222 relations: Abdication, Administrative divisions of the People's Republic of Romania, Adrian Cioroianu, Aiud, Allied Commission, Allies of World War II, Ana Pauker, Andrei Ujică, Anne Applebaum, Arable land, Art Deco, Augusto Pinochet, Axis powers, Banat, Bărăgan deportations, Bărăgan Plain, Berceni, Bucharest, Black Sea, Bucharest, Bucharest Metro, Bucharest student movement of 1956, Budapest, Centrism, Centrul Civic, Cernavodă Nuclear Power Plant, China, Chinese economic reform, Cluj-Napoca, Co-belligerence, Collectivization in Romania, Comecon, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Communist state, Constanța, Constantin Dăscălescu, Constantin Ion Parhon, Constantin Sănătescu, Copșa Mică, Copșa Mică works, Cordon sanitaire, Corneliu Coposu, Corruption in Romania, Cultural Revolution, Czechoslovakia, Danube, Danube Delta, Danube–Black Sea Canal, Decree 770, Democratic Kampuchea, Deportation of Germans from Romania after World War II, ..., Dictatorship, Drumhead court-martial, Drumul Taberei, East Germany, Eastern Bloc, Economy of Romania, Editura Curtea Veche, Elisabeta Rizea, European Economic Community, European Union, Execution by firing squad, Fellow traveller, Gheorghe Arsenescu, Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, Gherla, Giurgiului, Glasnost, Great National Assembly, Hard currency, Harun Farocki, Hegemony, History of Romania since 1989, Hunedoara steel works, Hungarian language, Hungarian People's Republic, Hungarian Revolution of 1956, Hydroelectricity, Illegal abortion, Imre Nagy, Incitement to ethnic or racial hatred, Industrialisation, International Monetary Fund, Ion Antonescu, Ion Iliescu, Ion Mincu, Iosif Chișinevschi, Iron Gates, Iron Guard, Israel, János Kádár, Joseph Stalin, Josip Broz Tito, Juche, Județ, July Theses, Khmer Rouge, Kilowatt hour, Land reform in Romania, László Tőkés, List of heads of state of Romania, List of Prime Ministers of Romania, List of Romanian communists, Lucrețiu Pătrășcanu, Magyar Autonomous Region, Marxism–Leninism, Methane, Methanol, Michael I of Romania, Mikhail Gorbachev, Miron Constantinescu, Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, Name day, Natalism, National Museum of Art of Romania, National Peasants' Party, National Salvation Front (Romania), Nationalization, NATO, Nicolae Ceaușescu, Nicolae Ceaușescu's cult of personality, Nicolae Rădescu, Nikita Khrushchev, Non-Aligned Movement, North Korea, Nucșoara, On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences, One-party state, Operation Barbarossa, Orphan, Overcrowding, Palace of the Parliament, Pantheon Books, Paris Peace Treaties, 1947, Penguin Group, People's Republic, People's Republic of Bulgaria, People's Socialist Republic of Albania, Perestroika, Petru Groza, Pitești, Pitești Prison, Ploughmen's Front, Polish October, Politburo, Politics of Romania, Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945, President of Romania, Presidential Commission for the Study of the Communist Dictatorship in Romania, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Rationing, Reconstruction (2001 film), Red Army, Religious persecution in Communist Romania, Republic, Revolutions of 1989, Romani language, Romania, Romania in World War II, Romanian Communist Party, Romanian general election, 1946, Romanian Greek Catholic Church, Romanian language, Romanian leu, Romanian orphans, Romanian Orthodox Church, Romanian Revolution, Routledge, Satellite, Scînteia, Securitate, Show trial, Sibiu, Sighet Prison, Sighetu Marmației, Sino-Soviet split, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Socialist state, Soviet Union, SovRom, Stalinism, Street children, Suffrage, Systematization (Romania), Székely Land, Tax on childlessness, Târgoviște, Te slăvim, Românie, Tear gas, Telephone tapping in the Eastern Bloc, Timișoara, Timișoara Orthodox Cathedral, Titan, Bucharest, Tony Judt, Totalitarianism, Transylvania, Trei culori, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, UNESCO, Unitary state, United Nations Security Council Resolution 109, Urban planning, Vasile Luca, Videograms of a Revolution, War reparations, Warsaw Pact, Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, West Germany, Western Bloc, Workers of the world, unite!, World Bank, World Heritage site, World War II, Yalta Conference, Zdrobite cătușe, 1936 Soviet Constitution, 1948 Constitution of Romania, 1952 Constitution of Romania, 1965 Constitution of Romania, 1977 Vrancea earthquake, 1980s austerity policy in Romania, 1984 Summer Olympics, 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days. Expand index (172 more) » « Shrink index
Abdication is the act of formally relinquishing monarchical authority.
This article covers the administrative divisions of the People's Republic of Romania.
Adrian Mihai Cioroianu (born January 5, 1967, Craiova) is a Romanian historian, politician, journalist, and essayist.
Aiud (Brucla, Nagyenyed, Hungarian pronunciation:; Straßburg am Mieresch) is a city located in Alba county, Transylvania, Romania.
Following the termination of hostilities in World War II, the Allied Powers were in control of the defeated Axis countries.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Ana Pauker (born Hannah Rabinsohn; 13 December 1893 – 3 June 1960) was a Romanian communist leader and served as the country's foreign minister in the late 1940s and early 1950s.
Andrei Ujică (born 1951 in Timişoara, Romania) is a Romanian screenwriter and director.
Anne Elizabeth Applebaum (born July 25, 1964) is an American-Polish journalist and Pulitzer Prize–winning author who has written extensively about communism and the development of civil society in Central and Eastern Europe.
Arable land (from Latin arabilis, "able to be plowed") is, according to one definition, land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops.
Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, trains, ocean liners, and everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners.
Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte (25 November 1915 – 10 December 2006) was a Chilean general, politician and the dictator of Chile between 1973 and 1990 who remained the Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army until 1998 and was also President of the Government Junta of Chile between 1973 and 1981.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
The Banat is a geographical and historical region in Central Europe that is currently divided among three countries: the eastern part lies in western Romania (the counties of Timiș, Caraș-Severin, Arad south of the Körös/Criș river, and the western part of Mehedinți); the western part in northeastern Serbia (mostly included in Vojvodina, except a part included in the Belgrade Region); and a small northern part lies within southeastern Hungary (Csongrád county).
The Bărăgan deportations (Deportările în Bărăgan) were a large-scale action of penal transportation, undertaken during the 1950s by the Romanian Communist regime.
The Bărăgan Plain (Câmpia Bărăganului) is a steppe plain in south-eastern Romania.
Berceni is a district (cartier in Romanian) of southern Bucharest.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Bucharest (București) is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre.
The Bucharest Metro (Metroul București) is an underground rapid transit system that serves the capital of Romania, Bucharest.
The events in Poland which led to the elimination of that country's Stalinist leadership and the rise to power of Władysław Gomułka on 19 October 1956 provoked unrest among university students in Eastern bloc countries.
Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.
In politics, centrism—the centre (British English/Canadian English/Australian English) or the center (American English/Philippine English)—is a political outlook or specific position that involves acceptance or support of a balance of a degree of social equality and a degree of social hierarchy, while opposing political changes which would result in a significant shift of society either strongly to the left or the right.
Centrul Civic (the Civic Center) is a district in central Bucharest, Romania, which was completely rebuilt in the 1980s as part of the scheme of systematization under the dictator Nicolae Ceauşescu.
The Nuclear Power Plant in Cernavodă (Centrala Nucleară de la Cernavodă) is a nuclear power plant in Romania.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Chinese economic reform refers to the program of economic reforms termed "Socialism with Chinese characteristics" in the People's Republic of China (PRC) that was started in December 1978 by reformists within the Communist Party of China, led by Deng Xiaoping.
Cluj-Napoca (Klausenburg; Kolozsvár,; Medieval Latin: Castrum Clus, Claudiopolis; and קלויזנבורג, Kloiznburg), commonly known as Cluj, is the fourth most populous city in Romania, and the seat of Cluj County in the northwestern part of the country.
Co-belligerence is the waging of a war in cooperation against a common enemy without a formal treaty of military alliance.
The collectivization of agriculture in Romania took place in the early years of the Communist regime.
The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (English abbreviation COMECON, CMEA, or CAME) was an economic organization from 1949 to 1991 under the leadership of the Soviet Union that comprised the countries of the Eastern Bloc along with a number of communist states elsewhere in the world.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.
A Communist state (sometimes referred to as workers' state) is a state that is administered and governed by a single party, guided by Marxist–Leninist philosophy, with the aim of achieving communism.
Constanța (Κωνστάντζα or Κωνστάντια, Konstantia, Кюстенджа or Констанца, Köstence), historically known as Tomis (Τόμις), is the oldest continuously inhabited city in Romania.
Constantin Dăscălescu (2 July 1923 – 15 May 2003) was a Romanian communist politician who served as Prime Minister of Romania (21 May 1982 – 22 December 1989) during the communist rule of Nicolae Ceaușescu until the Romanian Revolution.
Constantin Ion Parhon (15 October 1874 – 9 August 1969) was a Romanian neuropsychiatrist, endocrinologist and politician.
Constantin Sănătescu (14 January 1885, Craiova – 8 November 1947, Bucharest) was a Romanian statesman who served as the 44th Prime Minister of Romania after the 23 August 1944 coup, through which Romania left the Axis Powers and joined the Allies.
Copșa Mică (Kleinkopisch; Kiskapus) is a town in Sibiu County, Transylvania, Romania, located north of Sibiu, 33 km east of Blaj, and 12 km southwest of Mediaș.
The Copșa Mică works were two factories in the Transylvanian town of Copșa Mică, Sibiu County, Romania.
Cordon sanitaire is a French phrase that, literally translated, means "sanitary cordon".
Corneliu (Cornel) Coposu (20 May 1914 – 11 November 1995) was a conservative Romanian politician.
Corruption in Romania can be found in the politics, military, health care and private businesses and poses concerns for foreign investors.
The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in China from 1966 until 1976.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
The Danube Delta (Delta Dunării; Дельта Дунаю, Deľta Dunayu) is the second largest river delta in Europe, after the Volga Delta, and is the best preserved on the continent.
The Danube–Black Sea Canal (Canalul Dunăre – Marea Neagră) is a canal in Romania, which runs from Cernavodă, on the Danube, to Constanța (southern arm, as main branch), and to Năvodari (northern arm), on the Black Sea.
Decreței (from the Romanian language word decret, meaning "decree"; diminutive decrețel) are Romanians born in the late 1960s and 1970s, shortly after the communist regime of Nicolae Ceaușescu issued Decree 770, aimed at the creation of a new and large Romanian population by restricting abortion and contraception.
The state of Kampuchea (កម្ពុជា; Kâmpŭchéa; Kampuchéa), officially Democratic Kampuchea (DK; កម្ពុជាប្រជាធិបតេយ្យ; Kâmpŭchéa Prâcheathippadey; Kampuchéa démocratique), existed between 1975 and 1979 in present-day Cambodia.
The deportation of Germans from Romania after World War II, conducted on Soviet order early in 1945, uprooted over 30,000 of Romania's Germans, one tenth of whom lost their lives.
A dictatorship is an authoritarian form of government, characterized by a single leader or group of leaders with either no party or a weak party, little mass mobilization, and limited political pluralism.
A drumhead court-martial is a court-martial held in the field to hear urgent charges of offences committed in action.
Drumul Taberei (The Camp Road) is a neighbourhood located in the south-west of Bucharest, Romania, roughly between Timișoara Avenue (south of Plaza România and the Cotroceni Railway Station) and Ghencea Avenue, neighboring Militari to the north, Panduri to the east and Ghencea and Rahova to the south and south-east.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Romania, as part of the European Union single market, is a fast developing, upper-middle income mixed economy with a very high Human Development Index and a skilled labour force, the 16th largest in the European Union by total nominal GDP and the 13th largest based on purchasing power parity.
Editura Curtea Veche (Curtea Veche Publishing House) is a Romanian publishing house with a tradition in editing works of Romanian literature.
Elisabeta Rizea (28 June 1912 – 6 October 2003) was a Romanian anti-communist partisan in the Făgăraş Mountains of Northern Wallachia.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Execution by firing squad, in the past sometimes called fusillading (from the French fusil, rifle), is a method of capital punishment, particularly common in the military and in times of war.
The term fellow traveller (also fellow traveler) identifies a person who is intellectually sympathetic to the ideology of a political organization, and who co-operates in the organization's politics, without being a formal member of that organization.
Gheorghe Arsenescu (May 31, 1907 – May 29, 1962) was a Romanian army officer who led an anti-communist resistance movement in post-World War II Romania.
Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej (8 November 1901 – 19 March 1965) was a Romanian communist politician who served as the first Communist leader of Romania from 1947 to 1965 as General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party.
Gherla (Szamosújvár; Neuschloss) is a city in Cluj County, Romania (in the historical region of Transylvania).
Giurgiului is a neighborhood in the southern part of the Romanian capital Bucharest, near Berceni and Ferentari.
In the Russian language the word glasnost (гла́сность) has several general and specific meanings.
The Great National Assembly (Marea Adunare Naţională; MAN) was the legislature of the Socialist Republic of Romania (known as the Romanian People's Republic before 1965).
Hard currency, safe-haven currency or strong currency is any globally traded currency that serves as a reliable and stable store of value.
Harun Farocki (9 January 1944 – 30 July 2014) was a German filmmaker, author, and lecturer in film.
Hegemony (or) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.
After the Communist leader Nicolae Ceaușescu was overthrown in the Romanian Revolution of December 1989, the National Salvation Front (FSN) took power, led by Ion Iliescu.
The Hunedoara steel works, formally ArcelorMittal Hunedoara and formerly the Hunedoara Ironworks (Uzinele de Fier Hunedoara), Hunedoara Steel Works (Combinatul Siderurgic Hunedoara), Siderurgica Hunedoara and Mittal Steel, is a steel mill in the Transylvanian city of Hunedoara, Romania.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
The Hungarian People's Republic (Magyar Népköztársaság) was a one-party socialist republic (communist state) from 20 August 1949 to 23 October 1989.
The Hungarian Revolution of 1956, or Hungarian Uprising of 1956 (1956-os forradalom or 1956-os felkelés), was a nationwide revolt against the Marxist-Leninist government of the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956.
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
Illegal abortion is any abortion which is contrary to the laws of the jurisdiction in which it is carried out, or sometimes the laws of the country of origin of the participants.
Imre Nagy (7 June 1896 – 16 June 1958) was a Hungarian communist politician who was appointed Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Hungarian People's Republic on two occasions.
Incitement to racial or ethnic hatred is a crime under the laws of several countries.
Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
Ion Antonescu (– June 1, 1946) was a Romanian soldier and authoritarian politician who, as the Prime Minister and Conducător during most of World War II, presided over two successive wartime dictatorships.
Ion Iliescu (born 3 March 1930) is a Romanian politician who served as President of Romania from 1989 until 1996, and from 2000 until 2004.
Ion Mincu (1852 in Focşani – 1912 in Bucharest) was an architect, engineer, professor and politician in Romania.
Iosif Chișinevschi (1905–1963), born Iosif Roitman, was a Romanian communist politician.
The Iron Gates (Porțile de Fier, Đerdapska klisura, Железни врата, Eisernes Tor, Vaskapu) is a gorge on the river Danube.
The Iron Guard (Garda de fier) is the name most commonly given to a far-right movement and political party in Romania in the period from 1927 into the early part of World War II.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
János Kádár (26 May 1912 – 6 July 1989) was a Hungarian communist leader and the General Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party, presiding over the country from 1956 until his retirement in 1988.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Josip Broz (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз,; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (Cyrillic: Тито), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and political leader, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.
Juche (subject;; usually left untranslated or translated as "self-reliance") is the official state ideology of North Korea, described by the government as Kim Il-sung's "original, brilliant and revolutionary contribution to national and international thought".
A județ (plural județe) is an administrative division in Romania, and was also used from 1998 to 2003 in Moldova, before it returned to raions.
The July Theses (Tezele din iulie) is a name commonly given to a speech delivered by Romanian leader Nicolae Ceaușescu on July 6, 1971, before the Executive Committee of the Romanian Communist Party (PCR).
The Khmer Rouge ("Red Khmers"; ខ្មែរក្រហម Khmer Kror-Horm) was the name popularly given to the followers of the Communist Party of Kampuchea and by extension to the regime through which the CPK ruled Cambodia between 1975 and 1979.
The kilowatt hour (symbol kWh, kW⋅h or kW h) is a unit of energy equal to 3.6 megajoules.
Four major land reforms have taken place in Romania: in 1864, 1921, 1945 and 1991.
László Tőkés (born 1 April 1952) is a Romanian-born Hungarian pastor and politician.
This is a list of the heads of state of the modern Romanian state, from the establishment of the United Principalities to the present day.
This is a list of the heads of government of the modern Romanian state, from the establishment of the United Principalities to the present day.
The following is a List of Romanian communists, including both activists of the Romanian Communist Party (PCR) and people actively engaged in other communist groups (including people of Romanian origin who were members of communist parties in other countries).
Lucrețiu Pătrășcanu (November 4, 1900 – April 17, 1954) was a Romanian communist politician and leading member of the Communist Party of Romania (PCR), also noted for his activities as a lawyer, sociologist and economist.
The Magyar Autonomous Region (1952–1960) (Romanian: Regiunea Autonomă Maghiară, Hungarian: Magyar Autonóm Tartomány) and Mureș-Magyar Autonomous Region (1960–1968) were autonomous regions in the People's Republic of Romania (later the Socialist Republic of Romania).
In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).
Michael I (Mihai I; 25 October 1921 – 5 December 2017) was the last King of Romania, reigning from 20 July 1927 to 8 June 1930 and again from 6 September 1940 until his abdication on 30 December 1947.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
Miron Constantinescu (13 December 1917 – 18 July 1974) was a Romanian communist politician, a leading member of the Romanian Communist Party (PCR, known as PMR for a period of his lifetime), as well as a Marxist sociologist, historian, academic, and journalist. Initially close to Communist Romania's leader Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, he became increasingly critical of the latter's Stalinist policies during the 1950s, and was sidelined together with Iosif Chișinevschi. Reinstated under Nicolae Ceaușescu, he became a member of the Romanian Academy.
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (shortly: Moldavian SSR, abbr.: MSSR; Republica Sovietică Socialistă Moldovenească, in Cyrillic alphabet: Република Советикэ Сочиалистэ Молдовеняскэ; Молда́вская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика Moldavskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), also known to as Soviet Moldavia or Soviet Moldova, was one of the fifteen republics of the Soviet Union existed from 1940 to 1991.
A name day is a tradition in some countries in Europe, Latin America, and Catholic and Eastern Orthodox countries in general.
Natalism (also called pronatalism or the pro-birth position) is a belief that promotes reproduction of sentient life.
The National Museum of Art of Romania (Muzeul Național de Artă al României) is located in the Royal Palace in Revolution Square, central Bucharest.
The National Peasants' Party (Partidul Național Țărănesc or PNȚ) was a Romanian political party, formed in 1926 through the fusion of the Romanian National Party (Partidul Național Român) from Transylvania and the Peasants' Party (Partidul Țărănesc) from the prewar kingdom.
The National Salvation Front (Frontul Salvării Naționale, FSN) is the name of a political organization that was the governing body of Romania in the first weeks after the Romanian Revolution in 1989.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Nicolae Ceaușescu (26 January 1918 – 25 December 1989) was a Romanian Communist politician.
During the Cold War, Romanian dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu presided over the most pervasive cult of personality within the Eastern Bloc.
Nicolae Rădescu (30 March 1874, Călimănești – 16 May 1953, New York City) was a Romanian army officer and political figure.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
Nucșoara is a commune in Argeș County, in southern central Romania.
"On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences" («О культе личности и его последствиях», «O kul'te lichnosti i yego posledstviyakh») was a report by Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev made to the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union on 25 February 1956.
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
An orphan (from the ορφανός orphanós) is someone whose parents have died, unknown, or have permanently abandoned them.
Overcrowding or crowding refers to the condition where more people are located within a given space than is considered tolerable from a safety and health perspective which will depend on current environment and local cultural norms.
The Palace of the Parliament (Palatul Parlamentului) is the seat of the Parliament of Romania.
Pantheon Books is an American book publishing imprint with editorial independence.
The Paris Peace Treaties (Traité de Paris) was signed on 10 February 1947, as the outcome of the Paris Peace Conference, held from 29 July to 15 October 1946.
The Penguin Group is a trade book publisher and part of Penguin Random House.
"People's Republic" is a title used by some sovereign states with republican constitutions.
The People's Republic of Bulgaria (PRB; Народна република България (НРБ) Narodna republika Bǎlgariya (NRB)) was the official name of Bulgaria when it was a socialist republic.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia, Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the People's Socialist Republic of Albania (Republika Popullore Socialiste e Shqipërisë), was a Marxist-Leninist government that ruled Albania from 1946 to 1992.
Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.
Petru Groza (7 December 1884 – 7 January 1958) was a Romanian politician, best known as the Prime Minister of the first Communist Party-dominated government under Soviet occupation during the early stages of the Communist regime in Romania.
Pitești is a city in Romania, located on the Argeș River.
The Pitești Prison (Închisoarea Pitești) was a penal facility in Pitești, Romania, best remembered for the reeducation experiments (also known as Experimentul Pitești – the "Pitești Experiment" or Fenomenul Pitești – the "Pitești Phenomenon") carried out between December 1949 and September 1951, during Communist party rule.
The Ploughmen's Front (Frontul Plugarilor) was a Romanian left-wing agrarian-inspired political organisation of ploughmen, founded at Deva in 1933 and led by Petru Groza.
Polish October, also known as October 1956, Polish thaw, or Gomułka's thaw, marked a change in the politics of Poland in the second half of 1956.
A politburo or political bureau is the executive committee for communist parties.
Romania's political framework is a semi-presidential representative democratic republic where the Prime Minister is the head of government and the President is the head of state.
Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945 is a 2005 non-fiction book written by British historian and scholar Tony Judt who specialised in European history.
The President of Romania is the head of state of Romania.
The Presidential Commission for the Study of the Communist Dictatorship in Romania (Comisia Prezidenţială pentru Analiza Dictaturii Comuniste din România), also known as the Tismăneanu Commission (Comisia Tismăneanu), is a commission instituted in Romania by President Traian Băsescu to investigate the Communist regime and provide a comprehensive report allowing for the condemnation of Communism as experienced by Romania.
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a broadcasting organization that broadcasts and reports news, information, and analysis to countries in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East where it says that "the free flow of information is either banned by government authorities or not fully developed".
Rationing is the controlled distribution of scarce resources, goods, or services, or an artificial restriction of demand.
Reconstruction is a 2001 documentary made by Irene Lusztig that investigates the Ioanid Gang bank heist committed in 1959 in Communist Romania.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The Romania Anti-Religious Campaign, refers to the anti-religious campaign initiated by the Socialist Republic of Romania, which under the doctrine of Marxist–Leninist atheism, took a hostile stance against religion, and set its sights on the ultimate goal of an atheistic society, wherein religion would be recognized as the ideology of the bourgeoisie.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.
Romani (also Romany; romani čhib) is any of several languages of the Romani people belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Following the outbreak of World War II on 1 September 1939, the Kingdom of Romania under King Carol II officially adopted a position of neutrality.
The Romanian Communist Party (Romanian: Partidul Comunist Român, PCR) was a communist party in Romania.
General elections were held in Romania on 19 November 1946, in the aftermath of World War II.
The Romanian Greek Catholic Church or Romanian Church United with Rome, Greek-Catholic (Biserica Română Unită cu Roma, Greco-Catolică) is a sui iuris Eastern Catholic Church, in full union with the Roman Catholic Church.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
The Romanian leu (plural lei; ISO 4217 code RON; numeric code 946) is the currency of Romania.
The standard of living for Romanian orphans is still problematic despite vast improvements since their conditions were leaked to the West after the fall of the Communist government in 1989.
The Romanian Orthodox Church (Biserica Ortodoxă Română) is an autocephalous Orthodox Church in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox Christian Churches and ranked seventh in order of precedence.
The Romanian Revolution (Revoluția Română) was a period of violent civil unrest in Romania in December 1989 and part of the Revolutions of 1989 that occurred in several countries.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
Scînteia ("The Spark"; the initial spelling of the name in Romanian was Scânteia until the change of the orthography in 1953, as it would have been again, the orthography having officially reverted in 1993) was the name of two newspapers edited by Communist groups at different intervals in Romanian history.
The Securitate (Romanian for Security) was the popular term for the Departamentul Securității Statului (Department of State Security), the secret police agency of the Socialist Republic of Romania.
A show trial is a public trial in which the judicial authorities have already determined the guilt of the defendant.
Sibiu (antiquated Sibiiu; Hermannstadt, Transylvanian Saxon: Härmeschtat, Nagyszeben) is a city in Transylvania, Romania, with a population of 147,245.
The Sighet prison, located in the town of Sighetu Marmaţiei, Maramureş county, Romania, was used by Romania to hold criminals, POWs and political prisoners.
Sighetu Marmației (also spelled Sighetul Marmației; Marmaroschsiget or Siget; Máramarossziget,; Sihoť; Сигіт Syhit; סיגעט Siget), until 1964 Sighet, is a city (municipality) in Maramureș County near the Iza River, in northwestern Romania.
The Sino-Soviet split (1956–1966) was the breaking of political relations between the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), caused by doctrinal divergences arising from each of the two powers' different interpretation of Marxism–Leninism as influenced by the national interests of each country during the Cold War.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
A socialist state, socialist republic or socialist country (sometimes workers' state or workers' republic) is a sovereign state constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The SovRoms (plural of SovRom) were economic enterprises established in Romania following the Communist takeover at the end of World War II, in place until 1954–1956 (when they were dissolved by the Romanian authorities).
Stalinism is the means of governing and related policies implemented from the 1920s to 1953 by Joseph Stalin (1878–1953).
Street children are children experiencing poverty, homelessness or both, who are living on the streets of a city, town, or village.
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).
Systematisation (Sistematizarea) in Romania was a program of urban planning carried out by the Socialist Republic of Romania under the leadership of Nicolae Ceaușescu.
The Székely Land or Szeklerland (Székelyföld,; Ținutul Secuiesc (also Secuimea); Szeklerland; Terra Siculorum)James Minahan,, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002, p. 1810 is a historic and ethnographic area in Romania, inhabited mainly by Hungarians.
The tax on childlessness (translit) was imposed in the Soviet Union and other Communist countries, starting in the 1940s, as part of their natalist policies.
Târgoviște (alternative spelling: Tîrgoviște) is a city in Romania, and the county seat of the Dâmbovița County.
Te slăvim, Românie ("We glorify thee, Romania") was the national anthem of the Romanian People's Republic/Socialist Republic of Romania between 1953 and 1977.
Tear gas, formally known as a lachrymator agent or lachrymator (from the Latin lacrima, meaning "tear"), sometimes colloquially known as mace,"Mace" is a brand name for a tear gas spray is a chemical weapon that causes severe eye and respiratory pain, skin irritation, bleeding, and even blindness.
Telephone tapping in the countries of the Eastern Bloc was a widespread method of the mass surveillance of the population by the secret police.
Timișoara (Temeswar, also formerly Temeschburg or Temeschwar; Temesvár,; טעמשוואר; Темишвар / Temišvar; Banat Bulgarian: Timišvár; Temeşvar; Temešvár) is the capital city of Timiș County, and the main social, economic and cultural centre in western Romania.
The Timișoara Orthodox Cathedral (Catedrala Mitropolitană din Timișoara) is a Romanian Orthodox church in Timișoara, in the historical Banat region, in western Romania.
Titan is a neighborhood of Eastern Bucharest, part of Sector 3.
Tony Robert Judt, FBA (2 January 1948 – 6 August 2010) was a English-American historian, essayist and university professor who specialised in European history.
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
Transylvania is a historical region in today's central Romania.
Trei culori ("Three colours") was the national anthem of the Socialist Republic of Romania from 1977 until 1990.
The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR or UkrSSR or UkSSR; Украї́нська Радя́нська Соціалісти́чна Респу́бліка, Украї́нська РСР, УРСР; Украи́нская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, Украи́нская ССР, УССР; see "Name" section below), also known as the Soviet Ukraine, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union from the Union's inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991. The republic was governed by the Communist Party of Ukraine as a unitary one-party socialist soviet republic. The Ukrainian SSR was a founding member of the United Nations, although it was legally represented by the All-Union state in its affairs with countries outside of the Soviet Union. Upon the Soviet Union's dissolution and perestroika, the Ukrainian SSR was transformed into the modern nation-state and renamed itself to Ukraine. Throughout its 72-year history, the republic's borders changed many times, with a significant portion of what is now Western Ukraine being annexed by Soviet forces in 1939 from the Republic of Poland, and the addition of Zakarpattia in 1946. From the start, the eastern city of Kharkiv served as the republic's capital. However, in 1934, the seat of government was subsequently moved to the city of Kiev, Ukraine's historic capital. Kiev remained the capital for the rest of the Ukrainian SSR's existence, and remained the capital of independent Ukraine after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Geographically, the Ukrainian SSR was situated in Eastern Europe to the north of the Black Sea, bordered by the Soviet republics of Moldavia, Byelorussia, and the Russian SFSR. The Ukrainian SSR's border with Czechoslovakia formed the Soviet Union's western-most border point. According to the Soviet Census of 1989 the republic had a population of 51,706,746 inhabitants, which fell sharply after the breakup of the Soviet Union. For most of its existence, it ranked second only to the Russian SFSR in population, economic and political power.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 109, adopted on December 14, 1955, after being instructed by the General Assembly to consider the applications for membership of Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Ceylon, Finland, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Jordan, Laos, Libya, Nepal, Portugal, Romania, and Spain the Council recommended all of the above-named countries for admission to the United Nations.
Urban planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and design of land use in an urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks.
Vasile Luca (born László Luka; 8 June 1898 – 23 July 1963) was an Austro-Hungarian-born Romanian and Soviet communist politician, a leading member of the Romanian Communist Party (PCR) from 1945 and until his imprisonment in the 1950s.
Videograms of a Revolution is a 1992 documentary film compiled by Harun Farocki and Andrei Ujică from over 125 hours of amateur footage, news footage, and excerpts from the Bucharest TV studio overtaken by demonstrators as part of the December 1989 Romanian Revolution.
War reparations are payments made after a war by the vanquished to the victors.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
The Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, officially known as Operation Danube, was a joint invasion of Czechoslovakia by five Warsaw Pact nations – the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germany and Poland – on the night of 20–21 August 1968.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
The Western Bloc during the Cold War refers to the countries allied with the United States and NATO against the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact.
The political slogan "Workers of the world, unite!" is one of the most famous rallying cries from The Communist Manifesto (1848) by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (Proletarier aller Länder vereinigt Euch!, literally "Proletarians of all countries, unite!", but soon popularised in English as "Workers of the world, unite! You have nothing to lose but your chains!").
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference and code named the Argonaut Conference, held from 4 to 11 February 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Germany and Europe's postwar reorganization.
Zdrobite cătușe (Broken Shackles) was the national anthem of the Romanian People's Republic between 1948 and 1953.
The 1936 Soviet Constitution, adopted on 5 December 1936 and also known as the Stalin Constitution, redesigned the government of the Soviet Union.
The 1948 Constitution of Romania was the first adopted after the establishment of the Communist regime, which it enshrined into law.
The 1952 Constitution of Romania, also called the "constitution of building socialism", expressed the consolidation of Communist power, featuring greater ideological content than its 1948 predecessor.
The 1965 Constitution of Romania was drafted by a committee of the Great National Assembly (MAN) and approved by a plenary session of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party on June 28, 1965.
The 1977 Vrancea earthquake occurred on 4 March 1977, at 21:22 local time, and was felt throughout the Balkans.
The 1980s austerity policy in Romania was imposed by Romania's dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu in order to pay out the external debt incurred by the state in the 1970s.
The 1984 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was held from July 28 to August 12, 1984, in Los Angeles (LA), California, United States.
4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days (4 luni, 3 săptămâni și 2 zile) is a 2007 Romanian art film with drama and thriller elements, written and directed by Cristian Mungiu and starring Anamaria Marinca, Laura Vasiliu and Vlad Ivanov.
Communism in Romania, Communist Romania, History of Communist Romania, People's Rep. of Romania, People's Republic of Romania, Peoples' Republic of Romania, Red Romania, Red Rumania, Republica Populara Romana, Republica Populara Româna, Republica Populară Romînă, Romanian Communist Regime, Romanian People's Republic, Romanian Socialist Republic, Rp romina, Rumanian People's Republic, SR Romania, Socialist Romania, The Socialist Republic of Romania.