252 relations: Afghanistan, Agriculture, Agronomy, Albedo, Alberta clipper, Alpine salamander, Alpine skiing, Alps, American Meteorological Society, Antarctic, Antarctica, Antifreeze, Arctic, Arthropod, Automatic weather station, Autumn, Avalanche, Baltic Sea, Battle of Chosin Reservoir, Battle of the Bulge, BBC News, Beetle, Bellingham, Washington, Binghamton, New York, Bismuth(III) sulfide, Black Sea, Blizzard, Blowing snow, California, California Institute of Technology, Camouflage, Canada, Carbon dioxide, Caspian Sea, Cassini–Huygens, Chemical bond, Climate model, Cloud physics, Cloud seeding, Cold front, Cold Response, Cold-weather warfare, Colorado River, Convection, Coyote, Cross-country skiing, Deicing boot, Deicing fluid, Density, Diffuse reflection, ..., Dry ice, Eaves, Ecosystem, Engineer, Entrainment (physical geography), Environment and Climate Change Canada, Eskimo words for snow, European Space Agency, Extratropical cyclone, Fasting, Federal Highway Administration, Finland, Finnish Army, Firn, Flagstaff, Arizona, Flood, Foehn wind, Fox, Freezing, Freezing rain, French invasion of Russia, Friction, Frost, Frost weathering, Ganges, Glacier, Global warming, Grande Armée, Graupel, Gravity current, Gray wolf, Great Lakes, Great Salt Lake, Ground blizzard, Ground truth, Groundwater, Guinness World Records, Hail, Hard rime, Herbivore, Hibernation, Himalayas, Hydraulics, Hydrocarbon, Hydrology, Ice, Ice dam (roof), Ice pellets, Igloo, India, Indus River, Infantry, Instrument flight rules, International Glaciological Society, Invertebrate, Iran, Kamchatka Peninsula, Knickerbocker storm, Korean War, Lake, Lapse rate, Lead sulfide, Light, Locomotive, Low-pressure area, Lynx, Magellan (spacecraft), Mammoth Mountain, Mars, Martian polar ice caps, Mechanized infantry, Methane, Micrography, Micrometer, Micrometre, Military logistics, Millersville University of Pennsylvania, Missouri, Molecule, Moscow, Mount Rainier, Mountain, Mt. Baker Ski Area, Napoleon, NASA, National Geographic Society, National Park Service, National Weather Service, Névé, Neman, North Korea, Northern Hemisphere, Nucleation, Omnivore, Operation Barbarossa, Orographic lift, Orography, Pakistan, Phoenix (spacecraft), Phoenix Airfield, Physics, Pika, Pinophyta, Polar regions of Earth, Powder snow avalanche, Quinzhee, Rain and snow mixed, Rain gauge, Rainband, Recrystallization (chemistry), Remote sensing, Rocky Mountains, Rotary snowplow, Russia, Russian Winter, Saturn, Silver iodide, Sintering, Ski resort, Ski warfare, Ski wax, Skiing, Sled, Sledding, Snow angel, Snow cave, Snow fence, Snow flurry, Snow gauge, Snow grooming, Snow hydrology, Snow road, Snow scorpionfly, Snow shed, Snow tire, Snowbelt, Snowboard (meteorology), Snowboarding, Snowflake, Snowmaking, Snowman, Snowmobile, Snowpack, Snowplow, Snowshoe, Solar System, South Korea, Southern Hemisphere, Soviet Union, Spectrum, Spider, Sport, Springtail, Sublimation (phase transition), Sukayu Onsen, Supercooling, Temperature, The Coldest Winter: America and the Korean War, The wrong type of snow, Thermal insulation, Thundersnow, Tibet, Timeline of snowflake research, Titan (moon), Transport, Troposphere, Trough (meteorology), Ukichiro Nakaya, United Kingdom, United States, United States Department of Commerce, United States Geological Survey, United States Navy SEALs, University of California, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, University of Washington Press, USA Today, Venus, Venus snow, Vertebrate, Visibility, Vole, War, Warm front, Wasp, Water cycle, Water damage, Water vapor, Weasel, Wedge plow, Wegener–Bergeron–Findeisen process, Wet-bulb temperature, Wilson Bentley, Wind, Windward and leeward, Winter road, Winter sport, Winter storm, Winter War, World War II, 1st Ski Division (Wehrmacht), 2007 Siberian orange snow. Expand index (202 more) » « Shrink index
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Agronomy (Ancient Greek ἀγρός agrós 'field' + νόμος nómos 'law') is the science and technology of producing and using plants for food, fuel, fiber, and land reclamation.
Albedo (albedo, meaning "whiteness") is the measure of the diffuse reflection of solar radiation out of the total solar radiation received by an astronomical body (e.g. a planet like Earth).
An Alberta clipper (also known as a Canadian Clipper) is a fast moving low pressure area weather system which generally affects the central provinces of Canada, as well as parts of the Upper Midwest, Great Lakes, and Northeastern United States regions, precipitating a sudden temperature drop and sharp winds.
The alpine salamander (Salamandra atra) is a shiny black salamander found in the central, eastern and Dinaric Alps, at altitudes above.
Alpine skiing, or downhill skiing, is the pastime of sliding down snow-covered slopes on skis with fixed-heel bindings, unlike other types of skiing (cross-country, Telemark, or ski jumping) which use skis with free-heel bindings.
The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.
The American Meteorological Society (AMS) is the premier scientific and professional organization in the United States promoting and disseminating information about the atmospheric, oceanic, and hydrologic sciences. Its mission is to advance the atmospheric and related sciences, technologies, applications, and services for the benefit of society.
The Antarctic (US English, UK English or and or) is a polar region around the Earth's South Pole, opposite the Arctic region around the North Pole.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
An antifreeze is an additive which lowers the freezing point of a water-based liquid and increases its boiling point.
The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.
An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.
An automatic weather station (AWS) is an automated version of the traditional weather station, either to save human labour or to enable measurements from remote areas.
Autumn, also known as fall in American and Canadian English, is one of the four temperate seasons.
An avalanche (also called a snowslide) is a cohesive slab of snow lying upon a weaker layer of snow in the snowpack that fractures and slides down a steep slope when triggered.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The Battle of Chosin Reservoir, also known as the Chosin Reservoir Campaign or the Battle of Jhangjin Lake (장진호 전투; hanja: 長津湖戰鬪; rr: Jangjin ho jeontu), was a decisive battle in the Korean War.
The Battle of the Bulge (16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945) was the last major German offensive campaign on the Western Front during World War II.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Beetles are a group of insects that form the order Coleoptera, in the superorder Endopterygota.
Bellingham is the largest city in and the county seat of Whatcom County in the U.S. state of Washington.
Binghamton is a city in, and the county seat of, Broome County, New York, United States.
Bismuth(III) sulfide is a chemical compound of bismuth and sulfur.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
A blizzard is a severe snowstorm characterized by strong sustained winds of at least and lasting for a prolonged period of time—typically three hours or more.
Blowing snow is snow lifted from the surface by the wind, at a height of 8 feet (2 metres) or more, that will reduce visibility.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
The California Institute of Technology (abbreviated Caltech)The university itself only spells its short form as "Caltech"; other spellings such as.
Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis).
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
The Cassini–Huygens mission, commonly called Cassini, was a collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) to send a probe to study the planet Saturn and its system, including its rings and natural satellites.
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
Climate models use quantitative methods to simulate the interactions of the important drivers of climate, including atmosphere, oceans, land surface and ice.
Cloud physics is the study of the physical processes that lead to the formation, growth and precipitation of atmospheric clouds.
Cloud seeding is a form of weather modification that changes the amount or type of precipitation that falls from clouds, by dispersing substances into the air that serve as cloud condensation or ice nuclei, which alter the microphysical processes within the cloud.
A cold front is the leading edge of a cooler mass of air, replacing at ground level a warmer mass of air, which lies within a fairly sharp surface trough of low pressure.
Cold Response is the name given to Norwegian exercises with invited Partnership for Peace countries held in northern Norway.
Cold-weather warfare, also known as Arctic warfare or winter warfare, encompasses military operations affected by snow, ice, thawing conditions or cold, both on land and at sea.
The Colorado River is one of the principal rivers of the Southwestern United States and northern Mexico (the other being the Rio Grande).
Convection is the heat transfer due to bulk movement of molecules within fluids such as gases and liquids, including molten rock (rheid).
The coyote (Canis latrans); from Nahuatl) is a canine native to North America. It is smaller than its close relative, the gray wolf, and slightly smaller than the closely related eastern wolf and red wolf. It fills much of the same ecological niche as the golden jackal does in Eurasia, though it is larger and more predatory, and is sometimes called the American jackal by zoologists. The coyote is listed as least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature due to its wide distribution and abundance throughout North America, southwards through Mexico, and into Central America. The species is versatile, able to adapt to and expand into environments modified by humans. It is enlarging its range, with coyotes moving into urban areas in the Eastern U.S., and was sighted in eastern Panama (across the Panama Canal from their home range) for the first time in 2013., 19 coyote subspecies are recognized. The average male weighs and the average female. Their fur color is predominantly light gray and red or fulvous interspersed with black and white, though it varies somewhat with geography. It is highly flexible in social organization, living either in a family unit or in loosely knit packs of unrelated individuals. It has a varied diet consisting primarily of animal meat, including deer, rabbits, hares, rodents, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and invertebrates, though it may also eat fruits and vegetables on occasion. Its characteristic vocalization is a howl made by solitary individuals. Humans are the coyote's greatest threat, followed by cougars and gray wolves. In spite of this, coyotes sometimes mate with gray, eastern, or red wolves, producing "coywolf" hybrids. In the northeastern United States and eastern Canada, the eastern coyote (a larger subspecies, though still smaller than wolves) is the result of various historical and recent matings with various types of wolves. Genetic studies show that most North American wolves contain some level of coyote DNA. The coyote is a prominent character in Native American folklore, mainly in the Southwestern United States and Mexico, usually depicted as a trickster that alternately assumes the form of an actual coyote or a man. As with other trickster figures, the coyote uses deception and humor to rebel against social conventions. The animal was especially respected in Mesoamerican cosmology as a symbol of military might. After the European colonization of the Americas, it was reviled in Anglo-American culture as a cowardly and untrustworthy animal. Unlike wolves (gray, eastern, or red), which have undergone an improvement of their public image, attitudes towards the coyote remain largely negative.
Cross-country skiing is a form of skiing where skiers rely on their own locomotion to move across snow-covered terrain, rather than using ski lifts or other forms of assistance.
A deicing boot is a type of ice protection system installed on aircraft surfaces to permit a mechanical deicing in flight.
Ground deicing of aircraft is commonly performed in both commercial and general aviation.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Diffuse reflection is the reflection of light or other waves or particles from a surface such that a ray incident on the surface is scattered at many angles rather than at just one angle as in the case of specular reflection.
Dry ice, sometimes referred to as "cardice" (chiefly by British chemists), is the solid form of carbon dioxide.
The eaves are the edges of the roof which overhang the face of a wall and, normally, project beyond the side of a building.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are people who invent, design, analyze, build, and test machines, systems, structures and materials to fulfill objectives and requirements while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, regulation, safety, and cost.
In physical geography, entrainment is the process by which surface sediment is incorporated into a fluid flow (such as air, water or even ice) as part of the operation of erosion.
Environment and Climate Change Canada (or simply its former name, Environment Canada, or EC) (Environnement et Changement climatique Canada), legally incorporated as the Department of the Environment under the Department of the Environment Act (R.S., 1985, c. E-10), is the department of the Government of Canada with responsibility for coordinating environmental policies and programs as well as preserving and enhancing the natural environment and renewable resources.
The claim that Eskimo languages (specifically, Yupik and Inuit) have an unusually large number of words for "snow", first loosely attributed to the work of anthropologist Franz Boas, has become a cliché often used to support the controversial linguistic-relativity hypothesis: the idea that a language's structure (sound, grammar, vocabulary, etc.) shapes its speakers' view of the world.
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
Extratropical cyclones, sometimes called mid-latitude cyclones or wave cyclones, are low-pressure areas which, along with the anticyclones of high-pressure areas, drive the weather over much of the Earth.
Fasting is the willing abstinence or reduction from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time.
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a division of the United States Department of Transportation that specializes in highway transportation.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
The Finnish Army (Finnish: Maavoimat, Swedish: Armén) is the land forces branch of the Finnish Defence Forces.
Firn (from Swiss German firn "last year's", cognate with before) is partially compacted névé, a type of snow that has been left over from past seasons and has been recrystallized into a substance denser than névé.
Flagstaff is a city in and the county seat of Coconino County in northern Arizona, in the southwestern United States.
A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry.
A föhn or foehn is a type of dry, warm, down-slope wind that occurs in the lee (downwind side) of a mountain range.
Foxes are small-to-medium-sized, omnivorous mammals belonging to several genera of the family Canidae.
Freezing, or solidification, is a phase transition in which a liquid turns into a solid when its temperature is lowered below its freezing point.
Freezing rain is the name given to rain precipitation maintained at temperatures below freezing by the ambient air mass that causes freezing on contact with surfaces.
The French invasion of Russia, known in Russia as the Patriotic War of 1812 (Отечественная война 1812 года Otechestvennaya Voyna 1812 Goda) and in France as the Russian Campaign (Campagne de Russie), began on 24 June 1812 when Napoleon's Grande Armée crossed the Neman River in an attempt to engage and defeat the Russian army.
Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.
Frost is the coating or deposit of ice that may form in humid air in cold conditions, usually overnight.
Frost weathering is a collective term for several mechanical weathering processes induced by stresses created by the freezing of water into ice.
The Ganges, also known as Ganga, is a trans-boundary river of Asia which flows through the nations of India and Bangladesh.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
The Grande Armée (French for Great Army) was the army commanded by Napoleon during the Napoleonic Wars.
Graupel (Enɡlish), also called soft hail or snow pellets, is precipitation that forms when supercooled water droplets are collected and freeze on falling snowflakes, forming balls of rime.
In fluid dynamics, a gravity current is a primarily horizontal flow in a gravitational field that is driven by a density difference, hence gravity currents also sometimes being referred to as "density currents".
The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).
The Great Lakes (les Grands-Lacs), also called the Laurentian Great Lakes and the Great Lakes of North America, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River.
The Great Salt Lake, located in the northern part of the U.S. state of Utah, is the largest salt water lake in the Western Hemisphere, and the eighth-largest terminal lake in the world.
Ground blizzard refers to a weather condition where loose snow or ice on the ground is lifted and blown by strong winds.
Ground truth is a term used in various fields to refer to information provided by direct observation (i.e. empirical evidence) as opposed to information provided by inference.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
Guinness World Records, known from its inception in 1955 until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records and in previous United States editions as The Guinness Book of World Records, is a reference book published annually, listing world records both of human achievements and the extremes of the natural world.
Hail is a form of solid precipitation.
Hard rime is a white ice that forms when the water droplets in fog freeze to the outer surfaces of objects.
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.
Hibernation is a state of inactivity and metabolic depression in endotherms.
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.
Hydraulics (from Greek: Υδραυλική) is a technology and applied science using engineering, chemistry, and other sciences involving the mechanical properties and use of liquids.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.
Ice is water frozen into a solid state.
An ice dam is an ice build-up on the eaves of sloped roofs of heated buildings that results from melting snow under a snow pack reaching the eave and freezing there.
Ice pellets are a form of precipitation consisting of small, translucent balls of ice.
An igloo (Inuit languages: iglu, Inuktitut syllabics ᐃᒡᓗ (plural: igluit ᐃᒡᓗᐃᑦ)), also known as a snow house or snow hut, is a type of shelter built of snow, typically built when the snow can be easily compacted.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.
Instrument flight rules (IFR) is one of two sets of regulations governing all aspects of civil aviation aircraft operations; the other is visual flight rules (VFR).
The International Glaciological Society (IGS) was founded in 1936 to provide a focus for individuals interested in glaciology, practical and scientific aspects of snow and ice.
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Kamchatka Peninsula (полуо́стров Камча́тка, Poluostrov Kamchatka) is a 1,250-kilometre-long (780 mi) peninsula in the Russian Far East, with an area of about 270,000 km2 (100,000 sq mi).
The Knickerbocker storm was a blizzard that occurred on January 27–28, 1922 in the upper South and middle Atlantic United States.
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.
Lapse rate is the rate at which Earth's atmospheric temperature decreases with an increase in altitude, or increases with the decrease in altitude.
Lead sulfide refers to two compounds containing lead and sulfur.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
A locomotive or engine is a rail transport vehicle that provides the motive power for a train.
A low-pressure area, low, or depression, is a region on the topographic map where the atmospheric pressure is lower than that of surrounding locations.
A lynx (plural lynx or lynxes) is any of the four species (Canada lynx, Iberian lynx, Eurasian lynx, Bobcat) within the medium-sized wild cat genus Lynx.
The Magellan spacecraft, also referred to as the Venus Radar Mapper, was a robotic space probe launched by NASA of the United States, on May 4, 1989, to map the surface of Venus by using synthetic aperture radar and to measure the planetary gravitational field.
Mammoth Mountain is a lava dome complex west of the town of Mammoth Lakes, California, in the Inyo National Forest of Madera and Mono Counties.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
The planet Mars has two permanent polar ice caps.
Mechanized infantry are infantry equipped with armored personnel carriers (APCs) or infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs) for transport and combat (see also mechanized force).
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Micrography (from Greek, literally small-writing – "Μικρογραφία"), also called microcalligraphy, is a Jewish form of calligrams developed in the 9th century, with parallels in Christianity and Islam, utilizing minute Hebrew letters to form representational, geometric and abstract designs.
A micrometer, sometimes known as a micrometer screw gauge, is a device incorporating a calibrated screw widely used for precise measurement of components in mechanical engineering and machining as well as most mechanical trades, along with other metrological instruments such as dial, vernier, and digital calipers.
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".
Military logistics is the discipline of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces.
Millersville University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Millersville University, The Ville, or MU) is an American public university located in Millersville, Pennsylvania, United States, offering liberal arts programs as one of the fourteen schools that comprise the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education (PASSHE).
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Mount Rainier (pronounced) is the highest mountain of the Cascade Range of the Pacific Northwest, and the highest mountain in the U.S. state of Washington.
A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
The National Park Service (NPS) is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations.
The National Weather Service (NWS) is an agency of the United States Federal Government that is tasked with providing weather forecasts, warnings of hazardous weather, and other weather-related products to organizations and the public for the purposes of protection, safety, and general information.
Névé is a young, granular type of snow which has been partially melted, refrozen and compacted, yet precedes the form of ice.
The Neman, Nemunas, Nyoman, Niemen or Memel, a major Eastern European river.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is north of the Equator.
Nucleation is the first step in the formation of either a new thermodynamic phase or a new structure via self-assembly or self-organization.
Omnivore is a consumption classification for animals that have the capability to obtain chemical energy and nutrients from materials originating from plant and animal origin.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Orographic lift occurs when an air mass is forced from a low elevation to a higher elevation as it moves over rising terrain.
Orography (from the Greek όρος, hill, γραφία, to write) is the study of the topographic relief of mountains, and can more broadly include hills, and any part of a region's elevated terrain.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Phoenix was a robotic spacecraft on a space exploration mission on Mars under the Mars Scout Program.
Phoenix Airfield is a new airstrip in Antarctica opened in early 2017, designed to replace the Pegasus Field's role in serving McMurdo Station.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
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The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.
The polar regions, also called the frigid zones, of Earth are the regions of the planet that surround its geographical poles (the North and South Poles), lying within the polar circles.
Example of powder snow avalanche A powder snow avalanche is a type of avalanche where the snow grains are largely or wholly suspended by fluid turbulence.
A quinzhee or quinzee is a snow shelter that is made from a large pile of loose snow which is shaped then hollowed.
Rain and snow mixed is precipitation composed of rain and partially melted snow.
A rain gauge (also known as an udometer, pluviometer, or an ombrometer) is an instrument used by meteorologists and hydrologists to gather and measure the amount of liquid precipitation over a set period of time.
A rainband is a cloud and precipitation structure associated with an area of rainfall which is significantly elongated.
In chemistry, recrystallization is a technique used to purify chemicals.
Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation.
The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America.
A rotary snowplow is a piece of railroad snow removal equipment with a large circular set of blades on its front end that rotate to cut through the snow on the track ahead of it.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Russian Winter, General Winter, General Frost, or General Snow refers to the winter climate of Russia as a contributing factor to the military failures of several invasions of Russia.
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.
Silver iodide is an inorganic compound with the formula AgI. The compound is a bright yellow solid, but samples almost always contain impurities of metallic silver that give a gray coloration. The silver contamination arises because AgI is highly photosensitive. This property is exploited in silver-based photography. Silver iodide is also used as an antiseptic and in cloud seeding.
Clinker nodules produced by sintering Sintering is the process of compacting and forming a solid mass of material by heat or pressure without melting it to the point of liquefaction.
A ski resort is a resort developed for skiing, snowboarding, and other winter sports.
Ski warfare, the use of ski-equipped troops in war, is first recorded by the Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus in the 13th century.
Ski wax is a material applied to the bottom of snow runners, including skis, snowboards, and toboggans, to improve their coefficient of friction performance under varying snow conditions.
Skiing can be a means of transport, a recreational activity or a competitive winter sport in which the participant uses skis to glide on snow.
A sled, sledge, or sleigh is a land vehicle with a smooth underside or possessing a separate body supported by two or more smooth, relatively narrow, longitudinal runners that travels by sliding across a surface.
Sledding, sledging or sleighing is a worldwide winter activity, generally carried out in a prone or seated position on a vehicle generically known as a sled (North American), a sledge (British), or a sleigh.
A snow angel is a design, made in fresh snow, by lying on one's back and moving one's arms up and down, and one's legs from side to side, to form the shape of an angel.
A snow cave is a shelter constructed in snow by certain animals in the wild, human mountain climbers, winter recreational enthusiasts, and winter survivalists.
A snow fence, similar to a sand fence, is a barrier that forces windblown, drifting snow to accumulate in a desired place.
A snow flurry is a term for a light snowfall that results in little or no snow accumulation.
A snow gauge is a type of instrument used by meteorologists and hydrologists to gather and measure the amount of solid precipitation (as opposed to liquid precipitation that is measured by a rain gauge) over a set period of time.
Snow grooming is the process of manipulating snow for recreational uses with a tractor, snowmobile, piste caterpillar, truck or snowcat towing specialized equipment.
Snow hydrology is a scientific study in the field of hydrology which focuses on the composition, dispersion, and movement of snow and ice.
A snow road is a type of winter road, which is a road that is used or trafficable only in the winter.
Boreidae, commonly called snow scorpionflies, or in the British Isles, snow fleas (no relation to the snow flea Hypogastrura nivicola) are a very small family of scorpionflies, containing only around 30 species, all of which are boreal or high-altitude species in the Northern Hemisphere.
A snow shed, snow bridge or avalanche gallery is a type of rigid snow-supporting structure for avalanche control (avalanche defense) or to maintain passage in areas where snow removal becomes almost impossible.
Snow tires—also called winter tires—are tires designed for use on snow and ice.
Snowbelt is a term describing a number of regions near the Great Lakes in North America where heavy snowfall in the form of lake-effect snow is particularly common.
A snowboard (US) or Weaverboard (Canada) is a meteorological tool used to aid in the obtaining of accurate measurement of snow accumulation.
Snowboarding is a recreational activity and Olympic and Paralympic sport that involves descending a snow-covered slope while standing on a snowboard attached to a rider's feet.
A snowflake is a single ice crystal that has achieved a sufficient size, and may have amalgamated with others, then falls through the Earth's atmosphere as snow.
Snowmaking is the production of snow by forcing water and pressurized air through a "snow gun," also known as a "snow cannon", on ski slopes.
A snowman is an anthropomorphic snow sculpture often built by children in regions with sufficient snowfall.
A snowmobile, also known as a motor sled, motor sledge, or snowmachine, is a motorized vehicle designed for winter travel and recreation on snow.
Snowpack forms from layers of snow that accumulate in geographic regions and high altitudes where the climate includes cold weather for extended periods during the year.
A snowplow (also snow plow, snowplough or snow plough) is a device intended for mounting on a vehicle, used for removing snow and ice from outdoor surfaces, typically those serving transportation purposes.
A snowshoe is footwear for walking over snow.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
A spectrum (plural spectra or spectrums) is a condition that is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary, without steps, across a continuum.
Spiders (order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom.
Sport (British English) or sports (American English) includes all forms of competitive physical activity or games which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants, and in some cases, entertainment for spectators.
Springtails (Collembola) form the largest of the three lineages of modern hexapods that are no longer considered insects (the other two are the Protura and Diplura).
Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.
is an onsen (hot spring) in the city of Aomori, Aomori Prefecture in Japan.
Supercooling, also known as undercooling, is the process of lowering the temperature of a liquid or a gas below its freezing point without it becoming a solid.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
The Coldest Winter: America and the Korean War is a non-fiction book by the author David Halberstam.
"The wrong type of snow" or "the wrong kind of snow" is a phrase coined by the British media in 1991 after severe weather caused disruption to many of British Rail's services.
Thermal insulation is the reduction of heat transfer (i.e. the transfer of thermal energy between objects of differing temperature) between objects in thermal contact or in range of radiative influence.
Thundersnow, also known as a winter thunderstorm or a thundersnowstorm, is an unusual kind of thunderstorm with snow falling as the primary precipitation instead of rain.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
The hexagonal snowflake, a crystalline formation of ice, has intrigued people throughout history.
Titan is the largest moon of Saturn.
Transport or transportation is the movement of humans, animals and goods from one location to another.
The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere, and is also where nearly all weather conditions take place.
A trough is an elongated (extended) region of relatively low atmospheric pressure, often associated with fronts.
was a Japanese physicist and science essayist known for his work in glaciology and low-temperature sciences.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of Commerce is the Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with promoting economic growth.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
The United States Navy's Sea, Air and Land Teams, commonly abbreviated as the Navy SEALs, are the U.S. Navy's primary special operations force and a component of the Naval Special Warfare Command.
The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the US state of California.
The University of Nebraska–Lincoln, often referred to as Nebraska, UNL or NU, is a public research university in the city of Lincoln, in the state of Nebraska in the Midwestern United States.
The University of Washington Press is an American academic publishing house.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
Venus snow is a brightening of the radar reflection from the surface of Venus at high elevations.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
In meteorology, visibility is a measure of the distance at which an object or light can be clearly discerned.
A vole is a small rodent.
War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.
A warm front is a density discontinuity located at the leading edge of a homogeneous warm air mass, and is typically located on the equator-facing edge of an isotherm gradient.
A wasp is any insect of the order Hymenoptera and suborder Apocrita that is neither a bee nor an ant.
The water cycle, also known as the hydrological cycle or the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth.
Water damage describes a large number of possible losses caused by water intruding where it will enable attack of a material or system by destructive processes such as rotting of wood, growth, rusting of steel, de-laminating of materials such as plywood, and many others.
A weasel is a mammal of the genus Mustela of the family Mustelidae.
The wedge plow or Bucker plow was first developed by railroad companies to clear snow in the American West.
The Wegener–Bergeron–Findeisen process (after Alfred Wegener, Tor Bergeron and Walter Findeisen), (or "cold-rain process") is a process of ice crystal growth that occurs in mixed phase clouds (containing a mixture of supercooled water and ice) in regions where the ambient vapor pressure falls between the saturation vapor pressure over water and the lower saturation vapor pressure over ice.
The wet-bulb temperature is the temperature read by a thermometer covered in water-soaked cloth (wet-bulb thermometer) over which air is passed.
Wilson Alwyn "Snowflake" Bentley (February 9, 1865 – December 23, 1931) is one of the first known photographers of snowflakes.
Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale.
Windward is the direction upwind from the point of reference, alternatively the direction from which the wind is coming.
A Winter road is built over land on compacted snow (also called snow roads), frozen tundra and bare ground, or on a floating ice cover.
A winter sport or winter activity is a recreational activity or sport which is played on snow or ice.
A winter storm is an event in which varieties of precipitation are formed that only occur at low temperatures, such as snow or sleet, or a rainstorm where ground temperatures are low enough to allow ice to form (i.e. freezing rain).
The Winter War was a military conflict between the Soviet Union (USSR) and Finland.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The 1st Ski Division (1.) was an infantry unit of the German Army trained to use skis for movement during winter.
The Siberian orange snow of 2007 was an anomalous phenomenon that occurred in early February, 2007.
Packing snow, SNOWING, Sneaux, Snow Water Equivalency, Snow cover, Snow crystal, Snow depth, Snow event, Snow shower, Snow showers, Snow water equivalency, Snow-water equivalent, Snowed, Snowfall, Snowfalls, Snowfalls (t.A.T.u song), Snowflake structure, Snowing, Snows, Wet snow.