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Social network

Index Social network

A social network is a social structure made up of a set of social actors (such as individuals or organizations), sets of dyadic ties, and other social interactions between actors. [1]

208 relations: Agency (philosophy), Agency (sociology), Agent (economics), Agent-based model, Albert-László Barabási, Alfred Radcliffe-Brown, Anthropology, Assortativity, Asymptote, Attribute-value system, Axiom, Émile Durkheim, Balance theory, Barabási–Albert model, Barry Wellman, Behavioural sciences, Bibliography of sociology, Biology, Biopharmaceutical, Bridge (interpersonal), Bronisław Malinowski, Built environment, Business networking, Capital (economics), Caroline Haythornthwaite, Centrality, Chaos theory, Charles Tilly, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Clique, Clustering coefficient, Collective network, Common good, Communication studies, Community, Community development, Community structure, Complex adaptive system, Complex network, Complex system, Computer graphics (computer science), Computer network, Computer science, Computer-mediated communication, Construct (philosophy), Cooperation, Criminology, Cultural capital, Culture, Degree (graph theory), ..., Degree distribution, Demography, Dependency graph, Differentiation (sociology), Diffusion of innovations, Distance (graph theory), Duncan J. Watts, Dyad (sociology), Dynamic network analysis, Dynamical system, E-commerce, Ecology, Economic sociology, Economics, Economy, Elizabeth Spillius, Emergence, Epidemiology, Ethnography, Evolutionary linguistics, Exponential random graph models, Ferdinand Tönnies, Formal organization, Fritz Heider, Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft, Genealogy, Geography, Georg Simmel, Glossary of graph theory terms, Goal, Goods and services, Graph theory, Group action (sociology), Group cohesiveness, Group dynamics, Harrison White, Harvard Department of Social Relations, Health care analytics, Health communication, Health system, Hierarchy, Homophily, Human, Human ecology, Independent set (graph theory), Induced subgraph, Informal organization, Information science, Information theory, Interdisciplinarity, Interlocking directorate, International Network for Social Network Analysis, Interpersonal relationship, Interpersonal ties, Isolates, Itamar Even-Zohar, J. Clyde Mitchell, Jacob L. Moreno, James H. Fowler, John Arundel Barnes, John Stuart Mill, Kinship, Language, Language shift, Large-scale macroeconometric model, Lattice graph, Level of analysis, Linguistics, Literary criticism, Love triangle, Macrosociology, Manchester school (anthropology), Mark Granovetter, Market (economics), Max Gluckman, Microsociology, Morphology (linguistics), Mutual exclusivity, Natural environment, Network motif, Network science, Network society, Network theory, Network topology, Nicholas A. Christakis, Organization, Organizational citizenship behavior, Organizational commitment, Organizational communication, Organizational identification, Organizational studies, Parameter, Peter Bearman, Peter Blau, Phonology, Political science, Power law, Psychology, Random graph, Reciprocity (network science), Reciprocity (social and political philosophy), Reciprocity (social psychology), Resource, Rhetoric, Role theory, Sample (statistics), Scale-free network, Scientific collaboration network, Scientific theory, Self-organization, Semiotics, Semiotics of social networking, Siegfried Frederick Nadel, Signed graph, Snowball sampling, Social, Social capital, Social comparison theory, Social complexity, Social environment, Social equality, Social exchange theory, Social group, Social identity approach, Social media, Social network (sociolinguistics), Social network analysis, Social networking service, Social psychology, Social psychology (sociology), Social relation, Social science, Social structure, Social web, Society, Sociogram, Sociolinguistics, Sociology, Sociometry, Stanley Milgram, Statistics, Stochastic block model, Stock and flow, Structural fold, Structural functionalism, Structural holes, Subset, Talcott Parsons, Telecommunication, Ternary relation, Transdisciplinarity, Transfer function, Transitive set, Trust (emotion), Urban sociology, Vertex (graph theory), Vertex-transitive graph, Zoology. Expand index (158 more) »

Agency (philosophy)

Agency is the capacity of an actor to act in a given environment.

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Agency (sociology)

In social science, agency is the capacity of individuals to act independently and to make their own free choices.

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Agent (economics)

In economics, an agent is an actor and more specifically a decision maker in a model of some aspect of the economy.

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Agent-based model

An agent-based model (ABM) is a class of computational models for simulating the actions and interactions of autonomous agents (both individual or collective entities such as organizations or groups) with a view to assessing their effects on the system as a whole.

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Albert-László Barabási

Albert-László Barabási (born March 30, 1967) is a Romanian-born Hungarian-American physicist, best known for his work in the research of network theory.

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Alfred Radcliffe-Brown

Alfred Reginald Radcliffe-Brown, FBA (born Alfred Reginald Brown; 17 January 1881 – 24 October 1955) was an English social anthropologist who developed the theory of structural functionalism and coadaptation.

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Anthropology

Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.

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Assortativity

Assortativity, or assortative mixing is a preference for a network's nodes to attach to others that are similar in some way.

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Asymptote

In analytic geometry, an asymptote of a curve is a line such that the distance between the curve and the line approaches zero as one or both of the x or y coordinates tends to infinity.

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Attribute-value system

An attribute-value system is a basic knowledge representation framework comprising a table with columns designating "attributes" (also known as "properties", "predicates," "features," "dimensions," "characteristics", "fields", "headers" or "independent variables" depending on the context) and "rows" designating "objects" (also known as "entities," "instances," "exemplars," "elements", "records" or "dependent variables").

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Axiom

An axiom or postulate is a statement that is taken to be true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments.

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Émile Durkheim

David Émile Durkheim (or; April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French sociologist.

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Balance theory

In the psychology of motivation, balance theory is a theory of attitude change, proposed by Fritz Heider.

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Barabási–Albert model

The Barabási–Albert (BA) model is an algorithm for generating random scale-free networks using a preferential attachment mechanism.

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Barry Wellman

Barry Wellman, FRSC (born 1942) is a Canadian-American sociologist and is the co-director of the Toronto-based international NetLab Network.

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Behavioural sciences

The term behavioral sciences encompasses the various disciplines that explores the cognitive processes within organisms and the behavioural interactions between organisms in the natural world.

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Bibliography of sociology

This bibliography of sociology is a list of works, organized by subdiscipline, on the subject of sociology.

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Biology

Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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Biopharmaceutical

A biopharmaceutical, also known as a biologic(al) medical product, biological, or biologic, is any pharmaceutical drug product manufactured in, extracted from, or semisynthesized from biological sources.

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Bridge (interpersonal)

A bridge is a type of social tie that connects two different groups in a social network.

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Bronisław Malinowski

Bronisław Kasper Malinowski (7 April 1884 – 16 May 1942) was a Polish-British anthropologist, often considered one of the most important 20th-century anthropologists.

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Built environment

In social science, the term built environment, or built world, refers to the human-made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity, ranging in scale from buildings to parks.

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Business networking

Networking is a socioeconomic business activity by which businesspeople and entrepreneurs meet to form business relationships and to recognize, create, or act upon business opportunities, share information and seek potential partners for ventures.

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Capital (economics)

In economics, capital consists of an asset that can enhance one's power to perform economically useful work.

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Caroline Haythornthwaite

Caroline Haythornthwaite is a professor at Syracuse University School of Information Studies.

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Centrality

In graph theory and network analysis, indicators of centrality identify the most important vertices within a graph.

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Chaos theory

Chaos theory is a branch of mathematics focusing on the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions.

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Charles Tilly

Charles Tilly (May 27, 1929 – April 29, 2008) was an American sociologist, political scientist, and historian who wrote on the relationship between politics and society.

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Claude Lévi-Strauss

Claude Lévi-Strauss (28 November 1908, Brussels – 30 October 2009, Paris) was a French anthropologist and ethnologist whose work was key in the development of the theory of structuralism and structural anthropology.

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Clique

A clique (AusE, CanE, or), in the social sciences, is a group of individuals who interact with one another and share similar interests.

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Clustering coefficient

In graph theory, a clustering coefficient is a measure of the degree to which nodes in a graph tend to cluster together.

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Collective network

A collective network is a set of social groups linked, directly or indirectly, by some common bond.

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Common good

In philosophy, economics, and political science, the common good (also commonwealth, common weal or general welfare) refers to either what is shared and beneficial for all or most members of a given community, or alternatively, what is achieved by citizenship, collective action, and active participation in the realm of politics and public service.

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Communication studies

Communication studies or communication sciences is an academic discipline that deals with processes of human communication.

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Community

A community is a small or large social unit (a group of living things) that has something in common, such as norms, religion, values, or identity.

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Community development

The United Nations defines community development as "a process where community members come together to take collective action and generate solutions to common problems." It is a broad term given to the practices of civic leaders, activists, involved citizens and professionals to improve various aspects of communities, typically aiming to build stronger and more resilient local communities.

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Community structure

In the study of complex networks, a network is said to have community structure if the nodes of the network can be easily grouped into (potentially overlapping) sets of nodes such that each set of nodes is densely connected internally.

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Complex adaptive system

A complex adaptive system is a system in which a perfect understanding of the individual parts does not automatically convey a perfect understanding of the whole system's behavior.

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Complex network

In the context of network theory, a complex network is a graph (network) with non-trivial topological features—features that do not occur in simple networks such as lattices or random graphs but often occur in graphs modelling of real systems.

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Complex system

A complex system is a system composed of many components which may interact with each other.

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Computer graphics (computer science)

Computer graphics is a sub-field of Computer Science which studies methods for digitally synthesizing and manipulating visual content.

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Computer network

A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.

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Computer science

Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.

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Computer-mediated communication

Computer-mediated communication (CMC) is defined as any human communication that occurs through the use of two or more electronic devices.

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Construct (philosophy)

A construct in the philosophy of science is an ideal object, where the existence of the thing may be said to depend upon a subject's mind.

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Cooperation

Cooperation (sometimes written as co-operation) is the process of groups of organisms working or acting together for common, mutual, or some underlying benefit, as opposed to working in competition for selfish benefit.

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Criminology

Criminology (from Latin crīmen, "accusation" originally derived from the Ancient Greek verb "krino" "κρίνω", and Ancient Greek -λογία, -logy|-logia, from "logos" meaning: “word,” “reason,” or “plan”) is the scientific study of the nature, extent, management, causes, control, consequences, and prevention of criminal behavior, both on the individual and social levels.

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Cultural capital

In sociology, cultural capital consists of the social assets of a person (education, intellect, style of speech and dress, etc.) that promote social mobility in a stratified society.

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Culture

Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.

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Degree (graph theory)

In graph theory, the degree (or valency) of a vertex of a graph is the number of edges incident to the vertex, with loops counted twice.

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Degree distribution

In the study of graphs and networks, the degree of a node in a network is the number of connections it has to other nodes and the degree distribution is the probability distribution of these degrees over the whole network.

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Demography

Demography (from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, implies "writing, description or measurement") is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings.

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Dependency graph

In mathematics, computer science and digital electronics, a dependency graph is a directed graph representing dependencies of several objects towards each other.

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Differentiation (sociology)

Differentiation is a term in system theory (found in sociology.) From the viewpoint of this theory, the principal feature of modern society is the increased process of system differentiation as a way of dealing with the complexity of its environment.

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Diffusion of innovations

Diffusion of innovations is a theory that seeks to explain how, why, and at what rate new ideas and technology spread.

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Distance (graph theory)

In the mathematical field of graph theory, the distance between two vertices in a graph is the number of edges in a shortest path (also called a graph geodesic) connecting them.

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Duncan J. Watts

Duncan James Watts (born 1971) is a sociologist and principal researcher at Microsoft Research, New York City known for his work on small-world networks.

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Dyad (sociology)

In sociology, a dyad (from Greek δύο dýo, "two" or Sanskrit दयाद "Dayadaha") is a group of two people, the smallest possible social group.

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Dynamic network analysis

Dynamic network analysis (DNA) is an emergent scientific field that brings together traditional social network analysis (SNA), link analysis (LA), social simulation and multi-agent systems (MAS) within network science and network theory.

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Dynamical system

In mathematics, a dynamical system is a system in which a function describes the time dependence of a point in a geometrical space.

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E-commerce

E-commerce is the activity of buying or selling of products on online services or over the Internet.

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Ecology

Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.

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Economic sociology

Economic sociology is the study of the social cause and effect of various economic phenomena.

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Economics

Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

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Economy

An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.

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Elizabeth Spillius

Elizabeth Spillius (née Bott; March 3, 1924 – July 4, 2016) was a Canadian-English anthropologist, sociologist, and Kleinian psychoanalyst.

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Emergence

In philosophy, systems theory, science, and art, emergence occurs when "the whole is greater than the sum of the parts," meaning the whole has properties its parts do not have.

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Epidemiology

Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.

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Ethnography

Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures.

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Evolutionary linguistics

Evolutionary linguistics is a subfield of psycholinguistics that studies the psychosocial and cultural factors involved in the origin of language and the development of linguistic universals.

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Exponential random graph models

Exponential random graph models (ERGMs) are a family of statistical models for analyzing data about social and other networks.

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Ferdinand Tönnies

Ferdinand Tönnies (26 July 1855 – 9 April 1936) was a German sociologist and philosopher.

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Formal organization

A Formal organization is an organization with a fixed set of rules of intra-organization procedures and structures.

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Fritz Heider

Fritz Heider (February 19, 1896 – January 2, 1988) was an Austrian psychologist whose work was related to the Gestalt school.

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Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft

Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft, generally translated as "community and society", are categories which were used by the German sociologist Ferdinand Tönnies in order to categorize social ties into two dichotomous sociological types which define each other.

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Genealogy

Genealogy (from γενεαλογία from γενεά, "generation" and λόγος, "knowledge"), also known as family history, is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history.

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Geography

Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.

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Georg Simmel

Georg Simmel (1 March 1858 – 28 September 1918) was a German sociologist, philosopher, and critic.

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Glossary of graph theory terms

This is a glossary of graph theory terms.

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Goal

A goal is an idea of the future or desired result that a person or a group of people envisions, plans and commits to achieve.

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Goods and services

Goods are items that are tangible, such as pens, salt, apples, oganesson, and hats.

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Graph theory

In mathematics, graph theory is the study of graphs, which are mathematical structures used to model pairwise relations between objects.

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Group action (sociology)

In sociology, a group action is a situation in which a number of agents take action simultaneously in order to achieve a common goal; their actions are usually coordinated.

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Group cohesiveness

Group cohesiveness (also called group cohesion and social cohesion) arises when bonds link members of a social group to one another and to the group as a whole.

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Group dynamics

Group dynamics is a system of behaviors and psychological processes occurring within a social group (intragroup dynamics), or between social groups (intergroup dynamics).

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Harrison White

Harrison Colyar White (born March 21, 1930) is the emeritus Giddings Professor of Sociology at Columbia University.

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Harvard Department of Social Relations

The Department of Social Relations for Interdisciplinary Social Science Studies, more commonly known as the "Department of Social Relations", was an interdisciplinary collaboration among three of the social science departments at Harvard University (anthropology, psychology, and sociology) beginning in 1946.

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Health care analytics

Health care analytics is a term used to describe the healthcare analysis activities that can be undertaken as a result of data collected from four areas within healthcare; claims and cost data, pharmaceutical and research and development (R&D) data, clinical data (collected from electronic medical records (EHRs)), and patient behavior and sentiment data (patient behaviors and preferences, (retail purchases e.g. data captured in running stores). Health care analytics is a growing industry in the United States, expected to grow to more than $18.7 billion by 2020. The industry focuses on the areas of clinical analysis, financial analysis, supply chain analysis, as well as, fraud and HR analysis. The current largest players in the market are medical consulting and medical software companies (IBM Corporation, SAS Institute, Inc. Optum, Inc, Truven Health Analytics Inc., Cerner Corporation, and McKesson Corporation) who have the ability to extend their reach with already existing customers. Health care analytics allows for the examination of patterns in various healthcare data in order to determine how clinical care can be improved while limiting excessive spending. Citing consultant George Zachariah from Dynamics Research Corporation, Healthcare IT News noted several potential benefits from health care analytics: 1) “cut down administrative costs,” 2) “clinical decision support,” 3) “cut down on fraud and abuse,” 4) “better care coordination,” and 5) “improv patient wellness.” A research article by Betty Jo Rochio further discussed how data analytics could be used to lower costs by “reduc variation in supplies, labor, and overhead.”.

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Health communication

Health communication is the study and practice of communicating promotional health information, such as in public health campaigns, health education, and between doctor and patient.

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Health system

A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.

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Hierarchy

A hierarchy (from the Greek hierarchia, "rule of a high priest", from hierarkhes, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally.

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Homophily

Homophily from Ancient Greek ὁμοῦ (homou, "together") and Greek φιλία (philia, "friendship") is the tendency of individuals to associate and bond with similar others, as in the proverb "birds of a feather flock together".

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Human

Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.

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Human ecology

Human ecology is an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary study of the relationship between humans and their natural, social, and built environments.

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Independent set (graph theory)

In graph theory, an independent set or stable set is a set of vertices in a graph, no two of which are adjacent.

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Induced subgraph

In graph theory, an induced subgraph of a graph is another graph, formed from a subset of the vertices of the graph and all of the edges connecting pairs of vertices in that subset.

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Informal organization

The informal organization is the interlocking social structure that governs how people work together in practice.

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Information science

Information science is a field primarily concerned with the analysis, collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval, movement, dissemination, and protection of information.

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Information theory

Information theory studies the quantification, storage, and communication of information.

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Interdisciplinarity

Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project).

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Interlocking directorate

Interlocking directorate refers to the practice of members of a corporate board of directors serving on the boards of multiple corporations.

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International Network for Social Network Analysis

The International Network for Social Network Analysis (INSNA) is a professional academic association of researchers and practitioners of social network analysis.

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Interpersonal relationship

An interpersonal relationship is a strong, deep, or close association or acquaintance between two or more people that may range in duration from brief to enduring.

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Interpersonal ties

In mathematical sociology, interpersonal ties are defined as information-carrying connections between people.

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Isolates

Isolates is a term used in developmental psychology and family studies, to describe members of a study group, usually child through young adult, who do not actively participate in cliques or friendship groups.

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Itamar Even-Zohar

Itamar Even-Zohar (איתמר אבן-זהר) (born 1939) is an Israeli culture researcher and professor at Tel Aviv University.

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J. Clyde Mitchell

James Clyde Mitchell (usually known as J. Clyde Mitchell) (21 June 1918 Pietermaritzburg – 15 November 1995) was a British sociologist and anthropologist.

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Jacob L. Moreno

Jacob Levy Moreno (born Iacob Levy; May 18, 1889 – May 14, 1974) was a Romanian-American psychiatrist, psychosociologist, and educator, the founder of psychodrama, and the foremost pioneer of group psychotherapy.

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James H. Fowler

James H. Fowler (born February 18, 1970) is an American social scientist specializing in social networks, cooperation, political participation, and genopolitics (the study of the genetic basis of political behavior).

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John Arundel Barnes

John Arundel Barnes M.A. D.Phil.

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John Stuart Mill

John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.

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Kinship

In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated.

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Language

Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.

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Language shift

Language shift, also known as language transfer or language replacement or language assimilation, is the process whereby a community of speakers of a language shifts to speaking a completely different language, usually over an extended period of time.

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Large-scale macroeconometric model

Following the development of Keynesian economics, applied economics began developing forecasting models based on economic data including national income and product accounting data.

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Lattice graph

A lattice graph, mesh graph, or grid graph, is a graph whose drawing, embedded in some Euclidean space Rn, forms a regular tiling.

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Level of analysis

The term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target.

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Linguistics

Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.

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Literary criticism

Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature.

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Love triangle

A love triangle (also called a romantic love triangle or a romance triangle or an eternal triangle) is usually a romantic relationship involving three people.

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Macrosociology

Macrosociology is an approach to sociology which emphasizes the analysis of social systems and populations on a large scale, at the level of social structure, and often at a necessarily high level of theoretical abstraction.

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Manchester school (anthropology)

The Department of Social Anthropology at the University of Manchester, founded by Max Gluckman in 1947 became known among anthropologists and other social scientists as the Manchester School.

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Mark Granovetter

Mark Granovetter (born October 20, 1943) is an American sociologist and professor at Stanford University.

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Market (economics)

A market is one of the many varieties of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange.

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Max Gluckman

Herman Max Gluckman (26 January 1911 – 13 April 1975) was a South African and British social anthropologist.

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Microsociology

Microsociology is one of the main points (or focuses) of sociology, concerning the nature of everyday human social interactions and agency on a small scale: face to face.

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Morphology (linguistics)

In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.

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Mutual exclusivity

In logic and probability theory, two events (or propositions) are mutually exclusive or disjoint if they cannot both occur (be true).

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Natural environment

The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.

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Network motif

All networks, including biological networks, social networks, technological networks (e.g., computer networks and electrical circuits) and more, can be represented as graphs, which include a wide variety of subgraphs.

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Network science

Network science is an academic field which studies complex networks such as telecommunication networks, computer networks, biological networks, cognitive and semantic networks, and social networks, considering distinct elements or actors represented by nodes (or vertices) and the connections between the elements or actors as links (or edges).

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Network society

Network society is the expression coined in 1991 related to the social, political, economic and cultural changes caused by the spread of networked, digital information and communications technologies.

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Network theory

Network theory is the study of graphs as a representation of either symmetric relations or asymmetric relations between discrete objects.

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Network topology

Network topology is the arrangement of the elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a communication network.

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Nicholas A. Christakis

Nicholas A. Christakis (born May 7, 1962) is an American sociologist and physician known for his research on social networks and on the socioeconomic and biosocial determinants of behavior, health, and longevity.

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Organization

An organization or organisation is an entity comprising multiple people, such as an institution or an association, that has a collective goal and is linked to an external environment.

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Organizational citizenship behavior

In industrial and organizational psychology, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is a person's voluntary commitment within an organization or company that is not part of his or her contractual tasks.

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Organizational commitment

In organizational behavior and industrial and organizational psychology, organizational commitment is an individual's psychological attachment to the organization.

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Organizational communication

In communication studies, organizational communication is the study of communication within organizations.

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Organizational identification

Organizational identification (OI) is a term used in management studies and organizational psychology.

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Organizational studies

Organizational studies is "the examination of how individuals construct organizational structures, processes, and practices and how these, in turn, shape social relations and create institutions that ultimately influence people", organizational studies comprise different areas that deal with the different aspects of the organizations, many of the approaches are functionalist but critical research also provide alternative frame for understanding in the field.

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Parameter

A parameter (from the Ancient Greek παρά, para: "beside", "subsidiary"; and μέτρον, metron: "measure"), generally, is any characteristic that can help in defining or classifying a particular system (meaning an event, project, object, situation, etc.). That is, a parameter is an element of a system that is useful, or critical, when identifying the system, or when evaluating its performance, status, condition, etc.

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Peter Bearman

Peter Shawn Bearman (born 1956) is an American sociologist.

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Peter Blau

Peter Michael Blau (February 7, 1918 – March 12, 2002) was an American sociologist and theorist.

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Phonology

Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.

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Political science

Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.

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Power law

In statistics, a power law is a functional relationship between two quantities, where a relative change in one quantity results in a proportional relative change in the other quantity, independent of the initial size of those quantities: one quantity varies as a power of another.

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Psychology

Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.

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Random graph

In mathematics, random graph is the general term to refer to probability distributions over graphs.

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Reciprocity (network science)

In network science, reciprocity is a measure of the likelihood of vertices in a directed network to be mutually linked.

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Reciprocity (social and political philosophy)

The social norm of reciprocity is the expectation that people will respond to each other in similar ways—responding to gifts and kindnesses from others with similar benevolence of their own, and responding to harmful, hurtful acts from others with either indifference or some form of retaliation.

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Reciprocity (social psychology)

In social psychology, reciprocity is a social norm of responding to a positive action with another positive action, rewarding kind actions.

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Resource

A resource is a source or supply from which a benefit is produced.

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Rhetoric

Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.

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Role theory

Role theory is a perspective in sociology and in social psychology that considers most of everyday activity to be the acting out of socially defined categories (e.g., mother, manager, teacher).

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Sample (statistics)

In statistics and quantitative research methodology, a data sample is a set of data collected and/or selected from a statistical population by a defined procedure.

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Scale-free network

A scale-free network is a network whose degree distribution follows a power law, at least asymptotically.

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Scientific collaboration network

Scientific collaboration network is a social network where nodes are scientists and links are co-authorships as the latter is one of the most well documented forms of scientific collaboration.

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Scientific theory

A scientific theory is an explanation of an aspect of the natural world that can be repeatedly tested, in accordance with the scientific method, using a predefined protocol of observation and experiment.

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Self-organization

Self-organization, also called (in the social sciences) spontaneous order, is a process where some form of overall order arises from local interactions between parts of an initially disordered system.

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Semiotics

Semiotics (also called semiotic studies) is the study of meaning-making, the study of sign process (semiosis) and meaningful communication.

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Semiotics of social networking

The semiotics of social networking discusses the images, symbols and signs used in systems that allow users to communicate and share experiences with each other.

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Siegfried Frederick Nadel

Nadel was born in Vienna, Austria the son of a lawyer.

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Signed graph

In the area of graph theory in mathematics, a signed graph is a graph in which each edge has a positive or negative sign.

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Snowball sampling

In sociology and statistics research, snowball sampling (or chain sampling, chain-referral sampling, referral sampling) is a nonprobability sampling technique where existing study subjects recruit future subjects from among their acquaintances.

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Social

Living organisms including humans are social when they live collectively in interacting populations, whether they are aware of it, and whether the interaction is voluntary or involuntary.

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Social capital

Social capital is a form of economic and cultural capital in which social networks are central; transactions are marked by reciprocity, trust, and cooperation; and market agents produce goods and services not mainly for themselves, but for a common good.

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Social comparison theory

Social comparison theory, initially proposed by social psychologist Leon Festinger in 1954, centers on the belief that there is a drive within individuals to gain accurate self-evaluations.

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Social complexity

In sociology, social complexity is a conceptual framework used in the analysis of society.

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Social environment

The social environment, social context, sociocultural context or milieu refers to the immediate physical and social setting in which people live or in which something happens or develops.

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Social equality

Social equality is a state of affairs in which all people within a specific society or isolated group have the same status in certain respects, including civil rights, freedom of speech, property rights and equal access to certain social goods and services.

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Social exchange theory

Social exchange theory is a social psychological and sociological perspective that explains social change and stability as a process of negotiated exchanges between parties.

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Social group

In the social sciences, a social group has been defined as two or more people who interact with one another, share similar characteristics, and collectively have a sense of unity.

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Social identity approach

The term social identity approach refers to research and theory pertaining to two intertwined, but distinct, social psychological theories.

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Social media

Social media are computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks.

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Social network (sociolinguistics)

In the field of sociolinguistics, social network describes the structure of a particular speech community.

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Social network analysis

Social network analysis (SNA) is the process of investigating social structures through the use of networks and graph theory.

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Social networking service

A social networking service (also social networking site, SNS or social media) is a web application that people use to build social networks or social relations with other people who share similar personal or career interests, activities, backgrounds or real-life connections.

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Social psychology

Social psychology is the study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others.

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Social psychology (sociology)

In sociology, social psychology, also known as sociological social psychology or microsociology, is an area of sociology that focuses on social actions and on interrelations of personality, values, and mind with social structure and culture.

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Social relation

In social science, a social relation or social interaction is any relationship between two or more individuals.

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Social science

Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.

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Social structure

In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergent from and determinant of the actions of the individuals.

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Social web

The social web is a set of social relations that link people through the World Wide Web.

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Society

A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.

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Sociogram

A sociogram is a graphic representation of social links that a person has.

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Sociolinguistics

Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and society's effect on language.

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Sociology

Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.

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Sociometry

Sociometry is a quantitative method for measuring social relationships.

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Stanley Milgram

Stanley Milgram (August 15, 1933 – December 20, 1984) was an American social psychologist, best known for his controversial experiment on obedience conducted in the 1960s during his professorship at Yale.

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Statistics

Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.

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Stochastic block model

The stochastic block model is a generative model for random graphs.

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Stock and flow

Economics, business, accounting, and related fields often distinguish between quantities that are stocks and those that are flows.

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Structural fold

Structural folding is the network property of a cohesive group whose membership overlaps with that of another cohesive group.

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Structural functionalism

Structural functionalism, or simply functionalism, is "a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability".

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Structural holes

Structural holes is a concept from social network research, originally developed by Ronald Stuart Burt.

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Subset

In mathematics, a set A is a subset of a set B, or equivalently B is a superset of A, if A is "contained" inside B, that is, all elements of A are also elements of B. A and B may coincide.

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Talcott Parsons

Talcott Parsons (December 13, 1902 – May 8, 1979) was an American sociologist of the classical tradition, best known for his social action theory and structural functionalism.

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Telecommunication

Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.

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Ternary relation

In mathematics, a ternary relation or triadic relation is a finitary relation in which the number of places in the relation is three.

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Transdisciplinarity

Transdisciplinarity connotes a research strategy that crosses many disciplinary boundaries to create a holistic approach.

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Transfer function

In engineering, a transfer function (also known as system function or network function) of an electronic or control system component is a mathematical function giving the corresponding output value for each possible value of the input to the device.

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Transitive set

In set theory, a set A is called transitive if either of the following equivalent conditions hold.

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Trust (emotion)

In a social context, trust has several connotations.

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Urban sociology

Urban sociology is the sociological study of life and human interaction in metropolitan areas.

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Vertex (graph theory)

In mathematics, and more specifically in graph theory, a vertex (plural vertices) or node is the fundamental unit of which graphs are formed: an undirected graph consists of a set of vertices and a set of edges (unordered pairs of vertices), while a directed graph consists of a set of vertices and a set of arcs (ordered pairs of vertices).

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Vertex-transitive graph

In the mathematical field of graph theory, a vertex-transitive graph is a graph G such that, given any two vertices v1 and v2 of G, there is some automorphism such that In other words, a graph is vertex-transitive if its automorphism group acts transitively upon its vertices.

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Zoology

Zoology or animal biology is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems.

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Blended networking, Contact (social), Friendship network, Friendship networks, Human network, Social Network, Social graphs, Social network theory, Social networks, SocialNetwork, Socialising networks, Structural hole theory.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_network

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