155 relations: ADR (treaty), Alfred Nobel, Amyl alcohol, Aniline, Antique firearms, Artillery, Ascanio Sobrero, Austrian Empire, Ball propellant, Ballistite, Bismuth, Bismuth antimonide, Bismuth subcarbonate, Bismuth(III) nitrate, Bismuth(III) oxide, Brown-brown, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, Calcium carbonate, California Powder Works, Camphor, Cannon, Carbon monoxide, Carneys Point Township, New Jersey, Cartridge (firearms), Centralite, Chemist, Chlorate, Christian Friedrich Schönbein, Chromate and dichromate, Combustion, Cordite, Cotton, Dangerous goods, Decoppering, Deflagration, Detonation, Detonation velocity, Dibutyl phthalate, Diethyl ether, Diethylene glycol dinitrate, Diphenylamine, Dmitri Mendeleev, Dunnite, DuPont, Emulsion, Ethyl acetate, Extrusion, Faversham, Firearm, Flash suppressor, ..., Fouling, Fred Olsen, Frederick Abel, Gas, General Dynamics, Germany, Granular material, Graphite, Gunpowder, Hagley Museum and Library, Heat capacity, Heat transfer, Hercules Inc., Hiram Maxim, Hudson Maxim, Hygroscopy, Improved Military Rifle, Indian Head Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head, Maryland, James Dewar, John Bernadou, Krag–Jørgensen, Krupp, Laflin & Rand Powder Company, Lead, Lebel Model 1886 rifle, Lubricant, Magnesium oxide, Marc Milner, Muzzle flash, Muzzle velocity, Napoleonic Wars, Naval mine, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Newport, Rhode Island, Nitrate, Nitric acid, Nitrocellulose, Nitrogen, Nitroglycerin, Nitroguanidine, Oakland, New Jersey, Oxygen, Paper, Patent, Paul Marie Eugène Vieille, Pelletizing, Petroleum jelly, Phthalate, Picatinny Arsenal, Picrate, Picric acid, Piobert's law, Pistol, Polyurethane, Potassium carbonate, Potassium chloride, Potassium nitrate, Potassium sulfate, Potassium sulfide, Poudre B, Powder, Primer (firearms), Propellant, Prussia, Pulp (paper), Pyrocollodion, RDX, Rhodopsin, Rifling, Rosin, Small arms, Smoke, Smoothbore, Sniper, Sodium bicarbonate, Sodium hydroxide, St. Marks Powder, Stabilizer (chemistry), Static electricity, Steam, Stowmarket, Sulfuric acid, Surfactant, Talc, Tank gun, Temperature gradient, Tin, Tin(IV) Oxide, Titanium dioxide, TNT, Torpedo, Trajectory, United Nations, United States Army, United States Navy, Waltham Abbey Royal Gunpowder Mills, War Office, Warhead, Wax, Western Cartridge Company, Wilhelm Lenk von Wolfsberg, Winchester Repeating Arms Company, World War I, 2,4-Dinitrotoluene. Expand index (105 more) » « Shrink index
ADR (formally, the European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR)) is a 1957 United Nations treaty that governs transnational transport of hazardous materials.
Alfred Bernhard Nobel (21 October 1833 – 10 December 1896) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, inventor, businessman, and philanthropist.
An amyl alcohol is any of 8 alcohols with the formula C5H12OH.
Aniline is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2.
An antique firearm is a term to describe a firearm that was designed and manufactured prior to the beginning of the 20th century.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
Ascanio Sobrero (12 October 1812 – 26 May 1888) was an Italian chemist, born in Casale Monferrato.
The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.
Ball propellant is a form of nitrocellulose used in small arms cartridges.
Ballistite is a smokeless propellant made from two high explosives, nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine.
Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.
Bismuth antimonides, Bismuth-antimonys, or Bismuth-antimony alloys, (Bi1−xSbx) are binary alloys of bismuth and antimony in various ratios.
Bismuth subcarbonate (BiO)2CO3, sometimes written Bi2O2(CO3) is a chemical compound of bismuth containing both oxide and carbonate anions.
Bismuth(III) nitrate a salt composed of bismuth in its cationic +3 oxidation state and nitrate anions.
Bismuth(III) oxide is perhaps the most industrially important compound of bismuth.
Brown-brown is a purported form of cocaine mixed with smokeless gunpowder (not "black powder").
The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) is a federal law enforcement organization within the United States Department of Justice.
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.
California Powder Works was the first American explosive powder manufacturing company west of the Rocky Mountains.
Camphor is a waxy, flammable, white or transparent solid with a strong aroma.
A cannon (plural: cannon or cannons) is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Carneys Point Township is a township in Salem County, New Jersey, United States.
A cartridge is a type of firearm ammunition packaging a projectile (bullet, shots or slug), a propellant substance (usually either smokeless powder or black powder) and an ignition device (primer) within a metallic, paper or plastic case that is precisely made to fit within the barrel chamber of a breechloading gun, for the practical purpose of convenient transportation and handling during shooting.
Centralite (empirical formula: C17H20N2O) is a gunshot residue also known as ethyl centralite.
A chemist (from Greek chēm (ía) alchemy; replacing chymist from Medieval Latin alchimista) is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry.
The chlorate anion has the formula.
Prof Christian Friedrich Schönbein HFRSE(18 October 1799 – 29 August 1868) was a German-Swiss chemist who is best known for inventing the fuel cell (1838) at the same time as William Robert Grove and his discoveries of guncotton and ozone.
Chromate salts contain the chromate anion,.
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
* Cordite is a family of smokeless propellants developed and produced in the United Kingdom since 1889 to replace gunpowder as a military propellant.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
Dangerous goods or hazardous goods are solids, liquids, or gases that can harm people, other living organisms, property, or the environment.
Decoppering is the act of removing copper and it is most commonly used in the context of the removal of copper residues from the rifling of gun barrels.
Deflagration (Lat: de + flagrare, "to burn down") is subsonic combustion propagating through heat transfer; hot burning material heats the next layer of cold material and ignites it.
Detonation is a type of combustion involving a supersonic exothermic front accelerating through a medium that eventually drives a shock front propagating directly in front of it.
Explosive velocity, also known as detonation velocity or velocity of detonation (VoD), is the velocity at which the shock wave front travels through a detonated explosive.
Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is an organic compound commonly used plasticizer. With the chemical formula C6H4(CO2C4H9)2, it is a colorless oil, although commercial samples are often yellow. Because of its low toxicity and wide liquid range, it is used as a plasticizer.Peter M. Lorz, Friedrich K. Towae, Walter Enke, Rudolf Jäckh, Naresh Bhargava, Wolfgang Hillesheim "Phthalic Acid and Derivatives" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2007, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.
Diethyl ether, or simply ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula, sometimes abbreviated as (see Pseudoelement symbols).
Diethylene glycol dinitrate is a nitrated alcohol ester produced by the action of concentrated nitric acid, normally admixed with an excess of strong sulfuric acid as a dehydrating agent, upon diethylene glycol.
Diphenylamine is an organic compound with the formula (C6H5)2NH.
Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (a; 8 February 18342 February 1907 O.S. 27 January 183420 January 1907) was a Russian chemist and inventor.
Dunnite, also known as Explosive D or systematically as ammonium picrate, is an explosive developed in 1906 by US Army Major Beverly W. Dunn, who later served as the chief inspector of the Bureau of Transportation Explosives.
An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or unblendable).
Ethyl acetate (systematically ethyl ethanoate, commonly abbreviated EtOAc or EA) is the organic compound with the formula, simplified to.
Extrusion is a process used to create objects of a fixed cross-sectional profile.
Faversham is a market town and civil parish in the Swale district of Kent, England.
A firearm is a portable gun (a barreled ranged weapon) that inflicts damage on targets by launching one or more projectiles driven by rapidly expanding high-pressure gas produced by exothermic combustion (deflagration) of propellant within an ammunition cartridge.
A flash suppressor, also known as a flash guard, flash eliminator, flash hider, or flash cone, is a device attached to the muzzle of a rifle that reduces its visible signature while firing by cooling or dispersing the burning gases that exit the muzzle, a phenomenon typical of carbine-length weapons.
Fouling is the accumulation of unwanted material on solid surfaces to the detriment of function.
Fredrich Olsen (1891–1986) was a British-born American chemist remembered as the inventor of ball propellant and as a donor to the art antiquities collections of Yale University, the University of Illinois, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Sir Frederick Augustus Abel, 1st Baronet GCVO, KCB, FRS (17 July 18276 September 1902) was an English chemist.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
General Dynamics Corporation (GD) is an American aerospace and defense multinational corporation formed by mergers and divestitures.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
A granular material is a conglomeration of discrete solid, macroscopic particles characterized by a loss of energy whenever the particles interact (the most common example would be friction when grains collide).
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.
The Hagley Museum and Library is a nonprofit educational institution in Wilmington, Delaware.
Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.
Heat transfer is a discipline of thermal engineering that concerns the generation, use, conversion, and exchange of thermal energy (heat) between physical systems.
Hercules, Inc., was a chemical and munitions manufacturing company based in Wilmington, Delaware, incorporated in 1912 as the Hercules Powder Company following the breakup of the Du Pont explosives monopoly by the U.S. Circuit Court in 1911.
Sir Hiram Stevens Maxim (5 February 1840 – 24 November 1916) was an American-born British inventor, best known as the creator of the Maxim Gun, the first portable fully automatic machine gun.
Hudson Maxim (February 3, 1853 – May 6, 1927), was a U.S. inventor and chemist who invented a variety of explosives, including smokeless gunpowder, Thomas Edison referred to him as "the most versatile man in America".
Hygroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules from the surrounding environment, which is usually at normal or room temperature.
Improved military rifle propellants are tubular nitrocellulose propellants evolved from World War I through World War II for loading military and commercial ammunition and sold to civilians for reloading rifle ammunition for hunting and target shooting.
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Division (NSWC IHD) is a United States naval military installation in Charles County, Maryland, that is a NAVSEA Warfare Center (WFC) enterprise dedicated to energetics (i.e., explosives, propellants, pyrotechnics, reactive materials, and their application in propulsion systems and ordnance).
Indian Head is a town in Charles County, Maryland, United States.
Sir James Dewar FRS FRSE (20 September 1842 – 27 March 1923) was a Scottish chemist and physicist.
John Baptiste Bernadou (November 14, 1858 – October 2, 1908) was an officer in the United States Navy during the Spanish–American War.
The Krag–Jørgensen is a repeating bolt action rifle designed by the Norwegians Ole Herman Johannes Krag and Erik Jørgensen in the late 19th century.
The Krupp family (see pronunciation), a prominent 400-year-old German dynasty from Essen, became famous for their production of steel, artillery, ammunition, and other armaments.
Laflin & Rand Powder Company was a gunpowder and early smokeless powder manufacturer notable for producing the smokeless powder used by United States Army infantry rifles from 1896 to 1908, which included the period of development of the M1903 Springfield rifle and.30-06 Springfield cartridge.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
The Lebel Model 1886 rifle (French: Fusil Modèle 1886 dit "Fusil Lebel") is also known as the "Fusil Mle 1886 M93", after a bolt modification was added in 1893.
A lubricant is a substance, usually organic, introduced to reduce friction between surfaces in mutual contact, which ultimately reduces the heat generated when the surfaces move.
Magnesium oxide (MgO), or magnesia, is a white hygroscopic solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium (see also oxide).
Joseph Marc Milner, (born 12 April 1954) is a Canadian military and naval historian, author of several books including one novel.
Muzzle flash is the visible light of a muzzle blast, which expels high-temperature, high-pressure gases from the muzzle of a firearm.
Muzzle velocity is the speed of a projectile at the moment it leaves the muzzle of a gun.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
A naval mine is a self-contained explosive device placed in water to damage or destroy surface ships or submarines.
The Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) is the United States Navy's full-spectrum research, development, test and evaluation, engineering and fleet support center for submarines, autonomous underwater systems, and offensive and defensive weapons systems associated with undersea warfare.
Newport is a seaside city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
Nitrocellulose (also known as cellulose nitrate, flash paper, flash cotton, guncotton, and flash string) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin (TNG), trinitroglycerine, nitro, glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), or 1,2,3-trinitroxypropane, is a heavy, colorless, oily, explosive liquid most commonly produced by nitrating glycerol with white fuming nitric acid under conditions appropriate to the formation of the nitric acid ester.
Nitroguanidine is an organic compound with the formula (NH2)2CNNO2.
Oakland is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.
A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.
Paul Marie Eugène Vieille (2 September 1854 – 14 January 1934), a graduate of Ecole Polytechnique, was a French chemist and the inventor of modern nitrocellulose-based smokeless gunpowder in 1884.
Pelletizing is the process of compressing or molding a material into the shape of a pellet.
Petroleum jelly, petrolatum, white petrolatum, soft paraffin/paraffin wax or multi-hydrocarbon, CAS number 8009-03-8, is a semi-solid mixture of hydrocarbons (with carbon numbers mainly higher than 25), originally promoted as a topical ointment for its healing properties.
Phthalates, or phthalate esters, are esters of phthalic acid.
The Picatinny Arsenal is an American military research and manufacturing facility located on of land in Jefferson and Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey, United States, encompassing Picatinny Lake and Lake Denmark.
A picrate is a salt containing the anion (O2N)3C6H2O−.
Picric acid is an organic compound with the formula (O2N)3C6H2OH.
Piobert's law applies to the reaction of solid propellant grains to generate hot gas.
A pistol is a type of handgun.
Polyurethane (PUR and PU) is a polymer composed of organic units joined by carbamate (urethane) links.
Potassium carbonate (K2CO3) is a white salt, which is soluble in water (insoluble in ethanol) and forms a strongly alkaline solution.
Potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine.
Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KNO3.
Potassium sulfate (K2SO4) (in British English potassium sulphate, also called sulphate of potash, arcanite, or archaically known as potash of sulfur) is a non-flammable white crystalline salt which is soluble in water.
Potassium sulfide is the inorganic compound with the formula K2S.
Poudre B was the first practical smokeless gunpowder.
A powder is a dry, bulk solid composed of a large number of very fine particles that may flow freely when shaken or tilted.
In firearms, the primer is a component of handgun cartridges, rifle cartridges and shotgun shells, and is responsible for initiating the propellant combustion that will push the projectiles out of the gun barrel.
A propellant or propellent is a chemical substance used in the production of energy or pressurized gas that is subsequently used to create movement of a fluid or to generate propulsion of a vehicle, projectile, or other object.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
Pulp is a lignocellulosic fibrous material prepared by chemically or mechanically separating cellulose fibres from wood, fiber crops, waste paper, or rags.
Pyrocollodion is a smokeless powder invented by Dmitri Mendeleev.
RDX is the organic compound with the formula (O2NNCH2)3.
Rhodopsin (also known as visual purple) is a light-sensitive receptor protein involved in visual phototransduction.
In firearms, rifling is the helical groove pattern that is machined into the internal (bore) surface of a gun's barrel, for the purpose of exerting torque and thus imparting a spin to a projectile around its longitudinal axis during shooting.
Rosin, also called colophony or Greek pitch (pix græca), is a solid form of resin obtained from pines and some other plants, mostly conifers, produced by heating fresh liquid resin to vaporize the volatile liquid terpene components.
Small arms include handguns (revolvers and pistols) and long guns, such as rifles, carbines, shotguns, submachine guns, assault rifles, personal defense weapons, and light machine guns.
Smoke is a collection of airborne solid and liquid particulates and gases emitted when a material undergoes combustion or pyrolysis, together with the quantity of air that is entrained or otherwise mixed into the mass.
A smoothbore weapon is one that has a barrel without rifling.
A sniper is a military/paramilitary marksman who operates to maintain effective visual contact with the enemy and engage targets from concealed positions or at distances exceeding their detection capabilities.
Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
In industrial chemistry, a stabilizer is a chemical that is used to prevent degradation.
Static electricity is an imbalance of electric charges within or on the surface of a material.
Steam is water in the gas phase, which is formed when water boils.
Stowmarket is a small market town in Suffolk, England,OS Explorer map 211: Bury St.Edmunds and Stowmarket Scale: 1:25 000.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension (or interfacial tension) between two liquids, between a gas and a liquid, or between a liquid and a solid.
Talc or talcum is a clay mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2.
A tank gun is the main armament of a tank.
A temperature gradient is a physical quantity that describes in which direction and at what rate the temperature changes the most rapidly around a particular location.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Tin(IV) Oxide, also known as stannic oxide, is the inorganic compound with the formula SnO2.
Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula.
Trinitrotoluene (TNT), or more specifically 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3.
A modern torpedo is a self-propelled weapon with an explosive warhead, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater towards a target, and designed to detonate either on contact with its target or in proximity to it.
A trajectory or flight path is the path that a massive object in motion follows through space as a function of time.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The Royal Gunpowder Mills, Waltham Abbey, an Anchor Point of the European Route of Industrial Heritage, (ERIH), set in of parkland and containing 21 buildings of major historical importance, mixes history, science, and attractive surroundings.
The War Office was a department of the British Government responsible for the administration of the British Army between 1857 and 1964, when its functions were transferred to the Ministry of Defence.
A warhead is the explosive or toxic material that is delivered by a missile, rocket, or torpedo.
Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures.
The Western Cartridge Company manufactures small arms and ammunitions.
Nikolaus Wilhelm Freiherr Lenk von Wolfsberg (born March 17, 1809, Budweis, Austria; died October 18, 1894, Troppau, Austria) was an Austrian officer (Feldzeugmeister), owner of the Corps Artillery Regiment No.
The Winchester Repeating Arms Company was a prominent American maker of repeating firearms, located in New Haven, Connecticut.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
2,4-Dinitrotoluene (DNT) or dinitro is an organic compound with the formula C7H6N2O4.
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