104 relations: A Theory of Justice, Absolute monarchy, Age of Enlightenment, Anarchism, Ancient Greek philosophy, Ashoka, Bellum omnium contra omnes, Canon law, Cato Institute, Citizenship, Civil and political rights, Civil society, Classical republicanism, Community, Conscience, Consent, Consent of the governed, Consent theory, Constitution, Contract, Criminal law, Crito, David Gauthier, David Hume, De jure belli ac pacis, Denis Diderot, Divine right of kings, E. H. Carr, Epicurus, Ethical egoism, Ethics, Federalism, Francisco Suárez, Game theory, General will, Glaucon, Golden Rule, Group cohesiveness, Hans Morgenthau, Hegelianism, Hugo Grotius, Immanuel Kant, Individual, Individualism, J. W. Gough, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, John Locke, John Rawls, Legitimacy (political), Leviathan (Hobbes book), ..., Libertarianism, Low Countries, Lysander Spooner, Mahāvastu, Mandate (politics), Mandate of Heaven, Manufacturing Consent, Mark Goldie, Marxism, Mayflower Compact, Monarchomachs, Natural and legal rights, Natural law, Negative and positive rights, No Treason, Original position, Philip Pettit, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Plato, Political philosophy, Popular sovereignty, Power (social and political), Prisoner's dilemma, Quentin Skinner, Randy Barnett, Realism (international relations), Representative democracy, Republic (Plato), Right of revolution, Rights, Roman law, SAGE Publications, Samuel von Pufendorf, School of Salamanca, Silence procedure, Social capital, Social Contract (Britain), Social disintegration, Social Justice in the Liberal State, Social rights (social contract theory), Societal collapse, Solidarity, Sovereignty, State (polity), State of nature, Stoicism, The General Idea of the Revolution in the Nineteenth Century, The Metaphysics of Morals, The Racial Contract, The Social Contract, Thomas Hobbes, United States Declaration of Independence, Utilitarianism, Veil of ignorance. Expand index (54 more) » « Shrink index
A Theory of Justice is a work of political philosophy and ethics by John Rawls, in which the author attempts to solve the problem of distributive justice (the socially just distribution of goods in a society) by utilising a variant of the familiar device of the social contract.
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.
Ashoka (died 232 BCE), or Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from to 232 BCE.
Bellum omnium contra omnes, a Latin phrase meaning "the war of all against all", is the description that Thomas Hobbes gives to human existence in the state of nature thought experiment that he conducts in De Cive (1642) and Leviathan (1651).
Canon law (from Greek kanon, a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members.
The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.
Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.
Civil society is the "aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens".
Classical republicanism, also known as civic republicanism or civic humanism, is a form of republicanism developed in the Renaissance inspired by the governmental forms and writings of classical antiquity, especially such classical writers as Aristotle, Polybius, and Cicero.
A community is a small or large social unit (a group of living things) that has something in common, such as norms, religion, values, or identity.
Conscience is an aptitude, faculty, intuition or judgment that assists in distinguishing right from wrong.
In common speech, consent occurs when one person voluntarily agrees to the proposal or desires of another.
In political philosophy, the phrase consent of the governed refers to the idea that a government's legitimacy and moral right to use state power is only justified and lawful when consented to by the people or society over which that political power is exercised.
Consent theory is a term for the idea in social philosophy that individuals primarily make decisions as free agents entering into consensual relationships with other free agents, and that this becomes the basis for political governance.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
A contract is a promise or set of promises that are legally enforceable and, if violated, allow the injured party access to legal remedies.
Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.
Crito (or; Κρίτων) is a dialogue by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato.
David Gauthier (born 10 September 1932) is a Canadian-American philosopher best known for his neo-Hobbesian social contract (contractarian) theory of morality, as developed in his 1986 book Morals by Agreement.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
De iure belli ac pacis (On the Law of War and Peace) is a 1625 book in Latin, written by Hugo Grotius and published in Paris, on the legal status of war.
Denis Diderot (5 October 171331 July 1784) was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer, best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor, and contributor to the Encyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert.
The divine right of kings, divine right, or God's mandate is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy.
Edward Hallett "Ted" Carr (28 June 1892 – 3 November 1982) was an English historian, diplomat, journalist and international relations theorist, and an opponent of empiricism within historiography.
Epicurus (Ἐπίκουρος, Epíkouros, "ally, comrade"; 341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who founded a school of philosophy now called Epicureanism.
Ethical egoism is the normative ethical position that moral agents ought to do what is in their own self-interest.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.
Francisco Suárez (5 January 1548 – 25 September 1617) was a Spanish Jesuit priest, philosopher and theologian, one of the leading figures of the School of Salamanca movement, and generally regarded among the greatest scholastics after Thomas Aquinas.
Game theory is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers".
In political philosophy, the general will (volonté générale) is the will of the people as a whole.
Glaucon (Γλαύκων; c. 445 BC – 4th century BC) son of Ariston, was an ancient Athenian and the philosopher Plato's older brother.
The Golden Rule (which can be considered a law of reciprocity in some religions) is the principle of treating others as one would wish to be treated.
Group cohesiveness (also called group cohesion and social cohesion) arises when bonds link members of a social group to one another and to the group as a whole.
Hans Joachim Morgenthau (February 17, 1904 – July 19, 1980) was one of the major twentieth-century figures in the study of international politics.
Hegelianism is the philosophy of G. W. F. Hegel which can be summed up by the dictum that "the rational alone is real", which means that all reality is capable of being expressed in rational categories.
Hugo Grotius (10 April 1583 – 28 August 1645), also known as Huig de Groot or Hugo de Groot, was a Dutch jurist.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
An individual is that which exists as a distinct entity.
Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual.
John Wiedhofft Gough (23 February 1900 - 1976) was a Welsh historian noted for his study of John Locke's political philosophy.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John Bordley Rawls (February 21, 1921 – November 24, 2002) was an American moral and political philosopher in the liberal tradition.
In political science, legitimacy is the right and acceptance of an authority, usually a governing law or a régime.
Leviathan or The Matter, Forme and Power of a Common-Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil—commonly referred to as Leviathan—is a book written by Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679) and published in 1651 (revised Latin edition 1668). Its name derives from the biblical Leviathan. The work concerns the structure of society and legitimate government, and is regarded as one of the earliest and most influential examples of social contract theory. Leviathan ranks as a classic western work on statecraft comparable to Machiavelli's The Prince. Written during the English Civil War (1642–1651), Leviathan argues for a social contract and rule by an absolute sovereign. Hobbes wrote that civil war and the brute situation of a state of nature ("the war of all against all") could only be avoided by strong, undivided government.
Libertarianism (from libertas, meaning "freedom") is a collection of political philosophies and movements that uphold liberty as a core principle.
The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.
Lysander Spooner (January 19, 1808 – May 14, 1887) was an American political philosopher, essayist, pamphlet writer, Unitarian, abolitionist, legal theorist, and entrepreneur of the nineteenth century.
The Mahāvastu (Sanskrit for "Great Event" or "Great Story") is a text of the Lokottaravāda school of Early Buddhism.
In politics, a mandate is the authority granted by a constituency to act as its representative.
The Mandate of Heaven or Tian Ming is a Chinese political and religious doctrine used since ancient times to justify the rule of the King or Emperor of China.
Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media is a book written by Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky, in which the authors propose that the mass communication media of the U.S. "are effective and powerful ideological institutions that carry out a system-supportive propaganda function, by reliance on market forces, internalized assumptions, and self-censorship, and without overt coercion", by means of the propaganda model of communication.
Mark Goldie, FRHS is an English historian and Professor of Intellectual History at Churchill College, Cambridge.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
The Mayflower Compact was the first governing document of Plymouth Colony.
The Monarchomachs (Monarchomaques) were originally French Huguenot theorists who opposed monarchy at the end of the 16th century, known in particular for having theoretically justified tyrannicide.
Natural and legal rights are two types of rights.
Natural law (ius naturale, lex naturalis) is a philosophy asserting that certain rights are inherent by virtue of human nature, endowed by nature—traditionally by God or a transcendent source—and that these can be understood universally through human reason.
Negative and positive rights are rights that oblige either action (positive rights) or inaction (negative rights).
No Treason is a composition of three essays, all written in 1867: No.
The original position (OP) is a hypothetical situation developed by American philosopher John Rawls as a thought experiment to replace the imagery of a savage state of nature of prior political philosophers like Thomas Hobbes.
Philip Noel Pettit (born 1945) is an Irish philosopher and political theorist.
Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (15 January 1809 – 19 January 1865) was a French politician and the founder of mutualist philosophy.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.
Popular sovereignty, or sovereignty of the peoples' rule, is the principle that the authority of a state and its government is created and sustained by the consent of its people, through their elected representatives (Rule by the People), who are the source of all political power.
In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.
The prisoner's dilemma is a standard example of a game analyzed in game theory that shows why two completely rational individuals might not cooperate, even if it appears that it is in their best interests to do so.
Quentin Robert Duthie Skinner (born 26 November 1940, Oldham, Lancashire) is an intellectual historian.
Randy Evan Barnett (born February 5, 1952, in Chicago) is an American lawyer, law professor at Georgetown University Law Center, where he teaches constitutional law and contracts, and legal theory.
Realism is a school of thought in international relations theory, theoretically formalising the Realpolitik statesmanship of early modern Europe.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
The Republic (Πολιτεία, Politeia; Latin: Res Publica) is a Socratic dialogue, written by Plato around 380 BC, concerning justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just, city-state, and the just man.
In political philosophy, the right of revolution (or right of rebellion) is the right or duty of the people of a nation to overthrow a government that acts against their common interests and/or threatens the safety of the people without cause.
Rights are legal, social, or ethical principles of freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to people, according to some legal system, social convention, or ethical theory.
Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most widely used legal system today, and the terms are sometimes used synonymously.
SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.
Freiherr Samuel von Pufendorf (8 January 1632 – 13 October 1694) was a German jurist, political philosopher, economist and historian.
The School of Salamanca (Escuela de Salamanca) is the Renaissance of thought in diverse intellectual areas by Spanish and Portuguese theologians, rooted in the intellectual and pedagogical work of Francisco de Vitoria.
A silence procedure or tacit acceptance procedure (French: procédure d'approbation tacite; Latin: qui tacet consentire videtur, "he who is silent is taken to agree", "silence implies/means consent") is a way of formally adopting texts, often, but not exclusively in international political context.
Social capital is a form of economic and cultural capital in which social networks are central; transactions are marked by reciprocity, trust, and cooperation; and market agents produce goods and services not mainly for themselves, but for a common good.
The Social Contract was a policy by the Labour government of Harold Wilson in 1970s Britain.
Social disintegration is the tendency for society to decline or disintegrate over time, perhaps due to the lapse or breakdown of traditional social support systems.
Social Justice in the Liberal State is a book written by Bruce A. Ackerman.
Social rights are those rights arising from the social contract, in contrast to natural rights which arise from the natural law, but before the establishment of legal rights by positive law.
Societal collapse is the fall of a complex human society.
Solidarity is unity (as of a group or class) which produces or is based on unities of interests, objectives, standards, and sympathies.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
The state of nature is a concept used in moral and political philosophy, religion, social contract theories and international law to denote the hypothetical conditions of what the lives of people might have been like before societies came into existence.
Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC.
The General Idea of the Revolution in the Nineteenth Century (Idée générale de la révolution au XIXe siècle) is an influential manifesto written in 1851 by the anarchist philosopher Pierre-Joseph Proudhon.
The Metaphysics of Morals (Die Metaphysik der Sitten) is a 1797 work of political and moral philosophy by Immanuel Kant.
The Racial Contract is a book by professor Charles W. Mills in which Mills puts forth his political philosophy regarding the role of race in the formation of the social contract.
The Social Contract, originally published as On the Social Contract; or, Principles of Political Rights (Du contrat social; ou Principes du droit politique) by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, is a 1762 book in which Rousseau theorized about the best way to establish a political community in the face of the problems of commercial society, which he had already identified in his Discourse on Inequality (1754).
Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
The United States Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting at the Pennsylvania State House (now known as Independence Hall) in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776.
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.
The "veil of ignorance" is a method of determining the morality of political issues proposed in 1971 by American philosopher John Rawls in his "original position" political philosophy.
Contractarian, Contractarianism, Contractual state, Hypothetical contract, Political contract, Social Agreement, Social Contract, Social compact, Social contract theories, Social contract theory, Social contracts, SocialContractTheories.