444 relations: Action Party (Italy), Agenda 2010, Alexandre Millerand, Alice Mahon, Alignment (Israel), Alva Myrdal, Americas, Anarchism, Anarcho-communism, Andrés Manuel López Obrador, Anna Kéthly, Anthony Crosland, Anthony Giddens, Anti-fascism, Anti-Socialist Laws, Arms race, Arthur Henderson, August Bebel, Australian Labor Party, Avisenes Nyhetsbyrå, Álvaro Obregón, Balanced budget, Bank of England, Bayard Rustin, Belgian Socialist Party, Benoît Hamon, Bernie Sanders, Bevanism, Blanquism, Bob Hawke, Bolsheviks, Bourgeoisie, Brendan Corish, Bretton Woods system, British Electricity Authority, British European Airways, British Transport Commission, Business cycle, Cable & Wireless plc, Capitalism, Carlo Rosselli, Caroline Lucas, Cartel, Centre Party (Germany), Chancellor of the Exchequer, Charles Kennedy, Chartism, Child care, Class conflict, Clause IV, ..., Clement Attlee, Co-determination, Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, Cold War, Common good, Communism, Communist International, Communist Party of Germany, Communist Party of Great Britain, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Communitarianism, Conscious business, Conservative Party (UK), Constitutional economics, Corporatism, Coup d'état, Cristero War, Critique of the Gotha Program, Czech legislative election, 2013, Czech legislative election, 2017, Czech Social Democratic Party, Daily Mail, Daniel Hoan, David Ben-Gurion, David Lewis (politician), David Schweickart, De facto, Decentralized planning (economics), Democratic Party (Italy), Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Party of the Left, Democratic socialism, Democratic Socialist Party (Japan), Democrats of the Left, Deregulation, Dialectic, Dictatorship of the proletariat, Dogma, Dom Mintoff, Dutch general election, 2017, East Germany, East Prussia, Economic interventionism, Economic liberalism, Economic system, Economic, social and cultural rights, Ed Broadbent, Eduard Bernstein, Egalitarianism, Einar Gerhardsen, Elderly care, Epistemology, Erich Ludendorff, Ethical socialism, Exploitation of labour, Fabian Society, Fascism, February Revolution, Felipe González, Fellowship of the New Life, Ferdinand Lassalle, Flexicurity, Foreign Affairs, François Hollande, François Mitterrand, Francisco de Sá Carneiro, Francisco Franco, Franco-Prussian War, Frank Podmore, Frank Zeidler, Frankfurt Declaration, Franklin Delano Roosevelt III, Freikorps, French presidential election, 2017, French Section of the Workers' International, Friedrich Ebert, Friedrich Engels, Gas board, General German Workers' Association, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, George Bernard Shaw, Georgi Plekhanov, Gerhard Schröder, German federal election, 2017, German Revolution of 1918–19, Godesberg Program, Gotha Program, Gradualism, Great Depression, Great power, Great Recession, Greek government-debt crisis, Green Party of England and Wales, Gro Harlem Brundtland, Gunnar Myrdal, Gustav Noske, Hague Congress (1872), Hamburg, Hartz concept, Hegelianism, Helen Clark, Hellenic Parliament, Helmut Schmidt, Historical materialism, Hjalmar Branting, Homogeneity and heterogeneity, Hugh Dalton, Hugh Gaitskell, Hungarian Socialist Party, Icelandic parliamentary election, 2013, Icelandic parliamentary election, 2016, Immiseration thesis, Independent Labour Party, Independent Socialists (France), Indian National Congress, Ingmar Bergman, Institutional Revolutionary Party, International Working Union of Socialist Parties, International Workingmen's Association, Irish general election, 2016, Iron and Steel Corporation of Great Britain, Israel, Israeli Labor Party, Italian Communist Party, Italian Democratic Socialist Party, Italian Socialist Party, Jacinda Ardern, Jack Layton, Jacobin (politics), Jawaharlal Nehru, Jean Jaurès, Job Cohen, John Maynard Keynes, John Roemer, Joop den Uyl, José Batlle y Ordóñez, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, Joseph Stalin, Jules Guesde, Junker, Justice Party (South Korea), Kantianism, Kapp Putsch, Karl Kautsky, Karl Liebknecht, Karl Marx, Keir Hardie, Keynesian economics, Kibbutz, Kiel mutiny, Kingdom of Italy, Kronstadt rebellion, Kurt Schumacher, Labour and Social Justice – The Electoral Alternative, Labour and Socialist International, Labour movement, Labour Party (Ireland), Labour Party (Netherlands), Labour Party (Norway), Labour Party (UK), Labour Party Rule Book, Laissez-faire, Lázaro Cárdenas, Léon Blum, Left-Green Movement, Left-wing politics, Leon Trotsky, Liberal democracy, Liberal Party (UK), Liberal socialism, Liberalism, List of social democratic parties, Luis Guillermo Solís, Luxembourg general election, 2013, Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party, Mapai, Margaret Thatcher, Market socialism, Marx's theory of alienation, Marxism, Materialism, Member of the European Parliament, Mensheviks, Meretz, Merrie England (Robert Blatchford book), Metaphysics, Mexico, Michael Harrington, Michael Joseph Savage, Mikhail Bakunin, Mikhail Gorbachev, Militarism, Minority government, Mixed economy, 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office, Post-war, Post-war consensus, Poul Nyrup Rasmussen, Poverty, Pranab Bardhan, Pravda, President of Germany, Prime Minister of India, Prime Minister of Israel, Prince Maximilian of Baden, Private property, Progressive People's Party (Germany), Proletarian revolution, Proletariat, Property income, Public service, Ralf Dahrendorf, Ramsay MacDonald, Reactionary, Red Scare, Redistribution of income and wealth, Reformism, Regulatory economics, Reichstag (German Empire), René Lévesque, Representative democracy, Republican faction (Spanish Civil War), Reserve army of labour, Revisionism (Marxism), Revolutionary socialism, Revolutions of 1989, Rickard Sandler, Robert Blatchford, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Luxemburg, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Roy Jenkins, Royal Navy, Rudolf Hilferding, Russian famine of 1921–22, Russian Provisional Government, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Sandro Pertini, Saxon People's Party, Scandinavia, Scientific American, Second International, Second Spanish Republic, Sicco Mansholt, Sidney Webb, 1st Baron Passfield, Social Democratic Alliance, Social Democratic Party, Social Democratic Party (Estonia), Social Democratic Party (Iceland), Social Democratic Party (Romania), Social Democratic Party of Austria, Social Democratic Party of Finland, Social Democratic Party of Germany, Social Democratic Party of Switzerland, Social Democratic Workers' Party (Netherlands), Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany, Social Democrats (Denmark), Social Democrats (Ireland), Social Democrats (Slovenia), Social fascism, Social inequality, Social interventionism, Social justice, Social liberalism, Social ownership, Social privilege, Social Reform or Revolution?, Socialism, Socialist International, Socialist mode of production, Socialist Party (France), Socialist Party (Portugal), Socialist Unity Party of Germany, Socialistische Partij Anders, Socio-Economic Review, Solidarity, Sopade, Spanish Civil War, Spanish general election, 2015, Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, Spartacus League, Stafford Cripps, State of affairs (sociology), State socialism, Swedish Social Democratic Party, Syndicalism, Syriza, Tage Erlander, Tarja Halonen, Technological determinism, The Atlantic, The Civil War in France, The Communist Manifesto, The Future of Socialism, The Left (Germany), The Mountain (1849), The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, The Political Quarterly, Theories of Surplus Value, Third Way, Thomas Humphrey Marshall, Thorvald Stauning, Tommy Douglas, Tony Blair, Trade union, Trade Union Act 1871, Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Treaty of Versailles, Trust (business), Unidos Podemos, Unified Socialist Party (France), United Kingdom general election, 1945, United Kingdom general election, 1951, Universal access to education, Universal health care, Vassos Lyssarides, Victor L. Berger, Vladimir Lenin, Walter Nash, Walter Reuther, Weimar, Weimar Republic, Welfare, Welfare capitalism, Welfare state, West Germany, Western Europe, Western world, Wilhelm II, German Emperor, Wilhelm Liebknecht, Willem Drees, Willem Schermerhorn, William Morris, Willy Brandt, Wim Kok, Wolfgang Kapp, Worker cooperative, Workers' compensation, Workers' council, Working class, World War I, World War II, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. Expand index (394 more) » « Shrink index
The Action Party (Partito d'Azione, PdA) was a liberal-socialist political party in Italy.
The Agenda 2010 is a series of reforms planned and executed by the German government, a Social-Democrats/Greens coalition at that time, which aimed to reform the German welfare system and labour relations.
Alexandre Millerand (10 February 1859 – 7 April 1943) was a French politician and freemason.
Alice Mahon (born 28 September 1937) is a former British member of parliament for the Labour Party.
The Alignment (המערך, translit. HaMa'arakh) is the name of two political alliances in Israel.
Alva Myrdal (née Reimer; 31 January 1902 – 1 February 1986) was a Swedish sociologist, diplomat and politician.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
Anarcho-communism (also known as anarchist communism, free communism, libertarian communism and communist anarchism) is a theory of anarchism which advocates the abolition of the state, capitalism, wage labour and private property (while retaining respect for personal property) in favor of common ownership of the means of production, direct democracy and a horizontal network of workers' councils with production and consumption based on the guiding principle: "From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs".
Andrés Manuel López Obrador (born 13 November 1953), often abbreviated as AMLO, is a Mexican politician.
Anna Kéthly (16 November 1889 – 7 September 1976) was a Hungarian social democratic politician.
Charles Anthony Raven Crosland (29 August 1918 – 19 February 1977), sometimes known as Tony Crosland or C. A. R. Crosland, was a British Labour Party politician and author.
Anthony Giddens, Baron Giddens (born 18 January 1938) is a British sociologist who is known for his theory of structuration and his holistic view of modern societies.
Anti-fascism is opposition to fascist ideologies, groups and individuals.
The Anti-Socialist Laws or Socialist Laws (Sozialistengesetze; officially Gesetz gegen die gemeingefährlichen Bestrebungen der Sozialdemokratie, approximately "Law against the public danger of Social Democratic endeavours") were a series of acts, the first of which was passed on October 19, 1878 by the German Reichstag lasting until March 31, 1881, and extended four times (May 1880, May 1884, April 1886 and February 1888).
An arms race, in its original usage, is a competition between two or more states to have the best armed forces.
Arthur Henderson (13 September 1863 – 20 October 1935) was a British iron moulder and Labour politician.
Ferdinand August Bebel (22 February 1840 – 13 August 1913) was a German socialist politician, writer, and orator.
The Australian Labor Party (ALP, also Labor, was Labour before 1912) is a political party in Australia.
Avisenes Nyhetsbyrå (ANB) (English: "Newspapers' News Agency") is a Norwegian news agency that was established in 1912 as Socialdemokratisk Pressekontor.
Álvaro Obregón Salido (February 19, 1880 – July 17, 1928) was a general in the Mexican Revolution, who became President of Mexico from 1920 to 1924.
A balanced budget (particularly that of a government) is a budget in which revenues are equal to expenditures.
The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the model on which most modern central banks have been based.
Bayard Rustin (March 17, 1912 – August 24, 1987) was an American leader in social movements for civil rights, socialism, nonviolence, and gay rights.
The Belgian Socialist Party (Parti Socialiste belge, PSB; Belgische Socialistische Partij, BSP) was a social-democratic political party which existed in Belgium from 1945 to 1978.
Benoît Hamon (born 26 June 1967) is a French politician and a former member of the Socialist Party (PS) and Party of European Socialists (PES).
Bernard Sanders (born September 8, 1941) is an American politician serving as the junior United States Senator from Vermont since 2007.
Bevanism was the ideological argument for the Bevanites, a movement on the left wing of the Labour Party in the late 1950s and typified by Aneurin Bevan.
Blanquism refers to a conception of revolution generally attributed to Louis Auguste Blanqui (1805–1881) which holds that socialist revolution should be carried out by a relatively small group of highly organised and secretive conspirators.
Robert James Lee Hawke, (born 9 December 1929) is a former Australian politician who was the 23rd Prime Minister of Australia, serving from 1983 to 1991.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
Brendan Felix Corish (19 November 1918 – 17 February 1990) was an Irish Labour Party politician who served as Tánaiste and Minister for Health from 1973 to 1977, Leader of the Labour Party, Minister for Social Welfare from 1954 to 1957 and from 1973 to 1977, Parliamentary Secretary at the Department of Defence and Parliamentary Secretary at the Department of Local Government from 1948 to 1951.
The Bretton Woods system of monetary management established the rules for commercial and financial relations among the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Australia, and Japan after the 1944 Bretton-Woods Agreement.
The British Electricity Authority (BEA) was established as the central British electricity authority in 1948 under the nationalisation of the Great Britain's electricity supply industry.
British European Airways (BEA), formally British European Airways Corporation, was a British airline which existed from 1946 until 1974.
The British Transport Commission (BTC) was created by Clement Attlee's post-war Labour government as a part of its nationalisation programme, to oversee railways, canals and road freight transport in Great Britain (Northern Ireland had the separate Ulster Transport Authority).
The business cycle, also known as the economic cycle or trade cycle, is the downward and upward movement of gross domestic product (GDP) around its long-term growth trend.
Cable & Wireless plc was a British telecommunications company.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
Carlo Rosselli (16 November 18999 June 1937) was an Italian political leader, journalist, historian and anti-fascist activist, first in Italy and then abroad.
Caroline Patricia Lucas (born 9 December 1960) is a British politician, and since 2 September 2016, Co-Leader of the Green Party of England and Wales, with Jonathan Bartley.
A cartel is a group of apparently independent producers whose goal is to increase their collective profits by means of price fixing, limiting supply, or other restrictive practices.
The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or just Zentrum) is a lay Catholic political party in Germany, primarily influential during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic.
The Chancellor and Under-Treasurer of Her Majesty's Exchequer, commonly known as the Chancellor of the Exchequer, or simply the Chancellor, is a senior official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of Her Majesty's Treasury.
Charles Peter Kennedy (25 November 1959 – 1 June 2015) was a Scottish Liberal Democrat politician who was Leader of the Liberal Democrats from 1999 to 2006 and a Member of Parliament (MP) from 1983 to 2015, latterly for the Ross, Skye and Lochaber constituency.
Chartism was a working-class movement for political reform in Britain that existed from 1838 to 1857.
Child care, or otherwise known as daycare, is the care and supervision of a child or multiple children at a time.
Class conflict, frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes.
Clause IV was part of the 1918 constitution of the Labour Party in Britain which set out the aims and values of the party.
Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was a British statesman of the Labour Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1935 to 1955.
Codetermination (also "copartnership" or "worker participation") is the practice of workers of an enterprise having the right to vote for representatives on the board of directors in a company.
The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) (Fédération du Commonwealth Coopératif, from 1955 the Parti social démocratique du Canada) was a social-democraticThese sources describe the CCF as a social-democratic political party.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
In philosophy, economics, and political science, the common good (also commonwealth, common weal or general welfare) refers to either what is shared and beneficial for all or most members of a given community, or alternatively, what is achieved by citizenship, collective action, and active participation in the realm of politics and public service.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Communist International (Comintern), known also as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international communist organization that advocated world communism.
The Communist Party of Germany (Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands, KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period until it was banned in 1956.
The Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB) was a British communist party which was the largest communist party in Great Britain, although it never became a mass party like those in France and Italy.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.
Communitarianism is a philosophy that emphasizes the connection between the individual and the community.
Conscious business enterprises and people (also sometimes referred to under the label conscious capitalism) are those that choose to follow a business strategy, in which they seek to benefit both human beings and the environment.
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.
Constitutional economics is a research program in economics and constitutionalism that has been described as explaining the choice "of alternative sets of legal-institutional-constitutional rules that constrain the choices and activities of economic and political agents".
Corporatism is the organization of a society by corporate groups and agricultural, labour, military or scientific syndicates and guilds on the basis of their common interests.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
Government forces publicly hanged Cristeros on main thoroughfares throughout Mexico, including in the Pacific states of Colima and Jalisco, where bodies would often remain hanging for extended lengths of time. The Cristero War or Cristero Rebellion (1926–29), also known as La Cristiada, was a widespread struggle in many central-western Mexican states against the secularist, anti-Catholic and anti-clerical policies of the Mexican government.
The Critique of the Gotha Program (Kritik des Gothaer Programms) is a document based on a letter by Karl Marx written in early May 1875 to the Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany (SDAP), with whom Marx and Friedrich Engels were in close association.
Early legislative elections were held in the Czech Republic on 25 and 26 October 2013, seven months before the constitutional expiry of the elected parliament's four year legislative term.
The 2017 Czech legislative election was held in the Czech Republic on 20 and 21 October 2017.
The Czech Social Democratic Party (Česká strana sociálně demokratická, ČSSD) is a social-democratic political party in the Czech Republic.
The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-marketPeter Wilby, New Statesman, 19 December 2013 (online version: 2 January 2014) tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust and published in London.
Daniel Webster Hoan (March 12, 1881 – June 11, 1961) was an American politician who served as the 32nd Mayor of Milwaukee, Wisconsin from 1916 to 1940.
David Ben-Gurion (דָּוִד בֶּן-גּוּרִיּוֹן;, born David Grün; 16 October 1886 – 1 December 1973) was the primary national founder of the State of Israel and the first Prime Minister of Israel.
David Lewis (born David Losz; June 23, or October 1909 – May 23, 1981) was a Canadian labour lawyer and social democratic politician.
David Schweickart (born 1942) is an American mathematician and philosopher.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
A decentralized-planned economy or decentrally-planned economy (occasionally horizontally-planned economy) is a type of economic system based on decentralized economic planning, in which decision-making is distributed amongst various economic agents or localized within production units.
The Democratic Party (Partito Democratico, PD) is a social-democratic political party in Italy.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
The Democratic Party of the Left (Partito Democratico della Sinistra, PDS) was a democratic-socialist and social-democratic political party in Italy.
Democratic socialism is a political philosophy that advocates political democracy alongside social ownership of the means of production with an emphasis on self-management and/or democratic management of economic institutions within a market socialist, participatory or decentralized planned economy.
The was a social-democratic political party in Japan.
The Democrats of the Left (Democratici di Sinistra, DS) was a social-democratic political party in Italy.
Deregulation is the process of removing or reducing state regulations, typically in the economic sphere.
Dialectic or dialectics (διαλεκτική, dialektikḗ; related to dialogue), also known as the dialectical method, is at base a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments.
In Marxist sociopolitical thought, the dictatorship of the proletariat refers to a state in which the proletariat, or the working class, has control of political power.
The term dogma is used in pejorative and non-pejorative senses.
Domenico Mintoff (Duminku Mintoff; often called il-Perit, "the Architect"; 6 August 1916 – 20 August 2012) was a Maltese politician, architect, anti-colonialist revolutionary and civil engineer who was leader of the Labour Party from 1949 to 1984, and was 8th Prime Minister of Malta from 1955 to 1958, when Malta was still a British colony, and again, following independence, from 1971 to 1984.
General elections were held in the Netherlands on Wednesday 15 March 2017 to elect all 150 members of the House of Representatives.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
East Prussia (Ostpreußen,; Prusy Wschodnie; Rytų Prūsija; Borussia orientalis; Восточная Пруссия) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); following World War I it formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia, until 1945.
Economic interventionism (sometimes state interventionism) is an economic policy perspective favoring government intervention in the market process to correct the market failures and promote the general welfare of the people.
Economic liberalism is an economic system organized on individual lines, which means the greatest possible number of economic decisions are made by individuals or households rather than by collective institutions or organizations.
An economic system is a system of production, resource allocation and distribution of goods and services within a society or a given geographic area.
Economic, social and cultural rights are socio-economic human rights, such as the right to education, right to housing, right to adequate standard of living, right to health and the right to science and culture.
John Edward "Ed" Broadbent, (born March 21, 1936) is a Canadian social-democratic politician, political scientist, and chair of the Broadbent Institute, a policy thinktank.
Eduard Bernstein (6 January 185018 December 1932) was a German social-democratic Marxist theorist and politician.
Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.
(10 May 1897 – 19 September 1987) was a Norwegian politician from the Labour Party of Norway.
Elderly care, or simply eldercare (also known in parts of the English speaking world as aged care), is the fulfillment of the special needs and requirements that are unique to senior citizens.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (9 April 1865 – 20 December 1937) was a German general, the victor of the Battle of Liège and the Battle of Tannenberg.
Ethical socialism is a political philosophy that appeals to socialism on ethical and moral grounds as opposed to economic, egoistic, and consumeristic grounds.
Exploitation of labour is the act of treating one's workers unfairly for one's own benefit.
The Fabian Society is a British socialist organization whose purpose is to advance the principles of democratic socialism via gradualist and reformist effort in democracies, rather than by revolutionary overthrow.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
The February Revolution (p), known in Soviet historiography as the February Bourgeois Democratic Revolution, was the first of two revolutions which took place in Russia in 1917.
Felipe González Márquez (born 5 March 1942) is a Spanish lawyer, professor, and politician, who was the Secretary-General of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) from 1974 to 1997, and the 3rd Prime Minister of Spain since the restoration of democracy, from 1982 to 1996.
The Fellowship of the New Life was a British organization in the 19th century, most famous for a splinter group, the Fabian Society.
Ferdinand Lassalle (11 April 1825 – 31 August 1864), born as Ferdinand Johann Gottlieb Lassal and also known as Ferdinand Lassalle-Wolfson, was a German-Jewish jurist, philosopher, socialist, and political activist.
Flexicurity (a portmanteau of '''flexi'''bility and se'''curity''') is a welfare state model with a pro-active labour market policy.
Foreign Affairs is an American magazine of international relations and U.S. foreign policy published by the Council on Foreign Relations, a nonprofit, nonpartisan, membership organization and think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
François Gérard Georges Nicolas Hollande (born 12 August 1954) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 2012 to 2017.
François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand (26 October 1916 – 8 January 1996) was a French statesman who was President of France from 1981 to 1995, the longest time in office of any French president.
Francisco Manuel Lumbrales de Sá Carneiro, GCTE, GCC, GCL (19 July 19344 December 1980) founded the Portuguese Social Democratic Party in 1974 (the year of the Portuguese Carnation Revolution) and became Prime Minister of Portugal in January 1980, but only held office for eleven months, dying in a plane crash with his partner, "Snu" Abecassis (born Ebba Merethe Seidenfaden), on 4 December 1980.
Francisco Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a military dictator from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.
The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.
Frank Podmore (5 February 1856 – 14 August 1910) was an English author, and founding member of the Fabian Society.
Frank Paul Zeidler (September 20, 1912 – July 7, 2006) was an American Socialist politician and Mayor of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, serving three terms from April 20, 1948 to April 18, 1960.
The Frankfurt Declaration is the general name that refers to the set of principles titled Aims and Tasks of Democratic Socialism issued by the Socialist International in Frankfurt, West Germany, on 3 July 1951.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt III (born July 19, 1938) is a retired American economist and academic.
Freikorps ("Free Corps") were German volunteer units that existed from the 18th to the early 20th centuries, which effectively fought as mercenary or private armies, regardless of their own nationality.
The 2017 French presidential election was held on 23 April and 7 May 2017.
The French Section of the Workers' International (Section Française de l'Internationale Ouvrière, SFIO) was a French socialist political party founded in 1905 and replaced in 1969 by the current Socialist Party (PS).
Friedrich Ebert (4 February 1871 28 February 1925) was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) and the first President of Germany from 1919 until his death in office in 1925.
Friedrich Engels (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.;, sometimes anglicised Frederick Engels; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist and businessman.
The area gas boards were created after the passing of the Gas Act 1948 by Clement Attlee's post-war Labour government in the United Kingdom.
The General German Workers' Association (Allgemeiner Deutscher Arbeiter-Verein, ADAV) was a German political party initiated on 23 May 1863 in Leipzig, Kingdom of Saxony by Ferdinand Lassalle.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.
George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856 – 2 November 1950), known at his insistence simply as Bernard Shaw, was an Irish playwright, critic, polemicist, and political activist.
Georgi Valentinovich Plekhanov (a; 29 November 1856 – 30 May 1918) was a Russian revolutionary and a Marxist theoretician.
Gerhard Fritz Kurt Schröder (born 7 April 1944) is a German politician, and served as Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005, during which his most important political project was the Agenda 2010.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 24 September 2017 to elect the members of the 19th Bundestag.
The German Revolution or November Revolution (Novemberrevolution) was a civil conflict in the German Empire at the end of the First World War that resulted in the replacement of the German federal constitutional monarchy with a democratic parliamentary republic that later became known as the Weimar Republic.
The Godesberg Program (Godesberger Programm) was the party program outline of the political course of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD).
The Gotha Program was the name given to the party platform adopted by the nascent German Social Democratic Party (SPD) at its initial party congress, held in the town of Gotha in 1875.
Gradualism, from the Latin gradus ("step"), is a hypothesis, a theory or a tenet assuming that change comes about gradually or that variation is gradual in nature and happens over time as opposed to in large steps.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s.
The Greek government-debt crisis (also known as the Greek Depression) was the sovereign debt crisis faced by Greece in the aftermath of the financial crisis of 2007–08.
The Green Party of England and Wales (GPEW; Plaid Werdd Cymru a Lloegr) is a green, left-wing political party in England and Wales.
Gro Harlem Brundtland (born Gro Harlem, 20 April 1939) is a Norwegian politician, who served three terms as Prime Minister of Norway (1981, 1986–89, and 1990–96) and as Director-General of the World Health Organization from 1998 to 2003.
Karl Gunnar Myrdal (6 December 1898 – 17 May 1987) was a Swedish economist and sociologist.
Gustav Noske (9 July 1868 – 30 November 1946) was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD).
The Hague Congress was the fifth congress of the International Workingmen's Association (IWA), held from 2–7 September 1872 in The Hague, Holland.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
The Hartz concept, also known as Hartz reforms or the Hartz plan, is a set of recommendations submitted by a committee on reforms to the German labour market in 2002.
Hegelianism is the philosophy of G. W. F. Hegel which can be summed up by the dictum that "the rational alone is real", which means that all reality is capable of being expressed in rational categories.
Helen Elizabeth Clark (born 26 February 1950) is a New Zealand politician who served as the 37th Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1999 to 2008, and was the Administrator of the United Nations Development Programme from 2009 to 2017.
The Hellenic Parliament (Βουλή των Ελλήνων, "Parliament of the Hellenes", transliterated Voulí ton Ellínon) is the parliament of Greece, located in the Old Royal Palace, overlooking Syntagma Square in Athens.
Helmut Heinrich Waldemar Schmidt (23 December 1918 – 10 November 2015) was a German politician and member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), who served as Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1974 to 1982.
Historical materialism is the methodological approach of Marxist historiography that focuses on human societies and their development over time, claiming that they follow a number of observable tendencies.
(23 November 186024 February 1925) was a Swedish politician.
Homogeneity and heterogeneity are concepts often used in the sciences and statistics relating to the uniformity in a substance or organism.
Edward Hugh John Neale Dalton, Baron Dalton, (16 August 1887 – 13 February 1962) was a British Labour Party economist and politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1945 to 1947. He shaped Labour Party foreign-policy in the 1930s, opposed pacifism, promoted rearmament against the German threat, and strongly opposed the appeasement policy of Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain in 1938. He served in Churchill's wartime coalition cabinet. As Chancellor, he pushed his cheap money policy too hard, and mishandled the sterling crisis of 1947. Dalton's political position was already in jeopardy in 1947, when, he, seemingly inadvertently, revealed a sentence of the budget to a reporter minutes before delivering his budget speech. Prime Minister Clement Attlee accepted his resignation, but he later returned to the cabinet in relatively minor positions. His biographer Ben Pimlott characterised Dalton as peevish, irascible, given to poor judgment and lacking administrative talent. He also recognised that Dalton was a genuine radical and an inspired politician; a man, to quote his old friend and critic John Freeman, "of feeling, humanity, and unshakeable loyalty to people which matched his talent.".
Hugh Todd Naylor Gaitskell (9 April 1906 – 18 January 1963) was a British politician and Leader of the Labour Party.
The Hungarian Socialist Party (Magyar Szocialista Párt), known mostly by its acronym MSZP, is a social-democratic political party in Hungary.
An Icelandic parliamentary election was held on 27 April 2013.
Parliamentary elections were held in Iceland on 29 October 2016.
In Marxist theory and Marxian economics, the immiseration thesis (also referred to as emiseration thesis) is derived from Karl Marx's analysis of economic development in capitalism, implying that the nature of capitalist production stabilizes real wages, reducing wage growth relative to total value creation in the economy, leading to worsening alienation in the workplace.
The Independent Labour Party (ILP) was a British political party of the left, established in 1893, when the Liberals appeared reluctant to endorse working-class candidates, representing the interests of the majority.
The Independent Socialists (Socialistes indépendants, SI) were a French political movement and, at times, parliamentary group in the Chamber of Deputies of France during the French Third Republic.
The Indian National Congress (INC, often called Congress Party) is a broadly based political party in India.
Ernst Ingmar Bergman (14 July 1918 – 30 July 2007) was a Swedish director, writer, and producer who worked in film, television, theatre and radio.
The Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional, PRI) is a Mexican political party founded in 1929 that held power uninterruptedly in the country for 71 years from 1929 to 2000, first as the National Revolutionary Party (Partido Nacional Revolucionario, PNR), then as the Party of the Mexican Revolution (Partido de la Revolución Mexicana, PRM), and finally renaming itself as the Institutional Revolutionary Party in 1946.
The International Working Union of Socialist Parties (IWUSP; also known as 2½ International or the Vienna International; Internationale Arbeitsgemeinschaft Sozialistischer Parteien, IASP) was a political international for the co-operation of socialist parties.
The International Workingmen's Association (IWA, 1864–1876), often called the First International, was an international organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing socialist, communist and anarchist political groups and trade union organizations that were based on the working class and class struggle.
The Irish general election of 2016 took place on Friday 26 February to elect 157 Teachtaí Dála (TDs) across 40 constituencies to Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas, Ireland's parliament.
The Iron and Steel Corporation of Great Britain was a nationalised industry, set up in 1949 by Clement Attlee's Labour government.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israeli Labor Party (מִפְלֶגֶת הָעֲבוֹדָה הַיִּשְׂרְאֵלִית, translit.), commonly known as HaAvoda (הָעֲבוֹדָה), is a social democratic and Zionist political party in Israel.
The Italian Communist Party (Partito Comunista Italiano, PCI) was a communist political party in Italy.
The Italian Democratic Socialist Party (PSDI) was a minor social-democratic political party in Italy.
The Italian Socialist Party (PSI) was a socialist and later social-democratic political party in Italy.
Jacinda Kate Laurell Ardern (born 26 July 1980) is a New Zealand politician who, since 26 October 2017, has served as the 40th Prime Minister of New Zealand.
John Gilbert "Jack" Layton (July 18, 1950 – August 22, 2011) was a Canadian politician and Leader of the Official Opposition.
A Jacobin was a member of the Jacobin Club, a revolutionary political movement that was the most famous political club during the French Revolution (1789–99).
Jawaharlal Nehru (14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence.
Auguste Marie Joseph Jean Léon Jaurès, commonly referred as Jean Jaurès (3 September 185931 July 1914) was a French Socialist leader.
Marius Job Cohen (born 18 October 1947) is a retired Dutch politician who served as Mayor of Amsterdam from 2001 to 2010 and as Leader of the Labour Party (PvdA) from 2010 to 2012.
John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes (5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946), was a British economist whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments.
John E. Roemer (born February 1, 1945 in Washington D.C.) is an American economist and political scientist.
Johannes Marten den Uijl, better known as Joop den Uyl (9 August 1919 – 24 December 1987) was a Dutch politician of the Labour Party (PvdA) who served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 11 May 1973 until 19 December 1977.
José Pablo Torcuato Batlle y Ordóñez (May 23, 1856 – October 20, 1929) was an Uruguayan politician who created the modern Uruguayan welfare state by his reforms.
José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero (born 4 August 1960) is a Spanish politician and member of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE).
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Jules Bazile, known as Jules Guesde (11 November 1845 – 28 July 1922) was a French socialist journalist and politician.
Junker (Junker, Scandinavian: Junker, Jonkheer, Yunker) is a noble honorific, derived from Middle High German Juncherre, meaning "young nobleman"Duden; Meaning of Junker, in German.
The Justice Party (정의당) is a political party in South Korea.
Kantianism is the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher born in Königsberg, Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia).
The Kapp Putsch, also known as the Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch after its leaders Wolfgang Kapp and Walther von Lüttwitz, was an attempted coup on 13 March 1920 which aimed to undo the German Revolution of 1918–1919, overthrow the Weimar Republic and establish a right-wing autocratic government in its place.
Karl Johann Kautsky (16 October 1854 – 17 October 1938) was a Czech-Austrian philosopher, journalist, and Marxist theoretician.
Karl Liebknecht (13 August 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a German socialist and a co-founder with Rosa Luxemburg of the Spartacist League and the Communist Party of Germany.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
James Keir Hardie (15 August 185626 September 1915) was a Scottish socialist, politician, and trade unionist.
Keynesian economics (sometimes called Keynesianism) are the various macroeconomic theories about how in the short run – and especially during recessions – economic output is strongly influenced by aggregate demand (total demand in the economy).
A kibbutz (קִבּוּץ /, lit. "gathering, clustering"; regular plural kibbutzim /) is a collective community in Israel that was traditionally based on agriculture.
The Kiel mutiny was a major revolt by sailors of the German High Seas Fleet on 3 November 1918.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kronstadt rebellion (Kronshtadtskoye vosstaniye) involved a major unsuccessful uprising against the Bolsheviks in March 1921, during the later years of the Russian Civil War.
Kurt Ernst Carl Schumacher (13 October 1895 – 20 August 1952) was a German social democratic politician, who served as chairman of the Social Democratic Party of Germany from 1946 and was the first Leader of the Opposition in the West German Bundestag from 1949 until his death in 1952.
Labour and Social Justice – The Electoral Alternative (Arbeit und soziale Gerechtigkeit – Die Wahlalternative, WASG) was a left-wing German political party founded in 2005 by activists disenchanted with the ruling Red-Green coalition government.
The Labour and Socialist International (LSI; German: Sozialistische Arbeiter-Internationale, SAI) was an international organization of socialist and labour parties, active between 1923 and 1940.
The labour movement or labor movement consists of two main wings, the trade union movement (British English) or labor union movement (American English), also called trade unionism or labor unionism on the one hand, and the political labour movement on the other.
The Labour Party (Páirtí an Lucht Oibre) is a social-democratic political party in the Republic of Ireland.
The Labour Party (Partij van de Arbeid,, abbreviated as PvdA, or P van de A) is a social-democratic political party in the Netherlands.
The Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet, A/Ap), formerly the Norwegian Labour Party, is a social-democratic political party in Norway.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
The Labour Party Rule Book is the governing document for the Labour Party in the United Kingdom.
Laissez-faire (from) is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation, privileges, tariffs and subsidies.
Lázaro Cárdenas del Río (May 21, 1895 – October 19, 1970) was a general in the Constitutionalist Army during the Mexican Revolution and a statesman who served as President of Mexico between 1934 and 1940.
André Léon Blum (9 April 1872 – 30 March 1950) was a French politician, identified with the moderate left, and three times Prime Minister of France.
The Left-Green Movement (Vinstrihreyfingin – grænt framboð, also known by its abbreviation Vinstri Græn, VG) is a eco-socialist political party in Iceland.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
Leon Trotsky (born Lev Davidovich Bronstein; – 21 August 1940) was a Russian revolutionary, theorist, and Soviet politician.
Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.
The Liberal Party was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom – with the opposing Conservative Party – in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Liberal socialism is a socialist political philosophy that incorporates liberal principles.
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.
This is a list of parties in the world that consider themselves to be upholding the principles and values of social democracy.
Luis Guillermo Solís Rivera (born 25 April 1958) is a Costa Rican politician who was the President of Costa Rica from 2014 to 2018.
Early general elections were held in Luxembourg on 20 October 2013.
The Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party (Lëtzebuerger Sozialistesch Aarbechterpartei, Parti Ouvrier Socialiste Luxembourgeois, Luxemburger Sozialistische Arbeiterpartei), abbreviated to LSAP or POSL, is a social-democratic political party in Luxembourg.
Mapai (מַפָּא"י, an acronym for, Mifleget Poalei Eretz Yisrael, lit. "Workers' Party of the Land of Israel") was a centre-left political party in Israel, and was the dominant force in Israeli politics until its merger into the modern-day Israeli Labor Party in 1968.
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.
Market socialism is a type of economic system involving the public, cooperative or social ownership of the means of production in the framework of a market economy.
Karl Marx's theory of alienation describes the estrangement (Entfremdung) of people from aspects of their Gattungswesen ("species-essence") as a consequence of living in a society of stratified social classes.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions.
A Member of the European Parliament (MEP) is a person who has been elected to serve as a popular representative in the European Parliament.
The Mensheviks (меньшевики) were a faction in the Russian socialist movement, the other being the Bolsheviks.
Meretz (מֶרֶצ, lit. "Vigour") is a left-wing, social-democraticMeretz is commonly described as social-democratic political party.
Merrie England is an influential collection of essays on socialism by Robert Blatchford under the pseudonym "Nunquam", published in 1893.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Edward Michael "Mike" Harrington, Jr. (February 24, 1928 – July 31, 1989) was an American democratic socialist, writer, author of The Other America, political activist, political theorist, professor of political science, radio commentator and founding member of the Democratic Socialists of America.
Michael Joseph Savage (23 March 1872 – 27 March 1940) was an Australian-born New Zealand statesman who served as the 23rd Prime Minister of New Zealand, heading the First Labour Government from 6 December 1935 until his death.
Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (– 1 July 1876) was a Russian revolutionary anarchist and founder of collectivist anarchism.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
Militarism is the belief or the desire of a government or a people that a state should maintain a strong military capability and to use it aggressively to expand national interests and/or values; examples of modern militarist states include the United States, Russia and Turkey.
A minority government, or minority cabinet or minority parliament, is a cabinet formed in a parliamentary system when a political party or coalition of parties does not have a majority of overall seats in the parliament.
A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise.
Morris Hillquit (August 1, 1869 – October 8, 1933) was a founder and leader of the Socialist Party of America and prominent labor lawyer in New York City's Lower East Side.
The Movement for Change (KINAL; Κίνημα Αλλαγής (ΚΙΝΑΛ), Kinima Allagis) is a centre-left political party in Greece, founded in March 2018.
Municipal socialism refers to various historical—and contemporary—movements to use local government to further socialist aims.
The National Coal Board (NCB) was the statutory corporation created to run the nationalised coal mining industry in the United Kingdom.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
The Nationalist faction (Bando nacional) or Rebel faction (Bando sublevado) was a major faction in the Spanish Civil War of 1936 to 1939.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.
The New Democratic Party (NDP; Nouveau Parti démocratique, NPD) is a social democraticThe party is widely described as social democratic.
New Right is used in several countries as a descriptive term for various policies or groups that are right-wing.
The New Zealand Labour Party (Rōpū Reipa o Aotearoa), or simply Labour (Reipa), is a centre-left political party in New Zealand.
Noe Zhordania (ნოე ჟორდანია; Ной Никола́евич Жорда́ния; born — January 11, 1953) was a Georgian journalist and Menshevik politician.
The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden (literally "the North").
The Nordic model (also called Nordic capitalism or Nordic social democracy) refers to the economic and social policies common to the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Sweden).
Norman Eric Kirk (6 January 1923 – 31 August 1974) was a New Zealand politician who served as the 29th Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1972 until his sudden death in 1974.
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
Chief Obafemi Jeremiah Oyeniyi Awolowo, GCFR (6 March 1909 – 9 May 1987), was a Nigerian nationalist and statesman who played a key role in Nigeria's independence movement, the First and Second Republics and the Civil War.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
Sven Olof Joachim Palme (30 January 1927 – 28 February 1986) was a Swedish Social Democratic politician and statesman.
Oppression can refer to an authoritarian regime controlling its citizens via state control of politics, the monetary system, media, and the military; denying people any meaningful human or civil rights; and terrorizing the populace through harsh, unjust punishment, and a hidden network of obsequious informants reporting to a vicious secret police force.
Orthodox Marxism is the body of Marxist thought that emerged after the death of Karl Marx (1818–1883) and which became the official philosophy of the socialist movement as represented in the Second International until the First World War in 1914.
Oskar Lafontaine (born 16 September 1943) is a German politician who served in the government of Germany as Minister of Finance from 1998 to 1999.
Otto Bauer (5 September 1881 – 4 July 1938) was an Austrian Social Democrat who is considered one of the leading thinkers of the left-socialist Austro-Marxist grouping.
Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890.
Paavo Tapio Lipponen (born 23 April 1941) is a Finnish politician and former reporter.
Pacifism is opposition to war, militarism, or violence.
The Paris Commune (La Commune de Paris) was a radical socialist and revolutionary government that ruled Paris from 18 March to 28 May 1871.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
The Socialist Party (Parti socialiste, PS) is a social-democratic French-speaking political party in Belgium.
Participatory democracy emphasizes the broad participation of constituents in the direction and operation of political systems.
The Party of Democratic Socialism (Partei des Demokratischen Sozialismus, PDS) was a democratic socialist political party in Germany active between 1989 and 2007.
The Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD, Partido de la Revolución Democrática) is a social democratic political party that is one of the three major political parties in Mexico, the others being the Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional, PRI) and the National Action Party (Partido Acción Nacional, PAN).
The Panhellenic Socialist Movement (Πανελλήνιο Σοσιαλιστικό Κίνημα), known mostly by its acronym PASOK (ΠΑΣΟΚ), was a social-democratic political party in Greece.
Pasokification is a term which describes the decline of social-democratic political parties in Western Europe in the 2010s and the simultaneous rise of nationalist, left-wing and/or right wing populist alternatives.
Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known generally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a Generalfeldmarschall and statesman who commanded the German military during the second half of World War I before later being elected President of the Weimar republic in 1925.
Paul-Henri Charles Spaak (25 January 1899 – 31 July 1972) was an influential Belgian politician and statesman also considered as one of the founding fathers of the European Union.
Pauperism (Lat. pauper, poor) is a term meaning poverty or generally the state of being poor, but in English usage particularly the condition of being a "pauper", i.e. in receipt of relief administered under the English Poor Laws.
Petróleos Mexicanos, which translates to Mexican Petroleum, but is trademarked and better known as Pemex, is the Mexican state-owned petroleum company, created in 1938 by nationalization or expropriation of all private, foreign, and domestic oil companies at that time.
Peter Fraser (28 August 1884 – 12 December 1950) was a British-born New Zealand statesman who served as the 24th Prime Minister of New Zealand from 27 March 1940 until 13 December 1949.
Petite bourgeoisie, also petty bourgeoisie (literally small bourgeoisie), is a French term (sometimes derogatory) referring to a social class comprising semi-autonomous peasantry and small-scale merchants whose politico-economic ideological stance in times of socioeconomic stability is determined by reflecting that of a haute ("high") bourgeoisie, with which the petite bourgeoisie seeks to identify itself and whose bourgeois morality it strives to imitate.
Philip Snowden, 1st Viscount Snowden, PC (18 July 1864 – 15 May 1937) was a British politician.
Philipp Heinrich Scheidemann (26 July 1865 – 29 November 1939) was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD).
Philosophical skepticism (UK spelling: scepticism; from Greek σκέψις skepsis, "inquiry") is a philosophical school of thought that questions the possibility of certainty in knowledge.
Pierre Manent (born 6 May 1949, Toulouse) is a French political scientist and academic.
Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (15 January 1809 – 19 January 1865) was a French politician and the founder of mutualist philosophy.
Pieter Jelles Troelstra (Leeuwarden, 20 April 1860 – The Hague, 12 May 1930) was a Dutch politician active in the socialist workers' movement.
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.
The Planning Commission (Hindi: योजना आयोग, Yojana Āyog) was an institution in the Government of India, which formulated India's Five-Year Plans, among other functions.
Political economy is the study of production and trade and their relations with law, custom and government; and with the distribution of national income and wealth.
A polity is any kind of political entity.
A post office is a customer service facility forming part of a national postal system.
A post-war period or postwar period is the interval immediately following the end of a war.
The post-war consensus is a historian's model of political co-operation in post-war British political history, from the end of World War II in 1945 to the late-1970s, and its repudiation by Conservative Party leader Margaret Thatcher.
Poul Oluf Nyrup Rasmussen (informally Poul Nyrup, born 15 June 1943), was Prime Minister of Denmark from 25 January 1993 to 27 November 2001 and President of the Party of European Socialists (PES) from 2004 to 2011.
Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.
Pranab Kumar Bardhan (born 11 September 1939 in Calcutta) is an Indian economist who has taught and worked in the United States since 1979.
Pravda (a, "Truth") is a Russian broadsheet newspaper, formerly the official newspaper of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, when it was one of the most influential papers in the country with a circulation of 11 million.
The President of Germany, officially the Federal President of the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundespräsident der Bundesrepublik Deutschland),The official title within Germany is Bundespräsident, with der Bundesrepublik Deutschland being added in international correspondence; the official English title is President of the Federal Republic of Germany is the head of state of Germany.
The Prime Minister of India is the leader of the executive of the Government of India.
The Prime Minister of Israel (רֹאשׁ הַמֶּמְשָׁלָה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. Head of the Government, Hebrew acronym: רה״מ; رئيس الحكومة, Ra'īs al-Ḥukūma) is the head of government of Israel and the most powerful figure in Israeli politics.
Maximilian, Margrave of Baden (Maximilian Alexander Friedrich Wilhelm; 10 July 1867 – 6 November 1929),Almanach de Gotha.
Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities.
The Progressive People's Party (Fortschrittliche Volkspartei, FVP) was a social liberal party of the late German Empire.
A proletarian revolution is a social revolution in which the working class attempts to overthrow the bourgeoisie.
The proletariat (from Latin proletarius "producing offspring") is the class of wage-earners in a capitalist society whose only possession of significant material value is their labour-power (their ability to work).
Property income refers to profit or income received by virtue of owning property.
Public service is a service which is provided by government to people living within its jurisdiction, either directly (through the public sector) or by financing provision of services.
Ralf Gustav Dahrendorf, Baron Dahrendorf, (1 May 1929 – 17 June 2009) was a German-British sociologist, philosopher, political scientist and liberal politician.
James Ramsay MacDonald, (né James McDonald Ramsay; 12 October 18669 November 1937) was a British statesman who was the first Labour Party politician to become Prime Minister, leading minority Labour governments in 1924 and in 1929–31.
A reactionary is a person who holds political views that favor a return to the status quo ante, the previous political state of society, which they believe possessed characteristics (discipline, respect for authority, etc.) that are negatively absent from the contemporary status quo of a society.
A "Red Scare" is promotion of widespread fear by a society or state about a potential rise of communism, anarchism, or radical leftism.
Redistribution of income and redistribution of wealth are respectively the transfer of income and of wealth (including physical property) from some individuals to others by means of a social mechanism such as taxation, charity, welfare, public services, land reform, monetary policies, confiscation, divorce or tort law.
Reformism is a political doctrine advocating the reform of an existing system or institution instead of its abolition and replacement.
Regulatory economics is the economics of regulation.
The Reichstag (Diet of the Realm or Imperial Diet) was the Parliament of Germany from 1871 to 1918.
René Lévesque (Quebec French pronunciation:; August 24, 1922 – November 1, 1987) was a reporter, a minister of the government of Quebec (1960–1966), the founder of the Parti Québécois political party and the 23rd Premier of Quebec (November 25, 1976 – October 3, 1985).
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
The Republican faction (Bando republicano), also known as the Loyalist faction (Bando leal or bando gubernamental), was the side in the Spanish Civil War of 1936 to 1939 that supported the established government of the Second Spanish Republic against the Nationalist or rebel faction of the military rebellion.
Reserve army of labour is a concept in Karl Marx's critique of political economy.
Within the Marxist movement, the word revisionism is used to refer to various ideas, principles and theories that are based on a significant revision of fundamental Marxist premises.
Revolutionary socialism is the socialist doctrine that social revolution is necessary in order to bring about structural changes to society.
The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.
Rickard Johannes Sandler (29 January 1884 – 12 November 1964) was a Swedish Social Democratic politician.
Robert Peel Glanville Blatchford (17 March 1851 – 17 December 1943) was an English socialist campaigner, journalist, and author in the United Kingdom.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
Rosa Luxemburg (Róża Luksemburg; also Rozalia Luxenburg; 5 March 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a Polish Marxist theorist, philosopher, economist, anti-war activist, and revolutionary socialist who became a naturalized German citizen at the age of 28.
The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy is an encyclopedia of philosophy edited by Edward Craig that was first published by Routledge in 1998.
Roy Harris Jenkins, Baron Jenkins of Hillhead, (11 November 1920 – 5 January 2003) was a British Labour Party, SDP and Liberal Democrat politician, and biographer of British political leaders.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
Rudolf Hilferding (10 August 1877 – 11 February 1941) was an Austrian-born Marxist economist, leading socialist theorist,International Institute of Social History, Rodolf Hilferding Papers.
The Russian famine of 1921–22, also known as Povolzhye famine, was a severe famine in Russia which began in early spring of 1921 and lasted through 1922.
The Russian Provisional Government (Vremennoye pravitel'stvo Rossii) was a provisional government of Russia established immediately following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II of the Russian Empire on 2 March 1917.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Alessandro "Sandro" Pertini, (25 September 1896 – 24 February 1990) was an Italian journalist and socialist politician, who served as the seventh President of the Italian Republic, from 1978 to 1985.
The Saxon People's Party (Sächsische Volkspartei) was a left-liberal and radical democratic party in Germany, which existed from its founding by Wilhelm Liebknecht and August Bebel in 1866 in Chemnitz until being integrated into the then founded Social Democratic Workers' Party (SDAP) in 1869.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
The Second International (1889–1916), the original Socialist International, was an organization of socialist and labour parties formed in Paris on July 14, 1889.
The Spanish Republic (República Española), commonly known as the Second Spanish Republic (Segunda República Española), was the democratic government that existed in Spain from 1931 to 1939.
Sicco Leendert Mansholt (13 September 1908 – 29 June 1995) was a Dutch politician who served as the 4th President of the European Commission from 1972 to 1973.
Sidney James Webb, 1st Baron Passfield, (13 July 1859 – 13 October 1947) was a British socialist, economist, reformer and a co-founder of the London School of Economics.
The Social Democratic Alliance (Samfylkingin jafnaðarmannaflokkur Íslands, literally The Alliance - Iceland's Social Democratic Party) is a social-democratic political party in Iceland.
The name Social Democratic Party or Social Democrats has been used by a large number of political parties in various countries around the world.
The Social Democratic Party (Sotsiaaldemokraatlik Erakond, SDE) is a social-democratic political party in Estonia, currently led by Jevgeni Ossinovski.
The Social Democratic Party (Alþýðuflokkurinn, lit. People's Party) was a social-democratic political party in Iceland.
The Social Democratic Party (Partidul Social Democrat, PSD) is the major social-democratic political party in Romania.
The Social Democratic Party of Austria (Sozialdemokratische Partei Österreichs, SPÖ) is a social-democratic political party in Austria and alongside the People's Party one of the two traditional major parties.
The Social Democratic Party of Finland (SDP, Suomen sosialidemokraattinen puolue, Finlands socialdemokratiska parti), shortened to the Social Democrats, is a social-democratic political party in Finland.
The Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.
The Social Democratic Party of Switzerland (also rendered as Swiss Socialist Party; Sozialdemokratische Partei der Schweiz, SP; Parti socialiste suisse, PS; Partito Socialista Svizzero; Partida Socialdemocrata de la Svizra) is a political party in Switzerland.
The Social Democratic Workers' Party (Sociaal-Democratische Arbeiderspartij, SDAP) was a Dutch socialist political party and a predecessor of the social democratic PvdA.
The Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands, abbreviated as SDAP) was a Marxist socialist political party in the North German Confederation during the period of unification.
The Social Democrats (Socialdemokraterne), officially Social Democracy (Socialdemokratiet), is a social-democratic political party in Denmark.
The Social Democrats is a political party in Ireland.
The Social Democrats (Socialni demokrati, Slovene abbreviation: SD) is a centre-left political party in Slovenia, currently led by Dejan Židan.
Social fascism was a theory supported by the Communist International (Comintern) during the early 1930s, which held that social democracy was a variant of fascism because—in addition to a shared corporatist economic model—it stood in the way of a dictatorship of the proletariat.
Social inequality occurs when resources in a given society are distributed unevenly, typically through norms of allocation, that engender specific patterns along lines of socially defined categories of persons.
Social interventionism is an action which involves the intervention of a government or an organization in social affairs.
Social justice is a concept of fair and just relations between the individual and society.
Social liberalism (also known as modern liberalism or egalitarian liberalism) is a political ideology and a variety of liberalism that endorses a market economy and the expansion of civil and political rights while also believing that the legitimate role of the government includes addressing economic and social issues such as poverty, health care and education.
Social ownership is any of various forms of ownership for the means of production in socialist economic systems, encompassing public ownership, employee ownership, cooperative ownership, citizen ownership of equity, common ownership and collective ownership.
In sociology, privilege is a concept used for certain rights or advantages that are available only to a particular person or group of people.
Social Reform or Revolution? (Sozialreform oder Revolution?) is an 1899 pamphlet by Polish-German Marxist theorist Rosa Luxemburg.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
The Socialist International (SI) is a worldwide association of political parties, which seek to establish democratic socialism.
In Marxist theory, socialism (also called the socialist mode of production) refers to a specific historical phase of economic development and its corresponding set of social relations that supersede capitalism in the schema of historical materialism.
The Socialist Party (Parti socialiste, PS) is a social-democratic political party in France, and the largest party of the French centre-left.
The Socialist Party (Partido Socialista,, PS) is a social-democratic political party in Portugal.
The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands, SED), established in April 1946, was the governing Marxist–Leninist political party of the German Democratic Republic from the country's foundation in October 1949 until it was dissolved after the Peaceful Revolution in 1989.
Socialist Party Differently (sp.a) is a social-democratic Flemish political party in Belgium.
The Socio-Economic Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal published quarterly by Oxford Journals for the Society for the Advancement of Socio-Economics (SASE) with a focus on the advancement of socio-economics.
Solidarity is unity (as of a group or class) which produces or is based on unities of interests, objectives, standards, and sympathies.
Sopade (also called SoPaDe) was the name of the exile organization of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD).
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
The 2015 Spanish general election was held on Sunday, 20 December 2015, to elect the 11th Cortes Generales of the Kingdom of Spain.
The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (Partido Socialista Obrero Español; PSOE) is a social-democraticThe PSOE is described as a social-democratic party by numerous sources.
The Spartacus League (Spartakusbund) was a Marxist revolutionary movement organized in Germany during World War I. The League was named after Spartacus, leader of the largest slave rebellion of the Roman Republic.
Sir Richard Stafford Cripps, (24 April 1889 – 21 April 1952) was a British Labour politician of the first half of the twentieth century.
The state of affairs is the combination of circumstances applying within a society or group at a particular time.
State socialism is a classification for any socialist political and economic perspective advocating state ownership of the means of production either as a temporary measure in the transition from capitalism to socialism, or as characteristic of socialism itself.
The Swedish Social Democratic Party (Sveriges socialdemokratiska arbetareparti, SAP; literally, "Social Democratic Workers' Party of Sweden"), contesting elections as the Arbetarepartiet–Socialdemokraterna ('The Workers' Party – The Social Democrats'), usually referred to just as the 'Social Democrats' (Socialdemokraterna); is the oldest and largest political party in Sweden.
Syndicalism is a proposed type of economic system, considered a replacement for capitalism.
The Coalition of the Radical Left (translit), mostly known by the syllabic abbreviation Syriza (sometimes stylised SY.RIZ.A.; ΣΥΡΙΖΑ; a pun on the Greek adverb σύρριζα, meaning "from the roots" or "radically"), is a political party in Greece, originally founded in 2004 as a coalition of left-wing and radical left parties.
() (13 June 1901 – 21 June 1985) was a Swedish politician who served as Prime Minister of Sweden from 1946 to 1969.
Tarja Kaarina Halonen (born 24 December 1943) is a Finnish politician who served as the 11th President of Finland, and the first woman to hold the position, from 2000 to 2012.
Technological determinism is a reductionist theory that assumes that a society's technology determines the development of its social structure and cultural values.
The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.
"The Civil War in France" (German: "Der Bürgerkrieg in Frankreich") was a pamphlet written by Karl Marx, as an official statement of the General Council of the International on the character and significance of the struggle of the Communards in the Paris Commune.
The Communist Manifesto (originally Manifesto of the Communist Party) is an 1848 political pamphlet by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
The Future of Socialism by Anthony Crosland, published in 1956, was one of the most influential books in post-war British Labour Party thinking.
The Left (Die Linke), also commonly referred to as the Left Party (die Linkspartei), is a democratic socialist political party in Germany.
The Mountain (La Montagne), with its members collectively called Democratic Socialists (Démocrate-socialistes), was a political group of the Second French Republic.
The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (2008), 2nd ed., is an eight-volume reference work on economics, edited by Steven N. Durlauf and Lawrence E. Blume and published by Palgrave Macmillan.
The Political Quarterly is a British political journal co-founded in 1930 by Leonard Woolf, the husband of Virginia Woolf, and William A. Robson.
Theories of Surplus Value (Theorien über den Mehrwert) is a draft manuscript written by Karl Marx between January 1862 and July 1863.
The Third Way is a position akin to centrism that tries to reconcile right-wing and left-wing politics by advocating a varying synthesis of centre-right economic and centre-left social policies.
Thomas Humphrey Marshall (19 December 1893, London – 29 November 1981, Cambridge) was a British sociologist, most noted for his essays, such as the essay collection Citizenship and Social Class.
Thorvald August Marinus Stauning (26 October 1873 in Copenhagen – 3 May 1942) was the first social democratic Prime Minister of Denmark.
Thomas Clement Douglas (20 October 1904 – 24 February 1986) was a Canadian democratic socialist politician and Baptist minister.
Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007.
A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.
Trade Union Act 1871 (34 & 35 Vict) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which legalised trade unions for the first time in the United Kingdom.
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on 3 March 1918 between the new Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire), that ended Russia's participation in World War I. The treaty was signed at Brest-Litovsk (Brześć Litewski; since 1945 Brest), after two months of negotiations.
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
A trust or corporate trust is a large grouping of business interests with significant market power, which may be embodied as a corporation or as a group of corporations that cooperate with one another in various ways.
Unidos Podemos (translated to United We Can), formerly known simply as Podemos–IU, is a left-wing electoral alliance formed by Podemos, United Left, Equo and other left-wing parties in May 2016 to contest the 2016 Spanish general election.
The Unified Socialist Party (Parti Socialiste Unifié, PSU) was a socialist political party in France, founded on April 3, 1960.
The 1945 United Kingdom general election was held on 5 July 1945, with polls in some constituencies delayed until 12 July and in Nelson and Colne until 19 July, because of local wakes weeks.
The 1951 United Kingdom general election was held twenty months after the 1950 general election, which the Labour Party had won with a slim majority of just five seats.
Universal access to education is the ability of all people to have equal opportunity in education, regardless of their social class, gender, ethnicity background or physical and mental disabilities.
Universal health care (also called universal health coverage, universal coverage, universal care, or socialized health care) is a health care system that provides health care and financial protection to all citizens of a particular country.
Vassos Lyssarides (born 13 May 1920) is a Cypriot politician who has been a central figure in Cyprus politics since the island's independence.
Victor Luitpold Berger (February 28, 1860 – August 7, 1929) was a founding member of the Social Democratic Party of America and its successor, the Socialist Party of America.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Sir Walter Nash (12 February 1882 – 4 June 1968) was a British-born New Zealand politician who served as the 27th Prime Minister of New Zealand in the Second Labour Government from 1957 to 1960.
Walter Philip Reuther (September 1, 1907 – May 9, 1970) was an American leader of organized labor and civil rights activist who built the United Automobile Workers (UAW) into one of the most progressive labor unions in American history.
Weimar (Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany.
The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.
Welfare is a government support for the citizens and residents of society.
Welfare capitalism is capitalism that includes social welfare policies.
The welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
Wilhelm II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern; 27 January 18594 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918.
Wilhelm Martin Philipp Christian Ludwig Liebknecht (29 March 1826 – 7 August 1900) was a German socialist and one of the principal founders of the Social Democratic Party (SPD).
Willem Drees, Sr. (5 July 1886 – 14 May 1988) was a Dutch statesman of the Labour Party (PvdA).
Willem "Wim" Schermerhorn (17 December 1894 – 10 March 1977) was a Dutch politician of the Labour Party (PvdA).
William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896) was an English textile designer, poet, novelist, translator, and socialist activist.
Willy Brandt (born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm; 18 December 1913 – 8 October 1992) was a German statesman who was leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) from 1964 to 1987 and served as Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1969 to 1974.
Willem "Wim" Kok (born 29 September 1938) is a retired Dutch politician of the Labour Party (PvdA) who served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 22 August 1994 until 22 July 2002.
Wolfgang Kapp (24 July 1858 – 12 June 1922) was a Prussian civil servant and journalist.
A worker cooperative, is a cooperative that is owned and self-managed by its workers.
Workers' compensation is a form of insurance providing wage replacement and medical benefits to employees injured in the course of employment in exchange for mandatory relinquishment of the employee's right to sue their employer for the tort of negligence.
A workers' council is a form of political and economic organization in which a single local administrative division, such as a municipality or a county, is governed by a council made up of temporary and instantly revocable delegates elected in the region's workplaces.
The working class (also labouring class) are the people employed for wages, especially in manual-labour occupations and industrial work.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (5 January 1928 – 4 April 1979) was a Pakistani politician who served as the 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that as the 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973.
Criticism of social democracy, Criticisms of social democracy, Democratic socialist Democrat, Democratic socialist Democrats, European socialism, List of social democrats, Modern European socialism, Soc Dem, Soc Dems, SocDem, SocDems, Socdem, Social Democracy, Social Democrat, Social Democratic, Social Democratism, Social Democrats', Social democrat, Social democratic, Social democratic parties, Social democrats, Social-Democracy, Social-Democrat, Social-Democratic, Social-democracy, Social-democrat, Social-democratic, Social-democrats, Socialdemocractic, Socialdemocratic, Socialism in Europe, Socialism in the EU, Socialist Democrat, Socialist Democrats, Socialist democrat, Socialist government, Socialist right.