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The Accuracy International AWM (Arctic Warfare Magnum or AI-Arctic Warfare Magnum) is a bolt-action sniper rifle manufactured by Accuracy International designed for magnum rifle cartridges.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
An airstrike or air strike is an offensive operation carried out by attack aircraft.
Alvin Cullum York (December 13, 1887 – September 2, 1964), also known as Sergeant York, was one of the most decorated United States Army soldiers of World War I. He received the Medal of Honor for leading an attack on a German machine gun nest, taking 35 machine guns, killing at least 25 enemy soldiers, and capturing 132.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The American frontier comprises the geography, history, folklore, and cultural expression of life in the forward wave of American expansion that began with English colonial settlements in the early 17th century and ended with the admission of the last mainland territories as states in 1912.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
American Sniper is a 2014 American biographical war drama film directed by Clint Eastwood and written by Jason Hall.
An anti-materiel rifle (AMR) is a rifle that is designed for use against military equipment (materiel), rather than against other combatants ("anti-personnel").
An anti-tank rifle is a rifle designed to penetrate the armor of vehicles, particularly tanks.
The Arab Spring (الربيع العربي ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabī), also referred to as Arab Revolutions (الثورات العربية aṯ-'awrāt al-ʻarabiyyah), was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution.
Archery is the art, sport, practice or skill of using a bow to shoot arrows.
A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life.
Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth & Co Ltd was a major British manufacturing company of the early years of the 20th century.
Arron Perry is a former Master Corporal in the Canadian Forces who in March 2002 broke the 34-year-old record for the longest recorded sniper kill in combat, completing a kill at a range of during the War in Afghanistan.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
A military artillery observer or spotter or FO (forward observer) is responsible for directing artillery and mortar fire onto a target, and may be a Forward Air Controller (FAC) for close air support and spotter for naval gunfire support.
John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, was assassinated on Friday, November 22, 1963, at 12:30 p.m. in Dallas, Texas, while riding in a presidential motorcade through Dealey Plaza.
An assault rifle is a selective-fire rifle that uses an intermediate cartridge and a detachable magazine.
Atmospheric science is the study of the Earth's atmosphere, its processes, the effects other systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems.
Auguste François-Marie de Colbert-Chabanais (18 October 1777, Paris – 3 January 1809, Cacabelos, Spain), Comte de l'Empire joined the French army during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Australian Army is Australia's military land force.
Austrians (Österreicher) are a Germanic nation and ethnic group, native to modern Austria and South Tyrol that share a common Austrian culture, Austrian descent and Austrian history.
A backpack — also called bookbag, kitbag, knapsack, rucksack, rucksac, pack, sackpack or backsack — is, in its simplest form, a cloth sack carried on one's back and secured with two straps that go over the shoulders, but there can be variations to this basic design.
The Baker rifle (officially known as the Pattern 1800 Infantry Rifle) was a flintlock rifle used by the rifle regiments of the British Army during the Napoleonic Wars.
Ballistics is the field of mechanics that deals with the launching, flight, behavior, and effects of projectiles, especially bullets, unguided bombs, rockets, or the like; the science or art of designing and accelerating projectiles so as to achieve a desired performance.
Barrett Firearms Manufacturing is an American manufacturer of firearms and ammunition located in the unincorporated town of Christiana, Tennessee.
The Barrett M82, standardized by the U.S. military as the M107, is a recoil-operated, semi-automatic anti-materiel rifle developed by the American Barrett Firearms Manufacturing company.
The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany.
The Battle Dress Uniform (BDU) are camouflaged fatigues that were used by the United States Armed Forces as their standard combat uniform from the early 1980s to the mid-2000s.
The Battle of Brandywine, also known as the Battle of Brandywine Creek, was fought between the American army of General George Washington and the British army of General Sir William Howe on September 11, 1777.
The Battle of Crete (Luftlandeschlacht um Kreta, also Unternehmen Merkur, "Operation Mercury," Μάχη της Κρήτης) was fought during the Second World War on the Greek island of Crete.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
The Battle of Mogadishu, or Day of the Rangers (Maalintii Rangers), was part of Operation Gothic Serpent.
The Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, sometimes more simply referred to as the Battle of Spotsylvania (or the 19th-century spelling Spottsylvania), was the second major battle in Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's 1864 Overland Campaign of the American Civil War.
The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was the largest confrontation of World War II, in which Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia.
"Battle rifle" is a post-World War II term for military service rifles that are fed ammunition via detachable magazines and fire a full-powered rifle cartridge.
The Battles of Saratoga (September 19 and October 7, 1777) marked the climax of the Saratoga campaign, giving a decisive victory to the Americans over the British in the American Revolutionary War.
Benjamin "Ben" Roberts-Smith, (born 1 November 1978) is an Australian businessman, former Australian Army soldier, and a recipient of the Victoria Cross for Australia (VC), the highest award in the Australian honours system.
Benedict Arnold (Brandt (1994), p. 4June 14, 1801) was a general during the American Revolutionary War who fought heroically for the American Continental Army—then defected to the enemy in 1780.
William Edward "Billy" Sing, DCM (2 March 1886 – 19 May 1943) was an Australian soldier of Chinese and English descent who served in the Australian Imperial Force during World War I, best known as a sniper during the Gallipoli Campaign.
A bipod is an attachment, usually to a weapon, that helps support and steady it.
Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,101,360, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Black Hawk Down is a 2001 war film produced and directed by Ridley Scott from a screenplay by Ken Nolan.
The Black Watch, 3rd Battalion, Royal Regiment of Scotland (3 SCOTS) is an infantry battalion of the Royal Regiment of Scotland.
Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
The Blues and Royals (Royal Horse Guards and 1st Dragoons) (RHG/D) is a cavalry regiment of the British Army, part of the Household Cavalry.
A booby trap is a device or setup that is intended to kill, harm, or surprise a person or animal, unknowingly triggered by the presence or actions of the victim.
A breech-loading gun is a firearm in which the cartridge or shell is inserted or loaded into a chamber integral to the rear portion of a barrel.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
Calibration in measurement technology and metrology is the comparison of measurement values delivered by a device under test with those of a calibration standard of known accuracy.
In linguistics, a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation.
Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis).
The Canadian Army (French: Armée canadienne) is the command responsible for the operational readiness of the conventional ground forces of the Canadian Armed Forces.
Carcano is the frequently used name for a series of Italian bolt-action, magazine-fed, repeating military rifles and carbines.
Carl Zeiss, branded as ZEISS, is a German manufacturer of optical systems, industrial measurements and medical devices, founded in Jena, Germany in 1846 by optician Carl Zeiss.
Carlos Norman Hathcock II (May 20, 1942February 22, 1999) was a United States Marine Corps (USMC) sniper with a service record of 93 confirmed kills.
CBS News is the news division of American television and radio service CBS.
Chance Brothers and Company was a glassworks originally based in Spon Lane, Smethwick, West Midlands (formerly in Staffordshire), in England.
Charles Joseph Whitman (June 24, 1941 – August 1, 1966) was an American mass murderer who became infamous as the "Texas Tower Sniper." On August 1, 1966, he used knives in the slayings of his mother and his wife in their respective homes and then went to the University of Texas in Austin with multiple firearms and began shooting people.
The Type Zhongzheng rifle (中正式), also known as the Chiang Kai-shek/Jiang Jieshi Rifle, Generalissimo Rifle, and Type 24 (二四式) after the Chinese Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, was a Chinese-made copy of the German Mauser M1924, the forerunner of the Karabiner 98k.
Christopher Scott Kyle (April 8, 1974 – February 2, 2013) was a United States Navy SEAL veteran and sniper.
Charles Benjamin "Chuck" Mawhinney (born 1949) is an Oregon-born American who served in the United States Marine Corps as a sniper during the Vietnam War.
Civil disorder, also known as civil disturbance or civil unrest, is an activity arising from a mass act of civil disobedience (such as a demonstration, riot, or strike) in which the participants become hostile toward authority, and authorities incur difficulties in maintaining public safety and order, over the disorderly crowd.
A clandestine operation is an intelligence or military operation carried out in such a way that the operation goes unnoticed by the general population or specific enemy forces.
Alfred Clive Hulme VC (24 January 1911 – 2 September 1982) was a New Zealand recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
In military tactics, close air support (CAS) is defined as air action such as air strikes by fixed or rotary-winged aircraft against hostile targets that are in close proximity to friendly forces and which requires detailed integration of each air mission with fire and movement of these forces and attacks with aerial bombs, glide bombs, missiles, rockets, aircraft cannons, machine guns, and even directed-energy weapons such as lasers.
Close combat means a violent physical confrontation between two or more opponents at short range.
The Columbus Division of Police is the main policing unit for the city of Columbus, Ohio United States.
Commander is a common naval and air force officer rank.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
The Confederate States Army (C.S.A.) was the military land force of the Confederate States of America (Confederacy) during the American Civil War (1861–1865).
Corporal is a military rank in use in some form by many militaries and by some police forces or other uniformed organizations.
Corporal of horse (CoH) is a rank in the British Army's Household Cavalry corresponding to sergeant in other regiments.
The occurrence of sniper warfare has led to the evolution of counter-sniper tactics.
Coup d'œil (or coup d'oeil) is a term taken from French, that more or less corresponds to the words glimpse or glance in English.
A cowboy is an animal herder who tends cattle on ranches in North America, traditionally on horseback, and often performs a multitude of other ranch-related tasks.
Craig Harrison (born November 1974) is a former Corporal of Horse (CoH) in the Blues and Royals, a cavalry regiment of the British Army, who held the previous record for the longest confirmed sniper kill in combat, at a range of.
A crew-served (crew-serve or crew service) weapon is any weapon system that requires a crew of more than one individual, as opposed to an individual service weapon, to function at optimum efficiency due to its operational complexity, such as requiring one person to load while another fires.
The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
The Cuban Revolution (Revolución cubana) was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro's revolutionary 26th of July Movement and its allies against the authoritarian government of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista.
The D.C. sniper attacks (also known as the Beltway sniper attacks) were a series of coordinated shootings that occurred during three weeks in October 2002, in the states of Maryland and Virginia, and the District of Columbia.
The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-marketPeter Wilby, New Statesman, 19 December 2013 (online version: 2 January 2014) tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust and published in London.
The Daily Star is a daily tabloid newspaper published from Monday to Saturday in the United Kingdom since 2 November 1978.
The 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta (1st SFOD-D), commonly referred to as Delta Force, Combat Applications Group (CAG), "The Unit", Army Compartmented Element (ACE), or within JSOC as Task Force Green, is an elite special mission unit of the United States Army, under operational control of the Joint Special Operations Command.
Demoralization is, in a context of warfare, national security, and law enforcement, a process in psychological warfare with the objective to erode morale among enemy combatants and/or noncombatants.
The NTW-20 is a South African anti-materiel rifle or large-calibre sniper rifle, developed by Denel Mechem in the 1990s.
Doctrine (from doctrina, meaning "teaching", "instruction" or "doctrine") is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the essence of teachings in a given branch of knowledge or in a belief system.
The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris when considered a subspecies of the gray wolf or Canis familiaris when considered a distinct species) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore.
In fluid dynamics, the drag coefficient (commonly denoted as: \scriptstyle C_\mathrm d\,, \scriptstyle C_\mathrm x\, or \scriptstyle C_\mathrm w\) is a dimensionless quantity that is used to quantify the drag or resistance of an object in a fluid environment, such as air or water.
Dunkirk (Dunkerque; Duinkerke(n)) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
Enemy at the Gates is a 2001 war film written and directed by Jean-Jacques Annaud and based on William Craig's 1973 nonfiction book Enemy at the Gates: The Battle for Stalingrad, which describes the events surrounding the Battle of Stalingrad in the winter of 1942 and 1943.
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.
In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector, or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction.
External ballistics or exterior ballistics is the part of ballistics that deals with the behavior of a projectile in flight.
Eye strain, also known as asthenopia (from Greek asthen-opia, ἀσθεν-ωπία, "weak-eye-condition"), is an eye condition that manifests through nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue, pain in or around the eyes, blurred vision, headache, and occasional double vision.
FallujahSometimes also transliterated as Falluja, Fallouja, or Falowja (الفلوجة, Iraqi pronunciation) is a city in the Iraqi province of Al Anbar, located roughly west of Baghdad on the Euphrates.
Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (August 13, 1926 – November 25, 2016) was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.
Fieldcraft is the tactical skill to operate stealthily and the methods used to do so, which can differ during day or night and due to weather or terrain.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
Fire support is defined by the United States Department of Defense as "Fires that directly support land, maritime, amphibious, and special operations forces to engage enemy forces, combat formations, and facilities in pursuit of tactical and operational objectives." Typically, fire support is provided by artillery or close air support (usually directed by a forward observer), and is used to shape the battlefield or, more optimistically, define the battle.
A firearm is a portable gun (a barreled ranged weapon) that inflicts damage on targets by launching one or more projectiles driven by rapidly expanding high-pressure gas produced by exothermic combustion (deflagration) of propellant within an ammunition cartridge.
The First Army was a formation of the British Army that existed during the First and Second World Wars.
A flare, also sometimes called a fusee, is a type of pyrotechnic that produces a brilliant light or intense heat without an explosion.
Forward air control is the provision of guidance to close air support (CAS) aircraft intended to ensure that their attack hits the intended target and does not injure friendly troops.
Francis Pegahmagabow MM & two bars (March 8, 1889 – August 5, 1952) was the most effective sniper of World War I. Three times awarded the Military Medal and seriously wounded, he was an expert marksman and scout, credited with killing 378 Germans and capturing 300 more.
Field Marshal Frederick Sleigh Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts, (30 September 1832 – 14 November 1914) was a British soldier who was one of the most successful commanders of the 19th century.
Frederick Russell Burnham DSO (May 11, 1861 – September 1, 1947) was an American scout and world-traveling adventurer.
The French Army, officially the Ground Army (Armée de terre) (to distinguish it from the French Air Force, Armée de L'air or Air Army) is the land-based and largest component of the French Armed Forces.
Fulgencio Batista y Zaldívar (born Rubén Zaldívar; January 16, 1901 – August 6, 1973) was the elected President of Cuba from 1940 to 1944, and U.S.-backed dictator from 1952 to 1959, before being overthrown during the Cuban Revolution.
The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Dardanelles Campaign, the Battle of Gallipoli, or the Battle of Çanakkale (Çanakkale Savaşı), was a campaign of the First World War that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu in modern Turkey) in the Ottoman Empire between 17 February 1915 and 9 January 1916.
Gary Ivan Gordon (30 August 1960 – 3 October 1993) was a master sergeant in the United States Army and a recipient of the Medal of Honor.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The Gewehr 43 or Karabiner 43 (abbreviated G43, K43, Gew 43, Kar 43) is a 7.92×57mm Mauser caliber semi-automatic rifle developed by Germany during World War II.
The Gewehr 98 (abbreviated G98, Gew 98 or M98) is a German bolt-action Mauser rifle firing cartridges from a 5-round internal clip-loaded magazine that was the German service rifle from 1898 to 1935, when it was replaced by the Karabiner 98k, a shorter weapon using the same basic design.
A ghillie suit is a type of camouflage clothing designed to resemble the background environment such as foliage, snow or sand.
Master Corporal Graham Ragsdale of the Canadian Forces was the commander of the Third Battalion Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry sniper team attached to the United States Army 187th Infantry Regiment (Rakkasans) of the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) during Operation Anaconda in the Shah-i-kot Valley, Paktia Province, Afghanistan in March, 2002.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
A grenade is a small weapon typically thrown by hand.
Grenzschutzgruppe 9 (GSG 9) (Border Protection Group 9) is the elite Police Tactical Unit of the German Federal Police (Bundespolizei).
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
Gunnery sergeant (GySgt) is the seventh enlisted rank in the United States Marine Corps, just above staff sergeant and below master sergeant and first sergeant, and is a staff non-commissioned officer (SNCO).
Guns & Ammo is a magazine dedicated to firearms, hunting, competitive shooting, reloading, and other shooting-related activities in the United States.
The heavy machine gun or HMG is a class of machine gun implying greater characteristics than general purpose or medium machine guns.
Helmand (Pashto/Dari: هلمند), also known as Hillmand or Helman, and, in ancient times, as Hermand and Hethumand is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, in the south of the country.
Helmut Wirnsberger (born in Steyr) was a sniper in the 3rd Mountain Division on the Eastern Front of the Second World War, and was credited with 64 kills.
Major Hesketh Vernon Prichard, later Hesketh-Prichard (17 November 1876 – 14 June 1922) was an explorer, adventurer, big-game hunter and marksman who made a significant contribution to sniping practice within the British Army during the First World War.
Hiram Berdan (September 6, 1824 – March 31, 1893) was an American engineer, inventor and military officer, world-renowned marksman, and guiding force behind and commanding colonel of the famed United States Volunteer Sharpshooter Regiments during the American Civil War.
The Hitler Youth (German:, often abbreviated as HJ in German) was the youth organisation of the Nazi Party in Germany.
A hostage is a person or entity which is held by one of two belligerent parties to the other or seized as security for the carrying out of an agreement, or as a preventive measure against war.
The Household Cavalry (HCav) is made up of the two most senior regiments of the British Army, the Life Guards and the Blues and Royals (Royal Horse Guards and 1st Dragoons).
An improvised explosive device (IED) is a bomb constructed and deployed in ways other than in conventional military action.
Indigenous peoples in Canada, also known as Native Canadians or Aboriginal Canadians, are the indigenous peoples within the boundaries of present-day Canada.
In warfare, infiltration tactics involve small independent light infantry forces advancing into enemy rear areas, bypassing enemy front-line strongpoints, possibly isolating them for attack by follow-up troops with heavier weapons.
An insurgency is a rebellion against authority (for example, an authority recognized as such by the United Nations) when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents (lawful combatants).
The International Article Number (also known as European Article Number or EAN) is a standard describing a barcode symbology and numbering system used in global trade to identify a specific retail product type, in a specific packaging configuration, from a specific manufacturer.
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.
The Western Allies of World War II launched the largest amphibious invasion in history when they assaulted Normandy, located on the northern coast of France, on 6 June 1944.
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
Iron sights are a system of shaped alignment markers (usually metal) used as a sighting device to assist in the aiming of a device such as a firearm, crossbow, or telescope, and exclude the use of optics as in reflector (reflex) sights, holographic sights, and telescopic sights.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Italian Campaign of World War II consisted of the Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war in Europe.
Ivan Mikhaylovich Sidorenko (Ива́н Миха́йлович Сидоре́нко; September 12 1919 – February 19 1994) was a Red Army officer and a Hero of the Soviet Union, who served during World War II.
John W. "Jack" Hinson, "Old Jack" (1807–1874) was a farmer in Stewart County, Tennessee who operated as a Confederate partisan sniper against Union forces in the Between-the-Rivers region of Tennessee and Kentucky during the American Civil War.
Jäger (singular Jäger, plural Jäger) is a German military term that originally referred to light infantry, but has come to have wider usage.
John Sedgwick (September 13, 1813 – May 9, 1864) was a teacher, a career military officer, and a Union Army general in the American Civil War.
Joint Task Force 2 (JTF2) (Force opérationnelle interarmées 2, FOI 2) is an elite special operations force of the Canadian Armed Forces.
Sir Joseph Whitworth, 1st Baronet (21 December 1803 – 22 January 1887) was an English engineer, entrepreneur, inventor and philanthropist.
Juba (جوبا) (a.k.a. "Joba") is the pseudonym of an alleged sniper involved in the Iraq War's insurgency, featured in several videos.
The Karabiner 98 kurz ("carbine 98 short", often abbreviated Kar98k or K98k) is a bolt-action rifle chambered for the 7.92×57mm Mauser cartridge that was adopted on 21 June 1935 as the standard service rifle by the German Wehrmacht.
Kim's Game is a game or exercise played by Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts and Girl Guides, and other children's groups.
Klavdiya Kalugina (born 1926) was a Soviet sniper in the Second World War.
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
The Lahti L-39 is a Finnish 20 mm anti-tank rifle used during the Second World War.
A land mine is an explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it.
A laser rangefinder is a rangefinder that uses a laser beam to determine the distance to an object.
Law enforcement is any system by which some members of society act in an organized manner to enforce the law by discovering, deterring, rehabilitating, or punishing people who violate the rules and norms governing that society.
The Lee–Enfield is a bolt-action, magazine-fed, repeating rifle that served as the main firearm used by the military forces of the British Empire and Commonwealth during the first half of the 20th century.
The Lee–Metford rifle (a.k.a. Magazine Lee–Metford, abbreviated MLM) was a bolt action British army service rifle, combining James Paris Lee's rear-locking bolt system and detachable magazine with an innovative seven groove rifled barrel designed by William Ellis Metford.
The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (translit, translit, commonly known as the LTTE or the Tamil Tigers) was a Tamil militant organization that was based in northeastern Sri Lanka.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
Lichfield is a cathedral city and civil parish in Staffordshire, England.
Linghem is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France.
This page is a listing of major sniper rifle variants from around the world.
A sniper is a trained marksman who operates alone, in a pair, or with a sniper team to maintain close visual contact with a target and engage the targets from concealed positions or distances exceeding the detection capabilities of enemy personnel.
Long range shooting is a collective term for shooting disciplines where the shooter has to engage targets at such long distances that he has to calculate ballistics, especially in regards to wind.
The long rifle, also known as longrifle, Kentucky rifle, or Pennsylvania rifle, was one of the first commonly used rifles for hunting and warfare.
Reports regarding the longest recorded sniper kills that contain information regarding the shooting distance and the identity of the sniper have been presented to the general public since 1967.
The Lovat Scouts was a British Army unit first formed during the Second Boer War as a Scottish Highland yeomanry regiment of the British Army.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Lyudmila Mikhailovna Pavlichenko (12 July 191610 October 1974) was a Soviet sniper in the Red Army during World War II, credited with 309 kills.
The M1903 Springfield, formally the United States Rifle, Caliber.30-06, Model 1903, is an American five-round magazine fed, bolt-action service repeating rifle, used primarily during the first half of the 20th century.
The M2 Machine Gun or Browning.50 Caliber Machine Gun is a heavy machine gun designed toward the end of World War I by John Browning.
A machine gun is a fully automatic mounted or portable firearm designed to fire bullets in rapid succession from an ammunition belt or magazine, typically at a rate of 300 rounds per minute or higher.
Maclean's is a Canadian news magazine that was founded in 1905, reporting on Canadian issues such as politics, pop culture, and current events.
A magazine is an ammunition storage and feeding device within or attached to a repeating firearm.
A main supply route (MSR) is the route or routes designated within an area of operations upon which the bulk of traffic flows in support of military operations and humanitarian operations.
A marksman is a person who is skilled in precision shooting, using accurate precision scoped projectile weapons (in modern days most commonly a designated marksman rifle or a sniper rifle) to shoot at high-value targets at longer-than-usual ranges.
Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.
Master corporal (MCpl) (caporal-chef or cplc), in the Canadian Armed Forces and the Royal Canadian Army Cadets is an appointment of the rank of Corporal in the Canadian Army and Royal Canadian Air Force.
Materiel, more commonly matériel in US English and also listed as the only spelling in some UK dictionaries (both pronounced, from French matériel meaning equipment or hardware), refers to military technology and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management.
The Matobo National Park forms the core of the Matobo or Matopos Hills, an area of granite kopjes and wooded valleys commencing some south of Bulawayo, southern Zimbabwe.
Matthäus Hetzenauer (23 December 1924 – 3 October 2004) was an Austrian sniper in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Mauser, begun as Königliche Waffen Schmieden, is a German arms manufacturer.
The McMillan TAC-50 is a long-range anti-materiel and anti-personnel sniper rifle.
The Medal for Gallantry (MG) is a military decoration awarded to personnel of the Australian Defence Force.
The Medal of Honor is the United States of America's highest and most prestigious personal military decoration that may be awarded to recognize U.S. military service members who distinguished themselves by acts of valor.
The medulla oblongata (or medulla) is located in the brainstem, anterior and partially inferior to the cerebellum.
Mikhail Ilyich Surkov (Михаил Ильич Сурков) was a Soviet sniper in the 4th Rifle Division of the Red Army during World War II.
Militarization of police refers to the use of military equipment and tactics by law enforcement officers.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
Military camouflage is the use of camouflage by a military force to protect personnel and equipment from observation by enemy forces.
Military districts (also called military regions) are formations of a state's armed forces (often of the Army) which are responsible for a certain area of territory.
Military doctrine is the expression of how military forces contribute to campaigns, major operations, battles, and engagements.
The Australian contribution to the war in Afghanistan has been known as Operation Slipper (2001 – 2014) and Operation Highroad (from 2015).
Military intelligence is a military discipline that uses information collection and analysis approaches to provide guidance and direction to assist commanders in their decisions.
Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer military capability required by the national defense policy.
Military ranks are a system of hierarchical relationships in armed forces, police, intelligence agencies or other institutions organized along military lines.
Military tactics encompasses the art of organising and employing fighting forces on or near the battlefield.
A milliradian, often called a mil or mrad, is an SI derived unit for angular measurement which is defined as a thousandth of a radian (0.001 radian).
The Ministry of Defence (MoD or MOD) is the British government department responsible for implementing the defence policy set by Her Majesty's Government and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces.
A minute of arc, arcminute (arcmin), arc minute, or minute arc is a unit of angular measurement equal to of one degree.
A mirage is a naturally occurring optical phenomenon in which light rays bend to produce a displaced image of distant objects or the sky.
The Mk 14 Enhanced Battle Rifle (EBR) is an American selective fire military designated marksman rifle chambered for the 7.62×51mm NATO cartridge.
Morale, also known as esprit de corps, is the capacity of a group's members to maintain belief in an institution or goal, particularly in the face of opposition or hardship.
A mortar is usually a simple, lightweight, man portable, muzzle-loaded weapon, consisting of a smooth-bore metal tube fixed to a base plate (to absorb recoil) with a lightweight bipod mount.
The 3-line rifle M1891 (трёхлинейная винтовка образца 1891 года, tryokhlineynaya vintovka obraztsa 1891 goda), colloquially known as Mosin–Nagant (винтовка Мосина, ISO 9) is a five-shot, bolt-action, internal magazine–fed, military rifle developed from 1882 to 1891, and used by the armed forces of the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and various other nations.
The Munich massacre was an attack during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany, in which the Palestinian terrorist group Black September took eleven Israeli Olympic team members hostage and killed them along with a German police officer.
Musa Qala (موسی کلا; "Fortress of Moses") is a town and the district centre of Musa Qala District in Helmand Province, Afghanistan.
A musket is a muzzle-loaded, smoothbore long gun that appeared in early 16th century Europe, at first as a heavier variant of the arquebus, capable of penetrating heavy armor.
A muzzleloader is any firearm into which the projectile and usually the propellant charge is loaded from the muzzle of the gun (i.e., from the forward, open end of the gun's barrel).
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
National Police Intervention Groups (GIPN) (Groupes d'Intervention de la Police Nationale) are regional tactical units of the French National Police located in the French overseas departments and territories.
The New York Post is the fourth-largest newspaper in the United States and a leading digital media publisher that reached more than 57 million unique visitors in the U.S. in January 2017.
A non-commissioned officer (NCO) is a military officer who has not earned a commission.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
The Northern Ndebele people (amaNdebele) are a Bantu nation and ethnic group in Southern Africa, who share a common Ndebele culture and Ndebele language.
Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source.
An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority.
Operation Anaconda took place in early March 2002.
During World War II Operation Foxley was a 1944 plan to assassinate Adolf Hitler, conceived by the British Special Operations Executive (SOE).
Operation Gothic Serpent was a military operation conducted by United States special operations forces during the Somali Civil War with the primary mission of capturing faction leader Mohamed Farrah Aidid.
Operation Perth was an Australian military operation in Orūzgān Province undertaken in July 2006 during the War in Afghanistan.
Operation Torch (8–16 November 1942, formerly Operation Gymnast) was a Anglo–American invasion of French North Africa, during the North African Campaign of the Second World War.
Osprey Publishing is an Oxford-based publishing company specializing in military history.
The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia-Pacific War, was the theater of World War II that was fought in the Pacific and Asia. It was fought over a vast area that included the Pacific Ocean and islands, the South West Pacific, South-East Asia, and in China (including the 1945 Soviet–Japanese conflict). The Second Sino-Japanese War between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China had been in progress since 7 July 1937, with hostilities dating back as far as 19 September 1931 with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. However, it is more widely accepted that the Pacific War itself began on 7/8 December 1941, when Japan invaded Thailand and attacked the British possessions of Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong as well as the United States military and naval bases in Hawaii, Wake Island, Guam and the Philippines. The Pacific War saw the Allies pitted against Japan, the latter briefly aided by Thailand and to a much lesser extent by the Axis allied Germany and Italy. The war culminated in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and other large aerial bomb attacks by the Allies, accompanied by the Soviet declaration of war and invasion of Manchuria on 9 August 1945, resulting in the Japanese announcement of intent to surrender on 15 August 1945. The formal surrender of Japan ceremony took place aboard the battleship in Tokyo Bay on 2 September 1945. Japan's Shinto Emperor was forced to relinquish much of his authority and his divine status through the Shinto Directive in order to pave the way for extensive cultural and political reforms. After the war, Japan lost all rights and titles to its former possessions in Asia and the Pacific, and its sovereignty was limited to the four main home islands.
Paladin Press was a book publishing firm founded in 1970 by Peder Lund and Robert K. Brown.
Papier-mâché (literally "chewed paper") is a composite material consisting of paper pieces or pulp, sometimes reinforced with textiles, bound with an adhesive, such as glue, starch, or wallpaper paste.
A paramilitary is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subculture, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military, but which is not included as part of a state's formal armed forces.
Patrick Ferguson (1744 – 7 October 1780) was a Scottish officer in the British Army, an early advocate of light infantry and the designer of the Ferguson rifle.
The Enfield Pattern 1853 rifle-musket (also known as the Pattern 1853 Enfield, P53 Enfield, and Enfield rifle-musket) was a.577 calibre Minié-type muzzle-loading rifled musket, used by the British Empire from 1853 to 1867, after which many Enfield 1853 rifle-muskets were converted to (and replaced in service by) the cartridge-loaded Snider–Enfield rifle.
The Rifle,.303 Pattern 1914 (or P14) was a British service rifle of the First World War period.
The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire (as well as the allied powers of the Spanish Empire), the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Portugal, for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars.
A police force is a constituted body of persons empowered by a state to enforce the law, to protect people and property, and to prevent crime and civil disorder.
Polygonal rifling is a type of gun barrel rifling where the traditional sharp-edged lands and grooves are replaced by less-edged "hills and valleys" in a polygonal pattern, usually taking the form of a hexagon or octagon.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
The President of Cuba (Presidente de Cuba), officially called from 1976 President of the Council of State (Presidente del Consejo de Estado de Cuba), is the head of the Council of State of Cuba.
Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry (PPCLI, generally referred to as the Patricia's) is one of the three Regular Force infantry regiments of the Canadian Army of the Canadian Armed Forces.
Prone position is a body position in which one lies flat with the chest down and the back up.
The Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA or Provisional IRA) was an Irish republican revolutionary organisation that sought to end British rule in Northern Ireland, facilitate the reunification of Ireland and bring about an independent socialist republic encompassing all of Ireland.
The PTRD-41 (Shortened from Russian, ProtivoTankovoye Ruzhyo Degtyaryova; Противотанковое однозарядное ружьё системы Дегтярёва образца 1941 года;"Degtyaryov Anti-Tank Rifle") was an anti-tank rifle produced and used from early 1941 by the Soviet Red Army during World War II.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
The radian (SI symbol rad) is the SI unit for measuring angles, and is the standard unit of angular measure used in many areas of mathematics.
Radioman (RM) was a rating for United States Navy and United States Coast Guard enlisted personnel, specializing in communications technology.
Ramadi (الرمادي Ar-Ramādī; also formerly rendered as Rumadiyah or Rumadiya) is a city in central Iraq, about west of Baghdad and west of Fallujah.
Randall David Shughart (13 August 1958 – 3 October 1993) was a United States Army soldier of 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta (1SFOD-D)/"Delta Force".
A rangefinder is a device that measures distance from the observer to a target, in a process called ranging.
The Raufoss Mk 211 is a.50 caliber (12.7×99mm NATO) multipurpose anti-matériel high-explosive incendiary/armor-piercing ammunition projectile produced by Nammo (Nordic Ammunition Group, a Norwegian/Finnish military industry manufacturer of ammunition), under the model name NM140 MP.
In military operations, reconnaissance or scouting is the exploration outside an area occupied by friendly forces to gain information about natural features and other activities in the area.
A reticle, or reticule, also known as a graticule, is a pattern of fine lines or markings built into the eyepiece of a sighting device, such as a telescopic sight in a telescope, a microscope, or the screen of an oscilloscope, to provide references during visual examination.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Rhodesia was an unrecognised state in southern Africa from 1965 to 1979, equivalent in territory to modern Zimbabwe.
The Rifle Brigade (The Prince Consort's Own) was an infantry rifle regiment of the British Army formed in January 1800 as the "Experimental Corps of Riflemen" to provide sharpshooters, scouts, and skirmishers.
A rifleman is an infantry soldier armed with a rifled long gun.
In firearms, rifling is the helical groove pattern that is machined into the internal (bore) surface of a gun's barrel, for the purpose of exerting torque and thus imparting a spin to a projectile around its longitudinal axis during shooting.
Rob Furlong (born November 11, 1976) is a Canadian former military sniper who at one time held the record for the longest confirmed sniper kill in combat, at.
Lieutenant-General Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell, (22 February 1857 – 8 January 1941) was a British Army officer, writer, author of Scouting for Boys which was an inspiration for the Scout Movement, founder and first Chief Scout of The Boy Scouts Association and founder of the Girl Guides.
Robert Greville, 2nd Baron Brooke (May 1607 – 2 March 1643) was an English Civil War Roundhead General.
The Ross rifle was a straight-pull bolt action.303 inch-calibre rifle produced in Canada from 1903 until 1918. The Ross Mk.II (or "model 1905") rifle was highly successful in target shooting before World War I, but the close chamber tolerances, lack of primary extraction and overall length made the Mk.III (or "1910") Ross rifle unsuitable for the conditions of trench warfare, exacerbated by the often poor quality ammunition issued. By 1916, the rifle had been withdrawn from front line service, but continued to be used by many snipers of the Canadian Expeditionary Force until the end of the war due to its exceptional accuracy. The Ross Rifle Co. made sporting rifles from early in its production, most notably chambered in.280 Ross, introduced in 1907. This cartridge is recorded as the first to achieve over 3000 feet per second velocity, and the cartridge acquired a very considerable international reputation among target shooters and hunters.
Roundheads were supporters of the Parliament of England during the English Civil War.
The Royal Regiment of Scotland is the senior and only Scottish line infantry regiment of the British Army Infantry.
The Royal Ulster Constabulary was the police force in Northern Ireland from 1922 to 2001.
Roza Georgiyevna Shanina (Ро́за Гео́ргиевна Ша́нина,; 3 April 1924 – 28 January 1945) was a Soviet sniper during World War II who was credited with fifty-nine confirmed kills, including twelve soldiers during the Battle of Vilnius.
Rules of engagement (ROE) are the internal rules or directives among military forces (including individuals) that define the circumstances, conditions, degree, and manner in which the use of force, or actions which might be construed as provocative, may be applied.
Sadr City (مدينة الصدر), formerly known as Al-Thawra (الثورة) and Saddam City, is a suburb district of the city of Baghdad, Iraq.
A sandbag is a bag or sack made of hessian (burlap), polypropylene or other sturdy materials that is filled with sand or soil and used for such purposes as flood control, military fortification in trenches and bunkers, shielding glass windows in war zones, ballast, counterweight, and in other applications requiring mobile fortification, such as adding improvised additional protection to armoured vehicles or tanks.
The Second Battle of Fallujah—code-named Operation Al-Fajr (Arabic: الفجر "the dawn") and Operation Phantom Fury—was a joint American, Iraqi, and British offensive in November and December 2004, considered the highest point of conflict in Fallujah during the Iraq War.
The Second Boer War (11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902) was fought between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa.
The Second Matabele War, also known as the Matabeleland Rebellion or part of what is known in Zimbabwe as the First Chimurenga, was fought between 1896 and 1897 in the area then known as Rhodesia, now Zimbabwe.
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.
Service Publications was established in 1995 by Clive M. Law (1954-2017), an author and historian as well as former officer of the Governor General's Foot Guards.
The Shah Wali Kot Offensive was a five-day joint operation during the War in Afghanistan, conducted by Australian special forces and the Afghan National Army with US air support, between 10–14 June 2010.
Sharps rifles (singular Sharpe) are a series of large-bore single-shot rifles, beginning with a design by Christian Sharps in 1848, and ceasing production in 1881.
A sharpshooter is one who is highly proficient at firing firearms or other projectile weapons accurately.
A silencer, suppressor, sound suppressor, or sound moderator is a device that reduces the sound intensity and muzzle flash when a firearm or air gun is discharged.
Simo "Simuna" Häyhä (17 December 1905 – 1 April 2002), nicknamed "White Death" (Белая смерть,; valkoinen kuolema; den vita döden) by the Red Army, was a Finnish sniper.
Simon Fraser (1729 – 7 October 1777) was a British general during the American War of Independence who was killed in the Battle of Bemis Heights during the Saratoga Campaign by Timothy Murphy, an American rifleman.
Brigadier Simon Joseph Fraser, 14th Lord Lovat and 3rd Baron Lovat, (25 November 1871 – 18 February 1933), was a leading Roman Catholic aristocrat, landowner, forester, soldier, politician and the 23rd Chief of Clan Fraser.
Skirmishers are light infantry or cavalry soldiers in the role of skirmishing—stationed to act as a vanguard, flank guard, or rearguard, screening a tactical position or a larger body of friendly troops from enemy advances.
Sky News is a 24-hour international multimedia news organisation based in the UK that started as a 24-hour television news channel.
Sky UK (formerly British Sky Broadcasting Limited, BSkyB and Sky) is a telecommunications company which serves the United Kingdom.
In radio electronics, especially radar terminology, slant range is the line-of-sight distance between two points which are not at the same level relative to a specific datum.
The slide rule, also known colloquially in the United States as a slipstick, is a mechanical analog computer.
In the context of firearms, a sling is a type of strap or harness designed to allow a shooter to conveniently carry a firearm (usually a long gun such as a rifle, carbine, shotgun, or submachine gun) on his/her body, and/or to aid in greater hit probability by allowing the firearm to be better braced and stabilized during aiming.
Smoke grenades used at demonstrations in Paris, 2008 British L83A1 Smoke Grenade manufactured in May 2008. This grenade has already been used. A smoke grenade is a canister-type grenade used as a signaling device, target or landing zone marking device, or as a screening device for unit movements.
A smoke screen is smoke released to mask the movement or location of military units such as infantry, tanks, aircraft or ships.
Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of propellants used in firearms and artillery that produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the black powder they replaced.
A smoothbore weapon is one that has a barrel without rifling.
A snipe is any of about 26 wading bird species in three genera in the family Scolopacidae.
A sniper is a military/paramilitary marksman who operates to maintain effective visual contact with the enemy and engage targets from concealed positions or at distances exceeding their detection capabilities.
"Sniper Alley" (Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian: Snajperska aleja / Снајперска алеја) was the informal name primarily for streets Zmaja od Bosne Street (Улица Змаја од Босне; Dragon of Bosnia Street) and Meša Selimović Boulevard, the main boulevard in Sarajevo which during the Bosnian War was lined with snipers' posts, and became infamous as a dangerous place for civilians to traverse.
A sniper rifle is a high-precision rifle designed for sniper missions.
Snipers of the Soviet Union played an important role mainly on the Eastern Front of World War II, apart from other preceding and subsequent conflicts.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
The South Armagh Sniper is the generic name"At first, we believed it was one unit, one weapon and one trigger man (...) It developed into at least two".
The Soviet Army (SA; Советская Армия, Sovetskaya Armiya) is the name given to the main land-based branch of the Soviet Armed Forces between February 1946 and December 1991, when it was replaced with the Russian Ground Forces, although it was not taken fully out of service until 25 December 1993.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
The Special Air Service Regiment, officially abbreviated SASR though commonly known as the SAS, is a special forces unit of the Australian Army.
Special forces and special operations forces are military units trained to conduct special operations.
Special reconnaissance (SR) is conducted by small units of highly trained military personnel, usually from special forces units or military intelligence organizations, who operate behind enemy lines, avoiding direct combat and detection by the enemy.
A spotting scope is a small portable high-power telescope with added optics to present an erect image, optimized for the observation of terrestrial objects.
The Sri Lankan Army (Śrī Laṃkā yuddha hamudāva; Ilankai iraṇuvam) is the oldest and largest of the Sri Lanka Armed Forces and is the nation's army.
The StG 44 (abbreviation of Sturmgewehr 44, "assault rifle 44") is a German selective-fire rifle developed during World War II.
A gunstock, often simply stock, also known as a shoulder stock, a buttstock or simply a butt, is a part of a long gun such as rifle, to which the barrelled action and firing mechanism are attached and is held against the user's shoulder when shooting the gun.
A summary execution is an execution in which a person is accused of a crime and immediately killed without benefit of a full and fair trial.
In military science, suppressive fire (commonly called covering fire) is "fire that degrades the performance of an enemy force below the level needed to fulfill its mission".
Surveillance is the monitoring of behavior, activities, or other changing information for the purpose of influencing, managing, directing, or protecting people.
The SVT-40 (Samozaryadnaya Vintovka Tokareva, Obrazets 1940 goda, "Tokarev self-loading rifle, model of 1940", Russian: Самозарядная винтовка Токарева, образец 1940 года, often nicknamed "Sveta") is a Soviet semi-automatic rifle.
In the United States, a SWAT (Special Weapons And Tactics) team is a law enforcement unit which uses specialized or military equipment and tactics.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
A table of organization and equipment (TOE or TO&E) is the specified organization, staffing, and equipment of units.
The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.
Target acquisition is the detection, identification, and location of a target in sufficient detail to permit the effective employment of lethal and non-lethal means.
A telescopic sight, commonly called a scope, is an optical sighting device that is based on a refracting telescope.
The Boston Globe (sometimes abbreviated as The Globe) is an American daily newspaper founded and based in Boston, Massachusetts, since its creation by Charles H. Taylor in 1872.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Pentagon is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located in Arlington County, Virginia, across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C. As a symbol of the U.S. military, The Pentagon is often used metonymically to refer to the U.S. Department of Defense.
The Sunday Times is the largest-selling British national newspaper in the "quality press" market category.
The Troubles (Na Trioblóidí) was an ethno-nationalist conflict in Northern Ireland during the late 20th century.
The Ultimate Sniper: An Advanced Training Manual for Military and Police Snipers is a book written by Major John Plaster and published in 1993.
Thomas Plunket (1785–1839) was an Irish soldier in the British Army's 95th Rifles regiment.
Timothy L. Kellner is a U.S. Army sniper with 139 confirmed kills and a large amount of unconfirmed.
Timothy Murphy (1751–1818) was a rifleman in the American Revolutionary War.
A trajectory or flight path is the path that a massive object in motion follows through space as a function of time.
In trigonometry and geometry, triangulation is the process of determining the location of a point by forming triangles to it from known points.
In mathematics, the trigonometric functions (also called circular functions, angle functions or goniometric functions) are functions of an angle.
A tripwire is a passive triggering mechanism.
The is a Japanese bolt-action rifle, based on the Type 38 Rifle.
During the American Civil War, the Union Army referred to the United States Army, the land force that fought to preserve the Union of the collective states.
United Nations Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II) was the second phase of the United Nations intervention in Somalia, from March 1993 until March 1995.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The United States Navy's Sea, Air and Land Teams, commonly abbreviated as the Navy SEALs, are the U.S. Navy's primary special operations force and a component of the Naval Special Warfare Command.
The University of Toronto Press is a Canadian scholarly publisher and book distributor founded in 1901.
An urban legend, urban myth, urban tale, or contemporary legend is a form of modern folklore.
Urban warfare is combat conducted in urban areas such as towns and cities.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
Vasily Shalvovich Kvachantiradze (ვასილ შალვას ძე კვაჭანტირაძე, Василий Шалвович Квачантирадзе; January 1907 – February 9, 1950) was a top Soviet sniper during World War II.
Vasily Grigoryevich Zaytsev (p; 23 March 1915 – 15 December 1991) was a Soviet sniper and a Hero of the Soviet Union during World War II.
The Victoria Cross (VC) is the highest award of the British honours system.
The Victoria Cross for Australia is the highest award in the Australian Honours System, superseding the Victoria Cross for issue to Australians.
Vidhwansak (Sanskrit: "The Destroyer") is an Indian multi-caliber anti-materiel rifle (AMR) or large-caliber sniper rifle manufactured by Ordnance Factory Tiruchirappalli.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.
War of the Rats is a World War II fiction novel written by David L. Robbins in 1999.
A weapon mount is a weapon component used to affix an armament for stabilization.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
The Welsh Guards (WG; Gwarchodlu Cymreig), part of the Guards Division, is one of the Foot Guards regiments of the British Army.
The White Guard or Civil Guard (lit. protection corps) was a voluntary militia that emerged victorious over the socialist Red Guard as a part of the Whites in the Finnish Civil War of 1918.
The Whitworth Rifle was a single-shot muzzle-loaded rifle used in the latter half of the 19th century.
Whitworth Sharpshooters were the Confederates' answer to the Union sharpshooter regiments, and they used the English Whitworth rifle.
Windage is a force created on an object by friction when there is relative movement between air and the object.
The Winter War was a military conflict between the Soviet Union (USSR) and Finland.
Woodsman (also, woodsmen, pl.) is a competitive, co-ed intercollegiate sport in the United States, Canada and elsewhere based on various skills traditionally part of forestry educational and technical training programs.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Yangtze, which is 6,380 km (3,964 miles) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.
Zhang Taofang, (1931 – April 29, 2007) was a Chinese sniper during the Korean War.
The ZG 1229 Vampir 1229 (ZG 1229), also known in its code name Vampir, was an active infrared device developed for the Wehrmacht for the Sturmgewehr 44 assault rifle during World War II, intended primarily for night use.
The.223 Remington (.223 Rem) is a rifle cartridge.
The.300 Winchester Magnum (also known as.300 Win Mag or 300WM) (7.62×67mm) is a belted, bottlenecked magnum rifle cartridge that was introduced by Winchester Repeating Arms Company in 1963.
The.308 Winchester (pronounced: "three-oh-eight") is a rimless, bottlenecked rifle cartridge and is the commercial cartridge from which the 7.62×51mm NATO round was derived.
The.338 Lapua Magnum (8.6×70mm or 8.58×70mm) is a rimless, bottlenecked, centerfire rifle cartridge.
The.408 Cheyenne Tactical designated 408 Chey Tac (10.36×77mm) by the C.I.P. is a specialized rimless, bottlenecked, centerfire cartridge for military long-range sniper rifles that was developed by Dr.
The.50 Browning Machine Gun (.50 BMG, 12.7×99mm NATO and designated as the 50 Browning by the C.I.P.) is a cartridge developed for the Browning.50 caliber machine gun in the late 1910s.
The 12.7×108mm cartridge is a heavy machine gun and anti-materiel rifle cartridge used by the former Soviet Union, the former Warsaw Pact, modern Russia, and other countries.
The 14.5×114mm (.57 Cal) is a heavy machine gun and anti-materiel rifle cartridge used by the Soviet Union, the former Warsaw Pact, modern Russia, and other countries.
The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom).
The 26th of July Movement (Movimiento 26 de Julio; M-26-7) was a vanguard revolutionary organization then a party led by Fidel Castro that in 1959 overthrew the Fulgencio Batista dictatorship in Cuba.
The 3rd Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment (3 RAR) is an mechanised infantry battalion of the Australian Army, based in Townsville as part of the 3rd Brigade.
The 5.56×45mm NATO (official NATO nomenclature 5.56 NATO) is a rimless bottlenecked intermediate cartridge family developed in Belgium by FN Herstal.
The 7.62×51mm NATO (official NATO nomenclature 7.62 NATO) is a rimless bottlenecked rifle cartridge developed in the 1950s as a standard for small arms among NATO countries.
The 7.62×54mmR is a rimmed rifle cartridge developed by the Russian Empire and introduced as a service cartridge in 1891.
The 7mm Remington Magnum rifle cartridge was introduced as a commercially available round in 1962, along with the new Remington Model 700 bolt-action rifle.
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