320 relations: Activism, Advertising campaign, Advertising Standards Authority (United Kingdom), Al-Qaeda, Algorithm, Amazon (company), American Eagle Outfitters, Andreas Kaplan, Andrew Keen, Anthony Weiner, AOL, Apple II, Arab Advisors Group, Arab Spring, ARPANET, Atari Corporation, Audio engineer, Augmented reality, Australia, Automation, Backchannel, Baidu Tieba, Barack Obama, Barack Obama presidential campaign, 2008, Barry Wellman, Bates College, Bebo, Biology, Blog, BlueKai, Boosting (machine learning), Bootstrap aggregating, Brad Pitt, Brand engagement, Brand management, Brisbane Times, Broadcasting, Bulletin board system, Business, Business method patent, Business sector, Cambridge Analytica, Celebrity, Chatbot, Cincinnati, Citizen media, Civil Rights Act of 1964, Classmates.com, Clifton, Cincinnati, Coffeehouse, ..., Cognition, Coke Zero Facial Profiler, Commerce, Commodore 64, Communication, Community Memory, CompuServe, Computer science, Computer-mediated communication, Connectivism, Connectivity (media), Consent, Content creation, Counterintuitive, Coupon, Cristiano Ronaldo, Culture jamming, Curriculum vitae, Customer relationship management, Cyberbullying, Cyborg, Data analysis, Data mining, Datalogix, Decision tree learning, Depression (mood), Desktop computer, Digital divide, Digital inheritance, Digital native, Digital object identifier, Digital photography, Discounts and allowances, Discrimination, E-commerce, Editing, Egyptian revolution of 2011, Ellen DeGeneres, Emmett Till, Enterprise social networking, Eric Ehrmann, Ethnography, Everything Bad Is Good for You, Evgeny Morozov, Facebook, Facebook Messenger, Facebook Zero, Fact checking, Fake news, Fishbrain, Foursquare, Frequency, Friendster, Geotagging, Gezi Park protests, Ghent University, Gmail, GoFundMe, Google, Google Drive, Google+, Grand National Assembly of Turkey, Groundswell (book), Harassment, Hashtag, Health literacy, Here Comes Everybody, Hi5, Hoax, Homelessness, Homophily, Hosni Mubarak, HuffPost, Human flesh search engine, IBM Personal Computer, Ice cream parlor, Image sharing, Industrial organization, Infection, Information, Information society, Innovation, Instagram, International Standard Serial Number, Internet, Internet addiction disorder, Internet bot, Internet celebrity, Internet forum, Internet fraud, Internet police, Internet troll, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Jennifer Lawrence, José van Dijck, Julia Roberts, Kaplan, Inc., Kim Kardashian, Knowledge management, Kony 2012, Kylie Jenner, Laptop, Letter of recommendation, Libertarianism, Line (software), LinkedIn, List of Facebook features, List of image-sharing websites, List of social networking websites, List of video hosting services, LiveJournal, LOL, London Evening Standard, Loyalty program, Machine learning, Magic in Harry Potter, Malcolm Gladwell, Marketing research, Mashup (culture), Massively multiplayer online role-playing game, Mathematical optimization, Mathematics, Matthew Auer, Media activism, Media psychology, Medical News Today, Memory, Merriam-Webster, Metcalfe's law, Microblogging, Mimicry, Mobile app, Myspace, Naive Bayes classifier, Naked Conversations, National electoral calendar 2016, Neil Postman, Neologism, Net neutrality, Network science, Networked learning, New media, Nonprofit organization, Old media, Online presence management, Online research community, Online video platform, Open Diary, Organization, Orkut, Over-the-air programming, Participatory democracy, Participatory media, Peer pressure, Personal computer, Pew Research Center, Pinterest, PLOS, Political correctness, Politico, Princeton University Press, Privacy, Privacy concerns with social networking services, Process (engineering), Prodigy (online service), Professional network service, Profit (accounting), Psychological effects of Internet use, Public diplomacy, Public relations, Quality of life, Qype, Qzone, Ramses Exchange, Reach (advertising), Recording studio, Reddit, Reid Hoffman, Report card, Return on investment, Revenue, Review site, Ryze, Sales promotion, Salih Sarıkaya, SAT, Secret police, Selective exposure theory, Share price, Sherry Turkle, Sina Weibo, Sinclair Research, SixDegrees.com, Skype, Smartphone, Snapchat, Social bookmarking, Social bot, Social capital, Social media detoxification, Social media intelligence, Social media marketing, Social media measurement, Social media mining, Social media optimization, Social media surgery, Social network, Social network analysis, Social networking service, Social-network game, Sociology, Standardized test, Statista, Statistics, Steve Joordens, Supervised learning, Supreme Court of Victoria, Tablet computer, Taliban, Targeted advertising, Technoself studies, Telegraphy, Telephone, Tencent QQ, Terms of service, The Cult of the Amateur, The Culture of Connectivity, The O'Reilly Factor, The Rachel Maddow Show, The Wealth of Networks, The Wisdom of Crowds, Throwback Thursday, Tobacco, Training, Trayvon Martin, TRS-80, Tumblr, Turkey, Twitter, United States federal government shutdown of 2013, University of Bristol, University of Cincinnati, University of Pittsburgh, Unsupervised learning, Usenet, User-generated content, Viber, Viral disease, Viral marketing, Viral phenomenon, Virtual community, Virtual world, VKontakte, Walled garden, Wayne Rooney, Web 2.0, WeChat, WhatsApp, Wikia, WikiLeaks, Wikinomics, Wikipedia, World Wide Web, Yahoo! 360°, Yahoo! GeoCities, Yelp, YOLO (aphorism), YouTube, Zero-rating, 2014 Thai coup d'état. Expand index (270 more) » « Shrink index
Activism consists of efforts to promote, impede, or direct social, political, economic, or environmental reform or stasis with the desire to make improvements in society.
An advertising campaign is a series of advertisement messages that share a single idea and theme which make up an integrated marketing communication (IMC).
The Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) is the self-regulatory organisation of the advertising industry in the United Kingdom.
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.
Amazon.com, Inc., doing business as Amazon, is an American electronic commerce and cloud computing company based in Seattle, Washington that was founded by Jeff Bezos on July 5, 1994.
American Eagle Outfitters, Inc. is an American clothing and accessories retailer, headquartered in the Southside Works Neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Andreas Marcus Kaplan (born October 5, 1977) is Professor of Marketing at the ESCP Europe Business School.
Andrew Keen (born c. 1960Saracevic, Alan T. (15 October 2006). San Francisco Chronicle ("Age: 46")) is a British-American entrepreneur and author.
Anthony David Weiner (born September 4, 1964) is an American former Democratic congressman who represented from January 1999 until June 2011.
AOL (formerly a company known as AOL Inc., originally known as America Online, and stylized as Aol.) is a web portal and online service provider based in New York.
The Apple II (stylized as Apple.
Arab Advisors Group is an international professional services company with headquarters in Amman, Jordan.
The Arab Spring (الربيع العربي ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabī), also referred to as Arab Revolutions (الثورات العربية aṯ-'awrāt al-ʻarabiyyah), was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution.
The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was an early packet switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP.
Atari Corporation was an American manufacturer of computers and video game consoles from 1984 to 1996.
An audio engineer (also sometimes recording engineer or a vocal engineer) helps to produce a recording or a performance, editing and adjusting sound tracks using equalization and audio effects, mixing, reproduction, and reinforcement of sound.
Augmented Reality (AR) is an interactive experience of a real-world environment whose elements are "augmented" by computer-generated perceptual information, sometimes across multiple sensory modalities, including visual, auditory, haptic, somatosensory, and olfactory.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Automation is the technology by which a process or procedure is performed without human assistance.
Backchannel is the practice of using networked computers to maintain a real-time online conversation alongside the primary group activity or live spoken remarks.
Baidu Tieba is the largest Chinese communication platform provided by the Chinese search engine company, Baidu.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
The 2008 presidential campaign of Barack Obama, then junior United States Senator from Illinois, was announced on February 10, 2007 in Springfield, Illinois.
Barry Wellman, FRSC (born 1942) is a Canadian-American sociologist and is the co-director of the Toronto-based international NetLab Network.
Bates College (Bates; officially the President and Trustees of Bates College) is a private liberal arts college in Lewiston, Maine.
Bebo was a social networking website launched in 2005, that now describes itself as "a company that dreams up ideas for fun social apps;" Grant Denholm, the man behind the Bebo relaunch, has confirmed that the site will not be returning as a social network but as a company that makes social apps.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
A blog (a truncation of the expression "weblog") is a discussion or informational website published on the World Wide Web consisting of discrete, often informal diary-style text entries ("posts").
BlueKai is a cloud-based big data platform that enables companies to personalize online, offline, and mobile marketing campaigns.
Boosting is a machine learning ensemble meta-algorithm for primarily reducing bias, and also variance in supervised learning, and a family of machine learning algorithms that convert weak learners to strong ones.
Bootstrap aggregating, also called bagging, is a machine learning ensemble meta-algorithm designed to improve the stability and accuracy of machine learning algorithms used in statistical classification and regression.
William Bradley "Brad" Pitt (born December 18, 1963) is an American actor and film producer.
Brand engagement is the process of forming an emotional or rational attachment between a consumer and a brand.
In marketing, brand management is the analysis and planning on how that brand is perceived in the market.
Brisbane Times is an online newspaper for Brisbane and Queensland, Australia.
Broadcasting is the distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves), in a one-to-many model.
A bulletin board system or BBS (also called Computer Bulletin Board Service, CBBS) is a computer server running software that allows users to connect to the system using a terminal program.
Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (goods and services).
Business method patents are a class of patents which disclose and claim new methods of doing business.
In economics, the business sector or corporate sector - sometimes popularly called simply "business" - is "the part of the economy made up by companies".
Cambridge Analytica Ltd (CA) was a British political consulting firm which combined data mining, data brokerage, and data analysis with strategic communication during the electoral processes.
Celebrity refers to the fame and public attention accorded by the mass media to individuals or groups or, occasionally, animals, but is usually applied to the persons or groups of people (celebrity couples, families, etc.) themselves who receive such a status of fame and attention.
A chatbot (also known as a talkbot, chatterbot, Bot, IM bot, interactive agent, or Artificial Conversational Entity) is a computer program or an artificial intelligence which conducts a conversation via auditory or textual methods.
The term citizen media refers to forms of content produced by private citizens who are otherwise not professional journalists.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a landmark civil rights and US labor law in the United States that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
Classmates.com is a social networking service founded on November 17, 1995 by Randy Conrads as Classmates Online, Inc.
Clifton is a neighborhood in the north central part of Cincinnati, Ohio, United States.
A coffeehouse, coffee shop or café (sometimes spelt cafe) is an establishment which primarily serves hot coffee, related coffee beverages (café latte, cappuccino, espresso), tea, and other hot beverages.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
Facial Profiler was a free Facebook app created to promote Coca-Cola Zero by the advertising agency Crispin Porter + Bogusky.
Commerce relates to "the exchange of goods and services, especially on a large scale.” Commerce includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural and technological systems that operate in any country or internationally.
The Commodore 64, also known as the C64 or the CBM 64, is an 8-bit home computer introduced in January 1982 by Commodore International (first shown at the Consumer Electronics Show, in Las Vegas, January 7–10, 1982).
Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.
Community Memory (CM) was the first public computerized bulletin board system.
CompuServe (CompuServe Information Service, also known by its initialism CIS) was the first major commercial online service provider in the United States.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
Computer-mediated communication (CMC) is defined as any human communication that occurs through the use of two or more electronic devices.
Connectivism is a theory of learning in a digital age that emphasizes the role of social and cultural context in how and where learning occurs.
Connectivity refers broadly to social connections forged through mediated communications systems.
In common speech, consent occurs when one person voluntarily agrees to the proposal or desires of another.
Content creation is the contribution of information to any media and most especially to digital media for an end-user/audience in specific contexts.
A counterintuitive proposition is one that does not seem likely to be true when assessed using intuition, common sense, or gut feelings.
In marketing, a coupon is a ticket or document that can be redeemed for a financial discount or rebate when purchasing a product.
Cristiano Ronaldo dos Santos Aveiro (born 5 February 1985) is a Portuguese professional footballer who plays as a forward for Spanish club Real Madrid and the Portugal national team.
Culture jamming (sometimes guerrilla communication) is a tactic used by many anti-consumerist social movements"Investigating the Anti-consumerism Movement in North America: The Case of Adbusters';" Binay, Ayse; (2005); dissertation, University of Texas to disrupt or subvert media culture and its mainstream cultural institutions, including corporate advertising.
A curriculum vitae (often shortened CV or vita) is a written overview of a person's experience and other qualifications for a job opportunity.
Customer relationship management (CRM) is an approach to manage a company's interaction with current and potential customers.
Cyberbullying or cyberharassment is a form of bullying or harassment using electronic means.
A cyborg (short for "'''cyb'''ernetic '''org'''anism") is a being with both organic and biomechatronic body parts.
Data analysis is a process of inspecting, cleansing, transforming, and modeling data with the goal of discovering useful information, informing conclusions, and supporting decision-making.
Data mining is the process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of machine learning, statistics, and database systems.
Datalogix is a consumer data collection company based in Denver, Colorado.
Decision tree learning uses a decision tree (as a predictive model) to go from observations about an item (represented in the branches) to conclusions about the item's target value (represented in the leaves).
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
A desktop computer is a personal computer designed for regular use at a single location on or near a desk or table due to its size and power requirements.
A digital divide is an economic and social inequality with regard to access to, use of, or impact of information and communication technologies (ICT).
Digital inheritance is the process of handing over (personal) digital media in the form of digital assets and rights to (human) beneficiaries.
The term digital native describes a person that grows-up in the digital age, rather than acquiring familiarity with digital systems as an adult, as a digital immigrant.
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
Digital photography is a form of photography that uses cameras containing arrays of electronic photodetectors to capture images focused by a lens, as opposed to an exposure on photographic film.
Discounts and allowances are reductions to a basic price of goods or services.
In human social affairs, discrimination is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person based on the group, class, or category to which the person is perceived to belong.
E-commerce is the activity of buying or selling of products on online services or over the Internet.
Editing is the process of selecting and preparing written, visual, audible, and film media used to convey information.
The Egyptian revolution of 2011, locally known as the January 25 Revolution (ثورة 25 يناير), and as the Egyptian Revolution of Dignity began on 25 January 2011 and took place across all of Egypt.
Ellen Lee DeGeneres (born January 26, 1958) is an American comedian, television host, actress, writer, producer, and LGBT activist.
Emmett Louis Till (July 25, 1941 – August 28, 1955) was a 14-year-old African-American who was lynched in Mississippi in 1955, after a white woman said she was offended by him in her family's grocery store.
Enterprise social networking focuses on the use of online social networks or social relations among people who share business interests and/or activities.
Eric Wayne Ehrmann is an author, columnist and analyst who follows sports, politics and WMD proliferation issues in Latin America.
Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures.
Everything Bad Is Good for You: How Today's Popular Culture Is Actually Making Us Smarter is a non-fiction book written by Steven Johnson.
Evgeny Morozov (Russian: Евгений Морозов; Яўгені Марозаў; born in 1984) is a writer and researcher from Belarus who studies political and social implications of technology.
Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service company based in Menlo Park, California.
Facebook Messenger (sometimes known as Messenger) is a messaging app and platform.
Facebook Zero is an initiative undertaken by social networking service company Facebook in collaboration with mobile phone-based Internet providers, whereby the providers waive data (bandwidth) charges (also known as zero-rate) for accessing Facebook on phones via a stripped-down text-only version of its mobile website (as opposed to the ordinary mobile website m.facebook.com that also loads pictures).
Fact checking is the act of checking factual assertions in non-fictional text in order to determine the veracity and correctness of the factual statements in the text.
Fake news is a type of yellow journalism or propaganda that consists of deliberate misinformation or hoaxes spread via traditional print and broadcast news media or online social media.
Fishbrain is an online mobile logging, photo-sharing and social networking service that enables its users to record data about and take pictures of catches, and share them either publicly or privately on the app, as well as through a variety of other social networking platforms, such as Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, and Flickr.
Foursquare is a local search-and-discovery service mobile app which provides search results for its users.
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.
Friendster was a social gaming site based in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Geotagging or GeoTagging, is the process of adding geographical identification metadata to various media such as a geotagged photograph or video, websites, SMS messages, QR Codes or RSS feeds and is a form of geospatial metadata.
A wave of demonstrations and civil unrest in Turkey began on 28 May 2013, initially to contest the urban development plan for Istanbul's Taksim Gezi Park.
Ghent University (Universiteit Gent, abbreviated as UGent) is a public research university located in Ghent, Belgium.
Gmail is a free, advertising-supported email service developed by Google.
GoFundMe is a crowdfunding platform that allows people to raise money for events ranging from life events such as celebrations and graduations to challenging circumstances like accidents and illnesses.
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.
Google Drive is a file storage and synchronization service developed by Google.
Google Plus (stylized as Google+) is an Internet-based social network that is owned and operated by Google.
The Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi), usually referred to simply as the TBMM or Parliament (Meclis or Parlamento), is the unicameral Turkish legislature.
Groundswell is a book by Forrester Research executives Charlene Li and Josh Bernoff that focuses on how companies can take advantage of emerging social technologies.
Harassment covers a wide range of behaviors of an offensive nature.
A hashtag is a type of metadata tag used on social networks such as Twitter and other microblogging services, allowing users to apply dynamic, user-generated tagging which makes it possible for others to easily find messages with a specific theme or content; it allows easy, informal markup of folk taxonomy without need of any formal taxonomy or markup language.
Health literacy is the ability to obtain, read, understand, and use healthcare information in order to make appropriate health decisions and follow instructions for treatment.
Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations is a book by Clay Shirky published by Penguin Press in 2008 on the effect of the Internet on modern group dynamics and organization.
hi5 is a social networking site based in San Francisco, California.
A hoax is a falsehood deliberately fabricated to masquerade as the truth.
Homelessness is the circumstance when people are without a permanent dwelling, such as a house or apartment.
Homophily from Ancient Greek ὁμοῦ (homou, "together") and Greek φιλία (philia, "friendship") is the tendency of individuals to associate and bond with similar others, as in the proverb "birds of a feather flock together".
Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak (محمد حسني السيد مبارك,,; born 4 May 1928) is a former Egyptian military and political leader who served as the fourth President of Egypt from 1981 to 2011.
HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.
Human flesh search engine is a Chinese term for the phenomenon of distributed researching using Internet media such as blogs and forums.
The IBM Personal Computer, commonly known as the IBM PC, is the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible hardware platform.
Ice cream parlors (or parlours) are restaurants that sell ice cream, gelato, sorbet, and frozen yogurt to consumers.
Image sharing, or photo sharing, is the publishing or transfer of a user's digital photos online.
In economics, industrial organization or industrial economy is a field that builds on the theory of the firm by examining the structure of (and, therefore, the boundaries between) firms and markets.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.
An information society is a society where the creation, distribution, use, integration and manipulation of information is a significant economic, political, and cultural activity.
Innovation can be defined simply as a "new idea, device or method".
Instagram is a photo and video-sharing social networking service owned by Facebook, Inc. It was created by Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger, and launched in October 2010 exclusively on iOS.
An International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
Internet addiction disorder (IAD), also known as problematic Internet use or pathological Internet use, refers to excessive Internet use that interferes with daily life.
An Internet Bot, also known as web robot, WWW robot or simply -bot-, is a software application that runs automated tasks (scripts) over the Internet.
In the context of present celebrity culture, an Internet celebrity, blogebrity, cyberstar, online celebrity or Internet personality is someone who has become famous by means of the Internet.
An Internet forum, or message board, is an online discussion site where people can hold conversations in the form of posted messages.
Internet fraud is a type of fraud which makes use of the Internet.
Internet police is a generic term for police and government agencies, departments and other organizations in charge of policing Internet in a number of countries.
In Internet slang, a troll is a person who starts quarrels or upsets people on the Internet to distract and sow discord by posting inflammatory and digressive, extraneous, or off-topic messages in an online community (such as a newsgroup, forum, chat room, or blog) with the intent of provoking readers into displaying emotional responses and normalizing tangential discussion, whether for the troll's amusement or a specific gain.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
Jennifer Shrader Lawrence (born August 15, 1990) is an American actress.
Johanna Francisca Theodora Maria "José" van Dijck (15 November 1960 in Boxtel) is a new media author and a distinguished university professor at Utrecht University since 2017.
Julia Fiona Roberts (born October 28, 1967) is an American actress and producer.
Kaplan, Inc. is a for-profit corporation that provides educational services to colleges and universities and corporations and businesses, including higher education programs, professional training and certifications, test preparation and student support services.
Kimberly Kardashian West (born October 21, 1980) is an American reality television personality and socialite.
Knowledge management (KM) is the process of creating, sharing, using and managing the knowledge and information of an organisation.
Kony 2012 is a short documentary film produced by Invisible Children, Inc. (authors of Invisible Children).
Kylie Kristen Jenner (born August 10, 1997) is an American reality television personality, model, entrepreneur, socialite and social media personality.
A laptop, also called a notebook computer or just notebook, is a small, portable personal computer with a "clamshell" form factor, having, typically, a thin LCD or LED computer screen mounted on the inside of the upper lid of the "clamshell" and an alphanumeric keyboard on the inside of the lower lid.
A letter of recommendation or recommendation letter, also known as a letter of reference, reference letter or simply reference, is a document in which the writer assesses the qualities, characteristics, and capabilities of the person being recommended in terms of that individual's ability to perform a particular task or function.
Libertarianism (from libertas, meaning "freedom") is a collection of political philosophies and movements that uphold liberty as a core principle.
Line (styled as LINE) is a freeware app for instant communications on electronic devices such as smartphones, tablet computers, and personal computers.
LinkedIn is a business and employment-oriented service that operates via websites and mobile apps.
Facebook is a social network service website launched on February 4, 2004.
This is a non-exhaustive list of major image-sharing websites.
This is a list of major active social networking websites and excludes dating websites (see Comparison of online dating websites).
Video hosting services are websites or software which allow users to distribute their video clips.
LiveJournal (Живой Журнал), stylised as LiVEJOURNAL, is a Russian (originally American) social networking service where users can keep a blog, journal or diary.
LOL, or lol, is an acronym for laugh(ing) out loud or lots of laughs, and a popular element of Internet slang.
The London Evening Standard (or simply Evening Standard) is a local, free daily newspaper, published Monday to Friday in tabloid format in London.
Loyalty programs are structured marketing strategies designed by merchants to encourage customers to continue to shop at or use the services of businesses associated with each program.
Machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence in the field of computer science that often uses statistical techniques to give computers the ability to "learn" (i.e., progressively improve performance on a specific task) with data, without being explicitly programmed.
In J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter series, magic is depicted as a supernatural force that can be used to override the usual laws of nature.
Malcolm Timothy Gladwell (born September 3, 1963) is an English-born Canadian journalist, author, and speaker.
Marketing research is "the process or set of processes that links the producers, customers, and end users to the marketer through information used to identify and define marketing opportunities and problems; generate, refine, and evaluate marketing actions; monitor marketing performance; and improve understanding of marketing as a process.
Participants in an online music scene who rearrange spliced parts of musical pieces form mashup culture.
Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are a combination of role-playing video games and massively multiplayer online games in which a very large number of players interact with one another within a virtual world.
In mathematics, computer science and operations research, mathematical optimization or mathematical programming, alternatively spelled optimisation, is the selection of a best element (with regard to some criterion) from some set of available alternatives.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
Matthew "Matt" R. Auer is an American academic administrator and environmental scholar.
Media activism is a broad category of activism that utilizes media and communication technologies for social and political movements.
Media psychology is the branch of psychology that focuses on the interaction of human behavior and media and technology.
Medical News Today is a web-based outlet for medical news, targeted to both physicians and the general public.
Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.
Metcalfe's law states the effect of a telecommunications network is proportional to the square of the number of connected users of the system (n2).
Microblogging is an online broadcast medium that exists as a specific form of blogging.
In evolutionary biology, mimicry is a similarity of one organism, usually an animal, to another that has evolved because the resemblance is selectively favoured by the behaviour of a shared signal receiver that can respond to both.
A mobile app is a computer program designed to run on a mobile device such as a phone/tablet or watch.
Myspace (stylized as MySpace) is a social networking website offering an interactive, user-submitted network of friends, personal profiles, blogs, groups, photos, music, and videos.
In machine learning, naive Bayes classifiers are a family of simple "probabilistic classifiers" based on applying Bayes' theorem with strong (naive) independence assumptions between the features.
Naked Conversations: How Blogs Are Changing the Way Businesses Talk with Customers, is a book written by Robert Scoble and Shel Israel, published in 2006 by John Wiley & Sons.
This national electoral calendar for the year 2016 lists the national/federal direct elections held in 2016 in all sovereign states and their dependent territories.
Neil Postman (March 8, 1931 – October 5, 2003) was an American author, educator, media theorist and cultural critic, who is best known for his seventeen books, including Amusing Ourselves to Death (1985), Conscientious Objections (1988), ''Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology'' (1992), The Disappearance of Childhood (1994) and The End of Education: Redefining the Value of School (1995).
A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.
Net neutrality is the principle that Internet service providers treat all data on the Internet equally, and not discriminate or charge differently by user, content, website, platform, application, type of attached equipment, or method of communication.
Network science is an academic field which studies complex networks such as telecommunication networks, computer networks, biological networks, cognitive and semantic networks, and social networks, considering distinct elements or actors represented by nodes (or vertices) and the connections between the elements or actors as links (or edges).
Networked learning is a process of developing and maintaining connections with people and information, and communicating in such a way so as to support one another's learning.
New media are forms of media that are native to computers, computational and relying on computers for re-distribution.
A non-profit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity or non-profit institution, is dedicated to furthering a particular social cause or advocating for a shared point of view.
Old media (also legacy media) are the mass media institutions that predominated prior to the Information Age; particularly print media, film studios, music studios, advertising agencies, radio broadcasting, and television.
Online presence management is the process of presenting and drawing traffic to a personal or professional brand online.
An online research community (part of Research 2.0) is a part of an emerging and developing area in market research making use of developments in Web 2.0 technologies and online communities.
An online video platform (OVP), provided by a video hosting service, enables users to upload, convert, store and play back video content on the Internet, often via a structured, large-scale system that can generate revenue.
Open Diary (often abbreviated as "OD") is an online diary community, an early example of social networking software.
An organization or organisation is an entity comprising multiple people, such as an institution or an association, that has a collective goal and is linked to an external environment.
Orkut was a social networking website owned and operated by Google.
Over-the-Air programming (OTA) refers to various methods of distributing new software, configuration settings, and even updating encryption keys to devices like cellphones, set-top boxes or secure voice communication equipment (encrypted 2-way radios).
Participatory democracy emphasizes the broad participation of constituents in the direction and operation of political systems.
Participatory media is media where the audience can play an active role in the process of collecting, reporting, analyzing and disseminating content.
Peer pressure (or social pressure) is the direct influence on people by peers, or the effect on an individual who gets encouraged to follow their peers by changing their attitudes, values or behaviors to conform to those of the influencing group or individual.
A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
Pinterest is a web and mobile application company that operates a software system designed to discover information on the World Wide Web, mainly using images and on a shorter scale, GIFs and videos.
PLOS (for Public Library of Science) is a nonprofit open access science, technology and medicine publisher, innovator and advocacy organization with a library of open access journals and other scientific literature under an open content license.
The term political correctness (adjectivally: politically correct; commonly abbreviated to PC or P.C.) is used to describe language, policies, or measures that are intended to avoid offense or disadvantage to members of particular groups in society.
Politico, known earlier as The Politico, is an American political journalism company based in Arlington County, Virginia, that covers politics and policy in the United States and internationally.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves, or information about themselves, and thereby express themselves selectively.
Since the arrival of early social networking sites in the early 2000s, online social networking platforms have expanded exponentially, with the biggest names in social media in the mid-2010s being Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and SnapChat.
In engineering, a process is a series of interrelated tasks that, together, transform inputs into outputs.
Prodigy Communications Corporation (Prodigy Services Corp., Prodigy Services Co., Trintex) was an online service that offered its subscribers access to a broad range of networked services, including news, weather, shopping, bulletin boards, games, polls, expert columns, banking, stocks, travel, and a variety of other features.
A professional network service (or, in an Internet context, simply professional network) is a type of social network service that is focused solely on interactions and relationships of a business nature rather than including personal, nonbusiness interactions.
Profit, in accounting, is an income distributed to the owner in a profitable market production process (business).
Various researchers have undertaken efforts to examine the psychological effects of Internet use.
In international relations, public diplomacy or people's diplomacy, broadly speaking, is the communication with and dissemination of propaganda to the general public of foreign nations to establish a dialogue designed to inform and influence.
Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing the spread of information between an individual or an organization (such as a business, government agency, or a nonprofit organization) and the public.
Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.
Qype was a Hamburg-based web 2.0 company centred on social networking and local reviews.
Qzone is a social networking website based in China which was created by Tencent in 2005.
The Ramses Exchange is a telecoms building in central Cairo that is a focal point of the Internet in Egypt.
In the application of statistics to advertising and media analysis, reach refers to the total number of different people or households exposed, at least once, to a medium during a given period.
A recording studio is a specialized facility for sound recording, mixing, and audio production of instrumental or vocal musical performances, spoken words, and other sounds.
Reddit (stylized in its logo as reddit) is an American social news aggregation, web content rating, and discussion website.
Reid Garrett Hoffman CBE (born August 5, 1967) is an American internet entrepreneur, venture capitalist and author.
A report card, or just report in British English, communicates a student's performance academically.
Return on investment (ROI) is the ratio between the net profit and cost of investment resulting from an investment of some resource.
In accounting, revenue is the income that a business has from its normal business activities, usually from the sale of goods and services to customers.
A review site is a website on which reviews can be posted about people, businesses, products, or services.
Ryze.com is a free and paid social networking website designed to link business professionals, particularly new entrepreneurs.
Sales promotion is one of the elements of the promotional mix.
Salih Sarıkaya is an award-winning business journalist, digital analyst and key blockchain influencer.
The SAT is a standardized test widely used for college admissions in the United States.
The term secret police (or political police)Ilan Berman & J. Michael Waller, "Introduction: The Centrality of the Secret Police" in Dismantling Tyranny: Transitioning Beyond Totalitarian Regimes (Rowman & Littlefield, 2006), p. xv.
Selective exposure is a theory within the practice of psychology, often used in media and communication research, that historically refers to individuals' tendency to favor information which reinforces their pre-existing views while avoiding contradictory information.
A share price is the price of a single share of a number of saleable stocks of a company, derivative or other financial asset.
Sherry Turkle (born June 18, 1948) is the Abby Rockefeller Mauzé Professor of the Social Studies of Science and Technology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Sina Weibo is a Chinese microblogging (weibo) website.
Sinclair Research Ltd is a British consumer electronics company founded by Clive Sinclair in Cambridge.
SixDegrees.com was a social network service website that lasted from 1997 to 2001 and was based on the Web of Contacts model of social networking.
Skype is a telecommunications application software product that specializes in providing video chat and voice calls between computers, tablets, mobile devices, the Xbox One console, and smartwatches via the Internet and to regular telephones.
A smartphone is a handheld personal computer with a mobile operating system and an integrated mobile broadband cellular network connection for voice, SMS, and Internet data communication; most, if not all, smartphones also support Wi-Fi.
Snapchat is a multimedia messaging app used globally, created by Evan Spiegel, Bobby Murphy, and Reggie Brown, former students at Stanford University, and developed by Snap Inc., originally Snapchat Inc.
Social bookmarking is a centralized online service which allows users to add, annotate, edit, and share bookmarks of web documents.
A social bot (also: socialbot or socbot) is a particular type of chatbot that is employed in social media networks to automatically generate messages (e.g. tweets) or in general advocate certain ideas, support campaigns, and public relations either by acting as a "follower" or even as a fake account that gathers followers itself.
Social capital is a form of economic and cultural capital in which social networks are central; transactions are marked by reciprocity, trust, and cooperation; and market agents produce goods and services not mainly for themselves, but for a common good.
Social media detoxification or Social media detox is a kind of mental detoxification under the umbrella of Digital detox, specifically referring to a period of time when individuals stay away from social media platforms.
Social media intelligence (SMI or SOCMINT) refers to the collective tools and solutions that allow organizations to and conversations, respond to social signals and synthesize social data points into meaningful trends and analysis based on the user's needs.
Social media marketing is the use of social media platforms and websites to promote a product or service.
Social media measurement or social media monitoring is a way of computing popularity of a brand or company by extracting information from social media channels, such as blogs, wikis, news sites, micro-blogs such as Twitter, social networking sites, video/photo sharing websites, forums, message boards and user-generated content from time to time.
Social media mining is the process of representing, analyzing, and extracting actionable patterns and trends from raw social media data.
Social media optimization (SMO) is the use of a number of outlets and communities to generate publicity to increase the awareness of a product, service brand or event.
A social media surgery is a gathering at which volunteer "surgeons" with expertise in using web tools, chiefly social media, offer free advice in using such tools, to representatives ("patients") of non-profit organisations, charities, community groups and activists, with "no boring speeches or jargon".
A social network is a social structure made up of a set of social actors (such as individuals or organizations), sets of dyadic ties, and other social interactions between actors.
Social network analysis (SNA) is the process of investigating social structures through the use of networks and graph theory.
A social networking service (also social networking site, SNS or social media) is a web application that people use to build social networks or social relations with other people who share similar personal or career interests, activities, backgrounds or real-life connections.
A social-network game is a type of online game that is played through social networks.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
A standardized test is a test that is administered and scored in a consistent, or "standard", manner.
Statista is an online statistics, market research and business intelligence portal.
Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.
Steve Joordens is Professor of Psychology, University of Toronto Scarborough.
Supervised learning is the machine learning task of learning a function that maps an input to an output based on example input-output pairs.
The Supreme Court of Victoria is the superior court for the State of Victoria, Australia.
A tablet computer, commonly shortened to tablet, is a portable personal computer, typically with a mobile operating system and LCD touchscreen display processing circuitry, and a rechargeable battery in a single thin, flat package.
The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.
Targeted advertising is a form of advertising where online advertisers can use sophisticated methods to target the most receptive audiences with certain traits, based on the product or person the advertiser is promoting.
Technoself studies, commonly referred to as TSS, is an emerging, interdisciplinarity domain of scholarly research dealing with all aspects of human identity in a technological societyLuppicini pp.
Telegraphy (from Greek: τῆλε têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message.
A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly.
Tencent QQ, also known as QQ, is an instant messaging software service developed by the Chinese company Shenzhen Tencent Computer System Co., Ltd..
The Cult of the Amateur: How Today's Internet Is Killing Our Culture is a 2007 book written by entrepreneur and Internet critic Andrew Keen.
The Culture of Connectivity: A Critical History of Social Media is a book by José van Dijck published by Oxford University Press in 2013 on social media platforms and their history.
The O'Reilly Factor (originally titled The O'Reilly Report and also known as The Factor) was an American cable television news and talk show.
The Rachel Maddow Show (also abbreviated TRMS) is a daily news and opinion television program that airs on MSNBC, running in the 9:00 pm ET timeslot Monday through Friday.
The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom is a book by Harvard Law School professor Yochai Benkler published by Yale University Press on April 3, 2006.
The Wisdom of Crowds: Why the Many Are Smarter Than the Few and How Collective Wisdom Shapes Business, Economies, Societies and Nations, published in 2004, is a book written by James Surowiecki about the aggregation of information in groups, resulting in decisions that, he argues, are often better than could have been made by any single member of the group.
Throwback To is a popular internet trend used among social media platforms such as Instagram, Twitter and Facebook.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
Training is teaching, or developing in oneself or others, any skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies.
Trayvon Benjamin Martin (February 5, 1995 – February 26, 2012) was a 17-year-old African American from Miami Gardens, Florida, who was fatally shot in Sanford, Florida by George Zimmerman, a neighborhood watch volunteer.
The TRS-80 Micro Computer System (TRS-80, later renamed the Model I to distinguish it from successors) is a desktop microcomputer launched in 1977 and sold by Tandy Corporation through their Radio Shack stores.
Tumblr is a microblogging and social networking website founded by David Karp in 2007, and owned by Oath Inc. The service allows users to post multimedia and other content to a short-form blog.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Twitter is an online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets".
From October 1 to October 17, 2013, the United States federal government entered a shutdown and curtailed most routine operations because neither legislation appropriating funds for fiscal year 2014 nor a continuing resolution for the interim authorization of appropriations for fiscal year 2014 was enacted in time.
The University of Bristol (simply referred to as Bristol University and abbreviated as Bris. in post-nominal letters, or UoB) is a red brick research university located in Bristol, United Kingdom.
The University of Cincinnati (commonly referred to as UC or Cincinnati) is a comprehensive public research university in Cincinnati, in the U.S. state of Ohio, and a part of the University System of Ohio.
The University of Pittsburgh (commonly referred to as Pitt) is a state-related research university located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Unsupervised machine learning is the machine learning task of inferring a function that describes the structure of "unlabeled" data (i.e. data that has not been classified or categorized).
Usenet is a worldwide distributed discussion system available on computers.
User-generated content (UGC), alternatively known as user-created content (UCC), is any form of content created by users of a system or service and made available publicly on that system.
Viber is a cross-platform instant messaging and voice over IP (VoIP) application operated by Japanese multinational company Rakuten, provided as freeware for the Microsoft Windows, macOS, Linux, Android and iOS platforms.
A viral disease (or viral infection) occurs when an organism's body is invaded by pathogenic viruses, and infectious virus particles (virions) attach to and enter susceptible cells.
Viral marketing or viral advertising is a business strategy that uses existing social networks to promote a product.
Viral phenomena are objects or patterns that are able to replicate themselves or convert other objects into copies of themselves when these objects are exposed to them.
A virtual community is a social network of individuals who interact through specific social media, potentially crossing geographical and political boundaries in order to pursue mutual interests or goals.
A virtual world is a computer-based simulated environment which may be populated by many users who can create a personal avatar, and simultaneously and independently explore the virtual world, participate in its activities and communicate with others.
VK (VKontakte; ВКонта́кте, meaning InContact) is a Russian online social media and social networking service.
A walled garden is a garden enclosed by high walls for horticultural rather than security purposes, although originally all gardens may have been enclosed for protection from animal or human intruders.
Wayne Mark Rooney (born 24 October 1985) is an English professional footballer who plays for D.C. United of Major League Soccer.
Web 2.0 refers to World Wide Web websites that emphasize user-generated content, usability (ease of use, even by non-experts), and interoperability (this means that a website can work well with other products, systems, and devices) for end users.
WeChat is a Chinese multi-purpose messaging, social media and mobile payment app developed by Tencent.
WhatsApp Messenger is a freeware and cross-platform messaging and Voice over IP (VoIP) service owned by Facebook.
Wikia, also known as FANDOM (fully FANDOM powered by Wikia) and formerly known as Wikicities, is a wiki hosting service.
WikiLeaks is an international non-profit organisation that publishes secret information, news leaks, and classified media provided by anonymous sources.
Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything is a book by Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams, first published in December 2006.
Wikipedia is a multilingual, web-based, free encyclopedia that is based on a model of openly editable content.
The World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or the Web) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and accessible via the Internet.
Yahoo! 360° was a social networking and personal communication portal operated by Yahoo! made available in 2005.
Yahoo! GeoCities is a web hosting service.
Yelp is an American multinational corporation headquartered in San Francisco, California.
YOLO is the acronym of "you only live once".
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California.
Zero-rating is the practice of providing Internet access without financial cost under certain conditions, such as by only permitting access to certain websites or by subsidizing the service with advertising.
On 22 May 2014, the Royal Thai Armed Forces, led by General Prayut Chan-o-cha, Commander of the Royal Thai Army (RTA), launched a coup d'état, the 12th since the country's first coup in 1932, against the caretaker government of Thailand, following six months of political crisis.
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