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Abahlali baseMjondolo (Shack Dwellers), also known as AbM or the red shirts,Richard Pithouse, ‘Our Struggle is Thought, on the Ground, Running'.
Abū Dharr al-Ghifari al-Kinani (أبو ذر الغفاري الكناني.), also Jundab ibn Junādah (جُنْدَب ابْنِ جُنَادَة), was the fourth or fifth person converting to Islam, and a Muhajirun.
Activism consists of efforts to promote, impede, or direct social, political, economic, or environmental reform or stasis with the desire to make improvements in society.
Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.
The African National Congress (ANC) is the Republic of South Africa's governing political party.
African socialism is a belief in sharing economic resources in a traditional African way, as distinct from classical socialism.
Afrocentrism (also Afrocentricity) is an approach to the study of world history that focuses on the history of people of recent African descent.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
The Agitators were a political movement as well as elected representatives of soldiers, including the New Model Army of Oliver Cromwell, during the English Civil War.
Agrarian Justice is the title of a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine and published in 1797, which proposed that those who possess cultivated land owe the community a ground rent, and that this justifies an estate tax to fund universal old-age and disability pensions, as well as a fixed sum to be paid to all citizens upon reaching maturity.
Agrarian reform can refer either, narrowly, to government-initiated or government-backed redistribution of agricultural land (see land reform) or, broadly, to an overall redirection of the agrarian system of the country, which often includes land reform measures.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Ahmed Sékou Touré (var. Ahmed Sheku Turay) (January 9, 1922 – March 26, 1984) was a Guinean political leader who was elected as the first President of Guinea, serving from 1958 until his death in 1984.
AK Press is a worker-managed, independent publisher and book distributor that specialises in radical left and anarchist literature.
Al Jazeera America (AJAM) was an American basic cable and satellite news television channel owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
Albert Camus (7 November 1913 – 4 January 1960) was a French philosopher, author, and journalist.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Alexandra Mikhailovna Kollontai (Алекса́ндра Миха́йловна Коллонта́й — née Domontovich, Домонто́вич; – 9 March 1952) was a Russian Communist revolutionary, first as a member of the Mensheviks, then from 1915 on as a Bolshevik.
Alexis Tsipras (Αλέξης Τσίπρας,; born 28 July 1974) is a Greek politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Greece since 2015.
Alfred Edward Taylor (22 December 1869 – 31 October 1945) was a British idealist philosopher most famous for his contributions to the philosophy of idealism in his writings on metaphysics, the philosophy of religion, moral philosophy, and the scholarship of Plato.
Alfred Marshall, FBA (26 July 1842 – 13 July 1924) was one of the most influential economists of his time.
Alfred Sauvy (31 October 1898 – 30 October 1990) was a demographer, anthropologist and historian of the French economy.
Ali Shariati Mazinani (علی شریعتی مزینانی, 23 November 1933 – 18 June 1977) was an Iranian revolutionary and sociologist who focused on the sociology of religion.
The All-Russian Central Executive Committee (Vserossiysky Centralny Ispolnitelny Komitet (VTsIK)), was the highest legislative, administrative, and revising body of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR) from 1917 until 1937.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Alter-globalization (also known as alternative globalization or alter-mundialization—from the French alter-mondialisation—and overlapping with the global justice movement) is the name of a social movement whose proponents support global cooperation and interaction, but oppose what they describe as the negative effects of economic globalization, considering that it often works to the detriment of, or does not adequately promote, human values such as environmental and climate protection, economic justice, labor protection, protection of indigenous cultures, peace and civil liberties.
AlterNet is a progressive news magazine owned by AlterNet Media, Inc.
"An Anarchist FAQ" is a FAQ written by an international work group of social anarchists connected through the internet.
Anarcha-feminism, also called anarchist feminism and anarcho-feminism, combines anarchism with feminism.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
Anarchism and Other Essays is a 1910 essay collection by Emma Goldman, first published by Mother Earth Publishing.
Russian anarchism is anarchism in Russia or among Russians.
Anarchism in Spain has historically gained more support and influence than anywhere else, especially before Francisco Franco's victory in the Spanish Civil War of 1936–39.
Fédération Anarchiste (Anarchist Federation) is an anarchist federation in France and Belgium.
Anarchism is generally defined as the political philosophy which holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary and harmful, The following sources cite anarchism as a political philosophy: Slevin, Carl.
Anarcho-communism (also known as anarchist communism, free communism, libertarian communism and communist anarchism) is a theory of anarchism which advocates the abolition of the state, capitalism, wage labour and private property (while retaining respect for personal property) in favor of common ownership of the means of production, direct democracy and a horizontal network of workers' councils with production and consumption based on the guiding principle: "From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs".
Anarcho-naturism (also anarchist naturism and naturist anarchism) appeared in the late 19th century as the union of anarchist and naturist philosophies.
Anarcho-syndicalism (also referred to as revolutionary syndicalism) is a theory of anarchism that views revolutionary industrial unionism or syndicalism as a method for workers in capitalist society to gain control of an economy and with that control influence in broader society.
Andalusia (Andalucía) is an autonomous community in southern Spain.
Andrea Costa (30 November 1851 – 19 January 1910) was an Italian socialist activist, born in Imola.
Andrei Nikolaevich Lankov (Андрей Николаевич Ланьков; born July 26, 1963) is a Russian scholar of Asia and a specialist in Korean studies and Director of Korea Risk Group, the parent company of NK News and NK Pro.
António Luís Santos da Costa GCIH (born 17 July 1961) is a Portuguese lawyer and politician serving as the 119th and current Prime Minister of Portugal since 26 November 2015.
Charles Anthony Raven Crosland (29 August 1918 – 19 February 1977), sometimes known as Tony Crosland or C. A. R. Crosland, was a British Labour Party politician and author.
Anti-authoritarianism is opposition to authoritarianism, which is defined as "a form of social organisation characterised by submission to authority", "favoring complete obedience or subjection to authority as opposed to individual freedom" and to authoritarian government.
Anti-capitalism encompasses a wide variety of movements, ideas and attitudes that oppose capitalism.
An anti-establishment view or belief is one which stands in opposition to the conventional social, political, and economic principles of a society.
The anti-globalization movement, or counter-globalisation movement, is a social movement critical of economic globalization.
Anti-imperialism in political science and international relations is a term used in a variety of contexts, usually by nationalist movements who want to secede from a larger polity (usually in the form of an empire, but also in a multi-ethnic sovereign state) or as a specific theory opposed to capitalism in Marxist–Leninist discourse, derived from Vladimir Lenin's work Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism.
Antonio Giolitti (12 February 1915 – 8 February 2010) was an Italian politician and cabinet member.
The April Theses (Russian: апрельские тезисы, transliteration) were a series of ten directives issued by the Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin upon his return to Petrograd from his exile in Switzerland via Germany and Finland.
Arab nationalism (القومية العربية al-Qawmiyya al-`arabiyya) is a nationalist ideology that asserts the Arabs are a nation and promotes the unity of Arab people, celebrating the glories of Arab civilization, the language and literature of the Arabs, calling for rejuvenation and political union in the Arab world.
Ariel Salleh is an Australian sociologist who writes on humanity-nature relations, social change movements, and ecofeminism.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Ferdinand August Bebel (22 February 1840 – 13 August 1913) was a German socialist politician, writer, and orator.
Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte (25 November 1915 – 10 December 2006) was a Chilean general, politician and the dictator of Chile between 1973 and 1990 who remained the Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army until 1998 and was also President of the Government Junta of Chile between 1973 and 1981.
The Australian Fabians (also known as the Australian Fabian Society) was established in 1947.
The Australian Labor Party (ALP, also Labor, was Labour before 1912) is a political party in Australia.
The Austrian School is a school of economic thought that is based on methodological individualism—the concept that social phenomena result from the motivations and actions of individuals.
Authoritarian socialism refers to a collection of political-economic systems describing themselves as socialist and rejecting the liberal democratic concepts of multi-party politics, freedom of assembly, habeas corpus and freedom of expression.
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
Authority derives from the Latin word and is a concept used to indicate the foundational right to exercise power, which can be formalized by the State and exercised by way of judges, monarchs, rulers, police officers or other appointed executives of government, or the ecclesiastical or priestly appointed representatives of a higher spiritual power (God or other deities).
Autonomia Operaia was an Italian leftist movement particularly active from 1976 to 1978.
Autonomism or autonomist Marxism is a set of anti-authoritarian left-wing political and social movements and theories.
Álvaro Barreirinhas Cunhal (10 November 1913 – 13 June 2005) was a Portuguese communist revolutionary and politician.
Élie Halévy (6 September 1870 – 21 August 1937) was a French philosopher and historian who wrote studies of the British utilitarians, the book of essays Era of Tyrannies, and a history of Britain from 1815 to 1914 that influenced British historiography.
Jacques Élisée Reclus (15 March 1830 – 4 July 1905) was a renowned French geographer, writer and anarchist.
Émile Armand (pseudonym of Ernest-Lucien Juin Armand; 26 March 1872 – 19 February 1963) was an influential French individualist anarchist at the beginning of the 20th century and also a dedicated free love/polyamory, intentional community, and pacifist/antimilitarist writer, propagandist and activist.
Étienne Cabet (January 1, 1788 – November 9, 1856) was a French philosopher and utopian socialist who founded the Icarian movement.
Étienne-Gabriel Morelly (1717, Vitry-le-François – 1778) was a French utopian thinker and novelist.
Đổi Mới (Renovation) is the name given to the economic reforms initiated in Vietnam in 1986 with the goal of creating a "socialist-oriented market economy".
A bakery (a.k.a. baker's shop or bake shop) is an establishment that produces and sells flour-based food baked in an oven such as bread, cookies, cakes, pastries, and pies.
The first large-scale Asian–African or Afro–Asian Conference—also known as the Bandung Conference (Konferensi Asia-Afrika)—was a meeting of Asian and African states, most of which were newly independent, which took place on April 18–24, 1955 in Bandung, Indonesia.
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
Barry Commoner (May 28, 1917 – September 30, 2012) was an American cellular biologist, college professor, and politician.
The Bavarian Soviet Republic (Bayerische Räterepublik)Hollander, Neil (2013) Elusive Dove: The Search for Peace During World War I. McFarland.
Benjamin Radcliff (born August 28, 1963) is an American political scientist and a professor at the University of Notre Dame.
Benjamin Ricketson Tucker (April 17, 1854 – June 22, 1939) was a 19th century proponent of American individualist anarchism, which he called "unterrified Jeffersonianism," and editor and publisher of the individualist anarchist periodical Liberty.
The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.
Bern or Berne (Bern, Bärn, Berne, Berna, Berna) is the de facto capital of Switzerland, referred to by the Swiss as their (e.g. in German) Bundesstadt, or "federal city".
Bernard Sanders (born September 8, 1941) is an American politician serving as the junior United States Senator from Vermont since 2007.
Bertell Ollman (born April 30, 1935 in Milwaukee) is a professor of politics at New York University.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
Bhaskar Sunkara is an American political writer, founding editor and publisher of Jacobin magazine and the publisher of Catalyst: A Journal of Theory and Strategy.
Bhikhu Chotalal Parekh, Baron Parekh (born 4 January 1935 in Amalsad, Gujarat) as the speaker for the Justice KT Desai Memorial Lecture 2009, Bombay Bar Association.
The Biennio Rosso (English: "Red Biennium" or "Two Red Years") was a two-year period, between 1919 and 1920, of intense social conflict in Italy, following the First World War.
The Black Panther Party or the BPP (originally the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was a political organization founded by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton in October 1966.
Blanquism refers to a conception of revolution generally attributed to Louis Auguste Blanqui (1805–1881) which holds that socialist revolution should be carried out by a relatively small group of highly organised and secretive conspirators.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
The Brazilian Communist Party (Partido Comunista Brasileiro), originally Partido Comunista do Brasil (Communist Party of Brazil) until 1958, is the oldest political party still active in Brazil, founded in 1922.
The Brazilian military government was the authoritarian military dictatorship that ruled Brazil from April 1, 1964 to March 15, 1985.
Martin Brian Mulroney (born March 20, 1939) is a Canadian politician who served as the 18th Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993.
Brian Reynolds Myers (born 1963), usually cited as B. R. Myers, is an American professor of international studies at Dongseo University in Busan, South Korea, best known for his writings on North Korean propaganda.
British Aerospace plc (BAe) was a British aircraft, munitions and defence-systems manufacturer.
The British Aircraft Corporation (BAC) was a British aircraft manufacturer formed from the government-pressured merger of English Electric Aviation Ltd., Vickers-Armstrongs (Aircraft), the Bristol Aeroplane Company and Hunting Aircraft in 1960.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
British Shipbuilders Corporation (BS) was a public corporation that owned and managed the shipbuilding industry in Great Britain from 1977 through the 1980s.
The Broad Front (Frente Amplio, FA) is a Uruguayan centre-left to left-wing coalition of political parties.
Burlington is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Vermont and the seat of Chittenden County.
Calculation in kind or calculation in nature is a way of valuating resources and a system of accounting that uses disaggregated physical magnitudes as opposed to a common unit of calculation.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Camilo Torres Restrepo (3 February 1929 in Bogotá, Colombia – 15 February 1966 in Santander) was a Colombian socialist, Roman Catholic priest, a predecessor of liberation theology and a member of the National Liberation Army (ELN) guerrilla organisation.
Cammell Laird is a British shipbuilding company.
Capital accumulation (also termed the accumulation of capital) is the dynamic that motivates the pursuit of profit, involving the investment of money or any financial asset with the goal of increasing the initial monetary value of said asset as a financial return whether in the form of profit, rent, interest, royalties or capital gains.
A capital good is a durable good (one that does not quickly wear out) that is used in the production of goods or services.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
Carlo Cafiero (September 1, 1846 – July 17, 1892) was an Italian anarchist, champion of Mikhail Bakunin during the second half of the 19th century and one of the main proponents of insurrectionary anarchism and anarcho-communism during the First International.
Carlo Rosselli (16 November 18999 June 1937) was an Italian political leader, journalist, historian and anti-fascist activist, first in Italy and then abroad.
The Carnation Revolution (Revolução dos Cravos), also referred to as the 25th of April (vinte e cinco de Abril), was initially a military coup in Lisbon, Portugal, on 25 April 1974 which overthrew the authoritarian regime of the Estado Novo.
Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.
Central and Eastern Europe, abbreviated CEE, is a term encompassing the countries in Central Europe (the Visegrád Group), the Baltic states, and Southeastern Europe, usually meaning former communist states from the Eastern bloc (Warsaw Pact) in Europe.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Centre Party (Senterpartiet, Sp) is an agrarian centrist political party in Norway.
Chantal Mouffe (born 17 June 1943) is a Belgian political theorist, currently teaching at University of Westminster.
François Marie Charles Fourier (7 April 1772 – 10 October 1837) was a French philosopher, influential early socialist thinker and one of the founders of utopian socialism.
Charles Hall (1740–1825) was a British physician, social critic and Ricardian socialist who published The Effects of Civilization on the People in European States in 1805, condemning capitalism for its inability to provide for the poor.
Charles Kingsley (12 June 1819 – 23 January 1875) was a broad church priest of the Church of England, a university professor, social reformer, historian and novelist.
Chartism was a working-class movement for political reform in Britain that existed from 1838 to 1857.
The Chicago Women’s Liberation Union, also known as CWLU, was a feminist organization founded in 1969 at a conference in Palatine, Illinois.
Child care, or otherwise known as daycare, is the care and supervision of a child or multiple children at a time.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC).
The Chinese Communist Revolution started from 1946, after the end of Second Sino-Japanese War, and was the second part of the Chinese Civil War.
The Chinese economic reform refers to the program of economic reforms termed "Socialism with Chinese characteristics" in the People's Republic of China (PRC) that was started in December 1978 by reformists within the Communist Party of China, led by Deng Xiaoping.
John Christian Watson (born John Christian Tanck; 9 April 186718 November 1941), commonly known as Chris Watson, was an Australian politician who served as the third Prime Minister of Australia.
Christian socialism is a form of religious socialism based on the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
A citizens' assembly is a body formed from the citizens of a modern state to deliberate on an issue or issues of national importance.
The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) was a decades-long movement with the goal of securing legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already held.
Clara Zetkin (née Eissner; 5 July 1857 – 20 June 1933) was a German Marxist theorist, activist, and advocate for women's rights.
Class conflict, frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes.
In political theory and particularly Marxism, class consciousness is the set of beliefs that a person holds regarding their social class or economic rank in society, the structure of their class, and their class interests.
Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.
Classless society refers to a society in which no one is born into a social class.
Clause IV was part of the 1918 constitution of the Labour Party in Britain which set out the aims and values of the party.
Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was a British statesman of the Labour Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1935 to 1955.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
Codetermination (also "copartnership" or "worker participation") is the practice of workers of an enterprise having the right to vote for representatives on the board of directors in a company.
The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) (Fédération du Commonwealth Coopératif, from 1955 the Parti social démocratique du Canada) was a social-democraticThese sources describe the CCF as a social-democratic political party.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Collective bargaining is a process of negotiation between employers and a group of employees aimed at agreements to regulate working salaries, working conditions, benefits, and other aspects of workers' compensation and rights for workers.
Collective farming and communal farming are various types of "agricultural production in which multiple farmers run their holdings as a joint enterprise." That type of collective is often an agricultural cooperative in which member-owners jointly engage in farming activities.
Collective ownership is the ownership of means of production by all members of a group for the benefit of all its members.
Collectivist anarchism (also known as anarcho-collectivism) is a revolutionaryPatsouras, Louis.
Common Dreams NewsCenter, often referred to simply as Common Dreams, is a 501(c)3 nonprofit U.S.-based progressive news website.
Common ownership refers to holding the assets of an organization, enterprise or community indivisibly rather than in the names of the individual members or groups of members as common property.
Communalism usually refers to a system that integrates communal ownership and federations of highly localized independent communities.
A commune (the French word appearing in the 12th century from Medieval Latin communia, meaning a large gathering of people sharing a common life; from Latin communis, things held in common) is an intentional community of people living together, sharing common interests, often having common values and beliefs, as well as shared property, possessions, resources, and, in some communes, work, income or assets.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Communist International (Comintern), known also as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international communist organization that advocated world communism.
A subdivision of the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB), the Communist Party Historians Group (CPHG) formed a highly influential cluster of British Marxist historians, who contributed to "history from below" from 1946 to 1956.
The Communist Party of Chile (Partido Comunista de Chile) is a Chilean political party inspired by the thoughts of Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin.
The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.
The Communist Party of Cuba is the political party that rules in Republic of Cuba, although others exist without legal recognition or incorporation.
The Communist Party of Finland (Suomen Kommunistinen Puolue; Finlands Kommunistiska Parti; abbreviated SKP) was a communist political party in Finland.
The Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB) was a British communist party which was the largest communist party in Great Britain, although it never became a mass party like those in France and Italy.
The Communist Party of Greece (Κομμουνιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας; Kommounistikó Kómma Elládas, KKE) is a Marxist–Leninist political party in Greece.
The Communist Party of Indonesia (Indonesian: Partai Komunis Indonesia, PKI) was a communist party in Indonesia that existed throughout the mid-20th century.
The Communist Party of Luxembourg (Kommunistesch Partei vu Lëtzebuerg, Parti Communiste Luxembourgeois, Kommunistische Partei Luxemburgs), abbreviated to KPL or PCL, is a communist party in Luxembourg.
The Communist Party of Spain (Partido Comunista de España; PCE) is a historically Marxist-Leninist party that, since 1986, is part of the United Left coalition.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.
The Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) is the founding and ruling communist party of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
The Communist Party USA (CPUSA) is a communist political party in the United States established in 1919 after a split in the Socialist Party of America.
A Communist state (sometimes referred to as workers' state) is a state that is administered and governed by a single party, guided by Marxist–Leninist philosophy, with the aim of achieving communism.
The Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (National Confederation of Labour; CNT) is a Spanish confederation of anarcho-syndicalist labour unions, which was long affiliated with the International Workers' Association (AIT).
A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign states, united for purposes of common action often in relation to other states.
A constituent assembly or constitutional assembly is a body or assembly of popularly elected representatives composed for the purpose of drafting or adopting a document called the constitution.
The Socialist Constitution of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea is the constitution of North Korea.
The Constitution of the People's Republic of China is nominally the supreme law within the People's Republic of China.
A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise".
Corporatism is the organization of a society by corporate groups and agricultural, labour, military or scientific syndicates and guilds on the basis of their common interests.
Corporatization is the process of transforming state assets, government agencies, or municipal organizations into corporations.
Council communism (also councilism) is a current of socialist thought that emerged in the 1920s.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
The Critique of the Gotha Program (Kritik des Gothaer Programms) is a document based on a letter by Karl Marx written in early May 1875 to the Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany (SDAP), with whom Marx and Friedrich Engels were in close association.
The Cuban Revolution (Revolución cubana) was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro's revolutionary 26th of July Movement and its allies against the authoritarian government of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista.
The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in China from 1966 until 1976.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.
Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary approach for exploring regulatory systems—their structures, constraints, and possibilities.
The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Czech/Slovak: Československá socialistická republika, ČSSR) ruled Czechoslovakia from 1948 until 23 April 1990, when the country was under Communist rule.
Daniel Webster Hoan (March 12, 1881 – June 11, 1961) was an American politician who served as the 32nd Mayor of Milwaukee, Wisconsin from 1916 to 1940.
José Daniel Ortega Saavedra (born November 11, 1945) is a Nicaraguan politician serving as President of Nicaragua since 2007; previously he was leader of Nicaragua from 1979 to 1990, first as Coordinator of the Junta of National Reconstruction (1979–1985) and then as President (1985–1990).
The Danish Social Liberal Party (Radikale Venstre, "Radical Left", i.e. "Radical Liberal Party") is a social-liberal political party in Denmark.
David Ricardo (18 April 1772 – 11 September 1823) was a British political economist, one of the most influential of the classical economists along with Thomas Malthus, Adam Smith and James Mill.
De Leonism, occasionally known as Marxism–De Leonism, is a libertarian Marxist current developed by the American activist Daniel De Leon.
Debt is when something, usually money, is owed by one party, the borrower or debtor, to a second party, the lender or creditor.
Decolonization (American English) or decolonisation (British English) is the undoing of colonialism: where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over one or more other territories.
Deep ecology is an ecological and environmental philosophy promoting the inherent worth of living beings regardless of their instrumental utility to human needs, plus a radical restructuring of modern human societies in accordance with such ideas.
Demanding the Impossible is a book on the history of anarchism by Peter Marshall.
Demetris Christofias, also spelled Dimitris Christofias (Δημήτρης Χριστόφιας; born 29 August 1946), is a Greek Cypriot former politician who was the sixth President of Cyprus from 2008 to 2013.
Democratic centralism is a method of leadership in which political decisions reached by the party through its democratically elected bodies are binding upon all members of the party.
The Democratic Party of the Left (Partito Democratico della Sinistra, PDS) was a democratic-socialist and social-democratic political party in Italy.
Democratic socialism is a political philosophy that advocates political democracy alongside social ownership of the means of production with an emphasis on self-management and/or democratic management of economic institutions within a market socialist, participatory or decentralized planned economy.
Demonization is the reinterpretation of polytheistic deities as evil, lying demons by other religions, generally monotheistic and henotheistic ones.
Deng Xiaoping (22 August 1904 – 19 February 1997), courtesy name Xixian (希贤), was a Chinese politician.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Deregulation is the process of removing or reducing state regulations, typically in the economic sphere.
Direct action occurs when a group takes an action which is intended to reveal an existing problem, highlight an alternative, or demonstrate a possible solution to a social issue.
Direct democracy or pure democracy is a form of democracy in which people decide on policy initiatives directly.
In economics, distribution is the way total output, income, or wealth is distributed among individuals or among the factors of production (such as labour, land, and capital).
The Douglas–Coldwell Foundation is a left-wing Canadian think tank devoted, in the words of its slogan, to "promoting education and research into social democracy." It was founded in 1971, and is based in Ottawa.
Dublin is a constituency of the European Parliament in Ireland.
Dwight Macdonald (March 24, 1906 – December 19, 1982) was a U.S. writer, editor, film critic, social critic, philosopher, and political radical.
Edward Palmer Thompson (3 February 1924 – 28 August 1993), usually cited as E. P.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Eco-socialism, green socialism or socialist ecology is an ideology merging aspects of socialism with that of green politics, ecology and alter-globalization or anti-globalization.
The Ecologist Party "The Greens" (Partido Ecologista "Os Verdes",, PEV) is a Portuguese green and eco-socialist party.
The economic calculation problem is a criticism of using economic planning as a substitute for market-based allocation of the factors of production.
Economic democracy is a socioeconomic philosophy that proposes to shift decision-making power from corporate managers and corporate shareholders to a larger group of public stakeholders that includes workers, customers, suppliers, neighbors and the broader public.
Economic liberalism is an economic system organized on individual lines, which means the greatest possible number of economic decisions are made by individuals or households rather than by collective institutions or organizations.
Economic planning is a mechanism for the allocation of resources between and within organizations which is held in contrast to the market mechanism.
An economic system is a system of production, resource allocation and distribution of goods and services within a society or a given geographic area.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
The economy of Spain is the world's fourteenth-largest by nominal GDP, and it is also one of the largest in the world by purchasing power parity.
The economy of the Soviet Union (экономика Советского Союза) was based on a system of state ownership of the means of production, collective farming, industrial manufacturing and centralized administrative planning.
Edward Samuel Miliband (born 24 December 1969) is a British politician who was Leader of the Labour Party as well as Leader of the Opposition between 2010 and 2015.
Edmund Wilson (May 8, 1895 – June 12, 1972) was an American writer and critic who explored Freudian and Marxist themes.
Eduard Bernstein (6 January 185018 December 1932) was a German social-democratic Marxist theorist and politician.
Edward Bellamy (March 26, 1850 – May 22, 1898) was an American author and socialist, most famous for his utopian novel, Looking Backward, a tale set in the distant future of the year 2000.
Edward Carpenter (29 August 1844 – 28 June 1929) was an English socialist poet, philosopher, anthologist, and early activist for rights for homosexuals.
Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.
Egotism is the drive to maintain and enhance favorable views of oneself, and generally features an inflated opinion of one's personal features and importance.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
(10 May 1897 – 19 September 1987) was a Norwegian politician from the Labour Party of Norway.
El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.
Jenny Julia Eleanor Marx (16 January 1855 – 31 March 1898), sometimes called Eleanor Aveling and known to her family as Tussy, was the English-born youngest daughter of Karl Marx.
In political and sociological theory, the elite (French élite, from Latin eligere) are a small group of powerful people who hold a disproportionate amount of wealth, privilege, political power, or skill in a society.
Emil Seidel (December 13, 1864 – June 24, 1947) was a prominent German-American politician.
Emma Goldman (1869May 14, 1940) was an anarchist political activist and writer.
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (3 May 1748 – 20 June 1836), most commonly known as the Abbé Sieyès, was a French Roman Catholic abbé, clergyman and political writer.
Emmanuel Bernard Le Roy Ladurie (born 19 July 1929) is a French historian whose work is mainly focused upon Languedoc in the Ancien Régime, particularly the history of the peasantry.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Enrico Barone (December 22, 1859, Naples, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies – May 14, 1924, Rome, Italy) was a soldier, military historian, and an economist.
Entryism (also referred to as entrism or enterism, or as infiltration) is a political strategy in which an organisation or state encourages its members or supporters to join another, usually larger, organisation in an attempt to expand influence and expand their ideas and program.
Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems; habitat destruction; the extinction of wildlife; and pollution.
Environmental issues are harmful effects of human activity on the biophysical environment.
Errico Malatesta (14 December 1853 – 22 July 1932) was an Italian anarchist.
In France under the Old Regime, the Estates General (French: États généraux) or States-General was a legislative and consultative assembly (see The Estates) of the different classes (or estates) of French subjects.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
Eurocommunism (adherents sometimes referred to as Gramscians) was a revisionist trend in the 1970s and 1980s within various Western European communist parties.
Europe-Asia Studies is an academic peer-reviewed journal published 10 times a year by Routledge on behalf of the Institute of Central and East European Studies, University of Glasgow, and continuing (since vol. 45, 1993) the journal Soviet Studies (vols. 1-44, 1949–1992), which was renamed after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
Elections to the European Parliament were held between 10 and 13 June 2004 in the 25 member states of the European Union, using varying election days according to local custom.
The 2009 European Parliament election in Ireland was the Irish component of the 2009 European Parliament election and was held on Friday, 5 June 2009, coinciding with the 2009 local elections.
The 2014 European Parliament election in Spain was held on Sunday, 25 May 2014, as part of the EU-wide election to elect the 8th European Parliament.
A European political party (formally, a political party at European level; informally a Europarty) is a type of political party organisation operating transnationally in Europe and in the institutions of the European Union.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
European United Left–Nordic Green Left (Gauche unitaire européenne, GUE-NGL) is a left-wing political group in the European Parliament, established in 1995.
Juan Evo Morales Ayma (born October 26, 1959), popularly known as Evo, is a Bolivian politician and cocalero activist who has served as President of Bolivia since 2006.
The Fabian Society is a British socialist organization whose purpose is to advance the principles of democratic socialism via gradualist and reformist effort in democracies, rather than by revolutionary overthrow.
In economics, a factor market is a market where factors of production are bought and sold, such as the labor market, the physical capital market, the market for raw materials, and the market for management or entrepreneurial resources.
The Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (in Spanish: Frente Farabundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional, FMLN) is one of the two major political parties in El Salvador.
Fast Company is a monthly American business magazine published in print and online that focuses on technology, business, and design.
The February Revolution (p), known in Soviet historiography as the February Bourgeois Democratic Revolution, was the first of two revolutions which took place in Russia in 1917.
The Iberian Anarchist Federation (Federación Anarquista Ibérica, FAI) is a Spanish organization of anarchist (anarcho-syndicalist and anarchist-communist) militants active within affinity groups inside the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) anarcho-syndicalist union.
Fela Anikulapo Kuti (15 October 1938 – 2 August 1997), also professionally known as Fela Kuti, or simply Fela, was a Nigerian multi-instrumentalist, musician, composer, pioneer of the Afrobeat music genre, human rights activist, and political maverick.
Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.
Ferdinand Lassalle (11 April 1825 – 31 August 1864), born as Ferdinand Johann Gottlieb Lassal and also known as Ferdinand Lassalle-Wolfson, was a German-Jewish jurist, philosopher, socialist, and political activist.
Fernand-Léonce-Émile Pelloutier (1 October 1867, Paris – 13 March 1901, Sèvres) was a French anarchist and syndicalist.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (August 13, 1926 – November 25, 2016) was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.
Financial capital is any economic resource measured in terms of money used by entrepreneurs and businesses to buy what they need to make their products or to provide their services to the sector of the economy upon which their operation is based, i.e. retail, corporate, investment banking, etc.
A financial crisis is any of a broad variety of situations in which some financial assets suddenly lose a large part of their nominal value.
Financialization is a term sometimes used to describe the development of financial capitalism during the period from 1980 until 2010, in which debt-to-equity ratios increased and financial services accounted for an increasing share of national income relative to other sectors.
The five-year plans for the development of the national economy of the Soviet Union (USSR) (Пятиле́тние пла́ны разви́тия наро́дного хозя́йства СССР, Pjatiletnije plany razvitiya narodnogo khozyaystva SSSR) consisted of a series of nationwide centralized economic plans in the Soviet Union, beginning in the late 1920s.
Foro de São Paulo (FSP; São Paulo Forum) is a conference of leftist political parties and other organizations from Latin America and the Caribbean.
Fourierism is the systematic set of economic, political, and social beliefs first espoused by French intellectual Charles Fourier (1772–1837).
The Fourth International (FI) is a revolutionary socialist international organisation consisting of followers of Leon Trotsky, or Trotskyists, with the declared goal of helping the working class overthrow capitalism and work toward international communism.
François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand (26 October 1916 – 8 January 1996) was a French statesman who was President of France from 1981 to 1995, the longest time in office of any French president.
François-Noël Babeuf (23 November 1760 – 27 May 1797), known as Gracchus Babeuf, was a French political agitator and journalist of the French Revolutionary period.
Frank Paul Zeidler (September 20, 1912 – July 7, 2006) was an American Socialist politician and Mayor of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, serving three terms from April 20, 1948 to April 18, 1960.
John Frederick Denison Maurice (29 August 1805 – 1 April 1872), often known as F. D. Maurice, was an English Anglican theologian, a prolific author, and one of the founders of Christian socialism.
Free association (also called "free association of producers" or, as Marx often called it, a "community of freely associated individuals") is a relationship among individuals where there is no state, social class, authority, or private ownership of means of production.
Free love is a social movement that accepts all forms of love.
In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.
The Free Territory (Вільна територія vilna terytoriya; Вольная территория volnaya territoriya) or Makhnovia (Махновщина Makhnovshchyna) resulted from an attempt to form a stateless anarchistNoel-Schwartz, Heather.
Freedom in the World is a yearly survey and report by the U.S.-based non-governmental organization Freedom House that measures the degree of civil liberties and political rights in every nation and significant related and disputed territories around the world.
Freedom of choice describes an individual's opportunity and autonomy to perform an action selected from at least two available options, unconstrained by external parties.
The Mozambique Liberation Front (FRELIMO), from the Portuguese Frente de Libertação de Moçambique is the dominant political party in Mozambique.
The French Communist Party (Parti communiste français, PCF) is a communist party in France.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The French Section of the Workers' International (Section Française de l'Internationale Ouvrière, SFIO) was a French socialist political party founded in 1905 and replaced in 1969 by the current Socialist Party (PS).
Friedrich Engels (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.;, sometimes anglicised Frederick Engels; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist and businessman.
"From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs" is a slogan popularised by Karl Marx in his 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program.
Fulgencio Batista y Zaldívar (born Rubén Zaldívar; January 16, 1901 – August 6, 1973) was the elected President of Cuba from 1940 to 1944, and U.S.-backed dictator from 1952 to 1959, before being overthrown during the Cuban Revolution.
George Douglas Howard Cole (25 September 1889 – 14 January 1959) was an English political theorist, economist, writer and historian.
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970.
The Gang of Four was a political faction composed of four Chinese Communist Party officials.
Gaston Leval (born Pierre Robert Piller October 20, 1895 – April 8, 1978) was an anarcho-syndicalist, combatant and historian of the Spanish Revolution.
The gay liberation movement of the late 1960s through the mid-1980s urged lesbians and gay men to engage in radical direct action, and to counter societal shame with gay pride.
The Gay Liberation Front (GLF) was the name of a number of gay liberation groups, the first of which was formed in New York City in 1969, immediately after the Stonewall riots, in which police clashed with gay demonstrators.
A gender role, also known as a sex role, is a social role encompassing a range of behaviors and attitudes that are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their actual or perceived sex or sexuality.
A general strike (or mass strike) is a strike action in which a substantial proportion of the total labour force in a city, region, or country participates.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
Geoffrey Ostergaard (20 July 1926 – 22 March 1990) was a senior lecturer at Birmingham University and an anarcho-pacifist.
George Woodcock (May 8, 1912 – January 28, 1995) was a Canadian writer of political biography and history, an anarchist thinker, an essayist and literary critic.
Georges Eugène Sorel (2 November 1847 – 29 August 1922) was a French philosopher and theorist of Sorelianism.
Gerald Allan "Jerry" Cohen, FBA (14 April 1941 – 5 August 2009) was a Marxist political philosopher who held the positions of Quain Professor of Jurisprudence, University College London and Chichele Professor of Social and Political Theory, All Souls College, Oxford.
The German Revolution or November Revolution (Novemberrevolution) was a civil conflict in the German Empire at the end of the First World War that resulted in the replacement of the German federal constitutional monarchy with a democratic parliamentary republic that later became known as the Weimar Republic.
Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa.
A gift economy, gift culture, or gift exchange is a mode of exchange where valuables are not traded or sold, but rather given without an explicit agreement for immediate or future rewards.
Giorgio Napolitano, (born 29 June 1925) is an Italian politician who served as the 11th President of the Republic from 2006 to 2015, the only Italian President to be reelected to the Presidency.
Giuseppe Di Vittorio, also known under the pseudonym Nicoletti (August 11, 1892 – November 3, 1957), was an Italian syndicalist trade unionist and communist politician, one of the most influential leaders of the labor movement after World War I.
Giuseppe Mazzini (22 June 1805 – 10 March 1872) was an Italian politician, journalist, activist for the unification of Italy and spearhead of the Italian revolutionary movement.
The Gleaner Company Ltd. is a newspaper publishing enterprise in Jamaica.
The Global South is a term that has been emerging in transnational and postcolonial studies to refer to what may also be called the "Third World" (i.e., Africa, Latin America, and the developing countries in Asia), "developing countries," "less developed countries," and "less developed regions." It can also include poorer "southern" regions of wealthy "northern" countries.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
Gosbank (Госбанк, Государственный банк СССР, Gosudarstvenny bank SSSR—the State Bank of the USSR) was the central bank of the Soviet Union and the only bank whatsoever in the entire Union from the 1930s to 1987.
The State Planning Committee, commonly known as Gosplan (Russian: Госпла́н), was the agency responsible for central economic planning in the Soviet Union.
Gossnab of USSR, State Supplies of the USSR (Госснаб СССР) was active in 1948-1953, 1965-1991.
Govan Shipbuilders Ltd (GSL) was a British shipbuilding company based on the River Clyde at Glasgow in Scotland.
Gradualism, from the Latin gradus ("step"), is a hypothesis, a theory or a tenet assuming that change comes about gradually or that variation is gradual in nature and happens over time as opposed to in large steps.
The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s.
The January 2015 Greek legislative election was held in Greece on Sunday, 25 January, to elect all 300 members to the Hellenic Parliament in accordance with the constitution.
Green anarchism (or eco-anarchism) is a school of thought within anarchism which puts a particular emphasis on environmental issues.
A Green party is a formally organized political party based on the principles of green politics, such as social justice, environmentalism and nonviolence.
Green politics (also known as ecopolitics) is a political ideology that aims to create an ecologically sustainable society rooted in environmentalism, nonviolence, social justice and grassroots democracy.
Grenada is a sovereign state in the southeastern Caribbean Sea consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands at the southern end of the Grenadines island chain.
GroenLinks (GreenLeft, GrienLinks, GL) is a green political party in the Netherlands.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area.
Guild socialism is a political movement advocating workers' control of industry through the medium of trade-related guilds "in an implied contractual relationship with the public".
Guinea, officially the Republic of Guinea (République de Guinée), is a country on the western coast of Africa.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
Harper Perennial is a paperback imprint of the publishing house HarperCollins Publishers.
Henry "Harry" Hay, Jr. (April 7, 1912 – October 24, 2002) was a prominent American gay rights activist, communist, labor advocate, and Native American civil rights campaigner.
Hawker Siddeley was a group of British manufacturing companies engaged in aircraft production.
Haymarket Books is a non-profit, radical, independent book publisher based in Chicago.
Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint-Simon, often referred to as Henri de Saint-Simon (17 October 1760 – 19 May 1825), was a French political and economic theorist and businessman whose thought played a substantial role in influencing politics, economics, sociology, and the philosophy of science.
Henry David Thoreau (see name pronunciation; July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862) was an American essayist, poet, philosopher, abolitionist, naturalist, tax resister, development critic, surveyor, and historian.
Henry Mayers Hyndman (7 March 1842 – 20 November 1921) was an English writer and politician.
A hierarchical organization is an organizational structure where every entity in the organization, except one, is subordinate to a single other entity.
A hierarchy (from the Greek hierarchia, "rule of a high priest", from hierarkhes, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally.
A hippie (sometimes spelled hippy) is a member of a counterculture, originally a youth movement that began in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread to other countries around the world.
The history of socialism has its origins in the 1789 French Revolution and the changes which it wrought, although it has precedents in earlier movements and ideas.
The history of the cooperative movement concerns the origins and history of cooperatives.
Socialism in the United Kingdom is thought to stretch back to the 19th century from roots arising in the aftermath of the English Civil War.
Socialism in the United States began with utopian communities in the early 19th century such as the Shakers, the activist visionary Josiah Warren and intentional communities inspired by Charles Fourier.
Hồ Chí Minh (Chữ nôm: 胡志明; 19 May 1890 – 2 September 1969), born Nguyễn Sinh Cung, also known as Nguyễn Tất Thành and Nguyễn Ái Quốc, was a Vietnamese Communist revolutionary leader who was Chairman and First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Vietnam.
The House of Romanov (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. also Romanoff; Рома́новы, Románovy) was the second dynasty to rule Russia, after the House of Rurik, reigning from 1613 until the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II on March 15, 1917, as a result of the February Revolution.
HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.
Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (28 July 1954 – 5 March 2013) was a Venezuelan politician who was President of Venezuela from 1999 to 2013.
Human overpopulation (or population overshoot) occurs when the ecological footprint of a human population in a specific geographical location exceeds the carrying capacity of the place occupied by that group.
The Hungarian People's Republic (Magyar Népköztársaság) was a one-party socialist republic (communist state) from 20 August 1949 to 23 October 1989.
The Hungarian Revolution of 1956, or Hungarian Uprising of 1956 (1956-os forradalom or 1956-os felkelés), was a nationwide revolt against the Marxist-Leninist government of the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956.
Hutterites (Hutterer) are an ethnoreligious group that is a communal branch of Anabaptists who, like the Amish and Mennonites, trace their roots to the Radical Reformation of the 16th century.
Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism (1917), by Vladimir Lenin, describes the function of financial capital in generating profits from imperialist colonialism as the final stage of capitalist development to ensure greater profits.
Impossibilism is a Marxist theory and perspective on the emergence of socialism that stresses the limited value of political, economic, cultural and social reforms within a capitalist economy.
Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual.
Individualist anarchism refers to several traditions of thought within the anarchist movement that emphasize the individual and their will over external determinants such as groups, society, traditions and ideological systems.
The Indonesian mass killings of 1965–1966 (also variously known as the Indonesian massacres, Indonesian genocide, Indonesian Communist Purge, Indonesian politicide, or the 1965 Tragedy) were large-scale killings and civil unrest which occurred in Indonesia over several months, targeting communist sympathizers, ethnic Chinese and alleged leftists, often at the instigation of the armed forces and government.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), members of which are commonly termed "Wobblies", is an international labor union that was founded in 1905 in Chicago, Illinois in the United States of America.
An intentional community is a planned residential community designed from the start to have a high degree of social cohesion and teamwork.
Interest is payment from a borrower or deposit-taking financial institution to a lender or depositor of an amount above repayment of the principal sum (i.e., the amount borrowed), at a particular rate.
The International of Anarchist Federations (IAF/IFA) (Internationale des Fédérations Anarchistes, IFA) was founded during an international anarchist conference in Carrara in 1968 by the three existing European federations of France, Italy and Spain as well as the Bulgarian federation in French exile.
The International Socialist Commission, also known as the International Socialist Committee or the Berne International was a coordinating committee of socialists parties that adhered to the idea of the Zimmerwald Conference of 1915.
The International Workers' Association (IWA) (AIT – Asociación Internacional de los Trabajadores, IAA-Internationale ArbeiterInnen Assoziation) is an international federation of anarcho-syndicalist labor unions and initiatives.
The International Working Union of Socialist Parties (IWUSP; also known as 2½ International or the Vienna International; Internationale Arbeitsgemeinschaft Sozialistischer Parteien, IASP) was a political international for the co-operation of socialist parties.
The International Workingmen's Association (IWA, 1864–1876), often called the First International, was an international organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing socialist, communist and anarchist political groups and trade union organizations that were based on the working class and class struggle.
The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books.
Islamic socialism is a term coined by various Muslim leaders to describe a more spiritual form of socialism.
The Italian Anarchist Federation (Federazione Anarchica Italiana) is an Italian anarchist federation of autonomous anarchist groups all over Italy.
The Italian Communist Party (Partito Comunista Italiano, PCI) was a communist political party in Italy.
The Italian General Confederation of Labour (CGIL) is a national trade union centre in Italy.
The Italian Socialist Party (PSI) was a socialist and later social-democratic political party in Italy.
James "Jimmy" Weinstein (1926–2005) was an American historian and journalist best known as the founder and publisher of In These Times.
The Japanese Communist Party (JCP, 日本共産党, Nihon Kyōsan-tō) is a political party in Japan and is one of the largest non-governing communist parties in the world.
Jaroslav Vaněk (20 April 1930 – 15 November 2017) was an economist and Professor Emeritus of Cornell University known for his research on economics of participation (labour-managed firms, worker cooperatives) and, in his earlier career, on the theory of international trade.
Jawaharlal Nehru (14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence.
Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, and literary critic.
Jeremy Bernard Corbyn (born 26 May 1949).
Jerold Irwin "Jerry" Mander (born May 1, 1936) is an American activist and author, best known for his 1977 book, Four Arguments for the Elimination of Television.
Jesús Huerta de Soto Ballester (born 1956) is a Spanish economist of the Austrian School.
Jiang Zemin (born 17 August 1926) is a retired Chinese politician who served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China from 1989 to 2002, as Chairman of the Central Military Commission from 1989 to 2004, and as President of the People's Republic of China from 1993 to 2003.
Joe Higgins (born 20 May 1949) is a former Irish Socialist Party politician who served as a Teachta Dála (TD) for the Dublin West constituency from 1997 to 2007 and 2011 to 2016.
John Bellamy Foster (born August 15, 1953) is a professor of sociology at the University of Oregon and also editor of Monthly Review.
John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, Georgist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform.
John Louis Esposito (born May 19, 1940) is University Professor, Professor of Religion & International Affairs and Islamic Studies at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. He was also the Founding Director of the Prince Alwaleed Center for Muslim–Christian Understanding at Georgetown.
John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes (5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946), was a British economist whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments.
John Saville born "Orestes Stamatopoulos" (2 April 1916 – 13 June 2009) was a Greek-British historian, long associated with Hull University.
John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.
John Zerzan (born August 10, 1943) is an American anarchist and primitivist philosopher and author.
Jomo Kenyatta (– 22 August 1978) was a Kenyan anti-colonial activist and politician who governed Kenya as its Prime Minister from 1963 to 1964 and then as its first President from 1964 to his death in 1978.
Joseph Alois Schumpeter (8 February 1883 – 8 January 1950) was an Austrian political economist.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Joseph Eugene Stiglitz (born February 9, 1943) is an American economist and a professor at Columbia University.
Joshua Muravchik (born September 17, 1947 in New York City) is a distinguished fellow at the DC-based World Affairs Institute.
Josiah Warren (1798 – April 14, 1874) was an individualist anarchist, inventor, musician, printer, and author in the United States.
Josip Broz (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз,; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (Cyrillic: Тито), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and political leader, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.
Juche (subject;; usually left untranslated or translated as "self-reliance") is the official state ideology of North Korea, described by the government as Kim Il-sung's "original, brilliant and revolutionary contribution to national and international thought".
Julius Kambarage Nyerere (13 April 1922 – 14 October 1999) was a Tanzanian anti-colonial activist, politician, and political theorist.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Kenneth Charles Loach (born 17 June 1936) is an English director of television and independent film.
Kenneth David Buchizya Kaunda (born 28 April 1924), also known as KK, is a Zambian former politician who served as the first President of Zambia from 1964 to 1991.
Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society is a book by the Welsh Marxist academic Raymond Williams published in 1976 by Croom Helm.
A kibbutz (קִבּוּץ /, lit. "gathering, clustering"; regular plural kibbutzim /) is a collective community in Israel that was traditionally based on agriculture.
Knights of Labor (K of L), officially Noble and Holy Order of the Knights of Labor, was the largest and one of the most important American labor organizations of the 1880s.
The Kronstadt rebellion (Kronshtadtskoye vosstaniye) involved a major unsuccessful uprising against the Bolsheviks in March 1921, during the later years of the Russian Civil War.
The kulaks (a, plural кулаки́, p, "fist", by extension "tight-fisted"; kurkuli in Ukraine, but also used in Russian texts in Ukrainian contexts) were a category of affluent peasants in the later Russian Empire, Soviet Russia and the early Soviet Union.
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
Kwame Nkrumah PC (21 September 1909 – 27 April 1972) was a Ghanaian politician and revolutionary.
L'Unità was an Italian newspaper, founded as official newspaper of the Italian Communist Party.
The labor theory of value (LTV) is a theory of value that argues that the economic value of a good or service is determined by the total amount of "socially necessary labor" required to produce it, rather than by the use or pleasure its owner gets from it (demand) and its scarcity value (supply).
The Labour and Socialist International (LSI; German: Sozialistische Arbeiter-Internationale, SAI) was an international organization of socialist and labour parties, active between 1923 and 1940.
The labour movement or labor movement consists of two main wings, the trade union movement (British English) or labor union movement (American English), also called trade unionism or labor unionism on the one hand, and the political labour movement on the other.
The Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet, A/Ap), formerly the Norwegian Labour Party, is a social-democratic political party in Norway.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
Labour vouchers (also known as labour cheques, labour certificates, and personal credit) are a device proposed to govern demand for goods in some models of socialism, unlike money does under capitalism.
The Lange model (or Lange–Lerner theorem) is a neoclassical economic model for a hypothetical socialist economy based on public ownership of the means of production and a trial-and-error approach to determining output targets and achieving economic equilibrium and Pareto efficiency.
The law of value (German: Wertgesetz) is a central concept in Karl Marx's critique of political economy, first expounded in his polemic The Poverty of Philosophy (1847) against Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, with reference to David Ricardo's economics.
Marie-Esprit-Léon Walras (16 December 1834 – 5 January 1910) was a French mathematical economist and Georgist.
Léopold Sédar Senghor (9 October 1906 – 20 December 2001) was a Senegalese poet, politician, and cultural theorist who for two decades served as the first president of Senegal (1960–80).
The Leader of the Labour Party is the most senior political figure within the Labour Party in the United Kingdom.
The League for Social Reconstruction (LSR) was a circle of Canadian socialist intellectuals officially formed in 1932, though it had its beginnings during a camping retreat in 1931.
The Left Bloc (Bloco de Esquerda) is a left-wing political party in Portugal founded in 1999.
The Left Opposition was a faction within the Bolshevik Party from 1923 to 1927, headed de facto by Leon Trotsky.
The Party of Left Socialist-Revolutionaries was a revolutionary socialist political party formed during the Russian Revolution.
Left Unity is a left-wing political party in the United Kingdom founded in 2013 when film director Ken Loach appealed for a new party to replace the Labour Party (which according to him failed to oppose austerity and had shifted towards neoliberalism). More than 10,000 people supported Loach's appeal. In 2014, the party had 2,000 members and 70 branches across Britain. The organisation is affiliated at the European Union level with the Party of the European Left.
Left-libertarianism (or left-wing libertarianism) names several related, but distinct approaches to political and social theory which stress both individual freedom and social equality.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
The left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks were a series of rebellions and uprisings against the Bolsheviks by rival left-wing parties that started soon after the October Revolution, continued through the Russian Civil War, and lasted into the first few years of Soviet rule.
Leninism is the political theory for the organisation of a revolutionary vanguard party and the achievement of a dictatorship of the proletariat as political prelude to the establishment of socialism.
Leo Victor Panitch, (born May 3, 1945) is a Distinguished Research Professor of Political Science and Canada Research Chair in Comparative Political Economy at York University.
Leon Trotsky (born Lev Davidovich Bronstein; – 21 August 1940) was a Russian revolutionary, theorist, and Soviet politician.
Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse (8 September 1864 – 21 June 1929) was a British liberal political theorist and sociologist, who has been considered one of the leading and earliest proponents of social liberalism.
The Levante (Catalan: Llevant; "Levant, East") is a name used to refer to the eastern region of the Iberian Peninsula, on the Spanish Mediterranean coast.
Laws affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people vary greatly by country or territory; everything from the legal recognition of same-sex marriage to the death penalty as punishment for same-sex romantic/sexual activity or identity.
Liberal feminism is an individualistic form of feminist theory, which focuses on women's ability to maintain their equality through their own actions and choices.
Liberal socialism is a socialist political philosophy that incorporates liberal principles.
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.
Liberation theology is a synthesis of Christian theology and Marxist socio-economic analyses that emphasizes social concern for the poor and the political liberation for oppressed peoples.
Libertarian Marxism refers to a broad scope of economic and political philosophies that emphasize the anti-authoritarian aspects of Marxism.
Libertarian socialism (or socialist libertarianism) is a group of anti-authoritarian political philosophies inside the socialist movement that rejects socialism as centralized state ownership and control of the economy.
Libertarianism (from libertas, meaning "freedom") is a collection of political philosophies and movements that uphold liberty as a core principle.
Liberté, égalité, fraternité, French for "liberty, equality, fraternity", is the national motto of France and the Republic of Haiti, and is an example of a tripartite motto.
Liberty, in politics, consists of the social, political, and economic freedoms to which all community members are entitled.
The following is a list of communist and anti-capitalist parties with representation in national parliaments.
Self-identified communists hold a variety of views, including Marxism, Dengism, Trotskyism, Stalinism, council communism, Luxemburgism, anarcho-communism, Christian communism, Islamic socialism and various currents of left communism.
This article lists notable socialist economists and political economists.
This list consists of two groups: songs of countries that proclaimed themselves to be socialist (such as USSR, PRC, DPRK, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia), and songs of the socialist movement.
The following is a list of self-declared Socialist states—that is to say, past and present states that have declared themselves Socialist or in the process of building socialism.
Protests against the Vietnam War took place in the 1960s and 1970s.
Loris Fortuna (January 22, 1924 – December 5, 1985) was an Italian left-wing politician, and former Member of Parliament since 1963.
Continuous Struggle (Lotta Continua, LC) was a far left extra-parliamentary organization in Italy.
Louis Auguste Blanqui (8 February 1805 – 1 January 1881) was a French socialist and political activist, notable for his revolutionary theory of Blanquism.
Louis Jean Joseph Charles Blanc (29 October 1811 – 6 December 1882) was a French politician and historian.
Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (29 September 1881 – 10 October 1973) was an Austrian-American theoretical Austrian School economist.
The machinery of government (sometimes MoG) means the interconnected structures and processes of government, such as the functions and accountability of departments in the executive branch of government.
A general election was held on Saturday, 8 March 2008 for members of the 12th Parliament of Malaysia.
Mancur Lloyd Olson Jr. (or; January 22, 1932 – February 19, 1998) was an American economist and social scientist who taught economics at the University of Maryland, College Park.
In politics, a mandate is the authority granted by a constituency to act as its representative.
Maoism, known in China as Mao Zedong Thought, is a political theory derived from the teachings of the Chinese political leader Mao Zedong, whose followers are known as Maoists.
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.
Marie Roch Louis Reybaud (15 August 1799 – 26 or 28 October 1879), French writer, political economist and politician, was born at Marseille.
A market is one of the many varieties of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
In economics, market price is the economic price for which a good or service is offered in the marketplace.
Market socialism is a type of economic system involving the public, cooperative or social ownership of the means of production in the framework of a market economy.
Martin Luther King Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from 1954 until his death in 1968.
Martinus Nijhoff Publishers was an independent academic publishing company dating back to the nineteenth century, which is now an imprint of Brill Publishers.
Marxian economics, or the Marxian school of economics, refers to a school of economic thought tracing its foundations to the critique of classical political economy first expounded upon by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.
Marxist feminism is feminism focused on investigating and explaining the ways in which women are oppressed through systems of capitalism and private property.
Mass is a term used to describe the main eucharistic liturgical service in many forms of Western Christianity.
Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions.
The Mattachine Society, founded in 1950, was one of the earliest LGBT (gay rights) organizations in the United States, probably second only to Chicago's Society for Human Rights.
Maximilien Rubel (10 October 1905 in Chernivtsi – 28 February 1996 in Paris) was a famous Marxist historian and council communist.
The volatile period of civil unrest in France during May 1968 was punctuated by demonstrations and massive general strikes as well as the occupation of universities and factories across France.
Mazdak (مزدک, Middle Persian:, also Mazdak the Younger; died c. 524 or 528) was a Zoroastrian mobad (priest), Iranian reformer, prophet and religious activist who gained influence during the reign of the Sasanian emperor Kavadh I. He claimed to be a prophet of Ahura Mazda and instituted communal possessions and social welfare programs.
In economics and sociology, the means of production (also called capital goods) are physical non-human and non-financial inputs used in the production of economic value.
A Member of the European Parliament (MEP) is a person who has been elected to serve as a popular representative in the European Parliament.
The Mensheviks (меньшевики) were a faction in the Russian socialist movement, the other being the Bolsheviks.
Meritocracy (merit, from Latin mereō, and -cracy, from Ancient Greek κράτος "strength, power") is a political philosophy which holds that certain things, such as economic goods or power, should be vested in individuals on the basis of talent, effort and achievement, rather than factors such as sexuality, race, gender or wealth.
The Mexican Communist Party (Partido Comunista Mexicano, PCM) was a communist party in Mexico.
Michael Albert (born April 8, 1947) is an American activist, economist, speaker, and writer.
Michael John Ellman (born 27 July 1942, Ripley, Surrey) has been a professor of economics at the University of Amsterdam since 1978.
Michael Freeden is a Professorial Research Associate at the Department of Politics and International Studies at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.
Edward Michael "Mike" Harrington, Jr. (February 24, 1928 – July 31, 1989) was an American democratic socialist, writer, author of The Other America, political activist, political theorist, professor of political science, radio commentator and founding member of the Democratic Socialists of America.
Dr. Michael Jeyakumar Devaraj (born 28 March 1955) was a Malaysian politician who has served in the Parliament of Malaysia as Member of Parliament for the Sungai Siput constituency in Perak from 2008 to 2018.
Michael Norman Manley ON OCC (10 December 1924 – 6 March 1997) was a Jamaican politician who served as the fourth Prime Minister of Jamaica from 1972 to 1980 and from 1989 to 1992.
Michel Bauwens (born 21 March 1958) is a Belgian Peer-to-Peer theorist and an active writer, researcher and conference speaker on the subject of technology, culture and business innovation.
Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (– 1 July 1876) was a Russian revolutionary anarchist and founder of collectivist anarchism.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
Militant, commonly called the Militant tendency, was a Trotskyist entryist group designed to infiltrate the British Labour Party.
Milwaukee is the largest city in the state of Wisconsin and the fifth-largest city in the Midwestern United States.
A minimum wage is the lowest remuneration that employers can legally pay their workers.
A minority government, or minority cabinet or minority parliament, is a cabinet formed in a parliamentary system when a political party or coalition of parties does not have a majority of overall seats in the parliament.
The Mises Institute, short name for Ludwig von Mises Institute for Austrian Economics, is a tax-exempt educative organization located in Auburn, Alabama, United States.
A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise.
In the writings of Karl Marx and the Marxist theory of historical materialism, a mode of production (in German: Produktionsweise, meaning 'the way of producing') is a specific combination of.
The Mondragon Corporation is a corporation and federation of worker cooperatives based in the Basque region of Spain.
Monetarism is a school of thought in monetary economics that emphasizes the role of governments in controlling the amount of money in circulation.
Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a particular country or socio-economic context.
The Mongolian People's Party (MPP; Монгол Ардын Нам, MAH; Mongol Ardīn Nam, MAN) is the oldest political party in Mongolia.
The Mongolian People's Republic (Бүгд Найрамдах Монгол Ард Улс (БНМАУ), Bügd Nairamdakh Mongol Ard Uls (BNMAU)), commonly known as Outer Mongolia, was a unitary sovereign socialist state which existed between 1924 and 1992, coterminous with the present-day country of Mongolia in East Asia.
The Monthly Review, established in 1949, is an independent socialist magazine published monthly in New York City.
Mores (sometimes; from Latin mōrēs,, plural form of singular mōs, meaning "manner", "custom", "usage", "habit") was introduced from English into American English by William Graham Sumner (1840–1910), an early U.S. sociologist, to refer to social norms that are widely observed and are considered to have greater moral significance than others.
Morning Star is a left-wing British daily tabloid newspaper with a focus on social, political and trade union issues.
Moscow Sun Yat-sen University, officially the Sun Yat-sen Communist University of the Toilers of China, was a Comintern school, which operated from 1925-1930 in the city of Moscow, Russia, then the Soviet Union.
The Movement for Socialism–Political Instrument for the Sovereignty of the Peoples (Movimiento al Socialismo–Instrumento Político por la Soberanía de los Pueblos, abbreviated MAS-IPSP, or simply MAS), alternately referred to as "Movement Toward Socialism" or "Movement to Socialism" (Movimiento al Socialismo), is a Bolivian left-wing socialist political movement led by Evo Morales, founded in 1998.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Mujeres Libres (Free Women) was an anarchist women's organization in Spain that aimed to empower working class women.
Municipalization is the transfer of corporations or other assets to municipal ownership.
Murray Bookchin (January 14, 1921 – July 30, 2006)was an American social theorist, author, orator, historian, and political philosopher.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Mutualism is an economic theory and anarchist school of thought that advocates a society with free markets and occupation and use property norms.
Naomi Klein (born May 8, 1970) is a Canadian author, social activist, and filmmaker known for her political analyses and criticism of corporate globalization and of capitalism.
The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.
The National Liberation Army (Spanish: Ejército de Liberación Nacional, ELN) is an armed group involved in the continuing Colombian armed conflict, Official Journal of the European Union.
The National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) is a trade union for coal miners in Great Britain, formed in 1945 from the Miners' Federation of Great Britain (MFGB).
The National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers (commonly known as the RMT) is a British trade union covering the transport sector.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
Natural and legal rights are two types of rights.
Natural law (ius naturale, lex naturalis) is a philosophy asserting that certain rights are inherent by virtue of human nature, endowed by nature—traditionally by God or a transcendent source—and that these can be understood universally through human reason.
Naturism, or nudism, is a cultural and political movement practising, advocating, and defending personal and social nudity, most but not all of which takes place on private property.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
Neil Gordon Kinnock, Baron Kinnock, (born 28 March 1942) is a Welsh Labour Party politician.
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader, and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999.
Neoclassical economics is an approach to economics focusing on the determination of goods, outputs, and income distributions in markets through supply and demand.
Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.
The New Anticapitalist Party (Nouveau Parti anticapitaliste, abbreviated NPA) is a far-left French political party founded in February 2009.
The New Democratic Party (NDP; Nouveau Parti démocratique, NPD) is a social democraticThe party is widely described as social democratic.
The New Economic Policy (NEP, Russian новая экономическая политика, НЭП) was an economic policy of Soviet Russia proposed by Vladimir Lenin in 1921 as a temporary expedient.
New Harmony is a historic town on the Wabash River in Harmony Township, Posey County, Indiana.
New Literary History: A Journal of Theory & Interpretation is a quarterly academic journal published by Johns Hopkins University Press.
Nguyễn Văn Linh (1 July 1915 – 27 April 1998) was a Vietnamese revolutionary and politician.
The Nicaraguan Revolution (Revolución Nicaragüense or Revolución Popular Sandinista) encompassed the rising opposition to the Somoza dictatorship in the 1960s and 1970s, the campaign led by the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) to violently oust the dictatorship in 1978–79, the subsequent efforts of the FSLN to govern Nicaragua from 1979 until 1990 and the Contra War which was waged between the FSLN-led government of Nicaragua and the United States-backed Contras from 1981-1990.
Nicolás Maduro Moros (born 23 November 1962) is a Venezuelan politician who has served as the 63rd President of Venezuela since 2013 and previously served under President Hugo Chávez as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2006 to 2013 and as Vice President of Venezuela from 2012 to 2013.
No2EU was a left-wing Eurosceptic electoral alliance in the United Kingdom.
Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
Norberto Bobbio (18 October 1909 – 9 January 2004) was an Italian philosopher of law and political sciences and a historian of political thought.
The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden (literally "the North").
The Nordic Green Left Alliance (NGLA) is an alliance of Nordic left-wing parties, founded in Reykjavík, Iceland, on 1 February 2004.
The Nordic model (also called Nordic capitalism or Nordic social democracy) refers to the economic and social policies common to the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Sweden).
Parliamentary elections were held in Norway on 11 and 12 September 2005.
A parliamentary election was held in Norway on 8 and 9 September 2013.
A nuclear family, elementary family or conjugal family is a family group consisting of two parents and their children (one or more).
Occupation of factories is a method of the workers' movement used to prevent lock outs.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
In Canada, Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition (L'Opposition Loyale de Sa Majesté) is usually the largest parliamentary opposition party in the House of Commons or a provincial legislative assembly that is not in government, either on its own or as part of a governing coalition.
Olivier Besancenot; born 18 April 1974) is a French far-left political figure and trade unionist, and the founding main spokesperson of the New Anticapitalist Party (Nouveau parti anticapitaliste, NPA) from 2009 to 2011. He was a candidate for the 2007 French presidential election, for the Ligue communiste révolutionnaire (LCR), the French section of the Fourth International. He gained 1.2 million votes, 4.25%, standing as a revolutionary socialist in the 2002 presidential elections. In the first round of the 2007 presidential election, Besancenot received 4.08% of the vote, just short of 1.5 million votes, placing him fifth and eliminating him from the race. In May 2011, Besancenot announced that he would not be standing in the 2012 presidential election. He was succeeded as main spokesperson of the NPA by Myriam Martin, who later left the NPA to found Gauche Anticapitaliste (Anticapitalist Left), and Christine Poupin, joined by Philippe Poutou, who was the NPA presidential candidate in 2012.
"On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences" («О культе личности и его последствиях», «O kul'te lichnosti i yego posledstviyakh») was a report by Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev made to the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union on 25 February 1956.
An open letter is a letter that is intended to be read by a wide audience, or a letter intended for an individual, but that is nonetheless widely distributed intentionally.
Oppression can refer to an authoritarian regime controlling its citizens via state control of politics, the monetary system, media, and the military; denying people any meaningful human or civil rights; and terrorizing the populace through harsh, unjust punishment, and a hidden network of obsequious informants reporting to a vicious secret police force.
Orthodox Marxism is the body of Marxist thought that emerged after the death of Karl Marx (1818–1883) and which became the official philosophy of the socialist movement as represented in the Second International until the First World War in 1914.
Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 185430 November 1900) was an Irish poet and playwright.
Oskar Ryszard Lange (27 July 1904 – 2 October 1965) was a Polish economist and diplomat.
Our Synthetic Environment is a 1962 book by Murray Bookchin, published under the pseudonym "Lewis Herber".
In economics, overproduction, oversupply, excess of supply or glut refers to excess of supply over demand of products being offered to the market.
Owenism is the utopian socialist philosophy of 19th-century social reformer Robert Owen and his followers and successors, who are known as Owenites.
PAIS Alliance—(Alianza PAIS (Patria Altiva i Soberana), PAIS Alliance (Proud and Sovereign Fatherland); país also means "country" in Spanish) is an Ecuadorian left-wing social democratic political party.
Palmiro Togliatti (26 March 1893 – 21 August 1964) was an Italian politician and leader of the Italian Communist Party from 1927 until his death.
The Paris Commune (La Commune de Paris) was a radical socialist and revolutionary government that ruled Paris from 18 March to 28 May 1871.
Participatory economics, often abbreviated parecon, is an economic system based on participatory decision making as the primary economic mechanism for allocation in society.
Participism is a libertarian socialist political philosophy consisting of two independently created economic and political systems: participatory economics or "parecon" and participatory politics or "parpolity".
The Party of European Socialists (PES) is a social-democratic European political party.
The Party of the European Left (PEL), commonly abbreviated European Left, is a European political party which operates as an association of democratic socialist and communist political parties in the European Union and other European countries.
Pat Devine is a radical economist concerned mainly with industrial economics and comparative economic systems.
Paul Avrich (1931–2006) was a historian of the 19th and early 20th century anarchist movement in Russia and the United States.
A pawnbroker is an individual or business (pawnshop or pawn shop) that offers secured loans to people, with items of personal property used as collateral.
The people's commune was the highest of three administrative levels in rural areas of the People's Republic of China during the period from 1958 to 1983 when they were replaced by townships.
The People's Republic of Bulgaria (PRB; Народна република България (НРБ) Narodna republika Bǎlgariya (NRB)) was the official name of Bulgaria when it was a socialist republic.
The People's Revolutionary Government (PRG) was proclaimed on 13 March 1979 after the New Jewel Movement overthrew the government of Grenada in a revolution.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia, Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the People's Socialist Republic of Albania (Republika Popullore Socialiste e Shqipërisë), was a Marxist-Leninist government that ruled Albania from 1946 to 1992.
Personal property is generally considered property that is movable, as opposed to real property or real estate.
Peter Fryer (18 February 1927 – 31 October 2006)http://spartacus-educational.com/COLDfryer.htm was an English Marxist writer and journalist.
Pyotr Alexeevich Kropotkin (Пётр Алексе́евич Кропо́ткин; December 9, 1842 – February 8, 1921) was a Russian activist, revolutionary, scientist and philosopher who advocated anarcho-communism.
Peter Lamborn Wilson (pseudonym Hakim Bey; born 1945) is an American anarchist author, primarily known for advocating the concept of temporary autonomous zones.
The Petrograd Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies (Петроградский Совет рабочих и солдатских депутатов, Petrogradskiy soviet rabochikh i soldatskikh deputatov) was a city council of Petrograd (Saint Petersburg), the capital of the Russian Empire.
A phalanstère (or phalanstery) was a type of building designed for a self-contained utopian community, ideally consisting of 500–2000 people working together for mutual benefit, and developed in the early 19th century by Charles Fourier.
The Philadelphes was a masonic lodge founded in France in the 1750s and which became a centre for conspiratorial revolutionary activity.
Filippo Giuseppe Maria Ludovico Buonarroti, more usually referred to under the French version Philippe Buonarroti (11 November 1761 – 16 September 1837), was an Italian utopian socialist, writer, agitator, freemason, and conspirator; he was active in Corsica, France, and Geneva.
Picador is an imprint of Pan Macmillan in the United Kingdom and Australia and of Macmillan Publishing in the United States.
Piero Gobetti (June 19, 1901, Turin – February 15, 1926, Neuilly-sur-Seine) was an Italian journalist, intellectual and radical liberal and anti-fascist.
Pierre Henri Leroux (7 April 1797 – 12 April 1871), French philosopher, and political economist, was born at Bercy, now a part of Paris, the son of an artisan.
Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (15 January 1809 – 19 January 1865) was a French politician and the founder of mutualist philosophy.
Pietro Sandro Nenni (February 9, 1891 – January 1, 1980) was an Italian socialist politician, the national secretary of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) and lifetime Senator since 1970.
"Pink tide" (marea rosa, onda rosa) and "turn to the Left" (Sp.: vuelta hacia la izquierda, Pt.: Guinada à Esquerda) are phrases used in contemporary 21st century political analysis in the media and elsewhere to describe the perception of a turn towards left wing governments in Latin American democracies straying away from the neo-liberal economic model.
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Podemos (translated in English as "We can") is a political party in Spain founded in March 2014 by political scientist Pablo Iglesias in the aftermath of the 15-M Movement protests against inequality and corruption.
The Polish People's Republic (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) covers the history of contemporary Poland between 1952 and 1990 under the Soviet-backed socialist government established after the Red Army's release of its territory from German occupation in World War II.
A political international is a trans-national organisation of political parties having similar ideology or political orientation.
In the social sciences, a political movement is a social group that operates together to obtain a political goal, on a local, regional, national, or international scope.
Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.
The term political radicalism (in political science known as radicalism) denotes political principles focused on altering social structures through revolutionary or other means and changing value systems in fundamental ways.
Political repression is the persecution of an individual or group within society for political reasons, particularly for the purpose of restricting or preventing their ability to take part in the political life of a society thereby reducing their standing among their fellow citizens.
Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.
A political system is a system of politics and government.
Politico, known earlier as The Politico, is an American political journalism company based in Arlington County, Virginia, that covers politics and policy in the United States and internationally.
ca The Poor People's Campaign, or Poor People's March on Washington, was a 1968 effort to gain economic justice for poor people in the United States.
The Portuguese Communist Party (Partido Comunista Português,, PCP) is a major political party in Portugal.
Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain ("positive") knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.
Post-capitalism includes a number of proposals for a new economic system to replace capitalism, examine more advanced forms, or otherwise speculate on the fate of the current form of the social order.
Potere Operaio ("Workers' Power") was a radical left-wing Italian political group, active between 1968 and 1973.
Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.
In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.
The Prague Spring (Pražské jaro, Pražská jar) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union after World War II.
The Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, sometimes also referred to informally as the "Prime Minister", is the Leader of the State Council of China (constitutionally synonymous with the "Central People's Government" since 1954), who is the head of government and holds the highest rank (Level 1) in the Civil Service.
The President of Cuba (Presidente de Cuba), officially called from 1976 President of the Council of State (Presidente del Consejo de Estado de Cuba), is the head of the Council of State of Cuba.
The President of the Italian Republic (Presidente della Repubblica Italiana) is the head of state of Italy and in that role represents national unity and guarantees that Italian politics comply with the Constitution.
The President of the People's Republic of China is the head of state of the People's Republic of China.
In economics, a price system is a component of any economic system that uses prices expressed in any form of money for the valuation and distribution of goods and services and the factors of production.
The Prime Minister of Jamaica is Jamaica's head of government, currently Andrew Holness.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Principles of Political Economy (1848) by John Stuart Mill was one of the most important economics or political economy textbooks of the mid-nineteenth century.
The private finance initiative (PFI) is a way of creating "public–private partnerships" (PPPs) where private firms are contracted to complete and manage public projects.
Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities.
A privately held company, private company, or close corporation is a business company owned either by non-governmental organizations or by a relatively small number of shareholders or company members which does not offer or trade its company stock (shares) to the general public on the stock market exchanges, but rather the company's stock is offered, owned and traded or exchanged privately.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
"Productive forces", "productive powers", or "forces of production" (in German, Produktivkräfte), is a central idea in Marxism and historical materialism.
Productivism or growthism is the belief that measurable economic productivity and growth are the purpose of human organization (e.g., work), and that "more production is necessarily good".
In economics, profit in the accounting sense of the excess of revenue over cost is the sum of two components: normal profit and economic profit.
In economics, the profit motive is the motivation of firms that operate so as to maximize their profits.
The Progressive Alliance (PA) is a political international of social-democratic and progressive political parties and organisations founded on 22 May 2013 in Leipzig, Germany.
Progressivism is the support for or advocacy of improvement of society by reform.
Project Cybersyn was a Chilean project from 1971–1973 during the presidency of Salvador Allende aimed at constructing a distributed decision support system to aid in the management of the national economy.
The proletariat (from Latin proletarius "producing offspring") is the class of wage-earners in a capitalist society whose only possession of significant material value is their labour-power (their ability to work).
Public housing in the United Kingdom provided the majority of rented accommodation in the country until 2011.
Public property is property that is dedicated to public use and is a subset of state property.
Public service is a service which is provided by government to people living within its jurisdiction, either directly (through the public sector) or by financing provision of services.
The Puerto Rican Independence Party (Partido Independentista Puertorriqueño, PIP) is a social-democratic political party in Puerto Rico that campaigns for the independence of Puerto Rico from United States suzerainty.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Richard Henry "R.
Rachel Louise Carson (May 27, 1907 – April 14, 1964) was an American marine biologist, author, and conservationist whose book Silent Spring and other writings are credited with advancing the global environmental movement.
Rafael Vicente Correa Delgado (born 6 April 1963) is an Ecuadorian politician and economist who served as President of Ecuador from 2007 to 2017.
In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".
Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
In politics, a red–green alliance or red–green coalition is an alliance of "red" (often social-democratic or democratic socialist) parties with "green" (often green political, environmentalist or sometimes Nordic agrarian) parties.
The Red–Green Alliance (Enhedslisten – De Rød-Grønne, literally Unity List – The Red–Greens, abbreviated Enhl., Ø) is a eco-socialist political party in Denmark.
Redistribution of income and redistribution of wealth are respectively the transfer of income and of wealth (including physical property) from some individuals to others by means of a social mechanism such as taxation, charity, welfare, public services, land reform, monetary policies, confiscation, divorce or tort law.
Reformism is a political doctrine advocating the reform of an existing system or institution instead of its abolition and replacement.
Relations of production (German: Produktionsverhältnisse) is a concept frequently used by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in their theory of historical materialism and in Das Kapital.
Religious socialism is any form of socialism based on religious values.
Renting, also known as hiring or letting, is an agreement where a payment is made for the temporary use of a good, service or property owned by another.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
Republicanism is an ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty.
Resource depletion is the consumption of a resource faster than it can be replenished.
The Revolutionary Communist League (Ligue communiste révolutionnaire) (LCR) was a Trotskyist political party in France.
The Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine (Революційна Повстанська Армія України), also known as the Black Army or simply as Makhnovshchyna (Махновщина.), was an anarchist army formed largely of Ukrainian peasants and workers under the command of the famous anarchist Nestor Makhno during the Russian Civil War of 1917–1922.
Revolutionary socialism is the socialist doctrine that social revolution is necessary in order to bring about structural changes to society.
The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848.
The Revolutions of 1917–1923 were a period of political unrest and revolts around the world inspired by the success of the Russian Revolution and the disorder created by the aftermath of World War I. The uprisings were mainly socialist or anti-colonial in nature and were mostly short-lived, failing to have a long-term impact.
Ricardian socialism is a branch of classical economic thought based upon the work of the economist David Ricardo (1772–1823).
Richard David Wolff (born April 1, 1942) is an American Marxian economist, well known for his work on Marxian economics, economic methodology, and class analysis.
Richard Edgar Pipes (Ryszard Pipes; July 11, 1923 – May 17, 2018) was a Polish American academic who specialized in Russian history, particularly with respect to the Soviet Union, who espoused a strong anti-communist point of view throughout his career.
Right-libertarianism (or right-wing libertarianism) refers to libertarian political philosophies that advocate negative rights, natural law and a major reversal of the modern welfare state.
Right-wing politics hold that certain social orders and hierarchies are inevitable, natural, normal or desirable, typically supporting this position on the basis of natural law, economics or tradition.
Robert Graham (born 1958) is a Canadian anarchist historian and writer.
Robert Owen (14 May 1771 – 17 November 1858) was a Welsh textile manufacturer, philanthropic social reformer, and one of the founders of utopian socialism and the cooperative movement.
Robin Eric Hahnel (born March 25, 1946) is an American economist and professor of economics at Portland State University.
Roderick Tracy Long (born February 4, 1964) is an American professor of philosophy at Auburn University and libertarian blogger.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
Rosa Luxemburg (Róża Luksemburg; also Rozalia Luxenburg; 5 March 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a Polish Marxist theorist, philosopher, economist, anti-war activist, and revolutionary socialist who became a naturalized German citizen at the age of 28.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy is an encyclopedia of philosophy edited by Edward Craig that was first published by Routledge in 1998.
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
Roy Sydney George Hattersley, Baron Hattersley, PC, FRSL (born 28 December 1932) is a British Labour politician, author and journalist from Sheffield.
The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".
The Russian Provisional Government (Vremennoye pravitel'stvo Rossii) was a provisional government of Russia established immediately following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II of the Russian Empire on 2 March 1917.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP;, Rossiyskaya sotsial-demokraticheskaya rabochaya partiya (RSDRP)), also known as the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party or the Russian Social Democratic Party, was a revolutionary socialist political party in Minsk, Belarus.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
The term (الصحابة meaning "the companions", from the verb صَحِبَ meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") refers to the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Saint-Simonianism was a French political and social movement of the first half of the 19th century, inspired by the ideas of Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint-Simon (1760–1825).
Salvador Guillermo Allende Gossens (26 June 1908 – 11 September 1973) was a Chilean physician and politician, known as the first Marxist to become president of a Latin American country through open elections.
The Salvadoran Civil War was a conflict between the military-led government of El Salvador and the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN), a coalition or "umbrella organization" of several left-wing groups.
Sam Dolgoff (1902–1990) was an anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist from Russia who grew up and lived and was active in the United States.
Samuel George Hobson, often known as S. G. Hobson (4 February 1870 – 4 January 1940), was a theorist of guild socialism.
The Sandinista National Liberation Front (Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional, FSLN) is a democratic socialist political party in Nicaragua.
São Paulo is a municipality in the southeast region of Brazil.
Scientific socialism is a term coined in 1840 by Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in his What is Property? to mean a society ruled by a scientific government, i.e. one whose sovereignity rests upon reason, rather than sheer will: Thus, in a given society, the authority of man over man is inversely proportional to the stage of intellectual development which that society has reached; and the probable duration of that authority can be calculated from the more or less general desire for a true government, — that is, for a scientific government.
The Second International (1889–1916), the original Socialist International, was an organization of socialist and labour parties formed in Paris on July 14, 1889.
Self-governance, self-government, or autonomy, is an abstract concept that applies to several scales of organization.
Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state.
Shift work is an employment practice designed to make use of, or provide service across, all 24 hours of the clock each day of the week (often abbreviated as 24/7).
Silent Spring is an environmental science book by Rachel Carson.
The Sino-Soviet split (1956–1966) was the breaking of political relations between the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), caused by doctrinal divergences arising from each of the two powers' different interpretation of Marxism–Leninism as influenced by the national interests of each country during the Cold War.
Slate is an online magazine that covers current affairs, politics, and culture in the United States from a liberal perspective.
Social alienation is "a condition in social relationships reflected by a low degree of integration or common values and a high degree of distance or isolation between individuals, or between an individual and a group of people in a community or work environment".
Social anarchism (sometimes referred to as socialist anarchism or anarcho-socialism)Ostergaard, Geoffrey.
Social centers (or social centres) are community spaces.
Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.
The Social Democratic Federation (SDF) was established as Britain's first organised socialist political party by H. M. Hyndman, and had its first meeting on 7 June 1881.
The Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.
The Social Democrats (Socialdemokraterne), officially Social Democracy (Socialdemokratiet), is a social-democratic political party in Denmark.
The social dividend is the return on the capital assets and natural resources owned by society in a socialist economy.
Social ecology is a critical social theory founded by American anarchist and libertarian socialist author Murray Bookchin.
Social equality is a state of affairs in which all people within a specific society or isolated group have the same status in certain respects, including civil rights, freedom of speech, property rights and equal access to certain social goods and services.
Social exclusion, or social marginalization, is the social disadvantage and relegation to the fringe of society.
Social inequality occurs when resources in a given society are distributed unevenly, typically through norms of allocation, that engender specific patterns along lines of socially defined categories of persons.
Social justice is a concept of fair and just relations between the individual and society.
Social ownership is any of various forms of ownership for the means of production in socialist economic systems, encompassing public ownership, employee ownership, cooperative ownership, citizen ownership of equity, common ownership and collective ownership.
Social peer-to-peer processes are interactions with a peer-to-peer dynamic.
Social Reform or Revolution? (Sozialreform oder Revolution?) is an 1899 pamphlet by Polish-German Marxist theorist Rosa Luxemburg.
Social revolutions are sudden changes in the structure and nature of society.
In sociology, a social system is the patterned network of relationships constituting a coherent whole that exist between individuals, groups, and institutions.
A social welfare model is a system of social welfare provision and its accompanying value system.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
The connection between left-leaning ideologies and LGBT rights struggles has a long and mixed history.
Socialism in one country (sotsializm v odnoi strane) was a theory put forth by Joseph Stalin and Nikolai Bukharin in 1924 which was eventually adopted by the Soviet Union as state policy.
Socialism of the 21st century (socialismo del siglo XXI) is a political term used to describe the interpretation of socialist principles advocated first by German sociologist and political analyst Heinz Dieterich in 1996 and later by Latin American leaders like Hugo Chávez of Venezuela, Rafael Correa of Ecuador, Evo Morales of Bolivia and Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva of Brazil.
The theoretical system of socialism with Chinese characteristics (hp) is a broad term for political theories and polices that are seen by their proponents as representing Marxism–Leninism adapted to Chinese circumstances and specific time periods.
The socialist calculation debate (sometimes known as the economic calculation debate) was a discourse on the subject of how a socialist economy would perform economic calculation given the absence of the law of value, money, financial prices for capital goods, and private ownership of the means of production.
Socialist economics refers to the economic theories, practices, and norms of hypothetical and existing socialist economic systems.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
Socialist feminism rose in the 1960s and 1970s as an offshoot of the feminist movement and New Left that focuses upon the interconnectivity of the patriarchy and capitalism.
The Socialist International (SI) is a worldwide association of political parties, which seek to establish democratic socialism.
The Socialist League was an early revolutionary socialist organisation in the United Kingdom.
The Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, Sosialistalas Gurutbellodat) or SV, is a democratic socialist political party in Norway.
The socialist market economy (SME) is the economic system and model of economic development employed in the People’s Republic of China.
In Marxist theory, socialism (also called the socialist mode of production) refers to a specific historical phase of economic development and its corresponding set of social relations that supersede capitalism in the schema of historical materialism.
Socialist Party is the name of many different political parties around the world.
The Socialist Party (Partido Socialista, PS) is a social-democratic political party in Argentina.
The Socialist Party is a Trotskyist political party in England and Wales which adopted its current name in 1997 after being formerly known as Militant, an entryist group in the Labour Party from 1964 until it abandoned that tactic in 1991.
The Socialist Party is a Trotskyist – Harry McGee.
The Socialist Party (Partido Socialista,, PS) is a social-democratic political party in Portugal.
The Socialist Party of America (SPA) was a multi-tendency democratic socialist and social democratic political party in the United States formed in 1901 by a merger between the three-year-old Social Democratic Party of America and disaffected elements of the Socialist Labor Party of America which had split from the main organization in 1899.
The Socialist Party of Chile (Partido Socialista de Chile, or PS) is a political party within the centre-left Nueva Mayoría.
The Socialist Party of Great Britain (SPGB) is a socialist political party in the United Kingdom.
The Parti Sosialis Malaysia (PSM, Socialist Party of Malaysia), is a socialist political party in Malaysia and an offshoot of Parti Rakyat Malaysia, which originally upheld the same ideology.
The Socialist People's Party (Socialistisk Folkeparti, SF) is a green and popular socialist political party in Denmark.
The Socialist Republic of Romania (Republica Socialistă România, RSR) refers to Romania under Marxist-Leninist one-party Communist rule that existed officially from 1947 to 1989.
The Socialist Revolutionary Party, or Party of Socialists-Revolutionaries (the SRs; Партия социалистов-революционеров (ПСР), эсеры, esery) was a major political party in early 20th century Imperial Russia.
A socialist society is a membership organisation that is affiliated with the Labour Party in the UK.
Socialist Standard is a monthly socialist magazine published without interruption since September 1904 by the Socialist Party of Great Britain.
A socialist state, socialist republic or socialist country (sometimes workers' state or workers' republic) is a sovereign state constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism.
The Socialist Workers Party (SWP) is a communist party in the United States.
The socialist-oriented market economy (Vietnamese: Kinh tế thị trường theo định hướng xã hội chủ nghĩa) is the official title given to the current economic system in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
Solidarity was a small libertarian socialist organisation from 1960 to 1992 in the United Kingdom.
The Somoza family was an influential political dynasty who ruled Nicaragua as a family dictatorship from 1936 to 1979.
Soviets (singular: soviet; sovét,, literally "council" in English) were political organizations and governmental bodies, primarily associated with the Russian Revolutions and the history of the Soviet Union, and which gave the name to the latter state.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Soviet-type economic planning (STP) is the specific model of centralized economic planning employed by Marxist-Leninist socialist states modeled on the economy of the Soviet Union.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
The Spanish Revolution was a workers' social revolution that began during the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 and resulted in the widespread implementation of anarchist and more broadly libertarian socialist organizational principles throughout various portions of the country for two to three years, primarily Catalonia, Aragon, Andalusia, and parts of the Valencian Community.
The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (Partido Socialista Obrero Español; PSOE) is a social-democraticThe PSOE is described as a social-democratic party by numerous sources.
The Spanish transition to democracy (Transición española a la democracia), known in Spain as the Transition (La Transición), or the Spanish transition (Transición española) is a period of modern Spanish history, that started on 20 November 1975, the date of death of Francisco Franco, who had established a military dictatorship after the victory of the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War.
The Spartacist uprising (Spartakusaufstand), also known as the January uprising (Januaraufstand), was a general strike (and the armed battles accompanying it) in Germany from 4 to 15 January 1919.
Traditionally, spirituality refers to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man," oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world.
Sputnik 1 (or; "Satellite-1", or "PS-1", Простейший Спутник-1 or Prosteyshiy Sputnik-1, "Elementary Satellite 1") was the first artificial Earth satellite.
Squatting is the action of occupying an abandoned or unoccupied area of land or a building, usually residential, that the squatter does not own, rent or otherwise have lawful permission to use.
Stalinism is the means of governing and related policies implemented from the 1920s to 1953 by Joseph Stalin (1878–1953).
The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
State capitalism is an economic system in which the state undertakes commercial (i.e. for-profit) economic activity and where the means of production are organized and managed as state-owned business enterprises (including the processes of capital accumulation, wage labor and centralized management), or where there is otherwise a dominance of corporatized government agencies (agencies organized along business-management practices) or of publicly listed corporations in which the state has controlling shares.
State ownership (also called public ownership and government ownership) is the ownership of an industry, asset, or enterprise by the state or a public body representing a community as opposed to an individual or private party.
State socialism is a classification for any socialist political and economic perspective advocating state ownership of the means of production either as a temporary measure in the transition from capitalism to socialism, or as characteristic of socialism itself.
A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is a business enterprise where the state has significant control through full, majority, or significant minority ownership.
A stateless society is a society that is not governed by a state, or, especially in common American English, has no government.
In political science, statism is the belief that the state should control either economic or social policy, or both, to some degree.
The Stonewall riots (also referred to as the Stonewall uprising or the Stonewall rebellion) were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay (LGBT) communityAt the time, the term "gay" was commonly used to refer to all LGBT people.
The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli War, also named the Tripartite Aggression (in the Arab world) and Operation Kadesh or Sinai War (in Israel),Also named: Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, Suez–Sinai war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Operation Musketeer (أزمة السويس /‎ العدوان الثلاثي, "Suez Crisis"/ "the Tripartite Aggression"; Crise du canal de Suez; מבצע קדש "Operation Kadesh", or מלחמת סיני, "Sinai War") was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France.
Muhammad Suharto (also written Soeharto;, or Muhammad Soeharto; 8 June 1921 – 27 January 2008) was an Indonesian military leader and politician who served as the second President of Indonesia, holding the office for 31 years from the ousting of Sukarno in 1967 until his resignation in 1998.
Suing for peace is an act by a warring nation to initiate a peace process.
Sukarno (born Kusno Sosrodihardjo; 6 June 1901 – 21 June 1970) was the first President of Indonesia, serving in office from 1945 to 1967.
Swan Hunter, formerly known as "Swan Hunter & Wigham Richardson", is a shipbuilding design, engineering, and management company, based in Wallsend, Tyne and Wear.
The Swedish Social Democratic Party (Sveriges socialdemokratiska arbetareparti, SAP; literally, "Social Democratic Workers' Party of Sweden"), contesting elections as the Arbetarepartiet–Socialdemokraterna ('The Workers' Party – The Social Democrats'), usually referred to just as the 'Social Democrats' (Socialdemokraterna); is the oldest and largest political party in Sweden.
The Swedish Trade Union Confederation (Landsorganisationen i Sverige, literally "National Organisation in Sweden"), commonly referred to as LO, is a national trade union centre, an umbrella organisation for fourteen Swedish trade unions that organise mainly "blue-collar" workers.
Syndicalism is a proposed type of economic system, considered a replacement for capitalism.
The Coalition of the Radical Left (translit), mostly known by the syllabic abbreviation Syriza (sometimes stylised SY.RIZ.A.; ΣΥΡΙΖΑ; a pun on the Greek adverb σύρριζα, meaning "from the roots" or "radically"), is a political party in Greece, originally founded in 2004 as a coalition of left-wing and radical left parties.
() (13 June 1901 – 21 June 1985) was a Swedish politician who served as Prime Minister of Sweden from 1946 to 1969.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
A tax (from the Latin taxo) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or other legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures.
Technocracy is a proposed system of governance where decision-makers are selected on the basis of their expertise in their areas of responsibility, particularly scientific knowledge.
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".
The Tet Offensive (Sự kiện Tết Mậu Thân 1968), or officially called The General Offensive and Uprising of Tet Mau Than 1968 (Tổng Tiến công và Nổi dậy Tết Mậu Thân 1968) by North Vietnam and the NLF (National Liberation Front), was one of the largest military campaigns of the Vietnam War, launched on January 30, 1968, by forces of the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese People's Army of Vietnam against the forces of the South Vietnamese Army of the Republic of Vietnam, the United States Armed Forces, and their allies.
The Anarchist Collectives: Workers’ Self-Management in the Spanish Revolution, 1936–1939 is a book of perspectives from the Spanish Revolution edited by Sam Dolgoff and published with Free Life Editions in 1974.
The Boston Globe (sometimes abbreviated as The Globe) is an American daily newspaper founded and based in Boston, Massachusetts, since its creation by Charles H. Taylor in 1872.
The Cleanest Race: How North Koreans See Themselves and Why it Matters is a 2010 book by Brian Reynolds Myers.
The Commanding Heights: The Battle for the World Economy is a book by Daniel Yergin and Joseph Stanislaw, first published as The Commanding Heights: The Battle Between Government and the Marketplace That Is Remaking the Modern World in 1998.
The Communist Manifesto (originally Manifesto of the Communist Party) is an 1848 political pamphlet by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
The Conquest of Bread (La Conquête du Pain; Хлеб и воля) is an 1892 book by the Russian anarcho-communist Peter Kropotkin.
The Globe and Mail is a Canadian newspaper printed in five cities in western and central Canada.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Intermediate Sex (full title: The Intermediate Sex: A Study of Some Transitional Types of Men and Women) was a 1908 work by Edward Carpenter expressing his views on homosexuality.
The Left (Die Linke), also commonly referred to as the Left Party (die Linkspartei), is a democratic socialist political party in Germany.
The Limits to Growth (LTG) is a 1972 report on the computer simulation of exponential economic and population growth with a finite supply of resources.
The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State: in the Light of the Researches of Lewis H. Morgan (Der Ursprung der Familie, des Privateigenthums und des Staats) is an 1884 historical materialist treatise by Friedrich Engels.
The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism is a 2007 book by the Canadian author and social activist Naomi Klein.
"The Soul of Man under Socialism" is an 1891 essay by Oscar Wilde in which he expounds a libertarian socialist worldview and a critique of charity.
The Troubles (Na Trioblóidí) was an ethno-nationalist conflict in Northern Ireland during the late 20th century.
A think tank, think factory or policy institute is a research institute/center and organisation that performs research and advocacy concerning topics such as social policy, political strategy, economics, military, technology, and culture.
The Third Way is a position akin to centrism that tries to reconcile right-wing and left-wing politics by advocating a varying synthesis of centre-right economic and centre-left social policies.
The term "Third World" arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO or the Communist Bloc.
Third World socialism was a variant of socialism proponed by Kwame Nkrumah, Modibo Keïta, Ahmed Sékou Touré, Fidel Castro, Julius Nyerere, Salah al-Din al-Bitar, Michel Aflaq, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Juan Perón, Jawaharlal Nehru, Sukarno, David Ben-Gurion, Muammar Gaddafi, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, Buddhadasa, Walter Lini and other such socialist leaders of the Third World who saw a non-Soviet version of socialism as the answer to a strong and developed nation.
Thomas Hodgkin (17 August 1798 – 5 April 1866) was a British physician, considered one of the most prominent pathologists of his time and a pioneer in preventive medicine.
Thomas Paine (born Thomas Pain; – In the contemporary record as noted by Conway, Paine's birth date is given as January 29, 1736–37. Common practice was to use a dash or a slash to separate the old-style year from the new-style year. In the old calendar, the new year began on March 25, not January 1. Paine's birth date, therefore, would have been before New Year, 1737. In the new style, his birth date advances by eleven days and his year increases by one to February 9, 1737. The O.S. link gives more detail if needed. – June 8, 1809) was an English-born American political activist, philosopher, political theorist and revolutionary.
Thomas Spence (21 June Old Style/ 2 July New Style, 1750 – 8 September 1814) was an English Radical, Spartacus.schoolnet, accessed 29 August 2010 and advocate of the common ownership of land.
Timeline of Russian Innovation encompasses key events in the history of technology in Russia, starting from the Early East Slavs and up to the Russian Federation.
The Tlatelolco massacre was the killing of students and civilians by military and police on October 2, 1968, in the Plaza de las Tres Culturas in the Tlatelolco section of Mexico City.
"To each according to his contribution" is a principle of distribution considered to be one of the defining features of socialism.
Todd Gitlin (born January 6,1943) is an American sociologist, political writer, novelist, and cultural commentator.
Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007.
A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.
Trade Unionist and Socialist Coalition (TUSC) is a socialist electoral alliance launched in Britain for the 2010 General Election.
Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky.
Truthout is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit, progressive news and commentary website.
Ujamaa ('familyhood' in Swahili) was the concept that formed the basis of Julius Nyerere's social and economic development policies in Tanzania after it gained independence from Britain in 1961.
The UK Independence Party (UKIP) is a Eurosceptic and right-wing populist political party in the United Kingdom.
The miners' strike of 1984–85 was a major industrial action to shut down the British coal industry in an attempt to prevent colliery closures.
Umanità Nova is an Italian anarchist newspaper founded in 1920.
Unemployment benefits (depending on the jurisdiction also called unemployment insurance or unemployment compensation) are payments made by the state or other authorized bodies to unemployed people.
Unione Sindacale Italiana (USI; Italian Syndicalist Union or Italian Workers' Union) is an anarcho-syndicalist trade union.
A united front is an alliance of groups against their common enemies, figuratively evoking unification of previously separate geographic fronts and/or unification of previously separate armies into a front—the name often refers to a political and/or military struggle carried out by revolutionaries, especially in revolutionary socialism, communism or anarchism.
The 2015 United Kingdom general election was held on 7 May 2015 to elect 650 members to the House of Commons.
The 2011 United Kingdom local elections were held on Thursday 5 May 2011.
United Left (Izquierda Unida, IU) is a political coalition that was organized in 1986, bringing together several left-wing and far-left political organizations.
The United Socialist Party of Venezuela (Partido Socialista Unido de Venezuela, PSUV) is a socialist political party in Venezuela which resulted from the fusion of some of the political and social forces that support the Bolivarian Revolution led by the late President Hugo Chávez.
Universal access to education is the ability of all people to have equal opportunity in education, regardless of their social class, gender, ethnicity background or physical and mental disabilities.
Universal health care (also called universal health coverage, universal coverage, universal care, or socialized health care) is a health care system that provides health care and financial protection to all citizens of a particular country.
The University of Toronto Press is a Canadian scholarly publisher and book distributor founded in 1901.
Use value (German: Gebrauchswert) or value in use is the utility of consuming a good—the want-satisfying power of a good or service in classical political economy.
Usufruct is a limited real right (or in rem right) found in civil-law and mixed jurisdictions that unites the two property interests of usus and fructus.
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.
Utopian socialism is a label used to define the first currents of modern socialist thought as exemplified by the work of Henri de Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier, Étienne Cabet and Robert Owen.
In the context of the theory of Marxist–Leninist revolutionary struggle, vanguardism is a strategy whereby the most class-conscious and politically advanced sections of the proletariat or working class, described as the revolutionary vanguard, form organizations in order to draw larger sections of the working class towards revolutionary politics and serve as manifestations of proletarian political power against its class enemies.
Presidential elections were held in Venezuela on 14 April 2013 following the death of President Hugo Chávez on 5 March 2013.
Victor Serge, born Victor Lvovich Kibalchich (Ви́ктор Льво́вич Киба́льчич; December 30, 1890 – November 17, 1947), was a Russian revolutionary and writer.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
Víktor Mikháilovich Chernóv (Ви́ктор Миха́йлович Черно́в; December 7, 1873 – April 15, 1952) was a Russian revolutionary and one of the founders of the Russian Socialist-Revolutionary Party.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Voltairine de Cleyre (November 17, 1866June 20, 1912) was an American anarchist, known for being a prolific writer and speaker, and opposing capitalism, the state, marriage, and the domination of religion over sexuality and women's lives.
Voluntary Socialism is a work of nonfiction by the American mutualist (1867–1913).
Sir William David Ross KBE FBA (15 April 1877 – 5 May 1971), known as David Ross but usually cited as W. D. Ross, was a Scottish philosopher who is known for his work in ethics.
Wage slavery is a term used to draw an analogy between slavery and wage labor by focusing on similarities between owning and renting a person.
Walden (first published as Walden; or, Life in the Woods) is a book by noted transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau.
War communism or military communism (Военный коммунизм, Voyennyy kommunizm) was the economic and political system that existed in Soviet Russia during the Russian Civil War from 1918 to 1921.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
The Washington Blade is a lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) newspaper in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area.
Wealth is the abundance of valuable resources or valuable material possessions.
The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.
The welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens.
"Why Socialism?" HTML version available at the Monthly Review website: is an article written by Albert Einstein in May 1949 that appeared in the first issue of the socialist journal Monthly Review.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
Wilhelm Christian Weitling (October 5, 1808 – January 25, 1871) was a German-born tailor, inventor, and radical political activist.
William Godwin (3 March 1756 – 7 April 1836) was an English journalist, political philosopher and novelist.
William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896) was an English textile designer, poet, novelist, translator, and socialist activist.
The Winter Palace (p, Zimnij dvorets) in Saint Petersburg, Russia, was, from 1732 to 1917, the official residence of the Russian monarchs.
"Withering away of the state" is a Marxist concept coined by Friedrich Engels referring to the idea that, with realization of the ideals of socialism, the social institution of a state will eventually become obsolete and disappear, as the society will be able to govern itself without the state and its coercive enforcement of the law.
The women's liberation movement (also Women's Liberation Movement, WLM) was a political alignment of women and feminist intellectualism that emerged in the late 1960s, and continued to the 1980s, primarily in the industrialized nations of the Western world, and which effected great change (political, intellectual, cultural) throughout the world.
A worker cooperative, is a cooperative that is owned and self-managed by its workers.
Workers' compensation is a form of insurance providing wage replacement and medical benefits to employees injured in the course of employment in exchange for mandatory relinquishment of the employee's right to sue their employer for the tort of negligence.
Workers' control is participation in the management of factories and other commercial enterprises by the people who work there.
A workers' council is a form of political and economic organization in which a single local administrative division, such as a municipality or a county, is governed by a council made up of temporary and instantly revocable delegates elected in the region's workplaces.
The Workers' Party (Partido dos Trabalhadores, PT) is a political party in Brazil.
Self-management or workers' self-management (also referred to as labor management, autogestión, workers' control, industrial democracy, democratic management and producer cooperatives) is a form of organizational management based on self-directed work processes on the part of an organization's workforce.
The working class (also labouring class) are the people employed for wages, especially in manual-labour occupations and industrial work.
The World Happiness Report is an annual publication of the United Nations Sustainable Development Solutions Network which contains rankings of national happiness and analysis of the data from various perspectives.
The WTO Ministerial Conference of 1999 was a meeting of the World Trade Organization, convened at the Washington State Convention and Trade Center in Seattle, Washington, USA, over the course of three days, beginning Tuesday, November 30, 1999.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yarrow Shipbuilders Limited (YSL), often styled as simply Yarrows, was a major shipbuilding firm based in the Scotstoun district of Glasgow on the River Clyde.
Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (p; 9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968) was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut.
Zhou Enlai (5 March 1898 – 8 January 1976) was the first Premier of the People's Republic of China, serving from October 1949 until his death in January 1976.
Zhu Rongji (IPA:; born 1 October 1928) is a retired Chinese politician who served as Mayor and Party chief in Shanghai from 1988 to 1991 and as First Vice Premier and then Premier from March 1998 to March 2003.
Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת Tsiyyonut after Zion) is the national movement of the Jewish people that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (roughly corresponding to Canaan, the Holy Land, or the region of Palestine).
The Geneva Conference was a conference among several nations that took place in Geneva, Switzerland from April 26 – July 20, 1954.
The 1st Congress of the Comintern was an international gathering of communist, revolutionary socialist, and syndicalist delegates held in Moscow which established the Communist International (Comintern).
The 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was held during the period 14–25 February 1956.
The 26th of July Movement (Movimiento 26 de Julio; M-26-7) was a vanguard revolutionary organization then a party led by Fidel Castro that in 1959 overthrew the Fulgencio Batista dictatorship in Cuba.
The 6th National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam (Đại hội Đảng Cộng sản Việt Nam VI) (CPV) was held in Ba Đình Hall, Hanoi, between 15 and 18 December 1986.
Anarcho-syndicalism in the United Kingdom, Branches of Socialism, Cocialicm, Cocialism, Cosialicm, Cosialism, Global socialism, Impossible Equality, Independent Socialist, MODERN COOPERATIVE SOCIALISM, Maoism in the United Kingdom, Marxism in the United Kingdom, Modern cooperative socialism, SOCUI, Self-managed economy, Socalism, Soccialism, Socialicm, SocialisM, Socialismo, Socialismus, Socialist, Socialist ideologies, Socialist ideology, Socialist movement, Socialist-leaning, Socialistic, Socialists, Socialsm, Socilism, Sosialism, Sosialisme, Sosialismus, Sozialismus, Sozialist, Sozialistisch, The Socialists, Trotskyism in the United Kingdom, World socialism.