150 relations: Advertising, African black soap, Ahmad Y. al-Hassan, Aleppo, Aleppo soap, Alkali, Alkyl, Ancient Egypt, Andrew Pears, Antibiotic, Antibiotic misuse, Antimicrobial resistance, Aretaeus of Cappadocia, Azul e branco soap, Babylon, Bathing, Benjamin T. Babbitt, Bracken, Byzantine Empire, Calcium stearate, Canola, Capitulary, Carolingian dynasty, Castile soap, Charlemagne, Chlorogalum, Cinnamomum cassia, Cleanser, Coconut oil, Cognate, Colgate-Palmolive, Damascus, Detergent, Dishwashing liquid, Ebers Papyrus, Emulsion, Ester, Exfoliation (cosmetology), Fat, Fatty acid, Fez, Morocco, Foam, France, Galatia (Roman province), Galen, Gaul, Gleditsia sinensis, Glycerin soap, Glycerol, Google Books, ..., Grease (lubricant), Guild, Hand washing, Housekeeping, Hyères, Hydrolysis, Hydrophile, Hygiene, Industrial Revolution, Institute for Middle East Understanding, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Islamic Golden Age, Isleworth, James Keir, Jojoba, Kingdom of England, Laurus nobilis, Lava (soap), Lime (material), Lipophilicity, List of cleaning products, Lithium soap, Lithium stearate, London, Lubricant, Lye, Marseille, Marseille soap, Martial, Micelle, Microorganism, Middle East, Moisturizer, Mold (cooking implement), Mortar and pestle, Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, Muslim world, Nablus, Nabonidus, Nabulsi soap, Naples, Natural History (Pliny), Olive oil, Palm kernel oil, Palmolive (brand), Pathogen, PH, Pine-Sol, Pliny the Elder, Pomade, Potash, Potassium hydroxide, Product sample, Project Gutenberg, Provence, Pumice, Restoration (England), Rheology, Robert Spear Hudson, Salt (chemistry), Saltwater soap, Sand, Saponaria, Saponification, Shampoo, Shaving soap, Shea butter, Shower gel, Soap bubble, Soap dish, Soap dispenser, Soap made from human corpses, Soap scum, Soap substitute, Sodium hydroxide, Spain in the Middle Ages, Strigil, Surfactant, Syria, Tallow, Teutons, Thickening agent, Thomas J. Barratt, Tide (brand), Tipton, Toothpaste, Toulon, Triclocarban, Triclosan, Triglyceride, UNESCO, Unilever, Vegan soap, Warrington, Washboard (laundry), Washing, William Gossage, William Lever, 1st Viscount Leverhulme, Wool, Zosimos of Panopolis. Expand index (100 more) » « Shrink index
Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea.
African black soap or black soap (also various local names such as sabulun salo, ose dudu and ncha nkota) is a kind of soap originating in West Africa.
Ahmad Yousef Al-Hassan (أحمد يوسف الحسن) (June 25, 1925 – April 28, 2012) was a Palestinian/Syrian/Canadian historian of Arabic and Islamic science and technology, educated in Jerusalem, Cairo, and London with a PhD in Mechanical engineering from University College London.
Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.
Aleppo soap (also known as savon d'Alep, laurel soap, Syrian soap, or ghar soap, the Arabic word "غَار", meaning 'laurel') is a handmade, hard bar soap associated with the city of Aleppo, Syria.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
In organic chemistry, an alkyl substituent is an alkane missing one hydrogen.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Andrew Pears was a farmer's son from Cornwall, born around 1770, who invented transparent soap.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Antibiotic misuse, sometimes called antibiotic abuse or antibiotic overuse, refers to the misuse or overuse of antibiotics, with potentially serious effects on health.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.
Aretaeus (Ἀρεταῖος) is one of the most celebrated of the ancient Greek physicians, of whose life, however, few particulars are known.
Azul e branco (Blue and White), also known as sabão Offenbach (Offenbach soap) is a type of soap used in Portugal.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
Bathing is the washing of the body with a liquid, usually water or an aqueous solution, or the immersion of the body in water.
Benjamin Talbot Babbitt (May 1, 1809 – October 20, 1889) was a self-made American businessman and inventor who amassed a fortune in the soap industry, manufacturing Babbitt's Best Soap.
Bracken (Pteridium) is a genus of large, coarse ferns in the family Dennstaedtiaceae.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Calcium stearate is a carboxylate of calcium, classified as a calcium soap.
Canola oil, or canola for short, is a vegetable oil derived from rapeseed that is low in erucic acid, as opposed to colza oil.
A capitulary (medieval Latin capitularium) was a series of legislative or administrative acts emanating from the Frankish court of the Merovingian and Carolingian dynasties, especially that of Charlemagne; the first emperor of the Romans in the west since the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the late 5th century.
The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.
Castile soap is an olive-oil-based hard soap made in a style similar to that originating in the Castile region of Spain.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
The common names soap plant, soaproot and amole refer to the genus Chlorogalum.
Cinnamomum cassia, called Chinese cassia or Chinese cinnamon, is an evergreen tree originating in southern China, and widely cultivated there and elsewhere in southern and eastern Asia (India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Taiwan of China, Thailand, and Vietnam).
A cleanser is a facial care product that is used to remove make-up, dead skin cells, oil, dirt, and other types of pollutants from the skin of the face.
Coconut oil, or copra oil, is an edible oil extracted from the kernel or meat of mature coconuts harvested from the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera).
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
The Colgate-Palmolive Company is an American worldwide consumer products company focused on the production, distribution and provision of household, health care and personal care products.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleaning properties in dilute solutions.
Dishwashing liquid (BrE: washing-up liquid), known as dishwashing soap, dish detergent and dish soap, is a detergent used to assist in dishwashing.
The Ebers Papyrus, also known as Papyrus Ebers, is an Egyptian medical papyrus of herbal knowledge dating to circa 1550 BC.
An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or unblendable).
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Exfoliation involves the removal of the oldest dead skin cells on the skin's outermost surface.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
Fez (فاس, Berber: Fas, ⴼⴰⵙ, Fès) is a city in northern inland Morocco and the capital of the Fas-Meknas administrative region.
Foam is a substance formed by trapping pockets of gas in a liquid or solid.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Galatia was the name of a province of the Roman Empire in Anatolia (modern central Turkey).
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
Gleditsia sinensis is a species of flowering plant native to Asia.
Glycerin soaps are soaps that contain glycerin, a component of fat or oil.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its codename Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.
Grease is a semisolid lubricant.
A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area.
Hand washing, also known as hand hygiene, is the act of cleaning hands for the purpose of removing soil, dirt, and microorganisms.
Housekeeping refers to the management of duties and chores involved in the running of a household, such as cleaning, cooking, home maintenance, shopping, laundry and bill pay.
Hyères, Provençal Occitan: Ieras in classical norm, or Iero in Mistralian norm) is a commune in the Var department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France. The old town lies from the sea clustered around the Castle of Saint Bernard, which is set on a hill. Between the old town and the sea lies the pine-covered hill of Costebelle, which overlooks the peninsula of Giens. Hyères is the oldest resort on the French Riviera.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
A hydrophile is a molecule or other molecular entity that is attracted to water molecules and tends to be dissolved by water.
Hygiene is a set of practices performed to preserve health.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Institute for Middle East Understanding (IMEU) is a 501(c)(3) pro-Palestinian non-profit organisation, not aligned to any political or government organisation.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.
Isleworth is a small town of Saxon origin sited within the London Borough of Hounslow in west London, England.
James Keir FRS (20 September 1735 – 11 October 1820) was a Scottish chemist, geologist, industrialist, and inventor, and an important member of the Lunar Society of Birmingham.
Jojoba, with the botanical name Simmondsia chinensis, and also known as goat nut, deer nut, pignut, wild hazel, quinine nut, coffeeberry, and gray box bush, is native to Southwestern North America.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Laurus nobilis is an aromatic evergreen tree or large shrub with green, glabrous (smooth and hairless) leaves, in the flowering plant family Lauraceae.
Lava is a heavy-duty hand cleaner, originally produced in soap bar form, developed by the Waltke Company of St. Louis in 1893.
Lime is a calcium-containing inorganic mineral in which oxides, and hydroxides predominate.
Lipophilicity (from Greek λίπος "fat" and φίλος "friendly"), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene.
This is a list of cleaning products and agents.
Lithium soap, often loosely referred to as "lithium grease" or "white lithium", is a soap that is a lithium derivative.
Lithium stearate is a chemical compound with the formula LiO2C(CH2)16CH3.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
A lubricant is a substance, usually organic, introduced to reduce friction between surfaces in mutual contact, which ultimately reduces the heat generated when the surfaces move.
A lye is a metal hydroxide traditionally obtained by leaching ashes (containing largely potassium carbonate or "potash"), or a strong alkali which is highly soluble in water producing caustic basic solutions.
Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.
Marseille soap or Savon de Marseille is a traditional hard soap made from vegetable oils that has been produced around Marseille, France, for about 600 years.
Marcus Valerius Martialis (known in English as Martial) (March, between 38 and 41 AD – between 102 and 104 AD) was a Roman poet from Hispania (modern Spain) best known for his twelve books of Epigrams, published in Rome between AD 86 and 103, during the reigns of the emperors Domitian, Nerva and Trajan.
A micelle or micella (plural micelles or micellae, respectively) is an aggregate (or supramolecular assembly) of surfactant molecules dispersed in a liquid colloid.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Moisturizers or emollients are complex mixtures of chemical agents (often occlusives help hold water in the skin after application, humectants attract moisture and emollients help smooth the skin.) specially designed to make the external layers of the skin (epidermis) softer and more pliable.
A mold or mould is a container used in various techniques of food preparation to shape the finished dish.
A mortar and pestle is a kitchen implement used since ancient times to prepare ingredients or substances by crushing and grinding them into a fine paste or powder.
Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī (Abūbakr Mohammad-e Zakariyyā-ye Rāzī, also known by his Latinized name Rhazes or Rasis) (854–925 CE), was a Persian polymath, physician, alchemist, philosopher, and important figure in the history of medicine.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
Nablus (نابلس, שכם, Biblical Shechem ISO 259-3 Škem, Νεάπολις Νeapolis) is a city in the northern West Bank, approximately north of Jerusalem, (approximately by road), with a population of 126,132.
Nabonidus (𒀭𒀝𒉎𒌇, "Nabu is praised") was the last king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, reigning from 556–539 BC.
Nabulsi soap (صابون نابلسي, ṣābūn Nābulsi) is a type of castile soap produced only in Nablus in the West Bank, Palestine.
Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.
The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.
Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.
Palm kernel oil is an edible plant oil derived from the kernel of the oil palm Elaeis guineensis.
Palmolive is the trademark of a line of products produced by the American company Colgate-Palmolive.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Pine-Sol is a registered trade name of Clorox for a line of household cleaning products, used to clean grease and heavy soil stains.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Pomade (French pommade) is a greasy, waxy, or a water-based substance that is used to style hair.
Potash is some of various mined and manufactured salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form.
Potassium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula KOH, and is commonly called caustic potash.
A product sample is a sample of a consumer product that is given to the consumer free of cost so that he or she may try a product before committing to a purchase.
Project Gutenberg (PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks".
Provence (Provençal: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône River to the west to the Italian border to the east, and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south.
Pumice, called pumicite in its powdered or dust form, is a volcanic rock that consists of highly vesicular rough textured volcanic glass, which may or may not contain crystals.
The Restoration of the English monarchy took place in the Stuart period.
Rheology (from Greek ῥέω rhéō, "flow" and -λoγία, -logia, "study of") is the study of the flow of matter, primarily in a liquid state, but also as "soft solids" or solids under conditions in which they respond with plastic flow rather than deforming elastically in response to an applied force.
Robert Spear Hudson (6 December 1812 – 6 August 1884) was an English businessman who popularised dry soap powder.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
Saltwater soap, also called sailors' soap, is a potassium-based soap for use with seawater.
Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.
Saponaria is a genus of flowering plants in the pink family, Caryophyllaceae.
Saponification is a process that produces soap.
Shampoo is a hair care product, typically in the form of a viscous liquid, that is used for cleaning hair.
Shaving soap typically refers to a hard soap that is whipped into a lather using a shaving brush.
Shea butter is a fat extracted from the nut of the African shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa).
Shower gel (also shower cream or body wash) is a liquid product used for cleaning the body.
A soap bubble is an extremely thin film of soapy water enclosing air that forms a hollow sphere with an iridescent surface.
A soap dish is a shallow, open container or platform where a bar of soap may be placed to dry after use.
A soap dispenser is a device that, when manipulated or triggered appropriately, dispenses soap (usually in small, single-use quantities).
During the 20th century, there were various alleged instances of soap being made from human body fat.
Soap scum or lime soap is the white solid composed of calcium stearate, magnesium stearate, and similar insoluble compounds that result from the addition of soap and other anionic surfactants to hard water.
A soap substitute refers to detergents or cleansing creams, other than soap, for cleaning the skin, especially removing greasy films or glandular exudates.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
In many ways, the history of Spain is marked by waves of conquerors who brought their distinct cultures to the peninsula.
The strigil is a tool for the cleansing of the body by scraping off dirt, perspiration, and oil that was applied before bathing in Ancient Greek and Roman cultures.
Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension (or interfacial tension) between two liquids, between a gas and a liquid, or between a liquid and a solid.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Tallow is a rendered form of beef or mutton fat, and is primarily made up of triglycerides.
The Teutons (Latin: Teutones, Teutoni, Greek: "Τεύτονες") were an ancient tribe mentioned by Roman authors.
A thickening agent or thickener is a substance which can increase the viscosity of a liquid without substantially changing its other properties.
Thomas James Barratt (1841–1914) was the chairman of the soap manufacturer A&F Pears and a pioneer of brand marketing.
Tide is a laundry detergent introduced in 1946 and manufactured by American multinational Procter & Gamble.
Tipton is a town in the West Midlands, England, with a population of around 38,777 at the 2011 UK Census.
Toothpaste is a paste or gel dentifrice used with a toothbrush as an accessory to clean and maintain the aesthetics and health of teeth.
Toulon (Provençal: Tolon (classical norm), Touloun (Mistralian norm)) is a city in southern France and a large military harbour on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base.
Triclocarban is an antibacterial agent common in personal care products like soaps and lotions as well as in the medical field, for which it was originally developed.
Triclosan (sometimes abbreviated as TCS) is an antibacterial and antifungal agent found in some consumer products, including toothpaste, soaps, detergents, toys, and surgical cleaning treatments.
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
Unilever () is a British-Dutch transnational consumer goods company co-headquartered in London, United Kingdom and Rotterdam, Netherlands.
Vegan soap (or vegetable soap) is made from fats or oils of vegetable origin rather than from saponified tallow or other animal fats.
Warrington is a large town and unitary authority area in Cheshire, England, on the banks of the River Mersey, east of Liverpool, and west of Manchester.
A washboard is a tool designed for hand washing clothing.
Washing is a method of cleaning, usually with water and often some kind of soap or detergent.
William Gossage (12 May 1799 – 9 April 1877) was a chemical manufacturer who established a soap making business in Widnes, Lancashire, England.
William Hesketh Lever, 1st Viscount Leverhulme (19 September 1851 – 7 May 1925) was an English industrialist, philanthropist, and politician.
Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids.
Zosimos of Panopolis (Ζώσιμος ὁ Πανοπολίτης; also known by the Latin name Zosimus Alchemista, i.e. "Zosimus the Alchemist") was an Egyptian alchemist and Gnostic mystic who lived at the end of the 3rd and beginning of the 4th century AD.
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