431 relations: Acrochordidae, Adam and Eve, Adaptive radiation, Agkistrodon contortrix, Agkistrodon piscivorus, Ahaetulla, Akkadian language, Alcoholic drinks in China, Alethinophidia, Amduat, Amerophidia, Amniote, Amphisbaenia, Anaconda, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Andaman Islands, Andes, Andhra Pradesh, Anguis fragilis, Anilius, Anomalepididae, Anomochilus, Antivenom, Apotropaic magic, Aquatic animal, Art of Mesopotamia, Aru Islands, Asclepius, Assyria, Athena, Atheris hispida, Atlas (anatomy), Atractaspidinae, Auckland, Auckland War Memorial Museum, Austin Stevens, Austrelaps, Autotomy, Awamori, Axis (anatomy), Aztec calendar, Ångström, Ball python, Bandy-bandy, Barbados threadsnake, Bibliotheca (Pseudo-Apollodorus), Bill Haast, Binocular vision, ..., Bismarck Archipelago, Blasius Merrem, Boa constrictor, Boaedon lineatus, Boeotia, Boidae, Boiga, Boiga ceylonensis, Boiga dendrophila, Bolyeriidae, Booidea, Book of Exodus, Book of Genesis, Book of Revelation, Book of the Dead, Boomslang, Borneo, Boundary marker, Bowl of Hygieia, Brass, Brille, Bronchus, Brooklyn Papyrus, Bungarotoxin, Bungarus, Bungarus candidus, Cadmean victory, Cadmus, Caduceus, Calabar python, Candoia, Cantonese cuisine, Carl Linnaeus, Carnivore, Cenomanian, Cerastes cerastes, Charles Lucien Bonaparte, Checkered keelback, Chichen Itza, Chinese calendar, Chinese zodiac, Chrysopelea, Clade, Cladistics, Class (biology), Claw, Cleopatra, Cloaca, Coatlicue, Cobra, Colloquialism, Colubridae, Colubroidea, Comparative anatomy, Constriction, Convergent evolution, Coral snake, Corn snake, Cornea, Cranial kinesis, Cretaceous, Crotalus cerastes, Crotalus durissus, Crow, Cylinder seal, Cylindrophis, Cytotoxicity, Dasypeltis, Dibamidae, Digestion, Dinosaur, Dissection, Doctor of Philosophy, Dormancy, Dorsal scales, Earless monitor lizard, Ecdysis, Ectotherm, Edward Drinker Cope, Edward Harrison Taylor, Egg, Elapidae, Emerald tree boa, Enzyme, Epicrates maurus, Erycinae, Eupodophis, Eve, Evil, Extinction, Family (biology), Feather, Forbidden fruit, Forked tongue, Fossil, Fossorial, Fox, Friedrich Boie, Gallbladder, Garden of Eden, Garter snake, Gastrointestinal tract, Genus, Germanic languages, Gerrhopilidae, Gila monster, Glass lizard, Gnosticism, Gorgon, Gorgoneion, Grass snake, Greek mythology, Green anaconda, Green tree python, Guadalcanal, Haasiophis, Hawaiian Islands, Healing, Hellenistic period, Hemipenis, Hemotoxin, Henophidia, Heracles, Herpetoculture, Herpetology, Hesiod, Hibernaculum (zoology), Himalayas, Hindi, Hispaniola, History of Egypt, Holocene, Homalopsidae, Hox gene, Hurrian religion, Hyaluronidase, Hydrophiinae, Hydrostatics, Hypercarnivore, Ištaran, Iceland, Ichchhadhari Nag, Imantodes cenchoa, Impedance matching, Indian cobra, Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, Infrared sensing in snakes, Internal fertilization, Ireland, Jaguar, Jaw, Jeff Corwin, Jesus, Johannes Peter Müller, John Edward Gray, Journal of Cell Science, Judaism, Jurassic, Karkotaka, Kassites, Keeled scales, Kidney, King cobra, Kingsnake, Kudurru, KV62, Lachesis (genus), Lamprophiidae, Larco Museum, Late Cretaceous, Legless lizard, Lens (anatomy), Leo Brongersma, Leonhard Stejneger, Leopold Fitzinger, Leptotyphlopidae, Lerna, Lernaean Hydra, Lesser Antilles, Limbless vertebrate, Linnaean taxonomy, List of Serpentes families, List of snake genera, Lizard, Loxocemus, Lung, Lymph node, Madtsoiidae, Maluku Islands, Mamba, Mandible, Marduk, Mating, Mauritius, Maya calendar, Medicine, Medusa, Meiosis, Mesoamerica, Mesopotamia, Metabolism, Metamorphoses, Mexican beaded lizard, Mitochondrial DNA, Mixcoatl, Modern Paganism, Mongoose, Monitor lizard, Monophyly, Morphogenesis, Morphology (biology), Mosasaur, Moses, Moulting, Mušḫuššu, Mussau Island, Nabu, Naga Panchami, Nahuatl, Najash, National god, Nature (journal), Nāga, Nehushtan, Neo-Assyrian Empire, Neontology, Nerodia, Neurocranium, Neurotoxin, New Zealand, Newt, Nicobar Islands, Nicolaus Michael Oppel, Ninazu, Ningishzida, Nirah, Okinawa Prefecture, Old English, Order (biology), Oregon, Ossicles, Ouroboros, Ovid, Ovoviviparity, Oxybelis fulgidus, Pachyrhachis, Pacific gopher snake, Paleocene, Pancreas, Pantherophis, Pareidae, Parthenogenesis, Pelvic spur, Pelvis, Pericardium, Perseus, Phrynonax poecilonotus, Pingala, Pistis Sophia, Pit viper, Pituophis, Placenta, Placentalia, Polyphyodont, Poseidon, Protein, Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Indo-European language, Protobothrops flavoviridis, Pygopodidae, Pythonidae, Pythonoidea, Quetzalcoatl, Rattlesnake, Réunion, Rectified spirit, Reptile, Requiem shark, Reticulated python, Retina, Rhabdophis, Ring-necked snake, Robert Hoffstetter, Rod of Asclepius, Sacrum, Saint Patrick, Saliva, Sanskrit, Sanzinia, Satan, Sauria, Scale (anatomy), Scolecophidia, Sex organ, Sexual selection, Shesha, Shiva, Simoliophiidae, Skeleton, Skull, Snake (zodiac), Snake charming, Snake handling, Snake scale, Snake skeleton, Snake soup, Snake venom, Snake wine, Snake worship, Snakebite, Snakebot, Snakeskin, Socotra, Sonic hedgehog, Southern hognose snake, Species, Spinal osteoarthropathy, Spleen, Squamata, Stars and Stripes (newspaper), Steve Irwin, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taipan, Takshaka, Tamil Nadu, Taxonomy (biology), Tenochtitlan, Terrestrial animal, Tetrapod, Tetrapodophis, The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma, The New Encyclopedia of Snakes, The Snakes of Europe, Thebes, Greece, Thymus, Tishpak, Titanoboa, Toxicofera, Traditional Chinese medicine, Transparency and translucency, Tree of the knowledge of good and evil, Tropidophiidae, Tutankhamun, Typhlopidae, Ungaliophiinae, United States, University of Tennessee, Uric acid, Uropeltidae, Uropeltoidea, Vasuki, Venom, Venomous snake, Vertebra, Vertebral column, Vertebrate, Vestigiality, Viperidae, Vishnu, Viviparity, Vomeronasal organ, Vomiting, Western Zhou, Wicca, Wildlife Protection Act, 1972, Wonambi, World Health Organization, Worm, Wrangler (profession), Xenodermidae, Xenopeltis, Xenophidion, Xenotyphlops, Year, Yellow-bellied sea snake, Yellow-lipped sea krait, Yolk sac, Zootaxa, Zygote, 10th edition of Systema Naturae. 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The Acrochordidae, commonly known as wart snakes, Java wart snakes, file snakes, elephant trunk snakes, or dogface snakes, are a monogeneric family created for the genus Acrochordus.
Adam and Eve, according to the creation myth of the Abrahamic religions, were the first man and woman.
In evolutionary biology, adaptive radiation is a process in which organisms diversify rapidly from an ancestral species into a multitude of new forms, particularly when a change in the environment makes new resources available, creates new challenges, or opens new environmental niches.
Agkistrodon contortrix is a species of venomous snake endemic to Eastern North America, a member of the subfamily Crotalinae (pit vipers).
Agkistrodon piscivorus is a venomous snake, a species of pit viper, found in the southeastern United States.
Ahaetulla is a genus of colubrid snakes commonly referred to as vine snakes, or whip snakes.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Alcoholic drinks in China seem to precede the earliest stages of Chinese civilization.
The Alethinophidia are an infraorder of snakes that includes all snakes other than blind snakes and thread snakes.
The Amduat (literally "That Which Is In the Afterworld", also translated as "Text of the Hidden Chamber Which is in the Underworld" and "Book of What is in the Underworld") is an important Ancient Egyptian funerary text of the New Kingdom.
The Amerophidia, also known as amerophidian snakes, are a superfamily of snakes that contains two families: Aniliidae (containing a single species, Anilius scytale, the red pipesnake) and the boa-like Tropidophiidae (containing 2 genera, Trachyboa with 2 species and Tropidophis with 32).
Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον amnion, "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", from ἀμνός amnos, "lamb") are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising the reptiles, birds, and mammals.
Amphisbaenia (called amphisbaenians or worm lizards) is a group of usually legless squamates, comprising over 180 extant species.
Anacondas are a group of large snakes of the genus Eunectes.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
The Andaman Islands form an archipelago in the Bay of Bengal between India, to the west, and Myanmar, to the north and east.
The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.
Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India.
Anguis fragilis, the slowworm, is a legless lizard native to Eurasia.
The Aniliidae are a monotypic family created for the monotypic genus Anilius that contains the single species A. scytale.
The Anomalepididae are a family of nonvenomous snakes found in Central and South America.
The Anomochilidae, or anomochilids, are a monotypic family of snakes, created for the genus Anomochilus, which currently contains three species.
Antivenom, also known as antivenin, venom antiserum and antivenom immunoglobulin, is a medication made from antibodies which is used to treat certain venomous bites and stings.
Apotropaic magic (from Greek "to ward off" from "away" and "to turn") is a type of magic intended to turn away harm or evil influences, as in deflecting misfortune or averting the evil eye.
A aquatic animal is an animal, either vertebrate or invertebrate, which lives in the water for most or all of its lifetime.
The art of Mesopotamia has survived in the archaeological record from early hunter-gatherer societies (10th millennium BC) on to the Bronze Age cultures of the Sumerian, Akkadian, Babylonian and Assyrian empires.
The Aru Islands Regency (also Aroe Islands, Kabupaten Kepulauan Aru) are a group of about ninety-five low-lying islands in the Maluku province of eastern Indonesia.
Asclepius (Ἀσκληπιός, Asklēpiós; Aesculapius) was a hero and god of medicine in ancient Greek religion and mythology.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
Athena; Attic Greek: Ἀθηνᾶ, Athēnā, or Ἀθηναία, Athēnaia; Epic: Ἀθηναίη, Athēnaiē; Doric: Ἀθάνα, Athānā or Athene,; Ionic: Ἀθήνη, Athēnē often given the epithet Pallas,; Παλλὰς is the ancient Greek goddess of wisdom, handicraft, and warfare, who was later syncretized with the Roman goddess Minerva.
Atheris hispida is a venomous viper species endemic to Central Africa.
In anatomy, the atlas (C1) is the most superior (first) cervical vertebra of the spine.
The Atractaspidinae are a family of snakes found in Africa and the Middle East, commonly called mole vipers, stiletto snakes, or burrowing asps.
Auckland is a city in New Zealand's North Island.
The Auckland War Memorial Museum Tāmaki Paenga Hira (or simply the Auckland Museum) is one of New Zealand's most important museums and war memorials.
Austin Stevens (born 19 May 1950) is a South African-born Australian naturalist, herpetologist, wildlife photographer, documentarian, television personality, and author best known as the host of the Animal Planet nature documentary series Austin Stevens: Snakemaster (2004−09).
Austrelaps is a genus of venomous elapid snakes native to the relatively fertile, temperate, southern and eastern part of the Australian continent.
Autotomy (from the Greek auto- "self-" and tome "severing", αὐτονομία) or self-amputation is the behaviour whereby an animal sheds or discards one or more of its own appendages, usually as a self-defense mechanism to elude a predator's grasp or to distract the predator and thereby allow escape.
Awamori (泡盛) is an alcoholic beverage indigenous and unique to Okinawa, Japan.
In anatomy, the second cervical vertebra (C2) of the spine is named the axis (from Latin axis, "axle") or epistropheus.
The Aztec or Mexica calendar is the calendar system that was used by the Aztecs as well as other Pre-Columbian peoples of central Mexico.
The ångström or angstrom is a unit of length equal to (one ten-billionth of a metre) or 0.1 nanometre.
The ball python (Python regius), also known as the royal python,Mehrtens JM.
The bandy-bandy (Vermicella annulata), also commonly known as the hoop snake, is a species of venomous snake in the family Elapidae.
The Barbados threadsnake (Leptotyphlops carlae) is a species of threadsnake.
The Bibliotheca (Βιβλιοθήκη Bibliothēkē, "Library"), also known as the Bibliotheca of Pseudo-Apollodorus, is a compendium of Greek myths and heroic legends, arranged in three books, generally dated to the first or second century AD.
Bill Haast (December 30, 1910 – June 15, 2011) was the director of the Miami Serpentarium Laboratories, a facility near Miami, Florida that produces snake venom for medical and research use.
In biology, binocular vision is a type of vision in which an animal having two eyes is able to perceive a single three-dimensional image of its surroundings.
The Bismarck Archipelago is a group of islands off the northeastern coast of New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean and is part of the Islands Region of Papua New Guinea.
Blasius Merrem (4 February 1761 – 23 February 1824) was a German naturalist, zoologist, ornithologist, mathematician, and herpetologist.
The boa constrictor (Boa constrictor), also called the red-tailed boa or the common boa, is a species of large, heavy-bodied snake that is frequently kept and bred in captivity.
Boaedon lineatus, the striped house snake, is a species of lamprophiid from throughout Africa.
Boeotia, sometimes alternatively Latinised as Boiotia, or Beotia (Βοιωτία,,; modern transliteration Voiotía, also Viotía, formerly Cadmeis), is one of the regional units of Greece.
The Boidae (Common names: boas, boids) are a family of nonvenomous snakes primarily found in the Americas, although also existing in Africa, Madagascar, Europe, Asia, and some Pacific Islands.
Boiga is a large genus of mildly venomous, opisthoglyphous or rear-fanged, colubrid snakes typically known as the cat-eyed snakes or just cat snakes.
Boiga ceylonensis (Sri Lanka cat snake) is a species of colubrid snake found in Sri Lanka and the Western Ghats of India.
Boiga dendrophila, commonly called the mangrove snake or gold-ringed cat snake, is a species of rear-fanged colubrid from southeast Asia.
The Bolyeriidae are a family of snakes native to Mauritius and a few islands around it, especially Round Island.
The Booidea, also known as booid snakes, are a superfamily of snakes that contains boas (family Boidae) and other closely related boa-like snakes (but not pythons, which are in a separate superfamily called Pythonoidea).
The Book of Exodus or, simply, Exodus (from ἔξοδος, éxodos, meaning "going out"; וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמוֹת, we'elleh shəmōṯ, "These are the names", the beginning words of the text: "These are the names of the sons of Israel" וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמֹות בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל), is the second book of the Torah and the Hebrew Bible (the Old Testament) immediately following Genesis.
The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek "", meaning "Origin"; בְּרֵאשִׁית, "Bərēšīṯ", "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Old Testament.
The Book of Revelation, often called the Revelation to John, the Apocalypse of John, The Revelation, or simply Revelation or Apocalypse (and often misquoted as Revelations), is a book of the New Testament that occupies a central place in Christian eschatology.
The Book of the Dead is an ancient Egyptian funerary text, used from the beginning of the New Kingdom (around 1550 BCE) to around 50 BCE.
The boomslang (or; Dispholidus typus) is a large, venomous snake in the family Colubridae.
Borneo (Pulau Borneo) is the third largest island in the world and the largest in Asia.
A boundary marker, border marker, boundary stone, or border stone is a robust physical marker that identifies the start of a land boundary or the change in a boundary, especially a change in direction of a boundary.
Bowl of Hygieia is one of the symbols of pharmacy.
Brass is a metallic alloy that is made of copper and zinc.
The brille (also called the ocular scale, eye cap or spectacle) is the layer of transparent, immovable disc-shaped skin or scale covering the eyes of some animals for protection, especially in animals without eyelids.
A bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs.
The Brooklyn Papyrus (47.218.48 and 47.218.85, also known as the Brooklyn Medical Papyrus) is a medical papyrus dating from ancient Egypt and is one of the oldest preserved writings about medicine and ophiology.
Bungarotoxins are a group of closely related neurotoxic proteins of the three-finger toxin superfamily found in the venom of kraits including Bungarus multicinctus.
Bungarus is a genus of venomous elapid snakes, the kraits ("krait" is pronounced, rhyming with "kite"), found in South and Southeast Asia.
Bungarus candidus, commonly known as the Malayan krait or blue krait, is a highly venomous species of snake.
A Cadmean victory (translit) is a reference to a victory involving one's own ruin,Liddell, Henry George (Compiler), Scott, Robert (Compiler), Jones, Henry Stuart (Editor), McKenzie, Roderick.
In Greek mythology, Cadmus (Κάδμος Kadmos), was the founder and first king of Thebes.
The caduceus (☤;; Latin cādūceus, from Greek κηρύκειον kērū́keion "herald's wand, or staff") is the staff carried by Hermes in Greek mythology and consequently by Hermes Trismegistus in Greco-Egyptian mythology.
The Calabar python (Calabaria reinhardtii) is a nonvenomous boa species endemic to west and central Africa.
Candoia is a genus of non-venomous boas found mostly in New Guinea and Melanesia.
Cantonese cuisine (廣東菜), also known as Yue cuisine (粵菜) or Guangdong cuisine, refers to the cuisine of China's Guangdong Province, particularly the provincial capital, Guangzhou (Canton).
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
A carnivore, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.
The Cenomanian is, in the ICS' geological timescale the oldest or earliest age of the Late Cretaceous epoch or the lowest stage of the Upper Cretaceous series.
Cerastes cerastes (common names: Saharan horned viper,Mallow D, Ludwig D, Nilson G. 2003. True Vipers: Natural History and Toxinology of Old World Vipers. Malabar, Florida: Krieger Publishing Company. 359 pp.. horned desert viper,Mehrtens JM. 1987. Living Snakes of the World in Color. New York: Sterling Publishers. 480 pp.. more) is a venomous viper species native to the deserts of Northern Africa and parts of the Middle East.
Charles Lucien Jules Laurent Bonaparte, 2nd Prince of Canino and Musignano (24 May 1803 – 29 July 1857), was a French biologist and ornithologist.
The checkered keelback or Asiatic water snake (Xenochrophis piscator) is a common species of nonvenomous snake found in Asia.
Chichen Itza, Chichén Itzá, often with the emphasis reversed in English to; from Chi'ch'èen Ìitsha' (Barrera Vásquez et al., 1980.) "at the mouth of the well of the Itza people" was a large pre-Columbian city built by the Maya people of the Terminal Classic period.
The traditional Chinese calendar (official Chinese name: Rural Calendar, alternately Former Calendar, Traditional Calendar, or Lunar Calendar) is a lunisolar calendar which reckons years, months and days according to astronomical phenomena.
The Chinese zodiac is a classification scheme that assigns an animal and its reputed attributes to each year in a repeating 12-year cycle.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Chrysopelea, more commonly known as the flying snake or gliding snake, is a genus that belongs to the family Colubridae.
A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
Cladistics (from Greek κλάδος, cládos, i.e., "branch") is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on the most recent common ancestor.
In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.
A claw is a curved, pointed appendage, found at the end of a toe or finger in most amniotes (mammals, reptiles, birds).
Cleopatra VII Philopator (Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ Cleopatra Philopator; 69 – August 10 or 12, 30 BC)Theodore Cressy Skeat, in, uses historical data to calculate the death of Cleopatra as having occurred on 12 August 30 BC.
In animal anatomy, a cloaca (plural cloacae or) is the posterior orifice that serves as the only opening for the digestive, reproductive, and urinary tracts (if present) of many vertebrate animals, opening at the vent.
Coatlicue (cōātl īcue,, “skirt of snakes”), also known as Teteoh innan (tēteoh īnnān,, “mother of the gods”), is the Aztec goddess who gave birth to the moon, stars, and Huitzilopochtli, the god of the sun and war.
Cobra is the common name of various elapid snakes, most of which belonging to the genus Naja.
Everyday language, everyday speech, common parlance, informal language, colloquial language, general parlance, or vernacular (but this has other meanings too), is the most used variety of a language, which is usually employed in conversation or other communication in informal situations.
Colubridae (from Latin coluber, snake) is a family of snakes.
The Colubroidea are a superfamily in the suborder Serpentes (snakes).
Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of different species.
Constriction is a method used by various snake species to kill their prey.
Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.
Coral snakes are a large group of elapid snakes that can be subdivided into two distinct groups, Old World coral snakes and New World coral snakes.
The corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus) is a North American species of rat snake that subdues its small prey by constriction.
The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.
Cranial kinesis is the term for significant movement of skull bones relative to each other in addition to movement at the joint between the upper and lower jaw.
The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.
The sidewinder (Crotalus cerastes), also known as the horned rattlesnake and sidewinder rattlesnake,Wright AH, Wright AA.
Crotalus durissus is a venomous pit viper species found in South America.
A Crow is a bird of the genus Corvus, or more broadly is a synonym for all of Corvus.
A cylinder seal is a small round cylinder, typically about one inch in length, engraved with written characters or figurative scenes or both, used in ancient times to roll an impression onto a two-dimensional surface, generally wet clay.
The Cylindrophiidae are a monotypic family of secretive, semifossorial, nonvenomous snakes containing the genus Cylindrophis found in southeastern Asia.
Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells.
Dasypeltis is a genus of colubrid snakes.
Dibamidae is a family of legless lizards found in tropical forests.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria.
Dissection (from Latin dissecare "to cut to pieces"; also called anatomization) is the dismembering of the body of a deceased animal or plant to study its anatomical structure.
A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD or Ph.D.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries.
Dormancy is a period in an organism's life cycle when growth, development, and (in animals) physical activity are temporarily stopped.
In snakes, the dorsal scales are the longitudinal series of plates that encircle the body, but do not include the ventral scales.
The earless monitor lizard (Lanthanotus borneensis) is a semiaquatic, brown lizard native to the Southeast Asian island of Borneo.
Ecdysis is the moulting of the cuticle in many invertebrates of the clade Ecdysozoa.
An ectotherm (from the Greek ἐκτός (ektós) "outside" and θερμός (thermós) "hot"), is an organism in which internal physiological sources of heat are of relatively small or quite negligible importance in controlling body temperature.
Edward Drinker Cope (July 28, 1840 – April 12, 1897) was an American paleontologist and comparative anatomist, as well as a noted herpetologist and ichthyologist.
Edward Harrison Taylor (April 23, 1889 – June 16, 1978) was an American herpetologist from Missouri.
An egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal embryo develops until it can survive on its own; at which point the animal hatches.
The Elapidae (ἔλλοψ éllops, "sea-fish") are a family of venomous snakes found in the tropics and subtropics around the world, with terrestrial forms in Asia, Australia, Africa, North America, and South America as well as marine forms in the Pacific and Indian oceans.
Corallus caninus, commonly called the emerald tree boa,Mehrtens JM.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Epicrates maurus is a species of non-venomous constrictor, in the family Boinae, found in Amazon region of South America.
The Erycinae are a subfamily of nonvenomous snakes, commonly called boas, found in Europe, Asia Minor, Africa, Arabia, central and southwestern Asia, India, Sri Lanka, and western North America.
Eupodophis is an extinct genus of snake from the Late Cretaceous period.
Eve (Ḥawwā’; Syriac: ܚܘܐ) is a figure in the Book of Genesis in the Hebrew Bible.
Evil, in a colloquial sense, is the opposite of good, the word being an efficient substitute for the more precise but religion-associated word "wickedness." As defined in philosophy it is the name for the psychology and instinct of individuals which selfishly but often necessarily defends the personal boundary against deadly attacks and serious threats.
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.
Feathers are epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds and other, extinct species' of dinosaurs.
Forbidden fruit is a phrase that originates from the Book of Genesis concerning Adam and Eve in Genesis 2:16–17.
A forked tongue is a tongue split into two distinct tines at the tip; this is a feature common to many species of reptiles.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
Cape ground squirrel. A fossorial (from Latin fossor, "digger") is an animal adapted to digging and lives primarily, but not solely, underground.
Foxes are small-to-medium-sized, omnivorous mammals belonging to several genera of the family Canidae.
Friedrich Boie (4 June 1789 – 3 March 1870) was a German entomologist, herpetologist, ornithologist, and lawyer.
In vertebrates, the gallbladder is a small hollow organ where bile is stored and concentrated before it is released into the small intestine.
The Garden of Eden (Hebrew גַּן עֵדֶן, Gan ʿEḏen) or (often) Paradise, is the biblical "garden of God", described most notably in the Book of Genesis chapters 2 and 3, and also in the Book of Ezekiel.
Garter snake (in addition to ribbon snake) is a common name for the nearly harmless, small to medium-sized snakes belonging to the genus Thamnophis.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
The Gerrhopilidae (Indo-Malayan blindsnakes) are a family of blindsnakes that contains at least 16 species in the genus Gerrhopilus, and possibly others (the genus Cathetorhinus and the species known as either Malayotyphlops manilae, Gerrhopilus manilae, or Typhlops manilae) as well.
The Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) is a species of venomous lizard native to the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexican state of Sonora.
The glass lizards or glass snakes are a genus, Ophisaurus (from the Greek 'snake-lizard'), of reptiles that resemble snakes, but are actually lizards.
Gnosticism (from γνωστικός gnostikos, "having knowledge", from γνῶσις, knowledge) is a modern name for a variety of ancient religious ideas and systems, originating in Jewish-Christian milieus in the first and second century AD.
In Greek mythology, a Gorgon (plural: Gorgons, Γοργών/Γοργώ Gorgon/Gorgo) is a female creature.
In Ancient Greece, the Gorgoneion (Greek: Γοργόνειον) was a special apotropaic amulet showing the Gorgon head, used most famously by the Olympian deities Athena and Zeus: both are said to have worn the gorgoneion as a protective pendant.
The grass snake (Natrix natrix), sometimes called the ringed snake or water snake, is a Eurasian non-venomous snake.
Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.
The green anaconda (Eunectes murinus), also known as the common anaconda and water boa, is a non-venomous boa species found in South America.
The green tree python (Morelia viridis) is a species of python native to New Guinea, islands in Indonesia, and Cape York Peninsula in Australia.
Guadalcanal (indigenous name: Isatabu) is the principal island in Guadalcanal Province of the nation of Solomon Islands, located in the south-western Pacific, northeast of Australia.
Haasiophis, consisting of the sole species Haasiophis terrasanctus, is an extinct genus of snakes with hind limbs.
The Hawaiian Islands (Mokupuni o Hawai‘i) are an archipelago of eight major islands, several atolls, numerous smaller islets, and seamounts in the North Pacific Ocean, extending some from the island of Hawaiokinai in the south to northernmost Kure Atoll.
Healing (literally meaning to make whole) is the process of the restoration of health from an unbalanced, diseased or damaged organism.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
A hemipenis (plural hemipenes) is one of a pair of intromittent organs of male squamates (snakes, lizards and worm lizards).
Hemotoxins, haemotoxins or hematotoxins are toxins that destroy red blood cells (that is, cause haemotoxin), disrupt blood clotting, and/or cause organ degeneration and generalized tissue damage.
Henophidia is a former superfamily of the suborder Serpentes (snakes) that contains boas, pythons and numerous other less-well-known snakes.
Heracles (Ἡρακλῆς, Hēraklês, Glory/Pride of Hēra, "Hera"), born Alcaeus (Ἀλκαῖος, Alkaios) or Alcides (Ἀλκείδης, Alkeidēs), was a divine hero in Greek mythology, the son of Zeus and Alcmene, foster son of AmphitryonBy his adoptive descent through Amphitryon, Heracles receives the epithet Alcides, as "of the line of Alcaeus", father of Amphitryon.
Herpetoculture is the keeping of live reptiles and amphibians in captivity, whether as a hobby or as a commercial breeding operation.
Herpetology (from Greek "herpein" meaning "to creep") is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of amphibians (including frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, and caecilians (gymnophiona)) and reptiles (including snakes, lizards, amphisbaenids, turtles, terrapins, tortoises, crocodilians, and the tuataras).
Hesiod (or; Ἡσίοδος Hēsíodos) was a Greek poet generally thought by scholars to have been active between 750 and 650 BC, around the same time as Homer.
A hibernaculum plural form: hibernacula (Latin, "tent for winter quarters") is a place in which a creature seeks refuge, such as a bear using a cave to overwinter.
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hispaniola (Spanish: La Española; Latin and French: Hispaniola; Haitian Creole: Ispayola; Taíno: Haiti) is an island in the Caribbean island group, the Greater Antilles.
The history of Egypt has been long and rich, due to the flow of the Nile River with its fertile banks and delta, as well as the accomplishments of Egypt's native inhabitants and outside influence.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
Common name: water snakes, Indo-Australian water snakes, mudsnakes, bockadam, ular air (Indonesian). The Homalopsidae are a family of snakes which contains about 28 genera and more than 50 species.
Hox genes, a subset of homeotic genes, are a group of related genes that control the body plan of an embryo along the head-tail axis.
The Hurrian religion was the polytheistic religion of the Hurrians, a Bronze Age people of the Near East.
Hyaluronidases are a family of enzymes that catalyse the degradation of hyaluronic acid (HA).
The Hydrophiinae, commonly known as sea snakes or coral reef snakes, are a subfamily of venomous elapid snakes that inhabit marine environments for most or all of their lives.
Fluid statics or hydrostatics is the branch of fluid mechanics that studies fluids at rest.
A hypercarnivore is an animal which has a diet that is more than 70% meat, with the balance consisting of non-animal foods such as fungi, fruits or other plant material.
Ištaran (also Gusilim) was the local deity of the city of Der, a Sumerian city state positioned east of the Tigris on the border between Sumer and Elam.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
Ichchadhari Naag (male) or Naagin (female) are mythical shape-shifting cobras in Indian folklore.
Imantodes cenchoa (common names: blunthead tree snake, fiddle-string snake, mapepire corde violon) is a species of rear-fanged colubrid snake distributed in Mexico, Central America, and South America.
In electronics, impedance matching is the practice of designing the input impedance of an electrical load or the output impedance of its corresponding signal source to maximize the power transfer or minimize signal reflection from the load.
The Indian cobra (Naja naja) also known as the spectacled cobra, Asian cobra, or binocellate cobra is a species of the genus Naja found in the India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Bhutan, and a member of the "big four" species that inflict the most snakebites on humans in India.
The Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (IEW; "Indo-European Etymological Dictionary") was published in 1959 by the Austrian-German comparative linguist and Celtic languages expert Julius Pokorny.
The ability to sense infrared thermal radiation evolved independently in several different families of snakes.
Internal fertilization is the union of an egg cell with a sperm during sexual reproduction inside the body of a parent.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
The jaguar (Panthera onca) is a wild cat species and the only extant member of the genus Panthera native to the Americas.
The jaw is any opposable articulated structure at the entrance of the mouth, typically used for grasping and manipulating food.
Jeffrey Corwin (born July 11, 1967) is an American biologist and wildlife conservationist, known to host many TV series including ABC's Ocean Treks with Jeff Corwin.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Johannes Peter Müller (14 July 1801 – 28 April 1858) was a German physiologist, comparative anatomist, ichthyologist, and herpetologist, known not only for his discoveries but also for his ability to synthesize knowledge.
John Edward Gray, FRS (12 February 1800 – 7 March 1875) was a British zoologist.
The Journal of Cell Science (formerly the Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of cell biology.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
The Jurassic (from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period Mya.
In Indian mythology, Karkotaka (कर्कोटक) was a naga king lived in a forest near Nishada Kingdom, who bit Nala at the request of Indra, transforming Nala into a twisted and ugly shape.
The Kassites were people of the ancient Near East, who controlled Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire c. 1531 BC and until c. 1155 BC (short chronology).
Keeled scales refer to reptile scales that, rather than being smooth, have a ridge down the center that may or may not extend to the tip of the scale,Campbell JA, Lamar WW.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
The king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), also known as the hamadryad, is a venomous snake species in the family Elapidae, endemic to forests from India through Southeast Asia.
Kingsnakes are colubrid New World constrictors, members of the genus Lampropeltis, which include milk snakes and four other species.
Kudurru was a type of stone document used as boundary stones and as records of land grants to vassals by the Kassites in ancient Babylonia between the 16th and 12th centuries BCE.
KV62 is the standard Egyptological designation for the tomb of the young pharaoh Tutankhamun in the Valley of the Kings, now renowned for the wealth of valuable antiquities it contained.
Lachesis is a genus of venomous pit vipers found in forested areas of Central and South America.
The Lamprophiidae are a family of snakes found mostly in Africa, but also in parts of southern Europe and western Asia.
The Museo Larco (English: Larco Museum) or Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera is a privately owned museum of pre-Columbian art, located in the Pueblo Libre District of Lima, Peru.
The Late Cretaceous (100.5–66 Ma) is the younger of two epochs into which the Cretaceous period is divided in the geologic timescale.
Legless lizard may refer to any of several groups of lizards that have independently lost limbs or reduced them to the point of being of no use in locomotion.
The lens is a transparent, biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the cornea, helps to refract light to be focused on the retina.
Leo Daniel Brongersma (17 May 1907 in Bloemendaal, North Holland – 24 July 1994 in Leiden) was a Dutch zoologist, herpetologist, author, and lecturer.
Leonhard Hess Stejneger (30 October 1851 – 28 February 1943) was a Norwegian-born American ornithologist, herpetologist and zoologist.
Leopold Joseph Franz Johann Fitzinger (13 April 1802 – 20 September 1884) was an Austrian zoologist.
The Leptotyphlopidae (commonly called slender blind snakes or thread snakes) are a family of snakes found in North and South America, Africa, and Asia.
In classical Greece, Lerna (Λέρνη) was a region of springs and a former lake near the east coast of the Peloponnesus, south of Argos.
The Lernaean Hydra or Hydra of Lerna (Λερναῖα Ὕδρα, Lernaîa Hýdra), more often known simply as the Hydra, was a serpentine water monster in Greek and Roman mythology.
The Lesser Antilles are a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea.
Many vertebrates have evolved limbless or limb-reduced forms.
Linnaean taxonomy can mean either of two related concepts.
This is an overview of the suborder Serpentes, its two infraorders (subdivisions) and the families they contain.
List of snakes lists snakes, part of the squamata order of reptiles, by family, subfamily and genus, mostly according to the continuing work of Dr.
Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains.
Loxocemus bicolor, sole member of the monotypic family Loxocemidae, is a species of python-like snake found in Mexico and Central America.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.
Madtsoiidae is an extinct family of mostly Gondwanan snakes with a fossil record extending from early Cenomanian (Upper Cretaceous) to late Pleistocene strata located in South America, Africa, India, Australia and Southern Europe.
The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas are an archipelago within Banda Sea, Indonesia.
Mambas are fast-moving venomous snakes of the genus Dendroaspis (which literally means "tree asp") in the family Elapidae.
The mandible, lower jaw or jawbone is the largest, strongest and lowest bone in the human face.
Marduk (cuneiform: dAMAR.UTU; Sumerian: amar utu.k "calf of the sun; solar calf"; Greek Μαρδοχαῖος, Mardochaios) was a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon.
In biology, mating (or mateing in British English) is the pairing of either opposite-sex or hermaphroditic organisms, usually for the purposes of sexual reproduction.
Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.
The Maya calendar is a system of calendars used in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica and in many modern communities in the Guatemalan highlands, Veracruz, Oaxaca and Chiapas, Mexico.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
In Greek mythology, Medusa (Μέδουσα "guardian, protectress") was a monster, a Gorgon, generally described as a winged human female with living venomous snakes in place of hair.
Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.
Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
The Metamorphoses (Metamorphōseōn librī: "Books of Transformations") is a Latin narrative poem by the Roman poet Ovid, considered his magnum opus.
The Mexican beaded lizard (Heloderma horridum) is a species of lizard in the family Helodermatidae, one of the two species of venomous beaded lizards found principally in Mexico and southern Guatemala.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Mixcoatl (Mixcōhuātl, from mixtli "cloud" and cōātl "serpent"), or Camaztle from camaz "deer sandal" and atle "without", or Camaxtli, was the god of the hunt and identified with the Milky Way, the stars, and the heavens in several Mesoamerican cultures.
Modern Paganism, also known as Contemporary Paganism and Neopaganism, is a collective term for new religious movements influenced by or claiming to be derived from the various historical pagan beliefs of pre-modern Europe, North Africa and the Near East.
Mongoose is the popular English name for 29 of the 34 species in the 14 genera of the family Herpestidae, which are small feliform carnivorans native to southern Eurasia and mainland Africa.
The monitor lizards are large lizards in the genus Varanus.
In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.
Morphogenesis (from the Greek morphê shape and genesis creation, literally, "beginning of the shape") is the biological process that causes an organism to develop its shape.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
Mosasaurs (from Latin Mosa meaning the 'Meuse river', and Greek σαύρος sauros meaning 'lizard') are an extinct group of large marine reptiles containing 38 genera in total.
Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.
In biology, moulting (British English), or molting (American English), also known as sloughing, shedding, or in many invertebrates, ecdysis, is the manner in which an animal routinely casts off a part of its body (often, but not always, an outer layer or covering), either at specific times of the year, or at specific points in its life cycle.
The mušḫuššu (𒈲𒄭𒄊; formerly also read as sirrušu, sirrush) is a creature from ancient Mesopotamian mythology.
Mussau Island is the largest island of St. Matthias Islands, Papua New Guinea, at.
Nabu (cuneiform: 𒀭𒀝 Nabū ܢܒܘ) is the ancient Mesopotamian patron god of literacy, the rational arts, scribes and wisdom.
Naga Panchami (Sanskrit: नाग पंचमी) is a traditional worship of snakes or serpents observed by Hindus throughout India, Nepal and other countries where Hindu adherents live.
Nahuatl (The Classical Nahuatl word nāhuatl (noun stem nāhua, + absolutive -tl) is thought to mean "a good, clear sound" This language name has several spellings, among them náhuatl (the standard spelling in the Spanish language),() Naoatl, Nauatl, Nahuatl, Nawatl. In a back formation from the name of the language, the ethnic group of Nahuatl speakers are called Nahua.), known historically as Aztec, is a language or group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family.
Najash is an extinct basal snake from the Late Cretaceous Candeleros Formation of Patagonia.
National gods are a class of guardian divinities or deities whose special concern is the safety and well-being of an ethnic group (nation), and of that group's leaders.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Nāga (IAST: nāgá; Devanāgarī: नाग) is the Sanskrit and Pali word for a deity or class of entity or being taking the form of a very great snake, specifically the king cobra, found in the Indian religions of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.
In the biblical Books of Kings, the Nehushtan (or Nohestan) (Hebrew: נחושתן or נחש הנחושת) is the derogatory name given to the bronze serpent on a pole first described in the Book of Numbers, which God told Moses to erect to so that the Israelites who saw it would be protected from dying from the bites of the "fiery serpents" which God had sent to punish them for speaking against God and Moses.
The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire of the world up till that time.
Neontology is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology, deals with living (or, more generally, recent) organisms.
Nerodia is a genus of nonvenomous colubrid snakes commonly referred to as water snakes due to their aquatic behavior.
In human anatomy, the neurocranium, also known as the braincase, brainpan, or brain-pan is the upper and back part of the skull, which forms a protective case around the brain.
Neurotoxins are toxins that are poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity).
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
A newt is a salamander in the subfamily Pleurodelinae, also called eft during its terrestrial juvenile phase.
The Nicobar Islands are an archipelagic island chain in the eastern Indian Ocean.
Nicolaus Michael Oppel (December 7, 1782 in Schönficht – February 16, 1820 in Munich) was a German naturalist.
Ninazu in Sumerian mythology was a god of the underworld, and of healing.
Ningishzida (sum: dnin-g̃iš-zid-da) is a Mesopotamian deity of vegetation and the underworld.
In Sumerian religion, Nirah is the sukkal, or personal attendant, of Ištaran, the local god of the Sumerian city-state of Der.
is the southernmost prefecture of Japan.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States.
The ossicles (also called auditory ossicles) are three bones in either middle ear that are among the smallest bones in the human body.
The ouroboros or uroborus is an ancient symbol depicting a serpent or dragon eating its own tail.
Publius Ovidius Naso (20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus.
Ovoviviparity, ovovivipary, or ovivipary, is a mode of reproduction in animals in which embryos that develop inside eggs remain in the mother's body until they are ready to hatch.
Oxybelis fulgidus, commonly known as the green vine snake or the flatbread snake (not to be confused with Ahaetulla nasuta), is a species of long, slender, arboreal colubrid snake, which is endemic to Central America and northern South America.
Pachyrhachis is an extinct genus of snake with well developed hind legs known from fossils discovered Ein Yabrud, near Ramallah, in the central West Bank.
The Pacific gopher snake (Pituophis catenifer catenifer) is a subspecies of large nonvenomous colubrid snake native to the western coast of the United States.
The Paleocene or Palaeocene, the "old recent", is a geological epoch that lasted from about.
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
Pantherophis is a genus of nonvenomous colubrid snakes endemic to North America and Central America, commonly called ratsnakes or rat snakes.
Pareidae is a small family of snakes found in southeast Asia.
Parthenogenesis (from the Greek label + label) is a natural form of asexual reproduction in which growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization.
Pelvic spurs are the externally visible portion of the vestigial remnants of legs found on each side of the vent in primitive snakes, such as boas and pythons.
The pelvis (plural pelves or pelvises) is either the lower part of the trunk of the human body between the abdomen and the thighs (sometimes also called pelvic region of the trunk) or the skeleton embedded in it (sometimes also called bony pelvis, or pelvic skeleton).
The pericardium is a double-walled sac containing the heart and the roots of the great vessels.
In Greek mythology, Perseus (Περσεύς) is the legendary founder of Mycenae and of the Perseid dynasty, who, alongside Cadmus and Bellerophon, was the greatest Greek hero and slayer of monsters before the days of Heracles.
Phrynonax poecilonotus is a species of nonvenomous snake in the family Colubridae.
Pingala (Devanagari: पिङ्गल) (c. 3rd/2nd century BC) was an ancient Indian mathematician who authored the (also called Pingala-sutras), the earliest known treatise on Sanskrit prosody.
Pistis Sophia ('Πίστις Σοφία') is a Gnostic text discovered in 1773, possibly written between the 3rd and 4th centuries AD.
The Crotalinae, commonly known as pit vipers,Mehrtens JM.
Pituophis is a genus of nonvenomous colubrid snakes commonly referred to as gopher snakes, pine snakes, and bull snakes, which are endemic to North America.
The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.
Placentalia ("Placentals") is one of the three extant subdivisions of the class of animals Mammalia; the other two are Monotremata and Marsupialia.
A polyphyodont is any animal whose teeth are continually replaced.
Poseidon (Ποσειδῶν) was one of the Twelve Olympians in ancient Greek religion and myth.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
Protobothrops flavoviridis is a species of venomous pit viper endemic to the Ryukyu Islands of Japan.
Pygopodidae (commonly known as legless lizards, snake-lizards, or flap-footed lizards) is a family of squamates with reduced or absent limbs, and are a type of gecko.
The Pythonidae, commonly known simply as pythons, from the Greek word python (πυθων), are a family of nonvenomous snakes found in Africa, Asia, and Australia.
The Pythonoidea, also known as pythonoid snakes, are a superfamily of snakes that contains pythons (family Pythonidae) and other closely related python-like snakes (but not boas, which are in a separate superfamily called Booidea).
Quetzalcoatl (ket͡saɬˈkowaːt͡ɬ, in honorific form: Quetzalcohuātzin) forms part of Mesoamerican literature and is a deity whose name comes from the Nahuatl language and means "feathered serpent" or "Quetzal-feathered Serpent".
Rattlesnakes are a group of venomous snakes of the genera Crotalus and Sistrurus of the subfamily Crotalinae (the pit vipers).
Réunion (La Réunion,; previously Île Bourbon) is an island and region of France in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar and southwest of Mauritius.
Rectified spirit, also known as neutral spirits, rectified alcohol, or ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin is highly concentrated ethanol which has been purified by means of repeated distillation, a process that is called rectification.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
Requiem sharks are sharks of the family Carcharhinidae in the order Carcharhiniformes, containing migratory, live-bearing sharks of warm seas (sometimes of brackish or fresh water) such as the spinner shark, the blacknose shark, the blacktip shark, the grey reef shark, and the blacktip reef shark.
The reticulated python (Python reticulatus) is a species of python found in South Asia and Southeast Asia.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
Rhabdophis is a genus of snakes in the family Colubridae.
Diadophis punctatus, commonly known as the ring-necked snake or ringneck snake, is a harmless species of colubrid snake found throughout much of the United States, central Mexico, and southeastern Canada.
Robert Julien Hoffstetter (11 June 1908 – 29 December 1999) was a taxonomist who was influential in categorizing reptiles.
In Greek mythology, the Rod of Asclepius (Greek: Ράβδος του Ασκληπιού Rábdos tou Asklipioú; Unicode symbol: ⚕), also known as the Staff of Asclepius (sometimes also spelled Asklepios or Aesculapius) and as the asklepian, is a serpent-entwined rod wielded by the Greek god Asclepius, a deity associated with healing and medicine.
The sacrum (or; plural: sacra or sacrums) in human anatomy is a large, triangular bone at the base of the spine, that forms by the fusing of sacral vertebrae S1S5 between 18 and 30years of age.
Saint Patrick (Patricius; Pádraig; Padrig) was a fifth-century Romano-British Christian missionary and bishop in Ireland.
Saliva is a watery substance formed in the mouths of animals, secreted by the salivary glands.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sanzinia madagascariensis (also known as the Malagasy tree boa,Mehrtens JM. 1987. Living Snakes of the World in Color. New York: Sterling Publishers. 480 pp.. or Madagascar tree boa) is a non-venomous boa species endemic to the island of Madagascar.
Satan is an entity in the Abrahamic religions that seduces humans into sin.
The clade Sauria was traditionally a suborder for lizards which originally (before 1800) comprised crocodilians too.
In most biological nomenclature, a scale (Greek λεπίς lepis, Latin squama) is a small rigid plate that grows out of an animal's skin to provide protection.
The Scolecophidia, commonly knowns as blind snakes or thread snakes, are an infraorder of snakes.
A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal's body that is involved in sexual reproduction.
Sexual selection is a mode of natural selection where members of one biological sex choose mates of the other sex to mate with (intersexual selection), and compete with members of the same sex for access to members of the opposite sex (intrasexual selection).
In Hinduism, Shesha (Sanskrit), also known as Sheshanaga or Adishesha, is the nagaraja or king of all nāgas and one of the primal beings of creation.
Shiva (Sanskrit: शिव, IAST: Śiva, lit. the auspicious one) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism.
Simoliophiidae is an extinct family of limbed Tethyan marine snakes of the order Squamata.
The skeleton is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism.
The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in vertebrates.
The Snake (蛇) is the sixth of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac and related to the Chinese calendar.
Snake charming is the practice of appearing to hypnotize a snake by playing and waving around an instrument called a pungi.
Snake handling, also called serpent handling, is a religious ritual in a small number of isolated churches, mostly in the United States, usually characterized as rural and part of the Holiness movement.
Snakes, like other reptiles, have a skin covered in a scale.
A snake skeleton consists primarily of the skull, vertebrae, and ribs, with only vestigial remnants of the limbs.
Snake soup is a popular Cantonese delicacy and health supplement in Hong Kong, which contains the meats of at least two types of snakes as the main ingredients.
Snake venom is highly modified saliva containing zootoxins which facilitates the immobilization and digestion of prey, and defense against threats.
Snake wine (蛇酒, pinyin: shéjiǔ; rượu rắn in Vietnamese) is an alcoholic beverage produced by infusing whole snakes in rice wine or grain alcohol.
Snake worship is devotion to serpent deities.
A snakebite is an injury caused by the bite of a snake, especially a venomous snake.
A snakebot, also known as snake robot, is a biomorphic hyper-redundant robot that resembles a biological snake.
Snakeskin may either refer to the skin of a live snake, the shed skin of a snake after molting, or to a type of leather that is made from the hide of a dead snake.
Socotra سُقُطْرَى Suqadara, also called Soqotra, located between the Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Sea, is the largest of four islands of the Socotra archipelago.
Sonic hedgehog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SHH ("sonic hedgehog") gene.
Heterodon simus, commonly known as the southern hog-nosed snake, is a harmless snake species endemic to the southeastern United States.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Spinal osteoarthropathy (Charcot's Disease) is a rare disease affecting reptiles (including snakes and lizards) which causes abnormal bone growth on vertebrae, giving the reptile a lumpy appearance.
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.
Squamata is the largest order of reptiles, comprising lizards, snakes and amphisbaenians (worm lizards), which are collectively known as squamates or scaled reptiles.
Stars and Stripes is an American military newspaper that focuses and reports on matters concerning the members of the United States Armed Forces.
Stephen Robert Irwin (22 February 1962 – 4 September 2006), nicknamed "The Crocodile Hunter", was an Australian zookeeper, conservationist and television personality.
Sulawesi, formerly known as Celebes, is an island in Indonesia.
Sumatra is an Indonesian island in Southeast Asia that is part of the Sunda Islands.
The taipans are snakes of the genus Oxyuranus in the elapid family.
Takshaka) was one of the Nagas mentioned in the Hindu epic Mahābhārata. He lived in a city named Takshasila, which was the new territory of Takshaka after his race was banished by Pandavas led by Arjuna from the Khandava Forest and Kurukshetra, where they built their new kingdom. Takshaka is known in Chinese and Japanese mythology as being one of the "eight Great Dragon Kings" (八大龍王 Hachi Ryuu-ou), amongst Nanda (Nagaraja), Upananda, Sagara (Shakara), Vasuki, Balavan, Anavatapta and Utpala.
Tamil Nadu (• tamiḻ nāḍu ? literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
Tenochtitlan (Tenochtitlan), originally known as México-Tenochtitlán (meːˈʃíʔ.ko te.noːt͡ʃ.ˈtí.t͡ɬan), was a large Mexica city-state in what is now the center of Mexico City.
Terrestrial animals are animals that live predominantly or entirely on land (e.g., cats, ants, spiders), as compared with aquatic animals, which live predominantly or entirely in the water (e.g., fish, lobsters, octopuses), or amphibians, which rely on a combination of aquatic and terrestrial habitats (e.g., frogs, or newts).
The superclass Tetrapoda (from Greek: τετρα- "four" and πούς "foot") contains the four-limbed vertebrates known as tetrapods; it includes living and extinct amphibians, reptiles (including dinosaurs, and its subgroup birds) and mammals (including primates, and all hominid subgroups including humans), as well as earlier extinct groups.
Tetrapodophis (meaning "four-footed snake" in Greek) is an extinct genus of snake from the Early Cretaceous of Brazil.
The Fauna of British India (short title) with long titles including The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma, The Fauna of British India Including the Remainder of the Oriental Region is a series of scientific books that was published by the British government in India and printed by Taylor and Francis of London.
The New Encyclopedia of Snakes is an encyclopedia by Chris Mattison.
The Snakes of Europe is a book by the Belgian-British zoologist George Albert Boulenger, published in 1913, which is described in the author's preface as the first book written in English describing the snakes found in Europe.
Thebes (Θῆβαι, Thēbai,;. Θήβα, Thíva) is a city in Boeotia, central Greece.
The thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system.
Tishpak (Tispak) is an Akkadian god, who replaced Ninazu as the tutelary deity of the city of Eshnunna.
Titanoboa, is an extinct genus of snakes that is known to have lived in present-day La Guajira in northeastern Colombia.
Toxicofera (Greek for "those who bear toxins") is a proposed clade of scaled reptiles (squamates) that includes the Serpentes (snakes), Anguimorpha (monitor lizards, gila monster, and alligator lizards) and Iguania (iguanas, agamas, and chameleons).
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine.
In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.
The tree of the knowledge of good and evil is one of two specific trees in the story of the Garden of Eden in Genesis 2–3, along with the tree of life.
The Tropidophiidae, common name dwarf boas or thunder snakes, are a family of nonvenomous snakes found from Mexico and the West Indies south to southeastern Brazil.
Tutankhamun (alternatively spelled with Tutenkh-, -amen, -amon) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (ruled c. 1332–1323 BC in the conventional chronology), during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom or sometimes the New Empire Period.
The Typhlopidae are a family of blind snakes.
Ungaliophiinae is a subfamily of booid snakes containing two genera, Ungaliophis (2 species) and Exiliboa (1 species).
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Tennessee (also referred to as The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, UT Knoxville, UTK, or UT) is a public sun- and land-grant university in Knoxville, Tennessee, United States.
Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.
The Uropeltidae are a family of primitive, nonvenomous, burrowing snakes endemic to peninsular India and Sri Lanka.
The Uropeltoidea, also known as uropeltoid snakes, are a superfamily of snakes that contains uropeltids (family Uropeltidae) and Asian pipesnakes (families Cylindrophiidae and Anomochilidae).
Vasuki is a nāgarāja, one of the King serpents of Hindu and Buddhist mythology.
Venomous Animals Venom is a form of toxin secreted by an animal for the purpose of causing harm to another.
Venomous snakes are species of the suborder Serpentes that are capable of producing venom, which is used primarily for immobilizing prey and defense mostly via mechanical injection by fangs.
In the vertebrate spinal column, each vertebra is an irregular bone with a complex structure composed of bone and some hyaline cartilage, the proportions of which vary according to the segment of the backbone and the species of vertebrate.
The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Vestigiality is the retention during the process of evolution of genetically determined structures or attributes that have lost some or all of their ancestral function in a given species.
The Viperidae (vipers) is a family of venomous snakes found in most parts of the world, excluding Antarctica, Australia, New Zealand, Madagascar, Hawaii, various other isolated islands, and north of the Arctic Circle.
Vishnu (Sanskrit: विष्णु, IAST) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism, and the Supreme Being in its Vaishnavism tradition.
Among animals, viviparity is development of the embryo inside the body of the parent, eventually leading to live birth, as opposed to reproduction by laying eggs that complete their incubation outside the parental body.
The vomeronasal organ (VNO), or the Jacobson's organ, is an auxiliary olfactory sense organ that is found in many animals.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
The Western Zhou (西周; c. 1046 – 771 BC) was the first half of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China.
Wicca, also termed Pagan Witchcraft, is a contemporary Pagan new religious movement.
The Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted for protection of plants and animal species.
Wonambi is a genus that consisted of two species of very large prehistoric snakes.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Worms are many different distantly related animals that typically have a long cylindrical tube-like body and no limbs.
In North America, a wrangler is someone employed to handle animals professionally, especially horses, but sometimes other types of animals as well.
Xenodermidae is a family of snakes from South, Southeast, and East Asia.
Xenopeltis is the genus of sunbeam snakes, of the monotypic family Xenopeltidae, the species of which are found in Southeast Asia.
Xenophidion is a genus of snakes and the only genus of the monotypic family Xenophidiidae.
Xenotyphlops is a genus of snakes, the only genus of the family Xenotyphlopidae, comprising two species found only in Madagascar.
A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun.
Hydrophis platurus, commonly known as the yellow-bellied sea snake, yellowbelly sea snake or pelagic sea snake, is a species of snake from the subfamily Hydrophiinae (the sea snakes) found in tropical oceanic waters around the world, excluding the Atlantic Ocean.
The yellow-lipped sea krait (Laticauda colubrina), also known as the banded sea krait, colubrine sea krait, is a species of venomous sea snake found in tropical Indo-Pacific oceanic waters.
The yolk sac is a membranous sac attached to an embryo, formed by cells of the hypoblast adjacent to the embryonic disk.
Zootaxa is a peer-reviewed scientific mega journal for animal taxonomists.
A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke") is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes.
The 10th edition of Systema Naturae is a book written by Carl Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.