254 relations: Abstention, Achilles, Adoption, Advanced capitalism, Afrikaans, Alienation (property law), Alienation of affections, Alternative rock, Ancient Rome, Anomie, Anthropology, Antihumanism, Apathy, Asclepiades of Bithynia, Attachment in adults, Attachment theory, Authenticity (philosophy), Émile Durkheim, Bartleby, the Scrivener, Being, Benjamin Ball (physician), Black Boy, Brave New World, Bureaucracy, C. Wright Mills, Capitalism, Child abuse, Civil society, Civilization, Cold War, Colony, Commodification, Commodity fetishism, Contemplation, Critical psychology, Critical theory, Crusades, Culture, Cybernetics, Defence mechanisms, Dialectic, Diaspora, Disability, Discourse, Divorce, Dubliners, Dysfunctional family, Eastern Europe, Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844, Economic determinism, ..., Ecstasy (philosophy), Emotion, Emptiness, Erich Fromm, Essentialism, Existentialism, Exploitation of labour, Extreme metal, Fahrenheit 451, Fall of man, False consciousness, Family, Feedback, Feeling, Felix Geyer, Felix Plater, Ferdinand Tönnies, Francis Hutcheson (philosopher), Frankfurt School, Frantz Fanon, Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft, Georg Simmel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, German Romanticism, Globalization, Gnosticism, Goal, Golden Age, György Lukács, Hafid Bouazza, Hamlet, Harry F. Dahms, Herbert Marcuse, Hermit, Historical materialism, Hugo Grotius, Human, Human condition, Humanism, Ian Parker (psychologist), Idealism, Iliad, Individualism, Industry, Information overload, International Sociological Association, Interpersonal relationship, Invisible Man, Jacques Lacan, Jürgen Habermas, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Jean-Paul Sartre, Julian Rotter, Karl Marx, Kostas Axelos, Labour economics, Language, Latin, Law, Legal separation, Liberation psychology, Literature, Locus of control, London Fields (novel), Ludwig Feuerbach, Lutheranism, Malignancy, Market (economics), Martin Heidegger, Marx's theory of alienation, Marxist humanism, Max Stirner, Max Weber, Meaning (existential), Meaning of life, Mental disorder, Metaphysics, Michel Foucault, Middle Ages, Mind, Misanthropy, Monasticism, Moral treatment, Mrs Dalloway, Mysticism, Nation state, Natural and legal rights, Nature, Nature versus nurture, Neo-Freudianism, Neo-Marxism, Neoplatonism, New Testament, No Exit, Notes from Underground, Objectivity (philosophy), OK Computer, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (novel), Ontological security, Othello, Ownership, Parental alienation, Phenomenology (philosophy), Philippe Pinel, Philosophy, Physician, Physiology, Pink Floyd, Plotinus, Policy, Policy alienation, Political alienation, Political party, Political system, Politics, Post-structuralism, Postcolonialism, Postmodernism, Power (social and political), Powerlessness, Prerogative, Proactive policing, Progressive rock, Protestant work ethic, Psychic apparatus, Psychoanalysis, Public sphere, R. D. Laing, Radiohead, Rat race, Reform, Regeneration (novel), Reification (Marxism), Religion, Repression (psychology), Revolution, Right Hegelians, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Søren Kierkegaard, Schizoid personality disorder, Schizophrenia, Self, Self-concept, Self-consciousness, Self-estrangement, Self-knowledge (psychology), Sigmund Freud, Situationist International, Slavoj Žižek, Social capital, Social comparison theory, Social contract, Social dynamics, Social exclusion, Social isolation, Social order, Social rejection, Social relation, Sociology, Sovereignty, Soviet Union, Spectacle (critical theory), Splitting (psychology), State (polity), State of nature, Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, Structuralism, Structure, Subject (philosophy), Suicide, The Bell Jar, The Castle (novel), The Catcher in the Rye, The Child in Time, The Chosen (Potok novel), The Ego and Its Own, The Essence of Christianity, The German Ideology, The Matrix, The Matrix (franchise), The Myth of Sisyphus, The Philosophy of Money, The Stranger (Camus novel), The Theory of Communicative Action, The Trial, The Wall, The Waste Land, Theodor W. Adorno, Trainspotting (novel), Uncanny, Unconscious mind, Urbanization, Utica Psychiatric Center, Value (ethics), Voter apathy, Waiting for Godot, Western Marxism, White Collar: The American Middle Classes, William Shakespeare, Witch-hunt, Young Goodman Brown, Young Hegelians, Young Marx, 20th-century philosophy. Expand index (204 more) » « Shrink index
Abstention is a term in election procedure for when a participant in a vote either does not go to vote (on election day) or, in parliamentary procedure, is present during the vote, but does not cast a ballot.
In Greek mythology, Achilles or Achilleus (Ἀχιλλεύς, Achilleus) was a Greek hero of the Trojan War and the central character and greatest warrior of Homer's Iliad.
Adoption is a process whereby a person assumes the parenting of another, usually a child, from that person's biological or legal parent or parents, and, in so doing, permanently transfers all rights and responsibilities, along with filiation, from the biological parent or parents.
In political philosophy, particularly Frankfurt School critical theory, advanced capitalism is the situation that pertains in a society in which the capitalist model has been integrated and developed deeply and extensively and for a prolonged period.
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.
In property law, alienation is the voluntary act of an owner of some property disposing of the property, while alienable is the capacity for a piece of property or a property right to be sold or otherwise transferred from one party to another.
Alienation of affections is a common law tort, abolished in many jurisdictions.
Alternative rock (also called alternative music, alt-rock or simply alternative) is a style of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1980s and became widely popular in the 1990s.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Anomie is a "condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals".
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
In social theory and philosophy, antihumanism (or anti-humanism) is a theory that is critical of traditional humanism and traditional ideas about humanity and the human condition.
Apathy is a lack of feeling, emotion, interest, and concern.
Asclepiades (Ἀσκληπιάδης; c. 124 or 129 – 40 BC), sometimes called Asclepiades of Bithynia or Asclepiades of Prusa, was a Greek physician born at Prusias-on-Sea in Bithynia in Asia Minor and who flourished at Rome, where he established Greek medicine near the end of the 2nd century BC.
In psychology, the theory of attachment can be applied to adult relationships including friendships, emotional affairs, adult romantic or platonic relationships and in some cases relationships with inanimate objects ("transitional objects").
Attachment theory is a psychological model that attempts to describe the dynamics of long-term and short-term interpersonal relationships between humans.
Authenticity is a concept in psychology (in particular existential psychiatry) as well as existentialist philosophy and aesthetics (in regard to various arts and musical genres).
David Émile Durkheim (or; April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French sociologist.
"Bartleby, the Scrivener: A Story of Wall Street" is a short story by the American writer Herman Melville, first serialized anonymously in two parts in the November and December 1853 issues of Putnam's Magazine, and reprinted with minor textual alterations in his The Piazza Tales in 1856.
Being is the general concept encompassing objective and subjective features of reality and existence.
Benjamin Ball (April 20, 1833 – February 23, 1893) was an English-born French psychiatrist, Professor of Mental Medicine in the Paris Faculty.
Black Boy (1945) is a memoir by American author Richard Wright, detailing his youth in the South: Mississippi, Arkansas and Tennessee, and his eventual move to Chicago, where he establishes his writing career and becomes involved with the Communist Party in the United States.
Brave New World is a dystopian novel written in 1931 by English author Aldous Huxley, and published in 1932.
Bureaucracy refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group.
Charles Wright Mills (August 28, 1916 – March 20, 1962) was an American sociologist, and a professor of sociology at Columbia University from 1946 until his death in 1962.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
Child abuse or child maltreatment is physical, sexual, or psychological maltreatment or neglect of a child or children, especially by a parent or other caregiver.
Civil society is the "aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens".
A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
In history, a colony is a territory under the immediate complete political control of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign.
Commodification is the transformation of goods, services, ideas and people into commodities, or objects of trade.
In Karl Marx's critique of political economy, commodity fetishism is the perception of the social relationships involved in production, not as relationships among people, but as economic relationships among the money and commodities exchanged in market trade.
Contemplation is profound thinking about something.
Critical psychology is a perspective on psychology that draws extensively on critical theory.
Critical theory is a school of thought that stresses the reflective assessment and critique of society and culture by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary approach for exploring regulatory systems—their structures, constraints, and possibilities.
A defence mechanism is an unconscious psychological mechanism that reduces anxiety arising from unacceptable or potentially harmful stimuli.
Dialectic or dialectics (διαλεκτική, dialektikḗ; related to dialogue), also known as the dialectical method, is at base a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments.
A diaspora (/daɪˈæspərə/) is a scattered population whose origin lies in a separate geographic locale.
A disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.
Discourse (from Latin discursus, "running to and from") denotes written and spoken communications.
Divorce, also known as dissolution of marriage, is the termination of a marriage or marital union, the canceling or reorganizing of the legal duties and responsibilities of marriage, thus dissolving the bonds of matrimony between a married couple under the rule of law of the particular country or state.
Dubliners is a collection of fifteen short stories by James Joyce, first published in 1914.
A dysfunctional family is a family in which conflict, misbehavior, and often child neglect or abuse on the part of individual parents occur continuously and regularly, leading other members to accommodate such actions.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 (also referred to as The Paris Manuscripts) are a series of notes written between April and August 1844 by Karl Marx.
Economic determinism is a socioeconomic theory that economic relationships (such as being an owner or capitalist, or being a worker or proletarian) are the foundation upon which all other social and political arrangements in society are based.
Ecstasy (from the Ancient Greek ἔκστασις ekstasis, "to be or stand outside oneself, a removal to elsewhere" from ek- "out," and stasis "a stand, or a standoff of forces") is a term used in Ancient Greek, Christian and Existential philosophy.
Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.
Emptiness as a human condition is a sense of generalized boredom, social alienation and apathy.
Erich Seligmann Fromm (March 23, 1900 – March 18, 1980) was a German-born American social psychologist, psychoanalyst, sociologist, humanistic philosopher, and democratic socialist.
Essentialism is the view that every entity has a set of attributes that are necessary to its identity and function.
Existentialism is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed.
Exploitation of labour is the act of treating one's workers unfairly for one's own benefit.
Extreme metal is a loosely defined umbrella term for a number of related heavy metal music subgenres that have developed since the early 1980s.
Fahrenheit 451 is a dystopian novel by American writer Ray Bradbury, published in 1953.
The fall of man, or the fall, is a term used in Christianity to describe the transition of the first man and woman from a state of innocent obedience to God to a state of guilty disobedience.
False consciousness is a term used by sociologists and expounded by some Marxists for the way in which material, ideological, and institutional processes in capitalist society mislead members of the proletariat and other class actors.
Every person has his/her own family.mother reproduces with husband for children.In the context of human society, a family (from familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage or other relationship), or co-residence (as implied by the etymology of the English word "family" from Latin familia 'family servants, domestics collectively, the servants in a household,' thus also 'members of a household, the estate, property; the household, including relatives and servants,' abstract noun formed from famulus 'servant, slave ') or some combination of these.
Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop.
Feeling is the nominalization of the verb to feel.
Rudolf Felix Geyer (born 13 October 1933) is a Dutch sociologist and cybernetician, former head of the methodology section of SISWO (Interuniversity Institute for Social Science Research) at the University of Amsterdam, known for his work in the fields of Social alienation, and on sociocybernetics.
Felix Plater (or Platter;; October 28, 1536 – July 28, 1614) was a Swiss physician, professor in Basel, well known for his classification of psychiatric diseases, and was also the first to describe an intracranial tumour (a meningioma).
Ferdinand Tönnies (26 July 1855 – 9 April 1936) was a German sociologist and philosopher.
Francis Hutcheson (8 August 1694 – 8 August 1746) was an Irish philosopher born in Ulster to a family of Scottish Presbyterians who became known as one of the founding fathers of the Scottish Enlightenment.
The Frankfurt School (Frankfurter Schule) is a school of social theory and philosophy associated in part with the Institute for Social Research at the Goethe University Frankfurt.
Frantz Fanon (20 July 1925 – 6 December 1961) was a Martinican psychiatrist, philosopher, revolutionary, and writer whose works are influential in the fields of post-colonial studies, critical theory, and Marxism.
Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft, generally translated as "community and society", are categories which were used by the German sociologist Ferdinand Tönnies in order to categorize social ties into two dichotomous sociological types which define each other.
Georg Simmel (1 March 1858 – 28 September 1918) was a German sociologist, philosopher, and critic.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.
German Romanticism was the dominant intellectual movement of German-speaking countries in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, influencing philosophy, aesthetics, literature and criticism.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
Gnosticism (from γνωστικός gnostikos, "having knowledge", from γνῶσις, knowledge) is a modern name for a variety of ancient religious ideas and systems, originating in Jewish-Christian milieus in the first and second century AD.
A goal is an idea of the future or desired result that a person or a group of people envisions, plans and commits to achieve.
The term Golden Age comes from Greek mythology, particularly the Works and Days of Hesiod, and is part of the description of temporal decline of the state of peoples through five Ages, Gold being the first and the one during which the Golden Race of humanity (chrýseon génos) lived.
György Lukács (also Georg Lukács; born György Bernát Löwinger; 13 April 1885 – 4 June 1971) was a Hungarian Marxist philosopher, aesthetician, literary historian, and critic.
Hafid Bouazza (حفيظ بوعزة, ḥafīẓ būʿazza) (born 8 March 1970 in Oujda, Morocco) is a Moroccan-Dutch writer.
The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, often shortened to Hamlet, is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare at an uncertain date between 1599 and 1602.
Harry F. Dahms is Professor of Sociology, co-director of the Center for the Study of Social Justice and co-chair of the Committee on Social Theory at the University of Tennessee.
Herbert Marcuse (July 19, 1898 – July 29, 1979) was a German-American philosopher, sociologist, and political theorist, associated with the Frankfurt School of Critical Theory.
A hermit (adjectival form: eremitic or hermitic) is a person who lives in seclusion from society, usually for religious reasons.
Historical materialism is the methodological approach of Marxist historiography that focuses on human societies and their development over time, claiming that they follow a number of observable tendencies.
Hugo Grotius (10 April 1583 – 28 August 1645), also known as Huig de Groot or Hugo de Groot, was a Dutch jurist.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
The human condition is "the characteristics, key events, and situations which compose the essentials of human existence, such as birth, growth, emotionality, aspiration, conflict, and mortality".
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.
Ian Parker (born 1956) is a British psychologist and psychoanalyst.
In philosophy, idealism is the group of metaphysical philosophies that assert that reality, or reality as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.
The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.
Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual.
Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.
Information overload (also known as infobesity or infoxication) is a term used to describe the difficulty of understanding an issue and effectively making decisions when one has too much information about that issue.
The International Sociological Association (ISA) is a non-profit organization dedicated to scientific purposes in the field of sociology and social sciences.
An interpersonal relationship is a strong, deep, or close association or acquaintance between two or more people that may range in duration from brief to enduring.
Invisible Man is a novel by Ralph Ellison, published by Random House in 1952.
Jacques Marie Émile Lacan (13 April 1901 – 9 September 1981) was a French psychoanalyst and psychiatrist who has been called "the most controversial psycho-analyst since Freud".
Jürgen Habermas (born 18 June 1929) is a German sociologist and philosopher in the tradition of critical theory and pragmatism.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, and literary critic.
Julian B. Rotter (October 22, 1916 – January 6, 2014) was an American psychologist known for developing influential theories, including social learning theory and locus of control.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Kostas Axelos (also spelled Costas Axelos; Κώστας Αξελός; June 26, 1924 – February 4, 2010) was a Greek-French philosopher.
Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets for wage labour.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
Legal separation (sometimes judicial separation, separate maintenance, divorce a mensa et thoro, or divorce from bed-and-board) is a legal process by which a married couple may formalize a de facto separation while remaining legally married.
Liberation psychology or liberation social psychology is an approach to psychology that aims to actively understand the psychology of oppressed and impoverished communities by conceptually and practically addressing the oppressive sociopolitical structure in which they exist.
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.
In personality psychology, locus of control is the degree to which people believe that they have control over the outcome of events in their lives, as opposed to external forces beyond their control.
London Fields is a black comic, murder mystery novel by British writer Martin Amis, published in 1989.
Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach (28 July 1804 – 13 September 1872) was a German philosopher and anthropologist best known for his book The Essence of Christianity, which provided a critique of Christianity which strongly influenced generations of later thinkers, including Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Richard Wagner, and Friedrich Nietzsche.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Malignancy is the tendency of a medical condition to become progressively worse.
A market is one of the many varieties of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange.
Martin Heidegger (26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition and philosophical hermeneutics, and is "widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20th century." Heidegger is best known for his contributions to phenomenology and existentialism, though as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy cautions, "his thinking should be identified as part of such philosophical movements only with extreme care and qualification".
Karl Marx's theory of alienation describes the estrangement (Entfremdung) of people from aspects of their Gattungswesen ("species-essence") as a consequence of living in a society of stratified social classes.
Marxist humanism is a branch of Marxism that primarily focuses on Marx's earlier writings, especially the Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844 in which Marx espoused his theory of alienation, as opposed to his later works, which are considered to be concerned more with his structural conception of capitalist society.
Johann Kaspar Schmidt (October 25, 1806 – June 26, 1856), better known as Max Stirner, was a German philosopher who is often seen as one of the forerunners of nihilism, existentialism, psychoanalytic theory, postmodernism and individualist anarchism.
Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist.
Meaning in existentialism is descriptive; therefore it is unlike typical, prescriptive conceptions of "the meaning of life".
The meaning of life, or the answer to the question "What is the meaning of life?", pertains to the significance of living or existence in general.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Paul-Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory.
Misanthropy is the general hatred, dislike, distrust or contempt of the human species or human nature.
Monasticism (from Greek μοναχός, monachos, derived from μόνος, monos, "alone") or monkhood is a religious way of life in which one renounces worldly pursuits to devote oneself fully to spiritual work.
Moral treatment was an approach to mental disorder based on humane psychosocial care or moral discipline that emerged in the 18th century and came to the fore for much of the 19th century, deriving partly from psychiatry or psychology and partly from religious or moral concerns.
Mrs Dalloway (published on 14 May 1925) is a novel by Virginia Woolf that details a day in the life of Clarissa Dalloway, a fictional high-society woman in post–First World War England.
Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies (religious experiences during alternate states of consciousness), together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
Natural and legal rights are two types of rights.
Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe.
The nature versus nurture debate involves whether human behaviour is determined by the environment, either prenatal or during a person's life, or by a person's genes.
The term "neo-Freudian" is sometimes loosely used to refer to those early followers of Freud who at some point accepted the basic tenets of Freud's theory of psychoanalysis but later dissented from it.
Neo-Marxism is a broad term encompasing twentieth-century approaches that amend or extend Marxism and Marxist theory, typically by incorporating elements from other intellectual traditions such as critical theory, psychoanalysis, or existentialism (in the case of Jean-Paul Sartre).
Neoplatonism is a term used to designate a strand of Platonic philosophy that began with Plotinus in the third century AD against the background of Hellenistic philosophy and religion.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
No Exit (Huis Clos) is a 1944 existentialist French play by Jean-Paul Sartre.
Notes from Underground (pre-reform Russian: Записки изъ подполья; post-reform Zapíski iz podpólʹya), also translated as Notes from the Underground or Letters from the Underworld, is an 1864 novella by Fyodor Dostoevsky.
Objectivity is a central philosophical concept, objective means being independent of the perceptions thus objectivity means the property of being independent from the perceptions, which has been variously defined by sources.
OK Computer is the third studio album by English rock band Radiohead, released on 16 June 1997 on EMI subsidiaries Parlophone and Capitol Records.
One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (1962) is a novel written by Ken Kesey.
Ontological security is a stable mental state derived from a sense of continuity in regard to the events in one's life.
Othello (The Tragedy of Othello, the Moor of Venice) is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in 1603.
Ownership is the state or fact of exclusive rights and control over property, which may be an object, land/real estate or intellectual property.
Parental alienation is the process, and the result, of psychological manipulation of a child into showing unwarranted fear, disrespect or hostility towards a parent and/or other family members.
Phenomenology (from Greek phainómenon "that which appears" and lógos "study") is the philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness.
Philippe Pinel (20 April 1745 – 25 October 1826) was a French physician who was instrumental in the development of a more humane psychological approach to the custody and care of psychiatric patients, referred to today as moral therapy.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Pink Floyd were an English rock band formed in London in 1965.
Plotinus (Πλωτῖνος; – 270) was a major Greek-speaking philosopher of the ancient world.
A policy is a deliberate system of principles to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes.
Policy alienation refers to a framework which examines the experiences of governmental employees with new policies they have to implement.
Political alienation refers to an individual citizen's relatively enduring sense of estrangement from or rejection of the prevailing political system.
A political party is an organised group of people, often with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in government.
A political system is a system of politics and government.
Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.
Post-structuralism is associated with the works of a series of mid-20th-century French, continental philosophers and critical theorists who came to be known internationally in the 1960s and 1970s.
Postcolonialism or postcolonial studies is the academic study of the cultural legacy of colonialism and imperialism, focusing on the human consequences of the control and exploitation of colonised people and their lands.
Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late-20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism.
In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.
In law, a prerogative is an exclusive right given from a government or state and invested in an individual or group, the content of which is separate from the body of rights enjoyed under the general law of the normative state.
Proactive policing is the practice of deterring criminal activity by showing police presence and engaging the public to learn their concerns, thereby preventing crime from taking place in the first place.
Progressive rock (shortened as prog; sometimes called art rock, classical rock or symphonic rock) is a broad genre of rock music that developed in the United Kingdom and United States throughout the mid to late 1960s.
The Protestant work ethic, the Calvinist work ethic or the Puritan work ethic is a concept in theology, sociology, economics and history which emphasizes that hard work, discipline and frugality are a result of a person's subscription to the values espoused by the Protestant faith, particularly Calvinism.
The term psychic apparatus (also psychical apparatus, mental apparatus) denotes a central, theoretic construct of Freudian metapsychology, wherein.
Psychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques related to the study of the unconscious mind, which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders.
The public sphere (German Öffentlichkeit) is an area in social life where individuals can come together to freely discuss and identify societal problems, and through that discussion influence political action.
Ronald David Laing (7 October 1927 – 23 August 1989), usually cited as R. D. Laing, was a Scottish psychiatrist who wrote extensively on mental illnessin particular, the experience of psychosis.
Radiohead are an English rock band from Abingdon, Oxfordshire, formed in 1985.
A rat race is an endless, self-defeating, or pointless pursuit.
Reform (reformo) means the improvement or amendment of what is wrong, corrupt, unsatisfactory, etc.
Regeneration is a historical and anti-war novel by Pat Barker, first published in 1991.
In Marxism, reification (Verdinglichung, literally: "making into a thing") is the process by which social relations are perceived as inherent attributes of the people involved in them, or attributes of some product of the relation, such as a traded commodity.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
Repression is the psychological attempt to direct one's own desires and impulses toward pleasurable instincts by excluding them from one's consciousness and holding or subduing them in the unconscious.
In political science, a revolution (Latin: revolutio, "a turn around") is a fundamental and relatively sudden change in political power and political organization which occurs when the population revolt against the government, typically due to perceived oppression (political, social, economic).
The Right Hegelians (Rechtshegelianer), Old Hegelians (Althegelianer), or the Hegelian Right (die Hegelsche Rechte), were those followers of German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel in the early 19th century who took his philosophy in a politically and religiously conservative direction.
The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy is an encyclopedia of philosophy edited by Edward Craig that was first published by Routledge in 1998.
Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher.
Schizoid personality disorder (often abbreviated as SPD or SzPD) is a personality disorder characterized by a lack of interest in social relationships, a tendency towards a solitary or sheltered lifestyle, secretiveness, emotional coldness, detachment, and apathy.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
The self is an individual person as the object of his or her own reflective consciousness.
One's self-concept (also called self-construction, self-identity, self-perspective or self-structure) is a collection of beliefs about oneself.
Self-consciousness is a heightened sense of self-awareness.
Self-estrangement is the idea conceived by Karl Marx in Marx's theory of alienation and Melvin Seeman in his five logically distinct psychological states that encompasses alienation.
Self-knowledge is a term used in psychology to describe the information that an individual draws upon when finding an answer to the question "What am I like?".
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
The Situationist International (SI) was an international organization of social revolutionaries made up of avant-garde artists, intellectuals, and political theorists, prominent in Europe from its formation in 1957 to its dissolution in 1972.
Slavoj Žižek (born 21 March 1949) is a Slovenian continental philosopher.
Social capital is a form of economic and cultural capital in which social networks are central; transactions are marked by reciprocity, trust, and cooperation; and market agents produce goods and services not mainly for themselves, but for a common good.
Social comparison theory, initially proposed by social psychologist Leon Festinger in 1954, centers on the belief that there is a drive within individuals to gain accurate self-evaluations.
In both moral and political philosophy, the social contract is a theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment.
Social dynamics can refer to the behavior of groups that results from the interactions of individual group members as well to the study of the relationship between individual interactions and group level behaviors.
Social exclusion, or social marginalization, is the social disadvantage and relegation to the fringe of society.
Social isolation is a state of complete or near-complete lack of contact between an individual and society.
The term social order can be used in two senses.
Social rejection occurs when an individual is deliberately excluded from a social relationship or social interaction.
In social science, a social relation or social interaction is any relationship between two or more individuals.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The spectacle is a central notion in the Situationist theory, developed by Guy Debord in his 1967 book, The Society of the Spectacle.
Splitting (also called black-and-white thinking or all-or-nothing thinking) is the failure in a person's thinking to bring together the dichotomy of both positive and negative qualities of the self and others into a cohesive, realistic whole.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
The state of nature is a concept used in moral and political philosophy, religion, social contract theories and international law to denote the hypothetical conditions of what the lives of people might have been like before societies came into existence.
Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde is a gothic novella by the Scottish author Robert Louis Stevenson first published in 1886.
In sociology, anthropology, and linguistics, structuralism is the methodology that implies elements of human culture must be understood by way of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure.
Structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system, or the object or system so organized.
A subject is a being who has a unique consciousness and/or unique personal experiences, or an entity that has a relationship with another entity that exists outside itself (called an "object").
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
The Bell Jar is the only novel written by the American writer and poet Sylvia Plath. Originally published under the pseudonym "Victoria Lucas" in 1963, the novel is semi-autobiographical, with the names of places and people changed. The book is often regarded as a roman à clef because the protagonist's descent into mental illness parallels Plath's own experiences with what may have been clinical depression or bipolar II disorder. Plath died by suicide a month after its first UK publication. The novel was published under Plath's name for the first time in 1967 and was not published in the United States until 1971, in accordance with the wishes of both Plath's husband, Ted Hughes, and her mother. The novel has been translated into nearly a dozen languages. The novel, though dark, is often read in high school English classes.
The Castle (Das Schloss, also spelled Das Schloß) is a 1926 novel by Franz Kafka.
The Catcher in the Rye is a story by J. D. Salinger, first published in serial form in 1945-6 and as a novel in 1951.
The Child in Time (1987) is a novel by Ian McEwan.
The Chosen is a novel written by Chaim Potok.
The Ego and Its Own (Der Einzige und sein Eigentum; meaningfully translated as The Individual and his Property, literally as The Unique and His Property) is an 1844 work by German philosopher Max Stirner.
The Essence of Christianity (Das Wesen des Christentums; historical orthography: Das Weſen des Chriſtenthums) is a book by Ludwig Feuerbach first published in 1841.
The German Ideology (German: Die deutsche Ideologie) is a set of manuscripts written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels around April or early May 1846.
The Matrix is a 1999 science fiction action film written and directed by The Wachowskis (credited as The Wachowski Brothers) and starring Keanu Reeves, Laurence Fishburne, Carrie-Anne Moss, Hugo Weaving, and Joe Pantoliano.
The Matrix is a science fiction action media franchise created by The Wachowskis, about heroes who fight a desperate war against machine overlords that have enslaved humanity in an extremely sophisticated virtual reality system.
The Myth of Sisyphus (Le Mythe de Sisyphe) is a 1942 philosophical essay by Albert Camus.
The Philosophy of Money (1900) is a book on economic sociology by the German sociologist and social philosopher, Georg Simmel.
L’Étranger (The Outsider, or The Stranger) is a 1942 novel by French author Albert Camus.
The Theory of Communicative Action (Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns) is a two-volume 1981 book by Jürgen Habermas, in which the author continues his project of finding a way to ground "the social sciences in a theory of language", which had been set out in On the Logic of the Social Sciences (1967).
The Trial (original German title: Der Process, later Der Proceß, Der Prozeß and Der Prozess) is a novel written by Franz Kafka between 1914 and 1915 and published posthumously in 1925.
The Wall is the eleventh studio album by English rock band Pink Floyd.
The Waste Land is a long poem by T. S. Eliot, widely regarded as one of the most important poems of the 20th century and a central work of modernist poetry.
Theodor W. Adorno (born Theodor Ludwig Wiesengrund; September 11, 1903 – August 6, 1969) was a German philosopher, sociologist, and composer known for his critical theory of society.
Trainspotting is the first novel by Scottish writer Irvine Welsh, first published in 1993.
The uncanny is the psychological experience of something as strangely familiar, rather than simply mysterious.
The unconscious mind (or the unconscious) consists of the processes in the mind which occur automatically and are not available to introspection, and include thought processes, memories, interests, and motivations.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
The Utica Psychiatric Center, also known as Utica State Hospital, opened in Utica on January 16, 1843.
In ethics, value denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do or what way is best to live (normative ethics), or to describe the significance of different actions.
In politics, voter apathy is perceived apathy (lack of caring) among voters in an election.
Waiting for Godot is a play by Samuel Beckett, in which two characters, Vladimir (Didi) and Estragon (Gogo), wait for the arrival of someone named Godot who never arrives, and while waiting they engage in a variety of discussions and encounter three other characters.
Western Marxism is Marxist theory arising from Western and Central Europe in the aftermath of the 1917 October Revolution in Russia and the ascent of Leninism.
White Collar: The American Middle Classes is a study of the American middle class by sociologist C. Wright Mills, first published in 1951.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
A witch-hunt or witch purge is a search for people labelled "witches" or evidence of witchcraft, often involving moral panic or mass hysteria.
"Young Goodman Brown" is a short story published in 1835 by American writer Nathaniel Hawthorne.
The Young Hegelians (Junghegelianer), or Left Hegelians (Linkshegelianer), or the Hegelian Left (die Hegelsche Linke), were a group of German intellectuals who, in the decade or so after the death of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel in 1831, reacted to and wrote about his ambiguous legacy.
Some theorists consider Karl Marx's thought to be divided into a "young" period and a "mature" one.
20th-century philosophy saw the development of a number of new philosophical schools—including logical positivism, analytic philosophy, phenomenology, existentialism, and poststructuralism.