí.t͡ɬan), was a large Mexica city-state in what is now the center of Mexico City.

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The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.

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The Demon in the Freezer

The Demon in the Freezer is a 2002 non-fiction book on the biological weapon agents smallpox and anthrax and how the American government develops defensive measures against them.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The Killer That Stalked New York

The Killer That Stalked New York (also known as Frightened City) is a 1950 film noir starring Evelyn Keyes.

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The Moscow News

The Moscow News, which began publication in 1930, is Russia's oldest English-language newspaper.

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Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.

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Thomas Dimsdale

Baron Thomas Dimsdale FRS (29 May 1712 – 30 December 1800) was an English doctor, banker and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1780 to 1790.

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Thrombin (fibrinogenase, thrombase, thrombofort, topical, thrombin-C, tropostasin, activated blood-coagulation factor II, blood-coagulation factor IIa, factor IIa, E thrombin, beta-thrombin, gamma-thrombin) is a serine protease, an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the F2 gene.

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Thrombocytopenia is a condition characterized by abnormally low levels of thrombocytes, also known as platelets, in the blood.

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The tibia (plural tibiae or tibias), also known as the shinbone or shankbone, is the larger, stronger, and anterior (frontal) of the two bones in the leg below the knee in vertebrates (the other being the fibula, behind and to the outside of the tibia), and it connects the knee with the ankle bones.

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Tlatoani (tlahtoāni, "one who speaks, ruler"; plural tlahtohqueh or tlatoque), is the Classical Nahuatl term for the ruler of an āltepētl, a pre-Hispanic state.

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Tongzhi Emperor

The Tongzhi Emperor (27 April 185612 January 1875), born Zaichun of the Aisin Gioro clan, was the tenth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the eighth Qing emperor to rule over China.

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Transmission electron microscopy

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, also sometimes conventional transmission electron microscopy or CTEM) is a microscopy technique in which a beam of electrons is transmitted through a specimen to form an image.

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Trinity, Newfoundland and Labrador

Trinity is a small town located on Trinity Bay in Newfoundland and Labrador.

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Turbidity is the cloudiness or haziness of a fluid caused by large numbers of individual particles that are generally invisible to the naked eye, similar to smoke in air.

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Unit 731

was a covert biological and chemical warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) of World War II.

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United States Congress

The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.

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University of Birmingham Medical School

The University of Birmingham Medical School is one of Britain's largest and oldest medical schools with over 400 medical, 70 pharmacy, 140 biomedical science and 130 nursing students graduating each year.

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Urinary bladder

The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in humans and some other animals that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination.

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Uveitis is the inflammation of the uvea, the pigmented layer that lies between the inner retina and the outer fibrous layer composed of the sclera and cornea.

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Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.

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Vaccination Act

The UK Vaccination Acts of 1840, 1853, 1867 and 1898 were a series of legislative Acts passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom regarding the vaccination policy of the country.

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A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.

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Vaccine Act of 1813

The Vaccine Act of 1813 was an Act of the Twelfth Congress of the United States to encourage vaccination against smallpox.

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Vaccinia virus (VACV or VV) is a large, complex, enveloped virus belonging to the poxvirus family.

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Variola Vera

Variola Vera is a 1982 Yugoslav film directed by Goran Marković.

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Variolation or inoculation was the method first used to immunize an individual against smallpox (Variola) with material taken from a patient or a recently variolated individual in the hope that a mild, but protective infection would result.

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Vero cell

Vero cells are a lineage of cells used in cell cultures.

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Viktor Zhdanov

Viktor Mikhailovich Zhdanov (Виктор Михайлович Ждaнов) (13 February 1914 – 1987) was a Soviet virologist.

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Viral envelope

Some viruses (e.g. HIV and many animal viruses) have viral envelopes covering their protective protein capsids.

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Viral replication

Viral replication is the formation of biological viruses during the infection process in the target host cells.

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Viremia (UK: viraemia) is a medical condition where viruses enter the bloodstream and hence have access to the rest of the body.

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A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

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Visual impairment

Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses.

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François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.

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Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.

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Vozrozhdeniya Island

Vozrozhdeniya Island (p) was an island in the Aral Sea.

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Walking (also known as ambulation) is one of the main gaits of locomotion among legged animals.

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A warhead is the explosive or toxic material that is delivered by a missile, rocket, or torpedo.

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Western Hemisphere

The Western Hemisphere is a geographical term for the half of Earth which lies west of the prime meridian (which crosses Greenwich, London, United Kingdom) and east of the antimeridian.

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William III of England

William III (Willem; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702), also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702.

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World Health Assembly

The World Health Assembly (WHA) is the forum through which the World Health Organization (WHO) is governed by its 194 member states.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Yoruba religion

The Yoruba religion comprises the traditional religious and spiritual concepts and practices of the Yoruba people.

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Yuri Andropov

Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (p; – 9 February 1984) was a Soviet politician and the fourth General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

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1972 Yugoslav smallpox outbreak

The 1972 Yugoslav smallpox outbreak was the last major outbreak of smallpox in Europe.

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1978 smallpox outbreak in the United Kingdom

The 1978 smallpox outbreak in the United Kingdom claimed the life of Janet Parker (1938–1978), a British medical photographer, who became the last recorded person to die from smallpox.

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Black Pox, Black pox, Blackpox, Elephantpox, Elephantsmallpox, Eradicate smallpox, Eradication of smallpox, Hemorrhagic smallpox, Lagaisse, Poxvirus variolae, Small Pox, Small pox, Small-pox, Smallpocks, Smallpox eradication, Smallpox survivors, Smallpox virus, Vaccinov, Variola, Variola Major, Variola Minor, Variola maior, Variola major, Variola major virus, Variola minor, Variola vera, Variola virus, Variole, Variolla.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smallpox

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