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Sodium

Index Sodium

Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11. [1]

224 relations: Abundance of elements in Earth's crust, Abundance of the chemical elements, Action potential, Adaptive optics, Aldol reaction, Aldosterone, Alkali metal, Alkalide, Allotropy, Aluminium, American Heart Association, Amphibole, Angiotensin, Anhydrous, Annalen der Physik, ASTM International, Atomic absorption spectroscopy, Atomic number, Atomic orbital, Bar (unit), Benzophenone, Bicarbonate, Bioavailability, Birch reduction, Blood, Blood pressure, Borax, Boron, Bromochlorodifluoromethane, C4 carbon fixation, Cadmium, Calcium, Calcium chloride, Carbanion, Carbon, Carbon-burning process, Carbonate, Carbothermic reaction, Carboxylate, Castner process, Chemical element, Chloride, Chlorine, Chlorophyll, Comet, Comet Hale–Bopp, Comet tail, Convenience food, Coolant, Coordination complex, ..., Cosmic ray spallation, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Criticality accident, Cross section (physics), Crown ether, Cryolite, Cryptand, Cytoplasm, Deicing, Desiccant, Deville process, Dietary Reference Intake, Disproportionation, Downs cell, Earth, Electride, Electrolysis, Electronegativity, Environmental radioactivity, Ethanol, Exoplanet, Exosphere, Exothermic reaction, Extracellular fluid, F-type main-sequence star, Fatty acid, Feldspar, Fine structure, Fire extinguisher, Flame retardant, Flame test, Food and Drug Administration, Fraunhofer lines, Frequency addition source of optical radiation, Glass, Gold, Graphite, Gravimetry, Group 11 element, Group 12 element, Gustav Kirchhoff, Half-life, Halide, Halite, Hall–Héroult process, Halophyte, Headache, Heat pipe, HSAB theory, Humphry Davy, Hydrogen, Hyperfine structure, Hypernatremia, Hypertension, Hyponatremia, Hypovolemia, Indiana University Northwest, Indigo dye, Inert gas, Interstellar medium, Ion, Ionic bonding, Ionic compound, Ionization energy, Ionophore, Iron, Isotope, Isotopes of sodium, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Jerky, Joseph von Fraunhofer, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Laser guide star, Leaching (chemistry), Lead, Lewis acids and bases, Lithium, Ludwig Wilhelm Gilbert, Lye, Magnesium, Melting point, Mercury (element), Mercury (planet), Metal, Metallic bonding, Methods of detecting exoplanets, Micronutrient, Mineral, Mineral (nutrient), Mineral oil, Miscibility, Monosodium glutamate, Moon, Mucous membrane, Na+/K+-ATPase, National Academy of Medicine, Natron, Neon, Neuron, Neutron activation, New Latin, Nitrate, Noble gas, Nuclear isomer, Organic synthesis, Organophosphate, Osmosis, Osmotic pressure, Paper, Periodic Videos, PH, Phase-transfer catalyst, Phosphoenolpyruvic acid, Photon, Physical Review Letters, Pickling, Poppet valve, Potassium, Potentiometer (measuring instrument), Pyrophoricity, Radioactive decay, Reduction potential, Renin, Renin–angiotensin system, Robert Bunsen, Room temperature, Salt, Silver, Soap, Sodablasting, Sodalite, Sodium azide, Sodium benzoate, Sodium bicarbonate, Sodium bismuthate, Sodium borohydride, Sodium carbonate, Sodium chloride, Sodium cyclopentadienide, Sodium fusion test, Sodium hydride, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium naphthalenide, Sodium nitrate, Sodium nitrite, Sodium oxide, Sodium peroxide, Sodium superoxide, Sodium thiosulfate, Sodium-cooled fast reactor, Sodium-potassium alloy, Sodium-vapor lamp, Solar System, Spectral line, Spin–orbit interaction, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Stellar rotation, Stoma, Sulfate, Sun, Teaspoon, Tetraethyllead, Textile, Thiosulfate, Tonicity, Triphenylphosphine, Turgor pressure, Uranyl zinc acetate, Vacuole, Water potential, Water softening, Zeolite, Zinc, 15-Crown-5. Expand index (174 more) »

Abundance of elements in Earth's crust

The abundance of elements in Earth's crust is shown in tabulated form with the estimated crustal abundance for each chemical element shown as either percentage or parts per million (ppm) by mass (10,000 ppm.

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Abundance of the chemical elements

The abundance of the chemical elements is a measure of the occurrence of the chemical elements relative to all other elements in a given environment.

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Action potential

In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.

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Adaptive optics

Adaptive optics (AO) is a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effect of incoming wavefront distortions by deforming a mirror in order to compensate for the distortion.

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Aldol reaction

The aldol reaction is a means of forming carbon–carbon bonds in organic chemistry.

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Aldosterone

Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.

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Alkali metal

The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.

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Alkalide

An alkalide is a chemical compound in which alkali metals are anions (that is, they bear a negative charge).

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Allotropy

Allotropy or allotropism is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, in the same physical state, known as allotropes of these elements.

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Aluminium

Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.

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American Heart Association

The American Heart Association (AHA) is a non-profit organization in the United States that fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke.

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Amphibole

Amphibole is an important group of generally dark-colored, inosilicate minerals, forming prism or needlelike crystals, composed of double chain tetrahedra, linked at the vertices and generally containing ions of iron and/or magnesium in their structures.

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Angiotensin

Angiotensin is a peptide hormone that causes vasoconstriction and an increase in blood pressure.

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Anhydrous

A substance is anhydrous if it contains no water.

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Annalen der Physik

Annalen der Physik (English: Annals of Physics) is one of the oldest scientific journals on physics and has been published since 1799.

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ASTM International

ASTM International is an international standards organization that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services.

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Atomic absorption spectroscopy

Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) is a spectroanalytical procedure for the quantitative determination of chemical elements using the absorption of optical radiation (light) by free atoms in the gaseous state.

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Atomic number

The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.

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Atomic orbital

In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.

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Bar (unit)

The bar is a metric unit of pressure, but is not approved as part of the International System of Units (SI).

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Benzophenone

Benzophenone is the organic compound with the formula (C6H5)2CO, generally abbreviated Ph2CO.

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Bicarbonate

In inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid.

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Bioavailability

In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA or F) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.

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Birch reduction

The Birch reduction is an organic reaction which is particularly useful in synthetic organic chemistry.

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Blood

Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

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Blood pressure

Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.

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Borax

Borax, also known as sodium borate, sodium tetraborate, or disodium tetraborate, is an important boron compound, a mineral, and a salt of boric acid.

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Boron

Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.

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Bromochlorodifluoromethane

Bromochlorodifluoromethane, also known by the trade name Halon 1211, or BCF, or Halon 1211 BCF, or Freon 12B1, is a haloalkane with the chemical formula CF2ClBr.

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C4 carbon fixation

C4 carbon fixation or the Hatch-Slack pathway is a photosynthetic process in some plants.

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Cadmium

Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.

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Calcium

Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.

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Calcium chloride

Calcium chloride is an inorganic compound, a salt with the chemical formula CaCl2.

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Carbanion

A carbanion is an anion in which carbon is threevalent (forms three bonds) and bears a formal negative charge in at least one significant mesomeric contributor (resonance form).

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Carbon

Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Carbon-burning process

The carbon-burning process or carbon fusion is a set of nuclear fusion reactions that take place in the cores of massive stars (at least 8 \beginsmallmatrixM_\odot\endsmallmatrix at birth) that combines carbon into other elements.

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Carbonate

In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of.

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Carbothermic reaction

Carbothermic reactions involve the reduction of substances, often metal oxides (O2^2-), using carbon as the reducing agent.

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Carboxylate

A carboxylate is a salt or ester of a carboxylic acid.

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Castner process

The Castner process is a process for manufacturing sodium metal by electrolysis of molten sodium hydroxide at approximately 330 °C.

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Chemical element

A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).

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Chloride

The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.

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Chlorine

Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

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Chlorophyll

Chlorophyll (also chlorophyl) is any of several related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants.

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Comet

A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.

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Comet Hale–Bopp

Comet Hale–Bopp (formally designated C/1995 O1) is a comet that was perhaps the most widely observed of the 20th century, and one of the brightest seen for many decades.

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Comet tail

A comet tail—and coma—are features visible in comets when they are illuminated by the Sun and may become visible from Earth when a comet passes through the inner Solar System.

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Convenience food

Convenience food, or tertiary processed food, is food that is commercially prepared (often through processing) to optimise ease of consumption.

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Coolant

A coolant is a substance, typically liquid or gas, that is used to reduce or regulate the temperature of a system.

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Coordination complex

In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.

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Cosmic ray spallation

Cosmic ray spallation is a naturally occurring nuclear reaction causing nucleosynthesis.

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CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics

The CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics is a comprehensive one-volume reference resource for science research, currently in its 98th edition (with 2560 pages, June 23, 2017, Editor-in-Chief John R. Rumble).

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Criticality accident

A criticality accident is an uncontrolled nuclear fission chain reaction.

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Cross section (physics)

When two particles interact, their mutual cross section is the area transverse to their relative motion within which they must meet in order to scatter from each other.

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Crown ether

Crown ethers are cyclic chemical compounds that consist of a ring containing several ether groups.

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Cryolite

Cryolite (Na3AlF6, sodium hexafluoroaluminate) is an uncommon mineral identified with the once large deposit at Ivigtût on the west coast of Greenland, depleted by 1987.

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Cryptand

Cryptands are a family of synthetic bi- and polycyclic multidentate ligands for a variety of cations.

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Cytoplasm

In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.

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Deicing

De-icing is the process of removing snow, ice or frost from a surface.

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Desiccant

A desiccant is a hygroscopic substance that induces or sustains a state of dryness (desiccation) in its vicinity; it is the opposite of a humectant.

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Deville process

The Deville process was the first industrial process used to produce alumina from bauxite.

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Dietary Reference Intake

The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies (United States).

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Disproportionation

Disproportionation, sometimes called dismutation, is a redox reaction in which a compound of intermediate oxidation state converts to two different compounds, one of higher and one of lower oxidation states.

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Downs cell

The Downs' process is an electrochemical method for the commercial preparation of metallic sodium, in which molten NaCl is electrolyzed in a special apparatus called the Downs cell.

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Earth

Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Electride

An electride is a ionic compound in which an electron is the anion.

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Electrolysis

In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.

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Electronegativity

Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.

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Environmental radioactivity

Environmental radioactivity is produced by radioactive materials in the human environment.

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Ethanol

Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.

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Exoplanet

An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet outside our solar system.

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Exosphere

The exosphere (ἔξω éxō "outside, external, beyond", σφαῖρα sphaĩra "sphere") is a thin, atmosphere-like volume surrounding a planet or natural satellite where molecules are gravitationally bound to that body, but where the density is too low for them to behave as a gas by colliding with each other.

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Exothermic reaction

An exothermic reaction is a chemical reaction that releases energy by light or heat.

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Extracellular fluid

Extracellular fluid (ECF) denotes all body fluid outside the cells.

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F-type main-sequence star

An F-type main-sequence star (F V) is a main-sequence, hydrogen-fusing star of spectral type F and luminosity class V. These stars have from 1.0 to 1.4 times the mass of the Sun and surface temperatures between 6,000 and 7,600 K.Tables VII and VIII.

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Fatty acid

In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.

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Feldspar

Feldspars (KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8) are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals that make up about 41% of the Earth's continental crust by weight.

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Fine structure

In atomic physics, the fine structure describes the splitting of the spectral lines of atoms due to electron spin and relativistic corrections to the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation.

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Fire extinguisher

A fire extinguisher is an active fire protection device used to extinguish or control small fires, often in emergency situations.

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Flame retardant

The term flame retardants subsumes a diverse group of chemicals which are added to manufactured materials, such as plastics and textiles, and surface finishes and coatings.

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Flame test

A flame test is an analytic procedure used in chemistry to detect the presence of certain elements, primarily metal ions, based on each element's characteristic emission spectrum.

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Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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Fraunhofer lines

In physics and optics, the Fraunhofer lines are a set of spectral lines named after the German physicist Joseph von Fraunhofer (1787–1826).

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Frequency addition source of optical radiation

FASOR is an acronym for frequency addition source of optical radiation.

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Glass

Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.

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Gold

Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.

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Graphite

Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.

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Gravimetry

Gravimetry is the measurement of the strength of a gravitational field.

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Group 11 element

Group 11, by modern IUPAC numbering, is a group of chemical elements in the periodic table, consisting of copper (Cu), silver (Ag), and gold (Au).

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Group 12 element

Group 12, by modern IUPAC numbering, is a group of chemical elements in the periodic table.

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Gustav Kirchhoff

Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (12 March 1824 – 17 October 1887) was a German physicist who contributed to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects.

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Half-life

Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.

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Halide

A halide is a binary phase, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative (or more electropositive) than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, astatide, or theoretically tennesside compound.

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Halite

Halite, commonly known as rock salt, is a type of salt, the mineral (natural) form of sodium chloride (NaCl).

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Hall–Héroult process

The Hall–Héroult process is the major industrial process for smelting aluminium.

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Halophyte

A halophyte is a plant that grows in waters of high salinity, coming into contact with saline water through its roots or by salt spray, such as in saline semi-deserts, mangrove swamps, marshes and sloughs and seashores.

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Headache

Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.

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Heat pipe

A heat pipe is a heat-transfer device that combines the principles of both thermal conductivity and phase transition to effectively transfer heat between two solid interfaces.

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HSAB theory

HSAB concept is an initialism for "hard and soft (Lewis) acids and bases".

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Humphry Davy

Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 177829 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor, who is best remembered today for isolating, using electricity, a series of elements for the first time: potassium and sodium in 1807 and calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium and boron the following year, as well as discovering the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine.

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Hydrogen

Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Hyperfine structure

In atomic physics, hyperfine structure refers to small shifts and splittings in the energy levels of atoms, molecules and ions, due to interaction between the state of the nucleus and the state of the electron clouds.

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Hypernatremia

Hypernatremia, also spelled hypernatraemia, is a high concentration of sodium in the blood.

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Hypertension

Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

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Hyponatremia

Hyponatremia is a low sodium level in the blood.

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Hypovolemia

Hypovolemia is a state of decreased blood volume; more specifically, decrease in volume of blood plasma.

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Indiana University Northwest

Indiana University Northwest (IU Northwest) is a regional university campus in the Indiana University system in Gary, Indiana, USA, established in 1963.

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Indigo dye

Indigo dye is an organic compound with a distinctive blue color (see indigo).

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Inert gas

An inert gas/noble gas is a gas which does not undergo chemical reactions under a set of given conditions.

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Interstellar medium

In astronomy, the interstellar medium (ISM) is the matter and radiation that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy.

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Ion

An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Ionic bonding

Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds.

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Ionic compound

In chemistry, an ionic compound is a chemical compound composed of ions held together by electrostatic forces termed ionic bonding.

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Ionization energy

The ionization energy (Ei) is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron, the valence electron, of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation.

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Ionophore

An ionophore is a chemical species that reversibly binds ions.

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Iron

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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Isotope

Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.

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Isotopes of sodium

There are twenty recognized isotopes of sodium (11Na), ranging from to and two isomers (and). is the only stable (and the only primordial) isotope.

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Jöns Jacob Berzelius

Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius (20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848), named by himself and contemporary society as Jacob Berzelius, was a Swedish chemist.

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Jerky

Jerky is lean meat that has been trimmed of fat, cut into strips, and then dried to prevent spoilage.

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Joseph von Fraunhofer

Joseph Ritter von Fraunhofer (6 March 1787 – 7 June 1826) was a Bavarian physicist and optical lens manufacturer.

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Journal of the American Chemical Society

The Journal of the American Chemical Society (also known as JACS) is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1879 by the American Chemical Society.

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Laser guide star

A laser guide star is an artificial star image created for use in astronomical adaptive optics systems, which are employed in large telescopes in order to correct atmospheric distortion of light (called astronomical seeing).

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Leaching (chemistry)

Leaching is the process of extracting substances from a solid by dissolving them in a liquid, either naturally or through an industrial process.

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Lead

Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.

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Lewis acids and bases

A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.

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Lithium

Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.

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Ludwig Wilhelm Gilbert

Ludwig Wilhelm Gilbert (12 August 1769 – 7 March 1824) was a German physicist and chemist, and professor of physics at the University of Leipzig.

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Lye

A lye is a metal hydroxide traditionally obtained by leaching ashes (containing largely potassium carbonate or "potash"), or a strong alkali which is highly soluble in water producing caustic basic solutions.

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Magnesium

Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.

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Melting point

The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.

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Mercury (element)

Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

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Mercury (planet)

Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System.

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Metal

A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.

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Metallic bonding

Metallic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that arises from the electrostatic attractive force between conduction electrons (in the form of an electron cloud of delocalized electrons) and positively charged metal ions.

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Methods of detecting exoplanets

Any planet is an extremely faint light source compared to its parent star.

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Micronutrient

Micronutrients are essential elements required by organisms in small quantities throughout life to orchestrate a range of physiological functions to maintain health.

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Mineral

A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.

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Mineral (nutrient)

In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.

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Mineral oil

Mineral oil is any of various colorless, odorless, light mixtures of higher alkanes from a mineral source, particularly a distillate of petroleum.

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Miscibility

Miscibility is the property of substances to mix in all proportions (that is, to fully dissolve in each other at any concentration), forming a homogeneous solution.

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Monosodium glutamate

Monosodium glutamate (MSG, also known as sodium glutamate) is the sodium salt of glutamic acid, one of the most abundant naturally occurring non-essential amino acids.

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Moon

The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.

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Mucous membrane

A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.

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Na+/K+-ATPase

-ATPase (sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase, also known as the pump or sodium–potassium pump) is an enzyme (an electrogenic transmembrane ATPase) found in the plasma membrane of all animal cells.

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National Academy of Medicine

The National Academy of Medicine (NAM), formerly called the Institute of Medicine (IoM), is an American nonprofit, non-governmental organization.

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Natron

Natron is a naturally occurring mixture of sodium carbonate decahydrate (Na2CO3·10H2O, a kind of soda ash) and around 17% sodium bicarbonate (also called baking soda, NaHCO3) along with small quantities of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate.

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Neon

Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.

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Neuron

A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.

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Neutron activation

Neutron activation is the process in which neutron radiation induces radioactivity in materials, and occurs when atomic nuclei capture free neutrons, becoming heavier and entering excited states.

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New Latin

New Latin (also called Neo-Latin or Modern Latin) was a revival in the use of Latin in original, scholarly, and scientific works between c. 1375 and c. 1900.

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Nitrate

Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.

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Noble gas

The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.

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Nuclear isomer

A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atomic nucleus caused by the excitation of one or more of its nucleons (protons or neutrons).

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Organic synthesis

Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds.

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Organophosphate

Organophosphates (also known as phosphate esters) are a class of organophosphorus compounds with the general structure O.

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Osmosis

Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a selectively permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.

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Osmotic pressure

Osmotic pressure is the minimum pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of its pure solvent across a semipermeable membrane.

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Paper

Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.

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Periodic Videos

The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.

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PH

In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.

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Phase-transfer catalyst

In chemistry, a phase-transfer catalyst or PTC is a catalyst that facilitates the migration of a reactant from one phase into another phase where reaction occurs.

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Phosphoenolpyruvic acid

Phosphoenolpyruvate (2-phosphoenolpyruvate, PEP) as the ester derived from the enol of pyruvate and phosphate.

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Photon

The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

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Physical Review Letters

Physical Review Letters (PRL), established in 1958, is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that is published 52 times per year by the American Physical Society.

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Pickling

Pickling is the process of preserving or expanding the lifespan of food by either anaerobic fermentation in brine or immersion in vinegar.

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Poppet valve

A poppet valve (also called mushroom valve) is a valve typically used to control the timing and quantity of gas or vapour flow into an engine.

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Potassium

Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.

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Potentiometer (measuring instrument)

A potentiometer is an instrument for measuring voltage by comparison of an unknown voltage with a known reference voltage.

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Pyrophoricity

A pyrophoric substance (from Greek πυροφόρος, pyrophoros, "fire-bearing") ignites spontaneously in air at or below 55 °C (130 °F).

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Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.

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Reduction potential

Reduction potential (also known as redox potential, oxidation / reduction potential, ORP, pE, ε, or E_) is a measure of the tendency of a chemical species to acquire electrons and thereby be reduced.

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Renin

Renin (etymology and pronunciation), also known as an angiotensinogenase, is an aspartic protease protein and enzyme secreted by the kidneys that participates in the body's renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS)—also known as the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone axis—that mediates the volume of extracellular fluid (blood plasma, lymph and interstitial fluid), and arterial vasoconstriction.

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Renin–angiotensin system

The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) or the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) is a hormone system that regulates blood pressure and fluid balance.

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Robert Bunsen

Robert Wilhelm Eberhard Bunsen (30 March 1811N1 – 16 August 1899) was a German chemist.

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Room temperature

Colloquially, room temperature is the range of air temperatures that most people prefer for indoor settings, which feel comfortable when wearing typical indoor clothing.

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Salt

Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.

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Silver

Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.

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Soap

Soap is the term for a salt of a fatty acid or for a variety of cleansing and lubricating products produced from such a substance.

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Sodablasting

Sodablasting is a mild form of abrasive blasting in which sodium bicarbonate particles are blasted against a surface using compressed air.

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Sodalite

Sodalite is a rich royal blue tectosilicate mineral widely used as an ornamental gemstone.

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Sodium azide

Sodium azide is the inorganic compound with the formula NaN3.

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Sodium benzoate

Sodium benzoate is a substance which has the chemical formula NaC7H5O2.

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Sodium bicarbonate

Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3.

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Sodium bismuthate

Sodium bismuthate is the inorganic compound with the formula NaBiO3.

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Sodium borohydride

Sodium borohydride, also known as sodium tetrahydridoborate and sodium tetrahydroborate, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaBH4.

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Sodium carbonate

Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.

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Sodium chloride

Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.

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Sodium cyclopentadienide

Sodium cyclopentadienide is an organosodium compound with the formula C5H5Na.

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Sodium fusion test

The sodium fusion test, or Lassaigne's test, is used in elemental analysis for the qualitative determination of the presence of foreign elements, namely halogens, nitrogen, and sulphur, in an organic compound.

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Sodium hydride

Sodium hydride is the chemical compound with the empirical formula NaH.

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Sodium hydroxide

Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.

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Sodium naphthalenide

Sodium naphthalenide, also known as sodium naphthalide, is an organic salt with the formula Na+C10H8−.

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Sodium nitrate

Sodium nitrate is the chemical compound with the formula NaNO3.

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Sodium nitrite

Sodium nitrite is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaNO2.

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Sodium oxide

Sodium oxide is a chemical compound with the formula Na2O.

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Sodium peroxide

Sodium peroxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Na2O2.

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Sodium superoxide

Sodium superoxide is the inorganic compound with the formula NaO2.

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Sodium thiosulfate

Sodium thiosulfate (sodium thiosulphate) is a chemical and medication.

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Sodium-cooled fast reactor

The sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) is a Generation IV reactor project to design an advanced fast neutron reactor.

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Sodium-potassium alloy

Sodium-potassium alloy, colloquially called NaK (commonly pronounced), is an alloy of two alkali metals sodium (Na, atomic number 11) and potassium (K, atomic number 19) and which is usually liquid at room temperature.

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Sodium-vapor lamp

A sodium-vapor lamp is a gas-discharge lamp that uses sodium in an excited state to produce light at a characteristic wavelength near 589 nm.

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Solar System

The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.

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Spectral line

A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.

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Spin–orbit interaction

In quantum physics, the spin–orbit interaction (also called spin–orbit effect or spin–orbit coupling) is a relativistic interaction of a particle's spin with its motion inside a potential.

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Standard conditions for temperature and pressure

Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.

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Stellar rotation

Stellar rotation is the angular motion of a star about its axis.

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Stoma

In botany, a stoma (plural "stomata"), also called a stomata (plural "stomates") (from Greek στόμα, "mouth"), is a pore, found in the epidermis of leaves, stems, and other organs, that facilitates gas exchange.

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Sulfate

The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.

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Sun

The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.

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Teaspoon

A teaspoon is an item of cutlery, a measuring instrument, of approximately 5ml, or a unit of measurement of volume (usually abbreviated tsp.).

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Tetraethyllead

Tetraethyllead (commonly styled tetraethyl lead), abbreviated TEL, is an organolead compound with the formula (CH3CH2)4Pb.

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Textile

A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).

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Thiosulfate

Thiosulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; sometimes thiosulphate in British English) is an oxyanion of sulfur.

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Tonicity

Tonicity is a measure of the effective osmotic pressure gradient, as defined by the water potential of two solutions separated by a semipermeable membrane.

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Triphenylphosphine

Triphenylphosphine (IUPAC name: triphenylphosphane) is a common organophosphorus compound with the formula P(C6H5)3 - often abbreviated to PPh3 or Ph3P.

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Turgor pressure

Turgor pressure is the force within the cell that pushes the plasma membrane against the cell wall.

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Uranyl zinc acetate

Uranyl zinc acetate (ZnUO2(CH3COO)4) is a compound of uranium.

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Vacuole

A vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal and bacterial cells.

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Water potential

Water potential is the potential energy of water per unit volume relative to pure water in reference conditions.

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Water softening

Water softening is the removal of calcium, magnesium, and certain other metal cations in hard water.

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Zeolite

Zeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals commonly used as commercial adsorbents and catalysts.

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Zinc

Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.

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15-Crown-5

15-Crown-5 is a crown ether with the formula (C2H4O)5.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodium

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