165 relations: Academy, Adam Smith, American Mathematical Society, American Society of Civil Engineers, Artifact (archaeology), Autonomy, Étienne Balibar, Band society, Bonobo, Building society, Business, Capitalism, Chania, Chiefdom, Chimpanzee, Chris Harman, City-state, Civil society, Civilization, Collaboration, Commerce, Community, Comrade, Consumerism, Cooperative, Corner case, Craig Calhoun, Creative industries, Crete, Criminology, Cultural evolution, Cultural identity, Cultural relativism, Culture, David Harvey, Digital economy, Dominance hierarchy, E-democracy, E-government, Economy, Education, Educational technology, Elman Service, Enterprise software, Estates of the realm, European Union, Eusociality, Feudalism, Friendly society, Geography, ..., Gerhard Lenski, Gorilla, Government, Green economy, Group cohesiveness, Gu Hongzhong, György Lukács, Hierarchy, High society (social class), History, Hominidae, Human, Human capital, Hunter-gatherer, Industrial society, Industry, Information and communications technology, Information society, Infrastructure, Institution, Interdependence, International Telecommunication Union, Investor, Jewellery, Joking relationship, Judeo-Christian ethics, Language, Latin, Leadership, Learned society, Level of analysis, Louis Althusser, Manual labour, Mass society, Maurice Godelier, Moishe Postone, Mutual organization, Nation state, National identity, Neolithic Revolution, Open society, Orangutan, Organization, Outline of community, Outline of culture, Outline of industrial organization, Outline of religion, Outline of society, Oxford English Dictionary, Pastoralism, Peter L. Berger, Politics, Post-industrial society, Power (social and political), Pre-industrial society, Professional association, Public service, Quality of life, Raymond Williams, Reciprocity (cultural anthropology), Recognition (sociology), Religion, Robinson Crusoe, Royal Society, Scapegoat, Scapegoating, Scotland, Secret society, Service science, management and engineering, Shamanism, Social actions, Social capital, Social class, Social contract, Social disintegration, Social exclusion, Social group, Social inequality, Social norm, Social order, Social relation, Social science, Social software, Social stratification, Social structure, Social work, Sociality, Societal collapse, Sociobiology, Sociology, Sociology of the Internet, Solidarity, State (polity), Structuralism, Structure and agency, Stuart Hall (cultural theorist), Subculture, Subsistence economy, Technology, Thomas Bottomore, Tlingit, Tool, Trade, Tribal chief, Tribe, United Kingdom, Utility, Village, Voluntary association, Wealth, Weapon, Western culture, Western world, World population, World Summit on the Information Society. Expand index (115 more) » « Shrink index
An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership.
Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.
The American Mathematical Society (AMS) is an association of professional mathematicians dedicated to the interests of mathematical research and scholarship, and serves the national and international community through its publications, meetings, advocacy and other programs.
The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) is a tax-exempt professional body founded in 1852 to represent members of the civil engineering profession worldwide.
An artifact, or artefact (see American and British English spelling differences), is something made or given shape by humans, such as a tool or a work of art, especially an object of archaeological interest.
In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision.
Étienne Balibar (born 23 April 1942) is a French philosopher.
A band society, or horde, is the simplest form of human society.
The bonobo (Pan paniscus), formerly called the pygmy chimpanzee and less often, the dwarf or gracile chimpanzee, is an endangered great ape and one of the two species making up the genus Pan; the other is Pan troglodytes, or the common chimpanzee.
A building society is a financial institution owned by its members as a mutual organization.
Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (goods and services).
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
Chania (Χανιά,, Venetian: Canea, Ottoman Turkish: Hanya) is the second largest city of Crete and the capital of the Chania regional unit.
A chiefdom is a form of hierarchical political organization in non-industrial societies usually based on kinship, and in which formal leadership is monopolized by the legitimate senior members of select families or 'houses'.
The taxonomical genus Pan (often referred to as chimpanzees or chimps) consists of two extant species: the common chimpanzee and the bonobo.
Chris Harman (8 November 1942 – 7 November 2009) was a British journalist and political activist, and a member of the Central Committee of the Socialist Workers Party.
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.
Civil society is the "aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens".
A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
Collaboration occurs when two or more people or organizations work together--> to realize or achieve a goal.
Commerce relates to "the exchange of goods and services, especially on a large scale.” Commerce includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural and technological systems that operate in any country or internationally.
A community is a small or large social unit (a group of living things) that has something in common, such as norms, religion, values, or identity.
The term comrade is used to mean "friend", "mate", "colleague", or "ally", and derives from the Iberian Romance language term camarada, literally meaning "chamber mate", from Latin camera "chamber" or "room".
Consumerism is a social and economic order and ideology that encourages the acquisition of goods and services in ever-increasing amounts.
A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise".
In engineering, a corner case (or pathological case) involves a problem or situation that occurs only outside of normal operating parameters—specifically one that manifests itself when multiple environmental variables or conditions are simultaneously at extreme levels, even though each parameter is within the specified range for that parameter.
Craig Jackson Calhoun (born 1952) is an American sociologist, currently University Professor of Social Sciences at Arizona State University.
The creative industries refers to a range of economic activities which are concerned with the generation or exploitation of knowledge and information.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
Criminology (from Latin crīmen, "accusation" originally derived from the Ancient Greek verb "krino" "κρίνω", and Ancient Greek -λογία, -logy|-logia, from "logos" meaning: “word,” “reason,” or “plan”) is the scientific study of the nature, extent, management, causes, control, consequences, and prevention of criminal behavior, both on the individual and social levels.
Cultural evolution is an evolutionary theory of social change.
Cultural identity is the identity or feeling of belonging to a group.
Cultural relativism is the idea that a person's beliefs, values, and practices should be understood based on that person's own culture, rather than be judged against the criteria of another.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
David W. Harvey (born 31 October 1935) is the Distinguished Professor of anthropology and geography at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York (CUNY).
Digital economy refers to an economy that is based on digital computing technologies.
Dominance hierarchy is a type of social hierarchy that arises when members of a social group interact, often aggressively, to create a ranking system.
E-democracy (a combination of the words electronic and democracy), also known as digital democracy or Internet democracy, incorporates 21st-century information and communications technology to promote democracy.
E-government (short for electronic government) is the use of electronic communications devices, computers and the Internet to provide public services to citizens and other persons in a country or region.
An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
Educational technology is "the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources".
Elman Rogers Service (1915–1996) was an American cultural anthropologist.
Enterprise software, also known as enterprise application software (EAS), is computer software used to satisfy the needs of an organization rather than individual users.
The estates of the realm, or three estates, were the broad orders of social hierarchy used in Christendom (Christian Europe) from the medieval period to early modern Europe.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Eusociality (from Greek εὖ eu "good" and social), the highest level of organization of animal sociality, is defined by the following characteristics: cooperative brood care (including care of offspring from other individuals), overlapping generations within a colony of adults, and a division of labor into reproductive and non-reproductive groups.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
A friendly society (sometimes called a mutual society, benevolent society, fraternal organization or ROSCA) is a mutual association for the purposes of insurance, pensions, savings or cooperative banking.
Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.
Gerhard Emmanuel "Gerry" Lenski, Jr. (August 13, 1924 – December 7, 2015) was an American sociologist known for contributions to the sociology of religion, social inequality, and introducing the ecological-evolutionary theory.
Gorillas are ground-dwelling, predominantly herbivorous apes that inhabit the forests of central Sub-Saharan Africa.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
The green economy is defined as an economy that aims at reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities, and that aims for sustainable development without degrading the environment.
Group cohesiveness (also called group cohesion and social cohesion) arises when bonds link members of a social group to one another and to the group as a whole.
Gu Hongzhong (937–975) was a Chinese painter during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period of Chinese history. Gu was active until 960 CE University of Washington: A Visual Sourcebook of Chinese Civilization. Retrieved 27 August 2012. and was most likely a court painter for the Southern Tang Emperor Li Yu. His most well-known work is the Night Revels of Han Xizai (韓熙載夜宴圖). Gu's original no longer exists, but the painting survives as a 12th-century remake during the subsequent Song Dynasty (960–1279). The painting is housed in the Palace Museum in Beijing.
György Lukács (also Georg Lukács; born György Bernát Löwinger; 13 April 1885 – 4 June 1971) was a Hungarian Marxist philosopher, aesthetician, literary historian, and critic.
A hierarchy (from the Greek hierarchia, "rule of a high priest", from hierarkhes, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally.
High society, also called in some contexts simply "society", is the behavior and lifestyle of people with the highest levels of wealth and social status.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
The Hominidae, whose members are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, which includes modern humans and its extinct relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal), and ancestors, such as Homo erectus.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Human capital is a term popularized by Gary Becker, an economist and Nobel Laureate from the University of Chicago, and Jacob Mincer.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
In sociology, industrial society is a society driven by the use of technology to enable mass production, supporting a large population with a high capacity for division of labour.
Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.
Information and communication technology (ICT) is another/extensional term for information technology (IT) which stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audio-visual systems, which enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information.
An information society is a society where the creation, distribution, use, integration and manipulation of information is a significant economic, political, and cultural activity.
Infrastructure is the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.
Institutions are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior".
Interdependence is the mutual reliance between two or more groups.
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; Union Internationale des Télécommunications (UIT)), originally the International Telegraph Union (Union Télégraphique Internationale), is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies.
An investor is a person that allocates capital with the expectation of a future financial return.
Jewellery (British English) or jewelry (American English)see American and British spelling differences consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks.
In anthropology, a joking relationship is a relationship between two people that involves a ritualised banter of teasing or mocking.
The idea that a common Judeo-Christian ethics or Judeo-Christian values underpins American politics, law and morals has been part of the "American civil religion" since the 1940s.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Leadership is both a research area and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual or organization to "lead" or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations.
A learned society (also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organisation that exists to promote an academic discipline, profession, or a group of related disciplines such as the arts.
The term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target.
Louis Pierre Althusser (16 October 1918 – 22 October 1990) was a French Marxist philosopher.
Manual labour (in British English, manual labor in American English) or manual work is physical work done by people, most especially in contrast to that done by machines, and to that done by working animals.
Mass society is any society of the modern era that possesses a mass culture and large-scale, impersonal, social institutions.
Maurice Godelier (born February 28, 1934) is a French anthropologist who works as the Director of Studies at the School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences.
Moishe Postone (17 April 1942 – 19 March 2018) was a Canadian Western Marxist historian, philosopher and political economist.
A mutual, mutual organization, or mutual society is an organization (which is often, but not always, a company or business) based on the principle of mutuality.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
National identity is one's identity or sense of belonging to one state or to one nation.
The Neolithic Revolution, Neolithic Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population possible.
The open society was conceived in 1932 by French philosopher Henri Bergson.
The orangutans (also spelled orang-utan, orangutang, or orang-utang) are three extant species of great apes native to Indonesia and Malaysia.
An organization or organisation is an entity comprising multiple people, such as an institution or an association, that has a collective goal and is linked to an external environment.
The following outline is provided as an overview of topics relating to community.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to culture: Culture – set of patterns of human activity within a community or social group and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to industrial organization: Industrial organization – describes the behavior of firms in the marketplace with regard to production, pricing, employment and other decisions.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to religion: Religion – organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems, and world views that relate humanity to an order of existence.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to society: Society – group of people sharing the same geographical or virtual territory and therefore subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Pastoralism is the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock.
Peter Ludwig Berger (March 17, 1929 – June 27, 2017) was an Austrian-born American sociologist and Protestant theologian.
Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.
In sociology, the post-industrial society is the stage of society's development when the service sector generates more wealth than the manufacturing sector of the economy.
In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.
Pre-industrial society refers to social attributes and forms of political and cultural organization that were prevalent before the advent of the Industrial Revolution, which occurred from 1750 to 1850.
A professional association (also called a professional body, professional organization, or professional society) is usually a nonprofit organization seeking to further a particular profession, the interests of individuals engaged in that profession and the public interest.
Public service is a service which is provided by government to people living within its jurisdiction, either directly (through the public sector) or by financing provision of services.
Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.
Raymond Henry Williams (31 August 1921 – 26 January 1988) was a Welsh Marxist theorist, academic, novelist and critic.
In cultural anthropology, reciprocity refers to the non-market exchange of goods or labour ranging from direct barter (immediate exchange) to forms of gift exchange where a return is eventually expected (delayed exchange) as in the exchange of birthday gifts.
Recognition in sociology is public acknowledgement of person's status or merits (achievements, virtues, service, etc.). In the field of psychology, it is understood that a person who seeks excessive recognition could themselves be exhibiting traits of a narcissistic personality disorder.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
Robinson Crusoe is a novel by Daniel Defoe, first published on 25 April 1719.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
In the Bible, a scapegoat is an animal which is ritually burdened with the sins of others then driven away.
Scapegoating is the practice of singling out a person or group for unmerited blame and consequent negative treatment.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
A secret society is a club or an organization whose activities, events, inner functioning, or membership are concealed from non-members.
Service science, management, and engineering (SSME) is a term introduced by IBM to describe service science, an interdisciplinary approach to the study, design, and implementation of service systems – complex systems in which specific arrangements of people and technologies take actions that provide value for others.
Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.
In sociology, social action, also known as "Weberian social action", refers to an act which takes into account the actions and reactions of individuals (or 'agents').
Social capital is a form of economic and cultural capital in which social networks are central; transactions are marked by reciprocity, trust, and cooperation; and market agents produce goods and services not mainly for themselves, but for a common good.
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.
In both moral and political philosophy, the social contract is a theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment.
Social disintegration is the tendency for society to decline or disintegrate over time, perhaps due to the lapse or breakdown of traditional social support systems.
Social exclusion, or social marginalization, is the social disadvantage and relegation to the fringe of society.
In the social sciences, a social group has been defined as two or more people who interact with one another, share similar characteristics, and collectively have a sense of unity.
Social inequality occurs when resources in a given society are distributed unevenly, typically through norms of allocation, that engender specific patterns along lines of socially defined categories of persons.
From a sociological perspective, social norms are informal understandings that govern the behavior of members of a society.
The term social order can be used in two senses.
In social science, a social relation or social interaction is any relationship between two or more individuals.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
Social software, also known as Web 2.0 applications or social apps, include communication and interactive tools often based on the Internet.
Social stratification is a kind of social differentiation whereby a society groups people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power (social and political).
In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergent from and determinant of the actions of the individuals.
Social work is an academic discipline and profession that concerns itself with individuals, families, groups and communities in an effort to enhance social functioning and overall well-being.
Sociality is the degree to which individuals in an animal population tend to associate in social groups (Gregariousness) and form cooperative societies.
Societal collapse is the fall of a complex human society.
Sociobiology is a field of biology that aims to examine and explain social behavior in terms of evolution.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
The sociology of the Internet involves the application of sociological theory and method to the Internet as a source of information and communication.
Solidarity is unity (as of a group or class) which produces or is based on unities of interests, objectives, standards, and sympathies.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
In sociology, anthropology, and linguistics, structuralism is the methodology that implies elements of human culture must be understood by way of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure.
In the social sciences there is a standing debate over the primacy of structure or agency in shaping human behaviour.
Stuart McPhail Hall, FBA (3 February 1932 – 10 February 2014) was a Jamaican-born cultural theorist, political activist and Marxist sociologist who lived and worked in the United Kingdom from 1951.
A subculture is a group of people within a culture that differentiates itself from the parent culture to which it belongs, often maintaining some of its founding principles.
A subsistence economy is a non-monetary economy which relies on natural resources to provide for basic needs, through hunting, gathering, and subsistence agriculture.
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".
Thomas Burton Bottomore (8 April 1920, England – 9 December 1992, Sussex, England), usually known as Tom Bottomore and published as T.B. Bottomore, was a British Marxist sociologist.
The Tlingit (or; also spelled Tlinkit) are Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast of North America.
A tool is any physical item that can be used to achieve a goal, especially if the item is not consumed in the process.
Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.
A tribal chief is the leader of a tribal society or chiefdom.
A tribe is viewed developmentally, economically and historically as a social group existing outside of or before the development of states.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
Within economics the concept of utility is used to model worth or value, but its usage has evolved significantly over time.
A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town, with a population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand.
A voluntary group or union (also sometimes called a voluntary organization, common-interest association,Prins HEL et al. (2010).. Cengage Learning. association, or society) is a group of individuals who enter into an agreement, usually as volunteers, to form a body (or organization) to accomplish a purpose.
Wealth is the abundance of valuable resources or valuable material possessions.
A weapon, arm or armament is any device used with intent to inflict damage or harm.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.6 billion people as of May 2018.
The World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) was a two-phase United Nations-sponsored summit on information, communication and, in broad terms, the information society that took place in 2003 in Geneva and in 2005 in Tunis.