495 relations: A General View of Positivism, A. H. Halsey, Adolphe Quetelet, Advocacy, Advocacy group, Ageing, Agency (sociology), Agent-based model, Albion Woodbury Small, Alexis de Tocqueville, Alfred Radcliffe-Brown, American Journal of Sociology, American Sociological Association, American Sociological Review, Analytical sociology, Ancient Greek philosophy, Ancient Judaism (book), Annual Review of Sociology, Anomie, Anselm Strauss, Anthony Giddens, Anthropology, Anti-racism, Antihumanism, Antipositivism, Arabs, Archival research, Artificial intelligence, Artificial society, Atlas.ti, Audience reception, Auguste Comte, Émile Durkheim, Base and superstructure, Behavioural sciences, Being, Bibliography of sociology, Biologist, Bounded rationality, Bourgeoisie, British Journal of Sociology, British Sociological Association, Bronisław Malinowski, Bruno Latour, Business magnate, Capitalism, Caste, Catholic Church, Causality, Cengage, ..., Centrality, Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies, Charles Cooley, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Chicago school (sociology), Childhood, Civil religion, Civilian, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Collective action, Columbia University, Combat, Communication studies, Community, Community development, Community mobilization, Community organization, Community practice, Comparative historical research, Complex system, Computational sociology, Computer science, Computer simulation, Conflict theories, Confucius, Content analysis, Continental Europe, Convenience sampling, Critical theory, Critical thinking, Cultural anthropology, Cultural assimilation, Cultural capital, Cultural studies, Cultural turn, Culture, Cyber-ethnography, Demography, Dependency theory, Dependent and independent variables, Desegregation busing, Developing country, Deviance (sociology), Dialectic, Digital sociology, Disability, Disease, Division of labour, Domesday Book, Dorothy Swaine Thomas, Douglas Davies, Dramaturgy (sociology), Earl Babbie, Economic determinism, Economic sociology, Economics, Education, Edvard Westermarck, Embeddedness, Emergence, Emerson's Brewery, Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès, Empirical research, Empiricism, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Engaged theory, England, English school of international relations theory, English-speaking world, Enumeration, Epidemiology, Epistemology, Erving Goffman, Ethnic group, Ethnomethodology, Everett Carll Ladd, Existentialism, Experiment, Feminist sociology, Feminist theory, Ferdinand de Saussure, Ferdinand Tönnies, Fernand Braudel Center, Florian Znaniecki, France, Frank W. Blackmar, Frankfurt School, Frederick Copleston, French Revolution, Friedrich Engels, Friendship, Geisteswissenschaft, Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft, Gender, Gender role, Genetics, Georg Simmel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, George C. Homans, George Herbert Mead, George Ritzer, German Sociological Association, Gerontology, Gestational age, Global city, Global Social Change Research Project, Global South, Global warming, Globalization, Goethe University Frankfurt, Grand theory, Greek language, Grounded theory, Group cohesiveness, Group dynamics, Harold Garfinkel, Harriet Martineau, Harrison White, Harvard Department of Social Relations, Harvard University, Henri de Saint-Simon, Herbert A. Simon, Herbert Spencer, Heredity, Hermeneutics, Hippolyte Taine, Historical method, History of the social sciences, Human geography, Human rights, Human science, Human sexuality, Ibn Khaldun, Ideal type, Identity (social science), Ideology, Immanuel Wallerstein, In situ, Industrial Revolution, Industrial society, Industrialisation, Inference, Information society, Institute for Social Research, Institution, Interactionism, Interdependence, International development, International Sociological Association, Intersubjectivity, Irving Louis Horowitz, Isaiah Berlin, Islam, James G. March, James Samuel Coleman, Jürgen Habermas, John Bellamy Foster, John Dewey, John Levi Martin, Josh Whitford, Journal Citation Reports, Journal of the History of Ideas, Jurisprudence, Karl Mannheim, Karl Marx, Kinship, Labour power, Laissez-faire, Latin, Law of three stages, Legislator, Leonard Hobhouse, Lester Frank Ward, Lewis A. Coser, Linguistic anthropology, Linguistic turn, Linguistics, List of counseling topics, Literary criticism, Literary theory, Loïc Wacquant, London School of Economics, Longitudinal study, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Macrosociology, Management, Manuel Castells, Manuscript, Marcel Mauss, Marianne Weber, Mark Granovetter, Market research, Marquis de Condorcet, Marshall McLuhan, Marxism, Mathematical sociology, Max Scheler, Max Weber, MAXQDA, McGraw-Hill Education, Means of production, Medical sociology, Mental health, Metabolic rift, Metaphysics, Methodological nationalism, Methodology, Michael Burawoy, Michel Foucault, Microsociology, Middle range theory (sociology), Military organization, Military sociology, Mobilities, Modernity, Moisey Ostrogorsky, Montesquieu, Multiculturalism, Muqaddimah, Nation state, Natural environment, Natural science, Neo-Kantianism, Network science, New Brunswick, New Jersey, New media, Non-governmental organization, Nonlinear system, Nonprobability sampling, Nonprofit organization, North–South divide, Nuclear family, NVivo, Observation, Occupational prestige, Omar Lizardo, Online community, Ontogeny, Outline of sociology, Oxford University Press, Participant observation, Patriarchy, Paul Lazarsfeld, Pearson Education, Peter Blau, Peter L. Berger, Phenomenological sociology, Phenomenology (philosophy), Philosophy, Philosophy of history, Philosophy of religion, Philosophy of science, Physics, Pierre Bourdieu, Pitirim Sorokin, Plato, Policy sociology, Political science, Politician, Positivism, Post-structuralism, Postcolonialism, Postmodernism, Power (social and political), Pragmatism, Primitive culture, Princeton University Press, Proletariat, Protestantism, Psychology, Public administration, Public policy, Public sociology, QDA Miner, Qualitative research, Quantitative research, Race (human categorization), Racism, Raewyn Connell, Ralf Dahrendorf, Randall Collins, Random assignment, Rational choice theory, Rationalization (sociology), Real estate development, Relational sociology, Reliabilism, René Worms, Reproducibility, Residential segregation in the United States, Richard Hoggart, Richard Rorty, Robert K. Merton, Robert Nisbet, Ronald Stuart Burt, Rural sociology, Rutgers University Press, Sampling (statistics), Saskia Sassen, Science and technology studies, Science journalism, Scientific control, Scientific method, Secondary data, Secularization, Semiotics, Sexual network, Seymour Martin Lipset, Sign (semiotics), Simple random sample, Snowball sampling, Social actions, Social anthropology, Social behavior, Social capital, Social class, Social complexity, Social conflict, Social constructionism, Social Darwinism, Social disorganization theory, Social Evolution & History, Social exchange theory, Social group, Social issue, Social mobility, Social movement, Social network, Social norm, Social order, Social organization, Social philosophy, Social policy, Social psychology, Social psychology (sociology), Social reality, Social relation, Social reproduction, Social research, Social science, Social sequence analysis, Social stratification, Social structure, Social theory, Social work, Socialization, Society, Sociocultural anthropology, Sociocultural evolution, Sociological theory, Sociology in Poland, Sociology of architecture, Sociology of disaster, Sociology of Education (journal), Sociology of health and illness, Sociology of law, Sociology of punishment, Sociology of religion, Sociology of scientific knowledge, Sociology of sport, Sociology of the body, Sociology of the Internet, Sociomapping, Statelessness, Statistical population, Statistics, Stratified sampling, Structural functionalism, Structural linguistics, Structure and agency, Stuart Hall (cultural theorist), Subculture, Subject (philosophy), Subset, Sui generis, Suicide (book), Survey (human research), Survey methodology, Survival of the fittest, Sustainability, Symbol, Symbolic capital, Symbolic interactionism, Synchrony and diachrony, Talcott Parsons, Technology, Text mining, The Communist Manifesto, The Course in Positive Philosophy, The Division of Labour in Society, The Gutenberg Galaxy, The Internet Galaxy, The Metropolis and Mental Life, The Order of Things, The Other Press, The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity, The Philosophy of Money, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, The Religion of China: Confucianism and Taoism, The Religion of India: The Sociology of Hinduism and Buddhism, The Rules of Sociological Method, The Social Construction of Reality, Theodor W. Adorno, Theology, Theory, Thomas Luckmann, Thomson Reuters, Thorstein Veblen, Times Higher Education, Triangulation (social science), United Kingdom, United States, University of Bordeaux, University of Chicago, University of Kansas, University of London, University of Michigan, University of Pennsylvania, University of Pennsylvania Press, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Urban planner, Urban sociology, Urbanization, Usenet newsgroup, Utilitarianism, Validity, Value (ethics), Verstehen, Vilfredo Pareto, Virtual world, Visual sociology, Vocation, W. E. B. Du Bois, Walter Benjamin, Weber, Welfare, Werner Sombart, Western culture, Wilhelm Dilthey, William Graham Sumner, William Rainey Harper, William Stanley Jevons, Working class, World-systems theory, Yale University. Expand index (445 more) » « Shrink index
A General View of Positivism (Discours sur l'ensemble du positivisme) was an 1848 book by the French philosopher Auguste Comte, first published in English in 1865.
Albert Henry 'Chelly' Halsey (13 April 1923 – 14 October 2014) was a British sociologist.
Lambert Adolphe Jacques Quetelet FRSFor FRSE (22 February 1796 – 17 February 1874) was a Belgian astronomer, mathematician, statistician and sociologist.
Advocacy is an activity by an individual or group which aims to influence decisions within political, economic, and social systems and institutions.
Advocacy groups (also known as pressure groups, lobby groups, campaign groups, interest groups, or special interest groups) use various forms of advocacy in order to influence public opinion and/or policy.
Ageing or aging (see spelling differences) is the process of becoming older.
In social science, agency is the capacity of individuals to act independently and to make their own free choices.
An agent-based model (ABM) is a class of computational models for simulating the actions and interactions of autonomous agents (both individual or collective entities such as organizations or groups) with a view to assessing their effects on the system as a whole.
Albion Woodbury Small (May 11, 1854 – March 24, 1926) founded the first independent Department of Sociology in the United States at the University of Chicago in Chicago, Illinois in 1892.
Alexis Charles Henri Clérel, Viscount de Tocqueville (29 July 180516 April 1859) was a French diplomat, political scientist and historian.
Alfred Reginald Radcliffe-Brown, FBA (born Alfred Reginald Brown; 17 January 1881 – 24 October 1955) was an English social anthropologist who developed the theory of structural functionalism and coadaptation.
Established in 1895 as the first US scholarly journal in its field, American Journal of Sociology (AJS) presents pathbreaking work from all areas of sociology, with an emphasis on theory building and innovative methods.
The American Sociological Association (ASA), founded in 1905 as the American Sociological Society, is a non-profit organization dedicated to advancing the discipline and profession of sociology.
The American Sociological Review is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal covering all aspects of sociology.
Analytical sociology is a strategy for understanding the social world.
Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.
Ancient Judaism (Das antike Judentum), is a book written by Max Weber, a German economist and sociologist, in early the 20th century.
The Annual Review of Sociology is an annual peer-reviewed review journal published by Annual Reviews since 1975.
Anomie is a "condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals".
Anselm Leonard Strauss (December 18, 1916 – September 5, 1996) was an American sociologist professor at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) internationally known as a medical sociologist (especially for his pioneering attention to chronic illness and dying) and as the developer (with Barney Glaser) of grounded theory, an innovative method of qualitative analysis widely used in sociology, nursing, education, social work, and organizational studies.
Anthony Giddens, Baron Giddens (born 18 January 1938) is a British sociologist who is known for his theory of structuration and his holistic view of modern societies.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
Anti-racism includes beliefs, actions, movements, and policies adopted or developed to oppose racism.
In social theory and philosophy, antihumanism (or anti-humanism) is a theory that is critical of traditional humanism and traditional ideas about humanity and the human condition.
In social science, antipositivism (also interpretivism and negativism) proposes that the social realm cannot be studied with the scientific method of investigation applied to the natural world; investigation of the social realm requires a different epistemology.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Archival research is a type of primary research which involves seeking out and extracting evidence from original archival records.
Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.
Artificial society is the specific agent based computational model for computer simulation in social analysis.
ATLAS.ti is a computer program used mostly, but not exclusively, in qualitative research or qualitative data analysis.
Also known as reception analysis, audience reception theory has come to be widely used as a way of characterizing the wave of audience research which occurred within communications and cultural studies during the 1980s and 1990s.
Isidore Marie Auguste François Xavier Comte (19 January 1798 – 5 September 1857) was a French philosopher who founded the discipline of praxeology and the doctrine of positivism.
David Émile Durkheim (or; April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French sociologist.
In Marxist theory, human society consists of two parts: the base (or substructure) and superstructure.
The term behavioral sciences encompasses the various disciplines that explores the cognitive processes within organisms and the behavioural interactions between organisms in the natural world.
Being is the general concept encompassing objective and subjective features of reality and existence.
This bibliography of sociology is a list of works, organized by subdiscipline, on the subject of sociology.
A biologist, is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of biology, the scientific study of life.
Bounded rationality is the idea that when individuals make decisions, their rationality is limited by the tractability of the decision problem, the cognitive limitations of their minds, and the time available to make the decision.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
The British Journal of Sociology is a peer-reviewed academic journal that was established in 1950 at the London School of Economics.
The British Sociological Association (BSA) is a scholarly and professional society for sociologists in the United Kingdom, and was founded in 1951.
Bronisław Kasper Malinowski (7 April 1884 – 16 May 1942) was a Polish-British anthropologist, often considered one of the most important 20th-century anthropologists.
Bruno Latour (born 22 June 1947) is a French philosopher, anthropologist and sociologist.
A business magnate (formally industrialist) refers to an entrepreneur of great influence, importance, or standing in a particular enterprise or field of business.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a lifestyle which often includes an occupation, status in a hierarchy, customary social interaction, and exclusion.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.
Cengage is an educational content, technology, and services company for the higher education, K-12, professional, and library markets worldwide.
In graph theory and network analysis, indicators of centrality identify the most important vertices within a graph.
The Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS) was a research centre at the University of Birmingham, England.
Charles Horton Cooley (August 17, 1864 – May 7, 1929) was an American sociologist and the son of Thomas M. Cooley.
Charlotte Perkins Gilman; also Charlotte Perkins Stetson (July 3, 1860 – August 17, 1935), was a prominent American feminist, sociologist, novelist, writer of short stories, poetry, and nonfiction, and a lecturer for social reform.
In sociology and later criminology, the Chicago school (sometimes described as the ecological school) was the first major body of works emerging during the 1920s and 1930s specializing in urban sociology, and the research into the urban environment by combining theory and ethnographic fieldwork in Chicago, now applied elsewhere.
Childhood is the age span ranging from birth to adolescence.
Civil religion is a concept that originated in French political thought and became a major topic for American sociologists since its use by Robert Bellah in 1960.
A civilian is "a person who is not a member of the military or of a police or firefighting force".
Claude Lévi-Strauss (28 November 1908, Brussels – 30 October 2009, Paris) was a French anthropologist and ethnologist whose work was key in the development of the theory of structuralism and structural anthropology.
Collective action refers to action taken together by a group of people whose goal is to enhance their status and achieve a common objective.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
Combat (French for fight) is a purposeful violent conflict meant to weaken, establish dominance over, or kill the opposition, or to drive the opposition away from a location where it is not wanted or needed.
Communication studies or communication sciences is an academic discipline that deals with processes of human communication.
A community is a small or large social unit (a group of living things) that has something in common, such as norms, religion, values, or identity.
The United Nations defines community development as "a process where community members come together to take collective action and generate solutions to common problems." It is a broad term given to the practices of civic leaders, activists, involved citizens and professionals to improve various aspects of communities, typically aiming to build stronger and more resilient local communities.
Community mobilization is an attempt to bring both human and non-human resources together to undertake developmental activities in order to achieve sustainable development.
Community organization covers a series of activities at the community level aimed at bringing about desired improvement in the social well being of individuals, groups and neighborhoods.
Community practice also known as macro practice is a branch of social work in the United States of America that focuses on larger social systems and social change, and is tied to the historical roots of United States social work.
Comparative historical research is a method of social science that examines historical events in order to create explanations that are valid beyond a particular time and place, either by direct comparison to other historical events, theory building, or reference to the present day.
A complex system is a system composed of many components which may interact with each other.
Computational sociology is a branch of sociology that uses computationally intensive methods to analyze and model social phenomena.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system.
Conflict theories are perspectives in sociology and social psychology that emphasize a materialist interpretation of history, dialectical method of analysis, a critical stance toward existing social arrangements, and political program of revolution or, at least, reform.
Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.
Content analysis is a research method for studying documents and communication artifacts, which might be texts of various formats, pictures, audio or video.
Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.
Convenience sampling (also known as grab sampling, accidental sampling, or opportunity sampling) is a type of non-probability sampling that involves the sample being drawn from that part of the population that is close to hand.
Critical theory is a school of thought that stresses the reflective assessment and critique of society and culture by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities.
Critical thinking is the objective analysis of facts to form a judgment.
Cultural anthropology is a branch of anthropology focused on the study of cultural variation among humans.
Cultural assimilation is the process in which a minority group or culture comes to resemble those of a dominant group.
In sociology, cultural capital consists of the social assets of a person (education, intellect, style of speech and dress, etc.) that promote social mobility in a stratified society.
Cultural studies is a field of theoretically, politically, and empirically engaged cultural analysis that concentrates upon the political dynamics of contemporary culture, its historical foundations, defining traits, conflicts, and contingencies.
The cultural turn is a movement beginning in the early 1970s among scholars in the humanities and social sciences to make culture the focus of contemporary debates; it also describes a shift in emphasis toward meaning and away from a positivist epistemology.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
Cyber-ethnography, also known as virtual ethnography, and most commonly online ethnography, is an online research method that adapts ethnographic methods to the study of the communities and cultures created through computer-mediated social interaction.
Demography (from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, implies "writing, description or measurement") is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings.
Dependency theory is the notion that resources flow from a "periphery" of poor and underdeveloped states to a "core" of wealthy states, enriching the latter at the expense of the former.
In mathematical modeling, statistical modeling and experimental sciences, the values of dependent variables depend on the values of independent variables.
Desegregation busing in the United States (also known as forced busing or simply busing) is the practice of assigning and transporting students to schools so as to redress prior racial segregation of schools, or to overcome the effects of residential segregation on local school demographics.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
In sociology, deviance describes an action or behavior that violates social norms, including a formally enacted rule (e.g., crime), as well as informal violations of social norms (e.g., rejecting folkways and mores).
Dialectic or dialectics (διαλεκτική, dialektikḗ; related to dialogue), also known as the dialectical method, is at base a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments.
Digital sociology is a sub-discipline of sociology that focuses on understanding the use of digital media as part of everyday life, and how these various technologies contribute to patterns of human behavior, social relationships and concepts of the self.
A disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any system so that participants may specialize.
Domesday Book (or; Latin: Liber de Wintonia "Book of Winchester") is a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror.
Dorothy Swaine Thomas (October 24, 1899 – May 1, 1977) was an American sociologist and economist.
Douglas James Davies, FBA (born Bedlinog, 1947) is a Welsh Professor in the Study of Religion in the Department of Theology and Religion at the University of Durham.
Dramaturgy is a sociological perspective commonly used in microsociological accounts of social interaction in everyday life.
Earl Robert Babbie (born January 8, 1938), is an American sociologist who holds the position of Campbell Professor Emeritus in Behavioral Sciences at Chapman University.
Economic determinism is a socioeconomic theory that economic relationships (such as being an owner or capitalist, or being a worker or proletarian) are the foundation upon which all other social and political arrangements in society are based.
Economic sociology is the study of the social cause and effect of various economic phenomena.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
Edvard Alexander Westermarck (20 November 1862 – 3 September 1939) was a Finnish philosopher and sociologist.
In economics and economic sociology, embeddedness refers to the degree to which economic activity is constrained by non-economic institutions.
In philosophy, systems theory, science, and art, emergence occurs when "the whole is greater than the sum of the parts," meaning the whole has properties its parts do not have.
Emerson's Brewery Limited is a microbrewery located in Dunedin, New Zealand established in 1992.
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (3 May 1748 – 20 June 1836), most commonly known as the Abbé Sieyès, was a French Roman Catholic abbé, clergyman and political writer.
Empirical research is research using empirical evidence.
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
Encyclopædia Britannica Online is the website of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. and its Encyclopædia Britannica, with more than 120,000 articles that are updated regularly.
Engaged theory is a methodological framework for understanding social complexity.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
The English School of international relations theory (sometimes also referred to as liberal realism, the International Society school or the British institutionalists) maintains that there is a 'society of states' at the international level, despite the condition of anarchy (that is, the lack of a global ruler or world state).
Approximately 330 to 360 million people speak English as their first language.
An enumeration is a complete, ordered listing of all the items in a collection.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
Erving Goffman (11 June 1922 – 19 November 1982) was a Canadian-American sociologist and writer, considered by some "the most influential American sociologist of the twentieth century".
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Ethnomethodology is the study of methods people use for understanding and producing the social order in which they live.
Everett Carll Ladd, Jr. (September 24, 1937 December 8, 1999) was an American political scientist based at the University of Connecticut.
Existentialism is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed.
An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.
Feminist sociology is a conflict theory and theoretical perspective which observes gender in its relation to power, both at the level of face-to-face interaction and reflexivity within a social structure at large.
Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, fictional, or philosophical discourse.
Ferdinand de Saussure (26 November 1857 – 22 February 1913) was a Swiss linguist and semiotician.
Ferdinand Tönnies (26 July 1855 – 9 April 1936) was a German sociologist and philosopher.
The Fernand Braudel Center for the Study of Economies, Historical Systems, and Civilizations at Binghamton University, State University of New York was founded in September 1976 and serves as one of the preeminent centers for advanced study of systemic history (especially the world-systems dynamics) and historiography in the US.
Florian Witold Znaniecki (15 January 1882 – 23 March 1958) was a Polish philosopher and sociologist who taught and wrote in Poland and in the United States.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frank Wilson Blackmar (November 3, 1854 – March 30, 1931) was an American sociologist, historian and educator.
The Frankfurt School (Frankfurter Schule) is a school of social theory and philosophy associated in part with the Institute for Social Research at the Goethe University Frankfurt.
Frederick Charles Copleston, SJ, CBE (10 April 1907 – 3 February 1994) was a Jesuit priest, philosopher, and historian of philosophy, best known for his influential multi-volume A History of Philosophy (1946–74).
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Friedrich Engels (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.;, sometimes anglicised Frederick Engels; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist and businessman.
Friendship is a relationship of mutual affection between people.
Geisteswissenschaften ("sciences of spirit") is a set of human sciences such as philosophy, history, philology, musicology, linguistics, theater studies, literary studies, media studies, and sometimes even theology and jurisprudence, that are traditional in German universities.
Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft, generally translated as "community and society", are categories which were used by the German sociologist Ferdinand Tönnies in order to categorize social ties into two dichotomous sociological types which define each other.
Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity.
A gender role, also known as a sex role, is a social role encompassing a range of behaviors and attitudes that are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their actual or perceived sex or sexuality.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Georg Simmel (1 March 1858 – 28 September 1918) was a German sociologist, philosopher, and critic.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.
George Casper Homans (August 11, 1910 – May 29, 1989) was an American Sociologist, founder of behavioral sociology and the Social Exchange Theory.
George Herbert Mead (February 27, 1863 – April 26, 1931) was an American philosopher, sociologist and psychologist, primarily affiliated with the University of Chicago, where he was one of several distinguished pragmatists.
George Ritzer (born October 14, 1940) is an American sociologist, professor, and author who studies globalization, metatheory, patterns of consumption, and modern and postmodern social theory.
The German Sociological Association (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Soziologie, DGS) organizes social scientists in Germany.
Gerontology is the study of the social, cultural, psychological, cognitive, and biological aspects of ageing.
Gestational age is a measure of the age of a pregnancy which is taken from the woman's last menstrual period (LMP), or the corresponding age of the gestation as estimated by a more accurate method if available.
A global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city which is a primary node in the global economic network.
The Global Social Change Research Project is a project devoted to bringing a clear understanding to the general public about social change.
The Global South is a term that has been emerging in transnational and postcolonial studies to refer to what may also be called the "Third World" (i.e., Africa, Latin America, and the developing countries in Asia), "developing countries," "less developed countries," and "less developed regions." It can also include poorer "southern" regions of wealthy "northern" countries.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
Goethe University Frankfurt (Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main) is a university located in Frankfurt, Germany.
Grand theory is a term coined by the American sociologist C. Wright Mills in The Sociological Imagination to refer to the form of highly abstract theorizing in which the formal organization and arrangement of concepts takes priority over understanding the social world.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Grounded theory (GT) is a systematic methodology in the social sciences involving the construction of theory through methodic gathering and analysis of data.
Group cohesiveness (also called group cohesion and social cohesion) arises when bonds link members of a social group to one another and to the group as a whole.
Group dynamics is a system of behaviors and psychological processes occurring within a social group (intragroup dynamics), or between social groups (intergroup dynamics).
Harold Garfinkel (October 29, 1917 – April 21, 2011) was an American sociologist, ethnomethodologist, and a Professor Emeritus at the University of California, Los Angeles.
Harriet Martineau (12 June 1802 – 27 June 1876) was a British social theorist and Whig writer, often cited as the first female sociologist.
Harrison Colyar White (born March 21, 1930) is the emeritus Giddings Professor of Sociology at Columbia University.
The Department of Social Relations for Interdisciplinary Social Science Studies, more commonly known as the "Department of Social Relations", was an interdisciplinary collaboration among three of the social science departments at Harvard University (anthropology, psychology, and sociology) beginning in 1946.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint-Simon, often referred to as Henri de Saint-Simon (17 October 1760 – 19 May 1825), was a French political and economic theorist and businessman whose thought played a substantial role in influencing politics, economics, sociology, and the philosophy of science.
Herbert Alexander Simon (June 15, 1916 – February 9, 2001) was an American economist and political scientist whose primary interest was decision-making within organizations and is best known for the theories of "bounded rationality" and "satisficing".
Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.
Hermeneutics is the theory and methodology of interpretation, especially the interpretation of biblical texts, wisdom literature, and philosophical texts.
Hippolyte Adolphe Taine (21 April 1828 – 5 March 1893) was a French critic and historian.
Historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence, including the evidence of archaeology, to research and then to write histories in the form of accounts of the past.
The history of the social sciences has origin in the common stock of Western philosophy and shares various precursors, but began most intentionally in the early 19th century with the positivist philosophy of science.
Human geography is the branch of geography that deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures, economies, and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Human Science studies the philosophical, biological, social, and cultural aspects of human life.
Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves sexually.
Ibn Khaldun (أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون الحضرمي.,; 27 May 1332 – 17 March 1406) was a fourteenth-century Arab historiographer and historian.
Ideal type (Idealtypus), also known as pure type, is a typological term most closely associated with sociologist Max Weber (1864–1920).
In psychology, identity is the qualities, beliefs, personality, looks and/or expressions that make a person (self-identity) or group (particular social category or social group).
An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.
Immanuel Maurice Wallerstein (born September 28, 1930) is an American sociologist, historical social scientist, and world-systems analyst, arguably best known for his development of the general approach in sociology which led to the emergence of his world-systems approach.
In situ (often not italicized in English) is a Latin phrase that translates literally to "on site" or "in position".
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
In sociology, industrial society is a society driven by the use of technology to enable mass production, supporting a large population with a high capacity for division of labour.
Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.
Inferences are steps in reasoning, moving from premises to logical consequences.
An information society is a society where the creation, distribution, use, integration and manipulation of information is a significant economic, political, and cultural activity.
The Institute for Social Research (Institut für Sozialforschung, IfS) is a research organization for sociology and continental philosophy, best known as the institutional home of the Frankfurt School and critical theory.
Institutions are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior".
In sociology, interactionism is a theoretical perspective that derives social processes (such as conflict, cooperation, identity formation) from human interaction.
Interdependence is the mutual reliance between two or more groups.
International development or global development is a wide concept concerning level of development on an international scale.
The International Sociological Association (ISA) is a non-profit organization dedicated to scientific purposes in the field of sociology and social sciences.
Intersubjectivity, in philosophy, psychology, sociology, and anthropology, is the psychological relation between people.
Irving Louis Horowitz (September 25, 1929 – March 21, 2012) was an American sociologist, author and college professor who wrote and lectured extensively in his field.
Sir Isaiah Berlin (6 June 1909 – 5 November 1997) was a Russian-British social and political theorist, philosopher and historian of ideas.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
James Gardner March (born 1928 in Cleveland, Ohio) is Jack Steele Parker professor emeritus at Stanford University and the Stanford Graduate School of Education, best known for his research on organizations, his (jointly with Richard Cyert) ''A behavioral theory of the firm'' and organizational decision making.
James Samuel Coleman (May 12, 1926 – March 25, 1995) was an American sociologist, theorist, and empirical researcher, based chiefly at the University of Chicago.
Jürgen Habermas (born 18 June 1929) is a German sociologist and philosopher in the tradition of critical theory and pragmatism.
John Bellamy Foster (born August 15, 1953) is a professor of sociology at the University of Oregon and also editor of Monthly Review.
John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, Georgist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform.
John Levi Martin (born 1964) is an American sociologist and the Florence Borchert Bartling Professor of Sociology at the University of Chicago.
Josh Whitford, an American sociologist, is an associate professor at Columbia University.
Journal Citation Reports (JCR) is an annual publication by Clarivate Analytics (previously the intellectual property of Thomson Reuters).
The Journal of the History of Ideas is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering intellectual history and the history of ideas, including the histories of philosophy, literature and the arts, natural and social sciences, religion, and political thought.
Jurisprudence or legal theory is the theoretical study of law, principally by philosophers but, from the twentieth century, also by social scientists.
Karl Mannheim (March 27, 1893 – January 9, 1947), or Károly Manheim in the original spelling, was a Hungarian-born sociologist, influential in the first half of the 20th century and one of the founding fathers of classical sociology as well as a founder of the sociology of knowledge.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated.
Labour power (in German: Arbeitskraft; in French: force de travail) is a key concept used by Karl Marx in his critique of capitalist political economy.
Laissez-faire (from) is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation, privileges, tariffs and subsidies.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The law of three stages is an idea developed by Auguste Comte in his work The Course in Positive Philosophy.
A legislator (or lawmaker) is a person who writes and passes laws, especially someone who is a member of a legislature.
Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse (8 September 1864 – 21 June 1929) was a British liberal political theorist and sociologist, who has been considered one of the leading and earliest proponents of social liberalism.
Lester F. Ward (June 18, 1841 – April 18, 1913) was an American botanist, paleontologist, and sociologist.
Lewis Coser (Berlin, 27 November 1913Cambridge, Massachusetts, 8 July 2003) was a German-American sociologist, serving as the 66th president of the American Sociological Association in 1975.
Linguistic anthropology is the interdisciplinary study of how language influences social life.
The linguistic turn was a major development in Western philosophy during the early 20th century, the most important characteristic of which is the focusing of philosophy and the other humanities primarily on the relationship between philosophy and language.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
Counseling is the activity of the counselor, or a professional who counsels people, especially on personal problems and difficulties.
Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature.
Literary theory in a strict sense is the systematic study of the nature of literature and of the methods for analyzing literature.
Loïc Wacquant (born 1960) is a sociologist and social anthropologist, specializing in urban sociology, urban poverty, racial inequality, the body, social theory and ethnography.
The London School of Economics (officially The London School of Economics and Political Science, often referred to as LSE) is a public research university located in London, England and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
A longitudinal study (or longitudinal survey, or panel study) is a research design that involves repeated observations of the same variables (e.g., people) over short or long periods of time (i.e., uses longitudinal data).
Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (also referred to as LMU or the University of Munich, in German: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München) is a public research university located in Munich, Germany.
Macrosociology is an approach to sociology which emphasizes the analysis of social systems and populations on a large scale, at the level of social structure, and often at a necessarily high level of theoretical abstraction.
Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body.
Manuel Castells Oliván (born 1942) is a Spanish sociologist especially associated with research on the information society, communication and globalization.
A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand -- or, once practical typewriters became available, typewritten -- as opposed to being mechanically printed or reproduced in some indirect or automated way.
Marcel Mauss (10 May 1872 – 10 February 1950) was a French sociologist.
Marianne Weber (born Marianne Schnitger, 2 August 1870 – 12 March 1954) was a German sociologist, women's rights activist and the wife of Max Weber.
Mark Granovetter (born October 20, 1943) is an American sociologist and professor at Stanford University.
Market research (also in some contexts known as industrial research) is any organized effort to gather information about target markets or customers.
Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas de Caritat, Marquis of Condorcet (17 September 1743 – 29 March 1794), known as Nicolas de Condorcet, was a French philosopher, mathematician, and early political scientist whose Condorcet method in voting tally selects the candidate who would beat each of the other candidates in a run-off election.
Herbert Marshall McLuhan (July 21, 1911December 31, 1980) was a Canadian professor, philosopher, and public intellectual.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Mathematical sociology is the area of sociology that uses mathematics to construct social theories.
Max Ferdinand Scheler (22 August 1874 – 19 May 1928) was a German philosopher known for his work in phenomenology, ethics, and philosophical anthropology.
Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist.
MAXQDA is a software program designed for computer-assisted qualitative and mixed methods data, text and multimedia analysis in academic, scientific, and business institutions.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
In economics and sociology, the means of production (also called capital goods) are physical non-human and non-financial inputs used in the production of economic value.
Mental health is a level of psychological well-being or an absence of mental illness.
Metabolic rift is Karl Marx's notion of the "irreparable rift in the interdependent process of social metabolism,"—Marx's key conception of ecological crisis tendencies under capitalism.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
In Social Science, Methodological Nationalism is a term used to describe an intellectual orientation and pattern in scholarly research that conceives of the nation-state as the sole unit of analysis or as a container for social processes.
Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study.
Michael Burawoy is an eminent British sociologist working within Marxist social theory, best known as author of Manufacturing Consent: Changes in the Labor Process under Monopoly Capitalism—a study on work and organizations that has been translated into a number of languages, and the leading proponent of public sociology.
Paul-Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic.
Microsociology is one of the main points (or focuses) of sociology, concerning the nature of everyday human social interactions and agency on a small scale: face to face.
Middle-range theory, developed by Robert K. Merton, is an approach to sociological theorizing aimed at integrating theory and empirical research.
Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer military capability required by the national defense policy.
Military sociology aims toward the systematic study of the military as a social group rather than as a Military organization.
Mobilities is a contemporary paradigm in the social sciences that explores the movement of people (Human migration, travel, transport), ideas (see e.g. meme) and things (transport), as well as the broader social implications of those movements.
Modernity, a topic in the humanities and social sciences, is both a historical period (the modern era), as well as the ensemble of particular socio-cultural norms, attitudes and practices that arose in the wake of Renaissance, in the "Age of Reason" of 17th-century thought and the 18th-century "Enlightenment".
Moisey Yakovlevich Ostrogorski (also Ostrogorsky; Моисе́й Я́ковлевич Острого́рский; Майсе́й Я́каўлевiч Aстрaго́рскi; Grodno Governorate, Russian Empire, now in Belarus, 1854 – Petrograd, USSR, February 10, 1921) was a politician, political scientist, historian, jurist and sociologist.
Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, and political philosopher.
Multiculturalism is a term with a range of meanings in the contexts of sociology, political philosophy, and in colloquial use.
The Muqaddimah, also known as the Muqaddimah of Ibn Khaldun (مقدّمة ابن خلدون) or Ibn Khaldun's Prolegomena (Προλεγόμενα), is a book written by the Arab historian Ibn Khaldun in 1377 which records an early view of universal history.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
Neo-Kantianism (Neukantianismus) is a revival of the 18th century philosophy of Immanuel Kant.
Network science is an academic field which studies complex networks such as telecommunication networks, computer networks, biological networks, cognitive and semantic networks, and social networks, considering distinct elements or actors represented by nodes (or vertices) and the connections between the elements or actors as links (or edges).
New Brunswick is a city in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States, in the New York City metropolitan area.
New media are forms of media that are native to computers, computational and relying on computers for re-distribution.
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.
In mathematics and science, a nonlinear system is a system in which the change of the output is not proportional to the change of the input.
Sampling is the use of a subset of the population to represent the whole population or to inform about (social) processes that are meaningful beyond the particular cases, individuals or sites studied.
A non-profit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity or non-profit institution, is dedicated to furthering a particular social cause or advocating for a shared point of view.
The North–South divide is broadly considered a socio-economic and political divide.
A nuclear family, elementary family or conjugal family is a family group consisting of two parents and their children (one or more).
NVivo is a qualitative data analysis (QDA) computer software package produced by QSR International.
Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source.
Occupational prestige (also known as job prestige) is a way for sociologists to describe the relative social class positions people have.
Omar Lizardo (born 1974) is a sociologist, Professor of Sociology at the University of Notre Dame, and the co-editor, with Rory McVeigh and Sarah Mustillo, of the American Sociological Review, the flagship journal for the American Sociological Association.
An online community, also called an internet community, is a virtual community whose members interact with each other primarily via the Internet.
Ontogeny (also ontogenesis or morphogenesis) is the origination and development of an organism, usually from the time of fertilization of the egg to the organism's mature form—although the term can be used to refer to the study of the entirety of an organism's lifespan.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the discipline of sociology: Sociology – the study of society using various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to understand human social activity, from the micro level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and social structure.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Participant observation is one type of data collection method typically used in qualitative research.
Patriarchy is a social system in which males hold primary power and predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property.
Paul Felix Lazarsfeld (February 13, 1901 – August 30, 1976) was an Austrian-American sociologist.
Pearson Education (see also Pearson PLC) is a British-owned education publishing and assessment service to schools and corporations, as well as directly to students.
Peter Michael Blau (February 7, 1918 – March 12, 2002) was an American sociologist and theorist.
Peter Ludwig Berger (March 17, 1929 – June 27, 2017) was an Austrian-born American sociologist and Protestant theologian.
Phenomenological sociology is the study of the formal structures of concrete social existence as made available in and through the analytical description of acts of intentional consciousness.
Phenomenology (from Greek phainómenon "that which appears" and lógos "study") is the philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Philosophy of history is the philosophical study of history and the past.
Philosophy of religion is "the philosophical examination of the central themes and concepts involved in religious traditions." These sorts of philosophical discussion are ancient, and can be found in the earliest known manuscripts concerning philosophy.
Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Pierre Felix Bourdieu (1 August 1930 – 23 January 2002) was a French sociologist, anthropologist, philosopher, and public intellectual.
Pitirim Alexandrovich Sorokin (Питири́м Алекса́ндрович Соро́кин, – 10 February 1968) was a Russian-born American sociologist and political activist, best known for his contributions to the social cycle theory.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
This is a term coined by Michael Burawoy as a way of providing solutions to social problems.
Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.
A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government.
Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain ("positive") knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.
Post-structuralism is associated with the works of a series of mid-20th-century French, continental philosophers and critical theorists who came to be known internationally in the 1960s and 1970s.
Postcolonialism or postcolonial studies is the academic study of the cultural legacy of colonialism and imperialism, focusing on the human consequences of the control and exploitation of colonised people and their lands.
Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late-20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism.
In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.
Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870.
The phrase primitive culture is the title of an 1871 book by Edward Burnett Tylor.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
The proletariat (from Latin proletarius "producing offspring") is the class of wage-earners in a capitalist society whose only possession of significant material value is their labour-power (their ability to work).
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Public Administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service.
Public policy is the principled guide to action taken by the administrative executive branches of the state with regard to a class of issues, in a manner consistent with law and institutional customs.
Public sociology is a subfield of the wider sociological discipline that emphasizes expanding the disciplinary boundaries of sociology in order to engage with non-academic audiences.
QDA Miner is a mixed methods and qualitative data analysis software developed by Provalis Research.
Qualitative research is a scientific method of observation to gather non-numerical data.
In natural sciences and social sciences, quantitative research is the systematic empirical investigation of observable phenomena via statistical, mathematical or computational techniques.
A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.
Raewyn Connell (born 3 January 1944) (also known as R.W. Connell, formerly Robert) is an Australian sociologist.
Ralf Gustav Dahrendorf, Baron Dahrendorf, (1 May 1929 – 17 June 2009) was a German-British sociologist, philosopher, political scientist and liberal politician.
Randall Collins (born 1941) is an American sociologist who has been influential in both his teaching and writing.
Random assignment or random placement is an experimental technique for assigning human participants or animal subjects to different groups in an experiment (e.g., a treatment group versus a control group) using randomization, such as by a chance procedure (e.g., flipping a coin) or a random number generator.
Rational choice theory, also known as choice theory or rational action theory, is a framework for understanding and often formally modeling social and economic behavior.
In sociology, rationalization or rationalisation refers to the replacement of traditions, values, and emotions as motivators for behavior in society with concepts based on rationality and reason.
Real estate development, or property development, is a business process, encompassing activities that range from the renovation and re-lease of existing buildings to the purchase of raw land and the sale of developed land or parcels to others.
Relational sociology is a collection of sociological theories that emphasize relationalism over substantivalism in explanations and interpretations of social phenomena and is most directly connected to the work of Harrison White and Charles Tilly in the United States and Pierpaolo Donati and Nick Crossley in Europe.
Reliabilism, a category of theories in the philosophical discipline of epistemology, has been advanced as a theory both of justification and of knowledge.
René Worms (8 December 1869 in Rennes – 12 February 1926 in Paris) was a French auditor of the council of state, son of professor of political economics Émile Worms.
Reproducibility is the closeness of the agreement between the results of measurements of the same measurand carried out under changed conditions of measurement.
Residential segregation in the United States is the physical separation of two or more groups into different neighborhoods, or a form of segregation that "sorts population groups into various neighborhood contexts and shapes the living environment at the neighborhood level".
Herbert Richard Hoggart FRSL (24 September 1918 – 10 April 2014) was a British academic whose career covered the fields of sociology, English literature and cultural studies, with emphasis on British popular culture.
Richard McKay Rorty (October 4, 1931 – June 8, 2007) was an American philosopher.
Robert King Merton (born Meyer Robert Schkolnick; 5 July 1910 – 23 February 2003) was an American sociologist.
Robert Alexander Nisbet (September 30, 1913 – September 9, 1996) was an American sociologist, a professor at the University of California, Berkeley, Vice-Chancellor at the University of California, Riverside, and an Albert Schweitzer Professor at Columbia University.
Ronald Stuart Burt (born 1949) is an American sociologist and the Hobart W. Williams Professor of Sociology and Strategy at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business.
Rural sociology is a field of sociology traditionally associated with the study of social structure and conflict in rural areas although topical areas such as food and agriculture or natural resource access transcend traditional rural spatial boundaries (Sociology Guide 2011).
Rutgers University Press is a nonprofit academic publishing house, operating in New Brunswick, New Jersey under the auspices of Rutgers University.
In statistics, quality assurance, and survey methodology, sampling is the selection of a subset (a statistical sample) of individuals from within a statistical population to estimate characteristics of the whole population.
Saskia Sassen (born January 5, 1947) is a Dutch-American sociologist noted for her analyses of globalization and international human migration.
Science and technology studies, or science, technology and society studies (both abbreviated STS) is the study of how society, politics, and culture affect scientific research and technological innovation, and how these, in turn, affect society, politics and culture.
Science journalism conveys reporting about science to the public.
A scientific control is an experiment or observation designed to minimize the effects of variables other than the independent variable.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
Secondary data refers to data that was collected by someone other than the user.
Secularization (or secularisation) is the transformation of a society from close identification and affiliation with religious values and institutions toward nonreligious values and secular institutions.
Semiotics (also called semiotic studies) is the study of meaning-making, the study of sign process (semiosis) and meaningful communication.
A sexual network is a social network that is defined by the sexual relationships within a set of individuals.
Seymour Martin Lipset (March 18, 1922 – December 31, 2006) was an American sociologist.
In semiotics, a sign is anything that communicates a meaning that is not the sign itself to the interpreter of the sign.
In statistics, a simple random sample is a subset of individuals (a sample) chosen from a larger set (a population).
In sociology and statistics research, snowball sampling (or chain sampling, chain-referral sampling, referral sampling) is a nonprobability sampling technique where existing study subjects recruit future subjects from among their acquaintances.
In sociology, social action, also known as "Weberian social action", refers to an act which takes into account the actions and reactions of individuals (or 'agents').
Social anthropology or anthroposociology is the dominant constituent of anthropology throughout the United Kingdom and Commonwealth and much of Europe (France in particular), where it is distinguished from cultural anthropology.
Social behavior is behavior among two or more organisms, typically from the same species.
Social capital is a form of economic and cultural capital in which social networks are central; transactions are marked by reciprocity, trust, and cooperation; and market agents produce goods and services not mainly for themselves, but for a common good.
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.
In sociology, social complexity is a conceptual framework used in the analysis of society.
Social conflict is the struggle for agency or power in society.
Social constructionism or the social construction of reality (also social concept) is a theory of knowledge in sociology and communication theory that examines the development of jointly constructed understandings of the world that form the basis for shared assumptions about reality.
The term Social Darwinism is used to refer to various ways of thinking and theories that emerged in the second half of the 19th century and tried to apply the evolutionary concept of natural selection to human society.
In sociology, the social disorganization theory is a theory developed by the Chicago School, related to ecological theories.
Social Evolution & History is a peer-reviewed academic journal focused on the development of human societies in the past, present, and future.
Social exchange theory is a social psychological and sociological perspective that explains social change and stability as a process of negotiated exchanges between parties.
In the social sciences, a social group has been defined as two or more people who interact with one another, share similar characteristics, and collectively have a sense of unity.
A social issue is a problem that influences a considerable number of the individuals within a society.
Social mobility is the movement of individuals, families, households, or other categories of people within or between social strata in a society.
A social movement is a type of group action.
A social network is a social structure made up of a set of social actors (such as individuals or organizations), sets of dyadic ties, and other social interactions between actors.
From a sociological perspective, social norms are informal understandings that govern the behavior of members of a society.
The term social order can be used in two senses.
In sociology, a social organization is a pattern of relationships between and among individuals and social groups.
Social philosophy is the study of questions about social behavior and interpretations of society and social institutions in terms of ethical values rather than empirical relations.
Social policy is a term which is applied to various areas of policy, usually within a governmental or political setting (such as the welfare state and study of social services).
Social psychology is the study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others.
In sociology, social psychology, also known as sociological social psychology or microsociology, is an area of sociology that focuses on social actions and on interrelations of personality, values, and mind with social structure and culture.
Social reality is distinct from biological reality or individual cognitive reality, representing as it does a phenomenological level created through social interaction and thereby transcending individual motives and actions.
In social science, a social relation or social interaction is any relationship between two or more individuals.
Social reproduction is a concept originally proposed by Karl Marx in Das Kapital, and is a variety of his broader idea of reproduction.
Social research is a research conducted by social scientists following a systematic plan.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
Social sequence analysis is a special application of sequence analysis, a set of methods that were originally designed in bioinformatics to analyze DNA, RNA, and peptide sequences.
Social stratification is a kind of social differentiation whereby a society groups people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power (social and political).
In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergent from and determinant of the actions of the individuals.
Social theories are analytical frameworks, or paradigms, that are used to study and interpret social phenomena.
Social work is an academic discipline and profession that concerns itself with individuals, families, groups and communities in an effort to enhance social functioning and overall well-being.
In sociology, socialization is the process of internalizing the norms and ideologies of society.
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
Sociocultural anthropology is a portmanteau used to refer to social anthropology and cultural anthropology together.
Sociocultural evolution, sociocultural evolutionism or cultural evolution are theories of cultural and social evolution that describe how cultures and societies change over time.
Sociological theories are statements of how and why particular facts about the social world are related.
Sociology in Poland has been developing, as has sociology throughout Europe, since the mid-19th century.
Sociology of architecture is the sociological study of the built environment and the role and occupation of architects in modern societies.
Sociology of disaster is a special branch of sociology.
Sociology of Education is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the field of Sociology.
The sociology of health and illness, alternatively the sociology of health and wellness (or simply health sociology), examines the interaction between society and health.
The sociology of law (or legal sociology) is often described as a sub-discipline of sociology or an interdisciplinary approach within legal studies.
The sociology of punishment seeks to understand why and how we punish; the general justifying aim of punishment and the principle of distribution.
Sociology of religion is the study of the beliefs, practices and organizational forms of religion using the tools and methods of the discipline of sociology.
The sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) is the study of science as a social activity, especially dealing with "the social conditions and effects of science, and with the social structures and processes of scientific activity." The sociology of scientific ignorance (SSI) is complementary to the sociology of scientific knowledge.
Sociology of sport, alternately referred to as sports sociology, is a sub-discipline of sociology which focuses on sports as social phenomena.
Sociology of the body is a branch of sociology studying the representations and social uses of the human body in modern societies.
The sociology of the Internet involves the application of sociological theory and method to the Internet as a source of information and communication.
Sociomapping is a method developed for processing and visualization of relational data (e.g. social network data).
In International law a stateless person is someone who is "not considered as a national by any state under the operation of its law".
In statistics, a population is a set of similar items or events which is of interest for some question or experiment.
Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.
In statistics, stratified sampling is a method of sampling from a population.
Structural functionalism, or simply functionalism, is "a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability".
Structural linguistics is an approach to linguistics originating from the work of Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure and is part of the overall approach of structuralism.
In the social sciences there is a standing debate over the primacy of structure or agency in shaping human behaviour.
Stuart McPhail Hall, FBA (3 February 1932 – 10 February 2014) was a Jamaican-born cultural theorist, political activist and Marxist sociologist who lived and worked in the United Kingdom from 1951.
A subculture is a group of people within a culture that differentiates itself from the parent culture to which it belongs, often maintaining some of its founding principles.
A subject is a being who has a unique consciousness and/or unique personal experiences, or an entity that has a relationship with another entity that exists outside itself (called an "object").
In mathematics, a set A is a subset of a set B, or equivalently B is a superset of A, if A is "contained" inside B, that is, all elements of A are also elements of B. A and B may coincide.
Sui generis is a Latin phrase that means "of its (his, her, their) own kind; in a class by itself; unique." A number of disciplines use the term to refer to unique entities.
Suicide (Le suicide) is an 1897 book written by French sociologist Émile Durkheim.
In research of human subjects, a survey is a list of questions aimed at extracting specific data from a particular group of people.
A field of applied statistics of human research surveys, survey methodology studies the sampling of individual units from a population and associated techniques of survey data collection, such as questionnaire construction and methods for improving the number and accuracy of responses to surveys.
"Survival of the fittest" is a phrase that originated from Darwinian evolutionary theory as a way of describing the mechanism of natural selection.
Sustainability is the process of change, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations.
A symbol is a mark, sign or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship.
In sociology and anthropology, symbolic capital can be referred to as the resources available to an individual on the basis of honor, prestige or recognition, and serves as value that one holds within a culture.
Symbolic interactionism is a sociological theory that develops from practical considerations and alludes to people's particular utilization of dialect to make images, normal implications, for deduction and correspondence with others.
Synchrony and diachrony are two different and complementary viewpoints in linguistic analysis.
Talcott Parsons (December 13, 1902 – May 8, 1979) was an American sociologist of the classical tradition, best known for his social action theory and structural functionalism.
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".
Text mining, also referred to as text data mining, roughly equivalent to text analytics, is the process of deriving high-quality information from text.
The Communist Manifesto (originally Manifesto of the Communist Party) is an 1848 political pamphlet by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
The Course in Positive Philosophy (Cours de Philosophie Positive) was a series of texts written by the French philosopher of science and founding sociologist, Auguste Comte, between 1830 and 1842.
The Division of Labour in Society (De la division du travail social) is the doctoral dissertation of the French sociologist Émile Durkheim, published in 1893.
The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man is a 1962 book by Marshall McLuhan, in which the author analyzes the effects of mass media, especially the printing press, on European culture and human consciousness.
The Internet Galaxy: Reflections on the Internet, Business, and Society is a book by Manuel Castells, Professor of Sociology and Professor of City and Regional Planning at the University of California.
The Metropolis and Mental Life (German: Die Großstädte und das Geistesleben) is a 1903 essay by the German sociologist, Georg Simmel.
The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences (Les mots et les choses: Une archéologie des sciences humaines) is a 1966 book by the French philosopher Michel Foucault.
The Other Press is the independent student newspaper of Douglas College, a multi-campus public college in British Columbia, Canada.
The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity: Twelve Lectures (Der Philosophische Diskurs der Moderne: Zwölf Vorlesungen) is a 1985 book by Jürgen Habermas, in which the author reconstructs and deals in depth with a number of philosophical approaches to the critique of modern reason and the Enlightenment "project" since Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Friedrich Nietzsche, including the work of 20th century philosophers Max Horkheimer, Theodor Adorno, Martin Heidegger, Michel Foucault, Jacques Derrida, Cornelius Castoriadis and Niklas Luhmann.
The Philosophy of Money (1900) is a book on economic sociology by the German sociologist and social philosopher, Georg Simmel.
The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (Die protestantische Ethik und der Geist des Kapitalismus) is a book written by Max Weber, a German sociologist, economist, and politician.
The Religion of China: Confucianism and Taoism is a book written by Max Weber, a German economist and sociologist.
The Religion of India: The Sociology of Hinduism and Buddhism is a book on the sociology of religion written by Max Weber, a German economist and sociologist of the early twentieth century.
The Rules of Sociological Method (Les Règles de la Méthode Sociologique) is a book by Émile Durkheim, first published in 1895.
The Social Construction of Reality is a 1966 book about the sociology of knowledge by the sociologists Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann.
Theodor W. Adorno (born Theodor Ludwig Wiesengrund; September 11, 1903 – August 6, 1969) was a German philosopher, sociologist, and composer known for his critical theory of society.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
A theory is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or the results of such thinking.
Thomas Luckmann (October 14, 1927 – May 10, 2016) was an American-Austrian sociologist of German and Slovene origin who taught mainly in Germany.
Thomson Reuters Corporation is a Canadian multinational mass media and information firm.
Thorstein Bunde Veblen (born Torsten Bunde Veblen; July 30, 1857 – August 3, 1929), a Norwegian-American economist and sociologist, became famous as a witty critic of capitalism.
Times Higher Education (THE), formerly The Times Higher Education Supplement (THES), is a weekly magazine based in London, reporting specifically on news and issues related to higher education.
In the social sciences, triangulation is often used to indicate that two (or more) methods are used in a study in order to check the results of one and the same subject.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Bordeaux (French: Université de Bordeaux) was founded in 1441 in France.
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
The University of Kansas, also referred to as KU or Kansas, is a public research university in the U.S. state of Kansas.
The University of London (abbreviated as Lond. or more rarely Londin. in post-nominals) is a collegiate and a federal research university located in London, England.
The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in University City section of West Philadelphia.
The University of Pennsylvania Press (or Penn Press) is a university press affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
The University of Wisconsin–Madison (also known as University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, UW, or regionally as UW–Madison, or simply Madison) is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin, United States.
An urban planner is a professional who practices in the field of urban planning.
Urban sociology is the sociological study of life and human interaction in metropolitan areas.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
A Usenet newsgroup is a repository usually within the Usenet system, for messages posted from many users in different locations using Internet.
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.
In logic, an argument is valid if and only if it takes a form that makes it impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion nevertheless to be false.
In ethics, value denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do or what way is best to live (normative ethics), or to describe the significance of different actions.
Verstehen (literally: "to understand") in the context of German philosophy and social sciences in general, has been used since the late 19th century – in English as in German – with the particular sense of the "interpretive or participatory" examination of social phenomena.
Vilfredo Federico Damaso Pareto (born Wilfried Fritz Pareto, 15 July 1848 – 19 August 1923) was an Italian engineer, sociologist, economist, political scientist, and philosopher, now also known for the 80/20 rule, named after him as the Pareto principle.
A virtual world is a computer-based simulated environment which may be populated by many users who can create a personal avatar, and simultaneously and independently explore the virtual world, participate in its activities and communicate with others.
Visual sociology is an area of sociology concerned with the visual dimensions of social life.
A vocation is an occupation to which a person is specially drawn or for which they are suited, trained, or qualified.
William Edward Burghardt "W.
Walter Bendix Schönflies Benjamin (15 July 1892 – 26 September 1940) was a German Jewish philosopher, cultural critic and essayist.
Weber (or; German) is a surname of German origin, derived from the noun meaning "weaver".
Welfare is a government support for the citizens and residents of society.
Werner Sombart (19 January 1863 – 18 May 1941) was a German economist and sociologist, the head of the “Youngest Historical School” and one of the leading Continental European social scientists during the first quarter of the 20th century.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
Wilhelm Dilthey (19 November 1833 – 1 October 1911) was a German historian, psychologist, sociologist, and hermeneutic philosopher, who held G. W. F. Hegel's Chair in Philosophy at the University of Berlin.
William Graham Sumner (October 30, 1840 – April 12, 1910) was a classical liberal American social scientist.
William Rainey Harper (July 24, 1856 – January 10, 1906) was an American academic leader, an accomplished semiticist, and Baptist clergyman.
William Stanley Jevons FRS (1 September 1835 – 13 August 1882) was an English economist and logician.
The working class (also labouring class) are the people employed for wages, especially in manual-labour occupations and industrial work.
World-systems theory (also known as world-systems analysis or the world-systems perspective)Immanuel Wallerstein, (2004), "World-systems Analysis." In World System History, ed.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
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