378 relations: -logy, A General View of Positivism, Academic degree, Academic journal, Academic publishing, Acoustic phonetics, Actor–network theory, Adam Smith, Aerial photography, Age of Enlightenment, Age of Revolution, Alfred Schütz, Ambient space, Ancient Greek, Androcentrism, Anthropological linguistics, Anthropology, Anti-intellectualism, Antipositivism, Antiscience, Applied science, Archaeology, Area studies, Aristotle, Art, Auguste Comte, Augustine of Hippo, Émile Durkheim, B. F. Skinner, Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Economics, Bachelor of Social Science, Behavior, Behavioralism, Behavioural sciences, Bent Flyvbjerg, Biological anthropology, Biology, Branches of science, Business studies, Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, Cartography, Case study, Catholic Church, Census, Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies, Charles Fourier, Chicago school (sociology), Civics, Civil society, ..., Class conflict, Communication, Communication studies, Community, Community studies, Comparative politics, Computational social science, Computational sociology, Computer science, Conflict theories, Confucius, Consilience, Contract, Convention (norm), Conversation, Corporate law, Correlation and dependence, Creole language, Criminology, Critical theory, Cultural anthropology, Cultural geography, Cultural studies, Culture, David Hume, David Ricardo, Demography, Deterministic system, Development studies, Dialectical materialism, Differential equation, Direct democracy, Discipline (academia), Discourse analysis, Domesday Book, Dynamical system, Eclecticism, Econometrics, Economic history, Economic problem, Economic sociology, Economics, Economist, Economy, Education, Educational psychology, Empiricism, Encyclopédie, Environmental social science, Environmental sociology, Environmental studies, Eric Wolf, Ethics, Ethnology, Ethology, Evaluation, Everyday life, Evolutionary linguistics, Exchange value, Experiment, Experimental economics, Falsifiability, Feminist theory, Ferdinand de Saussure, Foreign policy, Formal system, Frankfurt School, French Revolution, Friedrich Engels, Friedrich Nietzsche, Function (mathematics), Game theory, Gary Becker, Gender & Society, Gender studies, Geodesy, Geographic information science, Geographic information system, Geography, Geomatics, Georg Simmel, George H. Smith, Global issue, Global Positioning System, Globalization, Great power, Green economy, Hamilton, New Zealand, Hard and soft science, Health, Health geography, Herbert Baxter Adams, Herbert Spencer, Heterodox economics, Historical geography, Historical materialism, Historical method, Historiography, History, History of science, History of technology, Holism, Human biology, Human geography, Human science, Humanities, Individual, Industrial relations, Industrial Revolution, Industrialisation, Information science, Institution, Institutional economics, Institutionalism in political parties, Integrated geography, Interdisciplinarity, International education, International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, International law, International relations, International studies, Interview, Jean Piaget, Jean-Baptiste Say, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, John Graunt, John Locke, John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury, John Maynard Keynes, John Rawls, John Stuart Mill, Johns Hopkins University, Jurisprudence, Karl Marx, Karl Popper, L'Année Sociologique, Labelling, Labour law, Landform, Latin, Law, Legal management, Liberal arts education, Library science, Lincoln University (New Zealand), Linguistics, Lionel Robbins, Literary criticism, Macroeconomics, Management, Map projection, Mark Twain, Market research, Marketing, Marxian economics, Marxist philosophy, Marxist sociology, Mass communication, Mathematical model, Mathematical psychology, Mathematics, Max Weber, Meaning (linguistics), Media ecology, Media studies, Medicine, Mental disorder, Mental process, Metaphysics, Methodology, Microeconomics, Military geography, Milton Friedman, Mode of production, Modernity, Montesquieu, Morphology (linguistics), National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, National Endowment for the Humanities, National University of Malaysia, Natural philosophy, Natural science, Neil Smelser, Neurolinguistics, Neuropsychology, Neuroscience, Niccolò Machiavelli, Noam Chomsky, Non-governmental organization, Norm (philosophy), Normative economics, Oceanography, Old English, Outline of academic disciplines, Outline of education, Outline of social science, Outline of sociology, Outline of television broadcasting, Oxford University Press, Participant observation, Participatory action research, Paul Baltes, Pedagogy, Personal life, Peter L. Berger, Philosophical realism, Philosophy, Philosophy of science, Philosophy of social science, Phonetics, Phonology, Physical geography, Physiocracy, Planetary science, Plato, Policy, Political economy, Political philosophy, Political science, Political sociology, Political system, Positivism, Postcolonialism, Postmodernism, Power (international relations), Pragmatism, Primary source, Proletarian revolution, Property law, Protestantism, Psyche (psychology), Psycholinguistics, Psychology, Public administration, Public choice, Public health, Public sociology, Qualitative research, Quantitative research, Rational choice theory, Rationalization (sociology), Regional geography, Regional science, Regression analysis, Religion, Remote sensing, Representation theory, Robert K. Merton, Robert Lucas Jr., Rupert Read, Sampling (statistics), Science, Scientific method, Secularization, Semantics, Sigmund Freud, Social actions, Social constructionism, Social geography, Social group, Social history, Social justice, Social network analysis, Social phenomenon, Social progress, Social psychology, Social relation, Social research, Social Science History Association, Social stratification, Social work, Socialization, Society, Sociobiology, Sociolinguistics, Sociology, Sociology of gender, Sociology of scientific knowledge, Statistical hypothesis testing, Statistical model, Statistics, Steven Pinker, Structural functionalism, Structuralism, Structure and agency, Subjectivity, Subsistence economy, Suicide (book), Superpower, Survey methodology, Sustainable development, Symbol, Symbolic interactionism, Syntax, System, Talcott Parsons, The arts, The Concept of Law, The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity, The Rules of Sociological Method, The Social Construction of Reality, Thermoeconomics, Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Luckmann, Tinbergen's four questions, Tort, Trade, Transdisciplinarity, Transport geography, University of Adelaide, University of Bordeaux, University of Hong Kong, University of Manchester, University of Michigan Press, University of New South Wales, University of Queensland, University of Sydney, University of Waikato, Urban geography, Urban planning, Urbanization, Value (ethics), Verstehen, Vilfredo Pareto, Voluntary association, William Thompson (philosopher), William Torrey Harris. 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-logy is a suffix in the English language, used with words originally adapted from Ancient Greek ending in -λογία (-logia).
A General View of Positivism (Discours sur l'ensemble du positivisme) was an 1848 book by the French philosopher Auguste Comte, first published in English in 1865.
An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, normally at a college or university.
An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published.
Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship.
Acoustic phonetics is a subfield of phonetics, which deals with acoustic aspects of speech sounds.
Actor–network theory (ANT) is a theoretical and methodological approach to social theory where everything in the social and natural worlds exists in constantly shifting networks of relationship.
Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.
Aerial photography (or airborne imagery) is the taking of photographs from an aircraft or other flying object.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
The Age of Revolution is the period from approximately 1774 to 1849 in which a number of significant revolutionary movements occurred in many parts of Europe and the Americas.
Alfred Schutz (born Alfred Schütz,; 13 April 1899 – 20 May 1959) was an Austrian philosopher and social phenomenologist whose work bridged sociological and phenomenological traditions.
An ambient space or ambient configuration space is the space surrounding an object.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Androcentrism (ancient Greek, ἀνήρ, "man, male") is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of placing a masculine point of view at the center of one's world view, culture, and history, thereby culturally marginalizing femininity.
Anthropological linguistics is the subfield of linguistics and anthropology, which deals with the place of language in its wider social and cultural context, and its role in making and maintaining cultural practices and societal structures.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
Anti-intellectualism is hostility to and mistrust of intellect, intellectuals, and intellectualism commonly expressed as deprecation of education and philosophy, and the dismissal of art, literature, and science as impractical and even contemptible human pursuits.
In social science, antipositivism (also interpretivism and negativism) proposes that the social realm cannot be studied with the scientific method of investigation applied to the natural world; investigation of the social realm requires a different epistemology.
Antiscience is a position that rejects science and the scientific method.
Applied science is the application of existing scientific knowledge to practical applications, like technology or inventions.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
Area studies (also: regional studies) are interdisciplinary fields of research and scholarship pertaining to particular geographical, national/federal, or cultural regions.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.
Isidore Marie Auguste François Xavier Comte (19 January 1798 – 5 September 1857) was a French philosopher who founded the discipline of praxeology and the doctrine of positivism.
Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.
David Émile Durkheim (or; April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French sociologist.
Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990), commonly known as B. F. Skinner, was an American psychologist, behaviorist, author, inventor, and social philosopher.
A Bachelor of Arts (BA or AB, from the Latin baccalaureus artium or artium baccalaureus) is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, sciences, or both.
The Bachelor of Economics (BEc or BEcon) is a three-year academic degree in the social sciences encompassing both qualitiative and quantitative courses.
The academic undergraduate degree of Bachelor of Social Science (B.Soc.Sc. or B.Soc.Sci.) requires three to four years of study at an institution of higher education, primarily found in the Commonwealth of Nations.
Behavior (American English) or behaviour (Commonwealth English) is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment.
Behavioralism (or behaviouralism in British English) is an approach in political science, which emerged in the 1930s in the United States.
The term behavioral sciences encompasses the various disciplines that explores the cognitive processes within organisms and the behavioural interactions between organisms in the natural world.
Bent Flyvbjerg (born 1952) is a Danish economic geographer.
Biological anthropology, also known as physical anthropology, is a scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their related non-human primates and their extinct hominin ancestors.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
The branches of science, also referred to as sciences, "scientific fields", or "scientific disciplines" are commonly divided into three major groups.
Business Studies is an academic subject taught in schools and at university level in many countries.
The Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation is a Portuguese institution under private law and of general public utility, perpetual in nature, with its statutory purposes spanning the arts, beneficence, science, and education.
Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.
In the social sciences and life sciences, a case study is a research method involving an up-close, in-depth, and detailed examination of a subject of study (the case), as well as its related contextual conditions.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population.
The Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS) was a research centre at the University of Birmingham, England.
François Marie Charles Fourier (7 April 1772 – 10 October 1837) was a French philosopher, influential early socialist thinker and one of the founders of utopian socialism.
In sociology and later criminology, the Chicago school (sometimes described as the ecological school) was the first major body of works emerging during the 1920s and 1930s specializing in urban sociology, and the research into the urban environment by combining theory and ethnographic fieldwork in Chicago, now applied elsewhere.
Civics is the study of the theoretical, political and practical aspects of citizenship, as well as its rights and duties; the duties of citizens to each other as members of a political body and to the government.
Civil society is the "aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens".
Class conflict, frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes.
Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.
Communication studies or communication sciences is an academic discipline that deals with processes of human communication.
A community is a small or large social unit (a group of living things) that has something in common, such as norms, religion, values, or identity.
Community studies is an academic field drawing on both sociology and anthropology and the social research methods of ethnography and participant observation in the study of community.
Comparative politics is a field in political science, characterized by an empirical approach based on the comparative method.
Computational social science refers to the academic sub-disciplines concerned with computational approaches to the social sciences.
Computational sociology is a branch of sociology that uses computationally intensive methods to analyze and model social phenomena.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
Conflict theories are perspectives in sociology and social psychology that emphasize a materialist interpretation of history, dialectical method of analysis, a critical stance toward existing social arrangements, and political program of revolution or, at least, reform.
Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.
In science and history, consilience (also convergence of evidence or concordance of evidence) refers to the principle that evidence from independent, unrelated sources can "converge" on strong conclusions.
A contract is a promise or set of promises that are legally enforceable and, if violated, allow the injured party access to legal remedies.
A convention is a set of agreed, stipulated, or generally accepted standards, norms, social norms, or criteria, often taking the form of a custom.
Conversation is interactive communication between two or more people.
Corporate law (also known as business law or enterprise law or sometimes company law) is the body of law governing the rights, relations, and conduct of persons, companies, organizations and businesses.
In statistics, dependence or association is any statistical relationship, whether causal or not, between two random variables or bivariate data.
A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages at a fairly sudden point in time: often, a pidgin transitioned into a full, native language.
Criminology (from Latin crīmen, "accusation" originally derived from the Ancient Greek verb "krino" "κρίνω", and Ancient Greek -λογία, -logy|-logia, from "logos" meaning: “word,” “reason,” or “plan”) is the scientific study of the nature, extent, management, causes, control, consequences, and prevention of criminal behavior, both on the individual and social levels.
Critical theory is a school of thought that stresses the reflective assessment and critique of society and culture by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities.
Cultural anthropology is a branch of anthropology focused on the study of cultural variation among humans.
Cultural geography is a subfield within human geography.
Cultural studies is a field of theoretically, politically, and empirically engaged cultural analysis that concentrates upon the political dynamics of contemporary culture, its historical foundations, defining traits, conflicts, and contingencies.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
David Ricardo (18 April 1772 – 11 September 1823) was a British political economist, one of the most influential of the classical economists along with Thomas Malthus, Adam Smith and James Mill.
Demography (from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, implies "writing, description or measurement") is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings.
In mathematics, computer science and physics, a deterministic system is a system in which no randomness is involved in the development of future states of the system.
Development studies is an interdisciplinary branch of social science.
Dialectical materialism (sometimes abbreviated diamat) is a philosophy of science and nature developed in Europe and based on the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
A differential equation is a mathematical equation that relates some function with its derivatives.
Direct democracy or pure democracy is a form of democracy in which people decide on policy initiatives directly.
An academic discipline or academic field is a branch of knowledge.
Discourse analysis (DA), or discourse studies, is a general term for a number of approaches to analyze written, vocal, or sign language use, or any significant semiotic event.
Domesday Book (or; Latin: Liber de Wintonia "Book of Winchester") is a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror.
In mathematics, a dynamical system is a system in which a function describes the time dependence of a point in a geometrical space.
Eclecticism is a conceptual approach that does not hold rigidly to a single paradigm or set of assumptions, but instead draws upon multiple theories, styles, or ideas to gain complementary insights into a subject, or applies different theories in particular cases.
Econometrics is the application of statistical methods to economic data and is described as the branch of economics that aims to give empirical content to economic relations.
Economic history is the study of economies or economic phenomena of the past.
The economic problem – sometimes called the basic or central economic problem – asserts that an economy's finite resources are insufficient to satisfy all human wants and needs.
Economic sociology is the study of the social cause and effect of various economic phenomena.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
An economist is a practitioner in the social science discipline of economics.
An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
Educational psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of human learning.
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (English: Encyclopedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts), better known as Encyclopédie, was a general encyclopedia published in France between 1751 and 1772, with later supplements, revised editions, and translations.
Environmental social science is the broad, transdisciplinary study of interrelations between humans and the natural environment.
Environmental sociology is the study of interactions between societies and their natural environments.
Environmental studies is a multidisciplinary academic field which systematically studies human interaction with the environment in the interests of solving complex problems.
Eric Robert Wolf (February 1, 1923 – March 6, 1999) was an anthropologist, best known for his studies of peasants, Latin America, and his advocacy of Marxist perspectives within anthropology.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
Ethnology (from the Greek ἔθνος, ethnos meaning "nation") is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyzes the characteristics of different peoples and the relationship between them (cf. cultural, social, or sociocultural anthropology).
Ethology is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait.
Evaluation is a systematic determination of a subject's merit, worth and significance, using criteria governed by a set of standards.
Everyday life, daily life or routine life comprises the ways in which people typically act, think, and feel on a daily basis.
Evolutionary linguistics is a subfield of psycholinguistics that studies the psychosocial and cultural factors involved in the origin of language and the development of linguistic universals.
In political economy and especially Marxian economics, exchange value (German: Tauschwert) refers to one of four major attributes of a commodity, i.e., an item or service produced for, and sold on the market.
An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.
Experimental economics is the application of experimental methods to study economic questions.
A statement, hypothesis, or theory has falsifiability (or is falsifiable) if it can logically be proven false by contradicting it with a basic statement.
Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, fictional, or philosophical discourse.
Ferdinand de Saussure (26 November 1857 – 22 February 1913) was a Swiss linguist and semiotician.
A country's foreign policy, also called foreign relations or foreign affairs policy, consists of self-interest strategies chosen by the state to safeguard its national interests and to achieve goals within its international relations milieu.
A formal system is the name of a logic system usually defined in the mathematical way.
The Frankfurt School (Frankfurter Schule) is a school of social theory and philosophy associated in part with the Institute for Social Research at the Goethe University Frankfurt.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Friedrich Engels (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.;, sometimes anglicised Frederick Engels; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist and businessman.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
In mathematics, a function was originally the idealization of how a varying quantity depends on another quantity.
Game theory is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers".
Gary Stanley Becker (December 2, 1930 – May 3, 2014) was an American economist and empiricist.
Gender & Society is a peer-reviewed academic journal that covers research in the field of gender studies.
Gender studies is a field for interdisciplinary study devoted to gender identity and gendered representation as central categories of analysis.
Geodesy, also known as geodetics, is the earth science of accurately measuring and understanding three of Earth's fundamental properties: its geometric shape, orientation in space, and gravitational field.
Geographic information science or geographical information science (GIScience) is the scientific discipline that studies data structures and computational techniques to capture, represent, process, and analyze geographic information.
A geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data.
Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.
Geomatics (including geomatics engineering), also known as surveying engineering or geospatial science (including geospatial engineering and geospatial technology), is the discipline of gathering, storing, processing, and delivering geographic information or spatially referenced information.
Georg Simmel (1 March 1858 – 28 September 1918) was a German sociologist, philosopher, and critic.
George Hamilton Smith (born February 10, 1949, Japan) is an American author, editor, educator and speaker, known for his writings on atheism and libertarianism.
Informally, a global issue is issue that any social, economic, political or environmental problem that adversely affects the global community and our environment, possibly in a catastrophic way.
The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
The green economy is defined as an economy that aims at reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities, and that aims for sustainable development without degrading the environment.
Hamilton (Kirikiriroa) is a city in the North Island of New Zealand.
Hard science and soft science are colloquial terms used to compare scientific fields on the basis of perceived methodological rigor, exactitude, and objectivity.
Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.
Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.
Herbert Baxter Adams (April 16, 1850 – July 30, 1901) was an American educator and historian.
Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.
Heterodoxy is a term that may be used in contrast with orthodoxy in schools of economic thought or methodologies, that may be beyond neoclassical economics.
Historical geography is the branch of geography that studies the ways in which geographic phenomena have changed over time.
Historical materialism is the methodological approach of Marxist historiography that focuses on human societies and their development over time, claiming that they follow a number of observable tendencies.
Historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence, including the evidence of archaeology, to research and then to write histories in the form of accounts of the past.
Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
The history of science is the study of the development of science and scientific knowledge, including both the natural and social sciences.
The history of technology is the history of the invention of tools and techniques and is similar to other sides of the history of humanity.
Holism (from Greek ὅλος holos "all, whole, entire") is the idea that systems (physical, biological, chemical, social, economic, mental, linguistic) and their properties should be viewed as wholes, not just as a collection of parts.
Human biology is an interdisciplinary area of study that examines humans through the influences and interplay of many diverse fields such as genetics, evolution, physiology, anatomy, epidemiology, anthropology, ecology, nutrition, population genetics and sociocultural influences.
Human geography is the branch of geography that deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures, economies, and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place.
Human Science studies the philosophical, biological, social, and cultural aspects of human life.
Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture.
An individual is that which exists as a distinct entity.
Industrial relations is a multidisciplinary field that studies the employment relationship.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.
Information science is a field primarily concerned with the analysis, collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval, movement, dissemination, and protection of information.
Institutions are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior".
Institutional economics focuses on understanding the role of the evolutionary process and the role of institutions in shaping economic behaviour.
Party Institutionalism is an approach that sees political parties as having some capacities for adaptation, but also sees them as being "prisoners of their own history as an institution".
Integrated geography (also referred to as integrative geography, environmental geography or human–environment geography) is the branch of geography that describes and explains the spatial aspects of interactions between human individuals or societies and their natural environment.
Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project).
The definition of International education varies and is debated upon.
The International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, originally edited by Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes, is a 26-volume work published by Elsevier.
The International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences was first published in 1968 and was edited by David L. Sills and Robert K. Merton.
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
International relations (IR) or international affairs (IA) — commonly also referred to as international studies (IS) or global studies (GS) — is the study of interconnectedness of politics, economics and law on a global level.
International Studies (IS) generally refers to the specific university degrees and courses which are concerned with the study of ‘the major political, economic, social, and cultural issues that dominate the international agenda’.
An interview is a conversation where questions are asked and answers are given.
Jean Piaget (9 August 1896 – 16 September 1980) was a Swiss psychologist and epistemologist known for his pioneering work in child development.
Jean-Baptiste Say (5 January 1767 – 15 November 1832) was a French economist and businessman who had classically liberal views and argued in favor of competition, free trade and lifting restraints on business.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
John Graunt (24 April 1620 – 18 April 1674) was one of the first demographers, though by profession he was a haberdasher.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury, 4th Baronet, (30 April 183428 May 1913), known as Sir John Lubbock, 4th Baronet from 1865 until 1900, was an English banker, Liberal politician, philanthropist, scientist and polymath.
John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes (5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946), was a British economist whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments.
John Bordley Rawls (February 21, 1921 – November 24, 2002) was an American moral and political philosopher in the liberal tradition.
John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.
Johns Hopkins University is an American private research university in Baltimore, Maryland.
Jurisprudence or legal theory is the theoretical study of law, principally by philosophers but, from the twentieth century, also by social scientists.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.
L'Année Sociologique is an academic journal of sociology established in 1898 by Émile Durkheim, who also served as its editor.
Labelling or labeling is describing someone or something in a word or short phrase.
Labour law (also known as labor law or employment law) mediates the relationship between workers, employing entities, trade unions and the government.
A landform is a natural feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
Legal management (also offered as: legal studies, or paralegal studies) is an academic and professional discipline that is a hybrid between the study of law and management (i.e. business administration, public administration, etc.). It is generally considered as the best preparatory law program for those who aspire to become members of a bar.
Liberal arts education (from Latin "free" and "art or principled practice") can claim to be the oldest programme of higher education in Western history.
Library science (often termed library studies, library and information science, bibliothecography, library economy) is an interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary field that applies the practices, perspectives, and tools of management, information technology, education, and other areas to libraries; the collection, organization, preservation, and dissemination of information resources; and the political economy of information.
Lincoln University (Māori: Te Whare Wanaka o Aoraki) is a New Zealand university that was formed in 1990 when Lincoln College, Canterbury was made independent of the University of Canterbury.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
Lionel Charles Robbins, Baron Robbins, (22 November 1898 – 15 May 1984) was a British economist, and prominent member of the economics department at the London School of Economics.
Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature.
Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix makro- meaning "large" and economics) is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole.
Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body.
A map projection is a systematic transformation of the latitudes and longitudes of locations from the surface of a sphere or an ellipsoid into locations on a plane.
Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer.
Market research (also in some contexts known as industrial research) is any organized effort to gather information about target markets or customers.
Marketing is the study and management of exchange relationships.
Marxian economics, or the Marxian school of economics, refers to a school of economic thought tracing its foundations to the critique of classical political economy first expounded upon by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory are works in philosophy that are strongly influenced by Karl Marx's materialist approach to theory, or works written by Marxists.
Marxist sociology is the study of sociology from a Marxist perspective.
Mass communication is the study of how people exchange information through mass media to large segments of the population at the same time.
A mathematical model is a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language.
Mathematical psychology is an approach to psychological research that is based on mathematical modeling of perceptual, cognitive and motor processes, and on the establishment of law-like rules that relate quantifiable stimulus characteristics with quantifiable behavior.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist.
In linguistics, meaning is the information or concepts that a sender intends to convey, or does convey, in communication with a receiver.
Media ecology theory is the study of media, technology, and communication and how they affect human environments.
Media studies is a discipline and field of study that deals with the content, history, and effects of various media; in particular, the mass media.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
Mental process or mental function are all the things that individuals can do with their minds.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study.
Microeconomics (from Greek prefix mikro- meaning "small") is a branch of economics that studies the behavior of individuals and firms in making decisions regarding the allocation of scarce resources and the interactions among these individuals and firms.
Military geography is a sub-field of geography that is used by the military, as well as academics and politicians, to understand the geopolitical sphere through the military lens.
Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist who received the 1976 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory, and the complexity of stabilization policy.
In the writings of Karl Marx and the Marxist theory of historical materialism, a mode of production (in German: Produktionsweise, meaning 'the way of producing') is a specific combination of.
Modernity, a topic in the humanities and social sciences, is both a historical period (the modern era), as well as the ensemble of particular socio-cultural norms, attitudes and practices that arose in the wake of Renaissance, in the "Age of Reason" of 17th-century thought and the 18th-century "Enlightenment".
Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, and political philosopher.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (also known as "NASEM" or "the National Academies") is the collective scientific national academy of the United States.
The National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) is an independent federal agency of the U.S. government, established by the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of 1965, dedicated to supporting research, education, preservation, and public programs in the humanities.
The National University of Malaysia (abbreviation: UKM; Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia; abbreviated UKM) is a public university located in Bangi, Selangor which is at south of Kuala Lumpur.
Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
Neil Joseph Smelser (July 22, 1930 – October 2, 2017) was an emeritus professor of sociology at the University of California, Berkeley.
Neurolinguistics is the study of the neural mechanisms in the human brain that control the comprehension, production, and acquisition of language.
Neuropsychology is the study of the structure and function of the brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviours.
Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.
Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, humanist, and writer of the Renaissance period.
Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.
Norms are concepts (sentences) of practical import, oriented to effecting an action, rather than conceptual abstractions that describe, explain, and express.
Normative economics (as opposed to positive economics) is a part of economics that expresses value or normative judgments about economic fairness or what the outcome of the economy or goals of public policy ought to be.
Oceanography (compound of the Greek words ὠκεανός meaning "ocean" and γράφω meaning "write"), also known as oceanology, is the study of the physical and biological aspects of the ocean.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
An academic discipline or field of study is a branch of knowledge that is taught and researched as part of higher education.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to education: Education – in the general sense is any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character, or physical ability of an individual.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to social science: Social science – branch of science concerned with society and human behaviors.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the discipline of sociology: Sociology – the study of society using various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to understand human social activity, from the micro level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and social structure.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to television broadcasting: Television broadcasting: form of broadcasting in which a television signal is transmitted by radio waves from a terrestrial (Earth based) transmitter of a television station to TV receivers having an antenna.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Participant observation is one type of data collection method typically used in qualitative research.
Participatory action research (PAR) is an approach to research in communities that emphasizes participation and action.
Paul B. Baltes (June 18, 1939 – November 7, 2006) was a German psychologist whose broad scientific agenda was devoted to establishing and promoting the life-span orientation of human development.
Pedagogy is the discipline that deals with the theory and practice of teaching and how these influence student learning.
Personal life is the course of an individual's life, especially when viewed as the sum of personal choices contributing to one's personal identity.
Peter Ludwig Berger (March 17, 1929 – June 27, 2017) was an Austrian-born American sociologist and Protestant theologian.
Realism (in philosophy) about a given object is the view that this object exists in reality independently of our conceptual scheme.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.
The philosophy of social science is the study of the logic, methods, and foundations of social sciences such as psychology, economics, and political science.
Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Physical geography (also known as geosystems or physiography) is one of the two major sub-fields of geography.
Physiocracy (from the Greek for "government of nature") is an economic theory developed by a group of 18th century Enlightenment French economists who believed that the wealth of nations was derived solely from the value of "land agriculture" or "land development" and that agricultural products should be highly priced.
Planetary science or, more rarely, planetology, is the scientific study of planets (including Earth), moons, and planetary systems (in particular those of the Solar System) and the processes that form them.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
A policy is a deliberate system of principles to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes.
Political economy is the study of production and trade and their relations with law, custom and government; and with the distribution of national income and wealth.
Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.
Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.
Political sociology is concerned with the sociological analysis of political phenomena ranging from the State, to civil society, to the family, investigating topics such as citizenship, social movements, and the sources of social power.
A political system is a system of politics and government.
Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain ("positive") knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.
Postcolonialism or postcolonial studies is the academic study of the cultural legacy of colonialism and imperialism, focusing on the human consequences of the control and exploitation of colonised people and their lands.
Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late-20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism.
Power in international relations is defined in several different ways.
Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870.
In the study of history as an academic discipline, a primary source (also called original source or evidence) is an artifact, document, diary, manuscript, autobiography, recording, or any other source of information that was created at the time under study.
A proletarian revolution is a social revolution in which the working class attempts to overthrow the bourgeoisie.
Property law is the area of law that governs the various forms of ownership and tenancy in real property (land as distinct from personal or movable possessions) and in personal property, within the common law legal system.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
In psychology, the psyche is the totality of the human mind, conscious and unconscious.
Psycholinguistics or psychology of language is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, comprehend and produce language.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Public Administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service.
Public choice or public choice theory is "the use of economic tools to deal with traditional problems of political science".
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
Public sociology is a subfield of the wider sociological discipline that emphasizes expanding the disciplinary boundaries of sociology in order to engage with non-academic audiences.
Qualitative research is a scientific method of observation to gather non-numerical data.
In natural sciences and social sciences, quantitative research is the systematic empirical investigation of observable phenomena via statistical, mathematical or computational techniques.
Rational choice theory, also known as choice theory or rational action theory, is a framework for understanding and often formally modeling social and economic behavior.
In sociology, rationalization or rationalisation refers to the replacement of traditions, values, and emotions as motivators for behavior in society with concepts based on rationality and reason.
Regional geography is a major branch of geography.
Regional science is a field of the social sciences concerned with analytical approaches to problems that are specifically urban, rural, or regional.
In statistical modeling, regression analysis is a set of statistical processes for estimating the relationships among variables.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation.
Representation theory is a branch of mathematics that studies abstract algebraic structures by representing their elements as linear transformations of vector spaces, and studies modules over these abstract algebraic structures.
Robert King Merton (born Meyer Robert Schkolnick; 5 July 1910 – 23 February 2003) was an American sociologist.
Robert Emerson Lucas Jr. (born September 15, 1937) is an American economist at the University of Chicago.
Rupert Read (born 1966) is an academic and a Green Party politician in England.
In statistics, quality assurance, and survey methodology, sampling is the selection of a subset (a statistical sample) of individuals from within a statistical population to estimate characteristics of the whole population.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
Secularization (or secularisation) is the transformation of a society from close identification and affiliation with religious values and institutions toward nonreligious values and secular institutions.
Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
In sociology, social action, also known as "Weberian social action", refers to an act which takes into account the actions and reactions of individuals (or 'agents').
Social constructionism or the social construction of reality (also social concept) is a theory of knowledge in sociology and communication theory that examines the development of jointly constructed understandings of the world that form the basis for shared assumptions about reality.
Social geography is the branch of human geography that is most closely related to social theory in general and sociology in particular, dealing with the relation of social phenomena and its spatial components.
In the social sciences, a social group has been defined as two or more people who interact with one another, share similar characteristics, and collectively have a sense of unity.
Social history, often called the new social history, is a field of history that looks at the lived experience of the past.
Social justice is a concept of fair and just relations between the individual and society.
Social network analysis (SNA) is the process of investigating social structures through the use of networks and graph theory.
Social phenomena include all behavior that influences or is influenced by organisms sufficiently alive to respond to one another.
Social progress is the idea that societies can or do improve in terms of their social, political, and economic structures.
Social psychology is the study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others.
In social science, a social relation or social interaction is any relationship between two or more individuals.
Social research is a research conducted by social scientists following a systematic plan.
The Social Science History Association, formed in 1976, brings together scholars from numerous disciplines interested in social history.
Social stratification is a kind of social differentiation whereby a society groups people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power (social and political).
Social work is an academic discipline and profession that concerns itself with individuals, families, groups and communities in an effort to enhance social functioning and overall well-being.
In sociology, socialization is the process of internalizing the norms and ideologies of society.
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
Sociobiology is a field of biology that aims to examine and explain social behavior in terms of evolution.
Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and society's effect on language.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
Sociology of gender is a prominent subfield of sociology.
The sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) is the study of science as a social activity, especially dealing with "the social conditions and effects of science, and with the social structures and processes of scientific activity." The sociology of scientific ignorance (SSI) is complementary to the sociology of scientific knowledge.
A statistical hypothesis, sometimes called confirmatory data analysis, is a hypothesis that is testable on the basis of observing a process that is modeled via a set of random variables.
A statistical model is a mathematical model that embodies a set of statistical assumptions concerning the generation of some sample data and similar data from a larger population.
Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.
Steven Arthur Pinker (born September 18, 1954) is a Canadian-American cognitive psychologist, linguist, and popular science author.
Structural functionalism, or simply functionalism, is "a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability".
In sociology, anthropology, and linguistics, structuralism is the methodology that implies elements of human culture must be understood by way of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure.
In the social sciences there is a standing debate over the primacy of structure or agency in shaping human behaviour.
Subjectivity is a central philosophical concept, related to consciousness, agency, personhood, reality, and truth, which has been variously defined by sources.
A subsistence economy is a non-monetary economy which relies on natural resources to provide for basic needs, through hunting, gathering, and subsistence agriculture.
Suicide (Le suicide) is an 1897 book written by French sociologist Émile Durkheim.
Superpower is a term used to describe a state with a dominant position, which is characterised by its extensive ability to exert influence or project power on a global scale.
A field of applied statistics of human research surveys, survey methodology studies the sampling of individual units from a population and associated techniques of survey data collection, such as questionnaire construction and methods for improving the number and accuracy of responses to surveys.
Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while at the same time sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services upon which the economy and society depend.
A symbol is a mark, sign or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship.
Symbolic interactionism is a sociological theory that develops from practical considerations and alludes to people's particular utilization of dialect to make images, normal implications, for deduction and correspondence with others.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
A system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming an integrated whole.
Talcott Parsons (December 13, 1902 – May 8, 1979) was an American sociologist of the classical tradition, best known for his social action theory and structural functionalism.
The arts refers to the theory and physical expression of creativity found in human societies and cultures.
The Concept of Law is the most famous work of the legal philosopher H. L. A. Hart.
The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity: Twelve Lectures (Der Philosophische Diskurs der Moderne: Zwölf Vorlesungen) is a 1985 book by Jürgen Habermas, in which the author reconstructs and deals in depth with a number of philosophical approaches to the critique of modern reason and the Enlightenment "project" since Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Friedrich Nietzsche, including the work of 20th century philosophers Max Horkheimer, Theodor Adorno, Martin Heidegger, Michel Foucault, Jacques Derrida, Cornelius Castoriadis and Niklas Luhmann.
The Rules of Sociological Method (Les Règles de la Méthode Sociologique) is a book by Émile Durkheim, first published in 1895.
The Social Construction of Reality is a 1966 book about the sociology of knowledge by the sociologists Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann.
Thermoeconomics, also referred to as biophysical economics, is a school of heterodox economics that applies the laws of statistical mechanics to economic theory.
Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
Thomas Luckmann (October 14, 1927 – May 10, 2016) was an American-Austrian sociologist of German and Slovene origin who taught mainly in Germany.
Tinbergen's four questions, named after Nikolaas Tinbergen and based on Aristotle's four causes, are complementary categories of explanations for behaviour.
A tort, in common law jurisdictions, is a civil wrong that causes a claimant to suffer loss or harm resulting in legal liability for the person who commits the tortious act.
Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.
Transdisciplinarity connotes a research strategy that crosses many disciplinary boundaries to create a holistic approach.
Transport geography, also transportation geography, is a branch of geography that investigates the movement and connections between people, goods and information on the Earth's surface.
The University of Adelaide (informally Adelaide University) is a public university located in Adelaide, South Australia.
The University of Bordeaux (French: Université de Bordeaux) was founded in 1441 in France.
The University of Hong Kong (often abbreviated as HKU) is a public research university located in Pokfulam, Hong Kong.
The University of Manchester is a public research university in Manchester, England, formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester.
The University of Michigan Press is part of Michigan Publishing at the University of Michigan Library.
The University of New South Wales (UNSW; branded as UNSW Sydney) is an Australian public research university located in the Sydney suburb of Kensington.
The University of Queensland (UQ) is a public research university primarily located in Queensland's capital city, Brisbane, Australia.
The University of Sydney (informally, USyd or USYD) is an Australian public research university in Sydney, Australia.
The University of Waikato (Te Whare Wānanga o Waikato), informally Waikato University, is a comprehensive university in Hamilton, New Zealand established in 1964, with a satellite campus located in Tauranga.
Urban geography is the subdiscipline of geography that derives from a study of cities and urban processes.
Urban planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and design of land use in an urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
In ethics, value denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do or what way is best to live (normative ethics), or to describe the significance of different actions.
Verstehen (literally: "to understand") in the context of German philosophy and social sciences in general, has been used since the late 19th century – in English as in German – with the particular sense of the "interpretive or participatory" examination of social phenomena.
Vilfredo Federico Damaso Pareto (born Wilfried Fritz Pareto, 15 July 1848 – 19 August 1923) was an Italian engineer, sociologist, economist, political scientist, and philosopher, now also known for the 80/20 rule, named after him as the Pareto principle.
A voluntary group or union (also sometimes called a voluntary organization, common-interest association,Prins HEL et al. (2010).. Cengage Learning. association, or society) is a group of individuals who enter into an agreement, usually as volunteers, to form a body (or organization) to accomplish a purpose.
William Thompson (1775 – 28 March 1833) was an Irish political and philosophical writer and social reformer, developing from utilitarianism into an early critic of capitalist exploitation whose ideas influenced the Cooperative, Trade Union and Chartist movements as well as Karl Marx.
William Torrey Harris (September 10, 1835 – November 5, 1909) was an American educator, philosopher, and lexicographer.
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