146 relations: Acetone, Acetonitrile, Aluminium, Ammonia, ASTM International, Atmosphere of Earth, Beryllium, Biosalinity, Bleach, Bolivia, Bresle method, Brine, Caesium chloride, Calcium chloride, Cell (biology), Chemical compound, Chemical equation, Chemical formula, Chloralkali process, Chloride, Chlorine, Chlorine dioxide, Close-packing of equal spheres, Cloud, Cloud condensation nuclei, Condiment, Copper, Corrosion, Curing (food preservation), Dead Sea, Deicing, Desiccant, Dimethylformamide, Doping (semiconductor), Dye, Ethanol, Eutectic system, Evaporation, Extracellular fluid, Fermentation in food processing, Flocculation, Food preservation, Formamide, Formic acid, Glass, Gluten, Glycerol, Grit bin, Halite, Hard water, ..., Health effects of salt, Hide (skin), Hydrochloric acid, Hygroscopy, International Maritime Organization, Intravenous therapy, Ion, Ion-exchange resin, Ionic compound, Isopropyl alcohol, Israel, Jordan, Latex, Lithium chloride, Magnesium chloride, Mannheim process, Mass production, Meat tenderizer, Melting point, Metal aquo complex, Methanol, Microorganism, Middle Ages, Minneapolis–Saint Paul, Mount Morris, New York, Multicellular organism, N-Butanol, Nanometre, Nasal spray, Neoprene, New York (state), Octahedron, Osmoregulation, Osmosis, Osmotic pressure, Pearson symbol, Pharynx, Picometre, Pollution, Polyvinyl chloride, Potassium, Potassium chloride, Preservative, Pretzel, Properties of water, Propylene glycol, Pulp and paper industry, Raw material, Rubidium chloride, Salar de Uyuni, Saline (medicine), Salinity, Salt, Salt (chemistry), Salt in Cheshire, Salt lake, Salt mining, Salt well, Salting (food), Salting the earth, Sausage, Sea salt, Seawater, Shampoo, Soap, Sodium, Sodium bicarbonate, Sodium bromide, Sodium carbonate, Sodium chlorate, Sodium ferrocyanide, Sodium fluoride, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium iodide, Sodium sulfate, Solution, Solvay process, Steel, Stoichiometry, Sulfolane, Sulfuric acid, Synthetic rubber, Thermal conductivity, Thermoplastic, Tonne, United States, United States Geological Survey, Vanadium, Vomiting, Water of crystallization, Winsford, Winter service vehicle, Zinc selenide, 1,3-Butadiene, 1-Pentanol, 1-Propanol. Expand index (96 more) » « Shrink index
Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.
Acetonitrile is the chemical compound with the formula.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
ASTM International is an international standards organization that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
Biosalinity is the study and practice of using saline (salty) water for irrigating agricultural crops.
Bleach is the generic name for any chemical product which is used industrially and domestically to whiten clothes, lighten hair color and remove stains.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
The Bresle method is used to determine concentration of soluble salts on metal surfaces prior to coating application, such as painting.
Brine is a high-concentration solution of salt (usually sodium chloride) in water.
Caesium chloride or cesium chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula CsCl.
Calcium chloride is an inorganic compound, a salt with the chemical formula CaCl2.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical equation is the symbolic representation of a chemical reaction in the form of symbols and formulae, wherein the reactant entities are given on the left-hand side and the product entities on the right-hand side.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
The chloralkali process (also chlor-alkali and chlor alkali) is an industrial process for the electrolysis of sodium chloride.
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chlorine dioxide is a chemical compound with the formula ClO2.
In geometry, close-packing of equal spheres is a dense arrangement of congruent spheres in an infinite, regular arrangement (or lattice).
In meteorology, a cloud is an aerosol consisting of a visible mass of minute liquid droplets, frozen crystals, or other particles suspended in the atmosphere of a planetary body.
Cloud condensation nuclei or CCNs (also known as cloud seeds) are small particles typically 0.2 µm, or 1/100th the size of a cloud droplet on which water vapor condenses.
A condiment is a spice, sauce, or preparation that is added to food to impart a particular flavor, to enhance its flavor, or in some cultures, to complement the dish.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
Curing is any of various food preservation and flavoring processes of foods such as meat, fish and vegetables, by the addition of combinations of salt, nitrates, nitrites,.
The Dead Sea (יָם הַמֶּלַח lit. Sea of Salt; البحر الميت The first article al- is unnecessary and usually not used.) is a salt lake bordered by Jordan to the east and Israel and Palestine to the west.
De-icing is the process of removing snow, ice or frost from a surface.
A desiccant is a hygroscopic substance that induces or sustains a state of dryness (desiccation) in its vicinity; it is the opposite of a humectant.
Dimethylformamide is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)2NC(O)H.
In semiconductor production, doping is the intentional introduction of impurities into an intrinsic semiconductor for the purpose of modulating its electrical properties.
A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
A eutectic system from the Greek "ευ" (eu.
Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.
Extracellular fluid (ECF) denotes all body fluid outside the cells.
Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions.
Flocculation, in the field of chemistry, is a process wherein colloids come out of suspension in the form of floc or flake, either spontaneously or due to the addition of a clarifying agent.
Food preservation prevents the growth of microorganisms (such as yeasts), or other microorganisms (although some methods work by introducing benign bacteria or fungi to the food), as well as slowing the oxidation of fats that cause rancidity.
Formamide, also known as methanamide, is an amide derived from formic acid.
Formic acid, systematically named methanoic acid, is the simplest carboxylic acid.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
Gluten (from Latin gluten, "glue") is a composite of storage proteins termed prolamins and glutelins and stored together with starch in the endosperm (which nourishes the embryonic plant during germination) of various cereal (grass) grains.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
A grit bin or salt bin is an item of street furniture, commonly found in countries where freezing temperatures and snowfall occur, which holds a mixture of salt and grit which is spread over roads if they have snow or ice on them.
Halite, commonly known as rock salt, is a type of salt, the mineral (natural) form of sodium chloride (NaCl).
Hard water is water that has high mineral content (in contrast with "soft water").
The health effects of salt are the conditions associated with the consumption of either too much or too little salt.
A hide or skin is an animal skin treated for human use.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hygroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules from the surrounding environment, which is usually at normal or room temperature.
The International Maritime Organization (IMO), known as the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) until 1982, is a specialised agency of the United Nations responsible for regulating shipping.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
An ion-exchange resin or ion-exchange polymer is a resin or polymer that acts as a medium for ion exchange.
In chemistry, an ionic compound is a chemical compound composed of ions held together by electrostatic forces termed ionic bonding.
Isopropyl alcohol (IUPAC name propan-2-ol; commonly called isopropanol) is a compound with the chemical formula C3H8O.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Latex is a stable dispersion (emulsion) of polymer microparticles in an aqueous medium.
Lithium chloride is a chemical compound with the formula LiCl.
Magnesium chloride is the name for the chemical compound with the formula MgCl2 and its various hydrates MgCl2(H2O)x.
The Mannheim process is an industrial process for the production of hydrogen chloride and sodium sulfate.
Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines.
A meat tenderizer, meat mallet, or meat pounder is a hand-powered tool used to tenderize slabs of meat in preparation for cooking.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Metal aquo complexes are coordination compounds containing metal ions with only water as a ligand.
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Minneapolis–Saint Paul is a major metropolitan area built around the Mississippi, Minnesota and St. Croix rivers in east central Minnesota.
Mount Morris is a town in Livingston County, New York, United States.
Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.
n-Butanol or n-butyl alcohol or normal butanol is a primary alcohol with a 4-carbon structure and the chemical formula C4H9OH.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
Nasal sprays, or nasal drops, are used as local treatments for conditions such as nasal congestion and allergic rhinitis.
Neoprene (also polychloroprene or pc-rubber) is a family of synthetic rubbers that are produced by polymerization of chloroprene.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
In geometry, an octahedron (plural: octahedra) is a polyhedron with eight faces, twelve edges, and six vertices.
Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of an organism's body fluids, detected by osmoreceptors, to maintain the homeostasis of the organism's water content; that is, it maintains the fluid balance and the concentration of electrolytes (salts in solution) to keep the fluids from becoming too diluted or concentrated.
Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a selectively permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.
Osmotic pressure is the minimum pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of its pure solvent across a semipermeable membrane.
The Pearson symbol, or Pearson notation, is used in crystallography as a means of describing a crystal structure, and was originated by W.B. Pearson.
The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.
The picometre (international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: pm) or picometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to, or one trillionth of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length.
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.
Polyvinyl chloride, also known as polyvinyl or '''vinyl''', commonly abbreviated PVC, is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine.
A preservative is a substance or a chemical that is added to products such as food, beverages, pharmaceutical drugs, paints, biological samples, cosmetics, wood, and many other products to prevent decomposition by microbial growth or by undesirable chemical changes.
A Pretzel (Breze(l)) is a type of baked bread product made from dough most commonly shaped into a twisted knot.
Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. Water is amphoteric, meaning that it is both an acid and a base—it produces + and - ions by self-ionization.
Propylene glycol (IUPAC name: propane-1,2-diol) is a synthetic organic compound with the chemical formula C3H8O2.
The pulp and paper industry comprises companies that use wood as raw material and produce pulp, paper, paperboard and other cellulose-based products.
A raw material, also known as a feedstock or most correctly unprocessed material, is a basic material that is used to produce goods, finished products, energy, or intermediate materials which are feedstock for future finished products.
Rubidium chloride is the chemical compound with the formula RbCl.
Salar de Uyuni (or Salar de Tunupa) is the world's largest salt flat at 10 582 square kilometers (4 086 sq mi).
Saline, also known as saline solution, is a mixture of sodium chloride in water and has a number of uses in medicine.
Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
Cheshire is a county in North West England.
A salt lake or saline lake is a landlocked body of water that has a concentration of salts (typically sodium chloride) and other dissolved minerals significantly higher than most lakes (often defined as at least three grams of salt per litre).
A salt mine is a mine from which halite, commonly known as rock salt, is extracted from evaporite formations.
A salt well (or brine well) is used to mine salt from subterranean caverns or deposits.
Salting is the preservation of food with dry edible salt.
Salting the earth, or sowing with salt, is the ritual of spreading salt on conquered cities to symbolize a curse on their re-inhabitation.
A sausage is a cylindrical meat product usually made from ground meat, often pork, beef, or veal, along with salt, spices and other flavourings, and breadcrumbs, encased by a skin.
Sea salt is a less refined salt that is produced by the evaporation of seawater.
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
Shampoo is a hair care product, typically in the form of a viscous liquid, that is used for cleaning hair.
Soap is the term for a salt of a fatty acid or for a variety of cleansing and lubricating products produced from such a substance.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3.
Sodium bromide is an inorganic compound with the formula NaBr.
Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.
Sodium chlorate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaClO3.
Sodium ferrocyanide is the sodium salt of the coordination compound of formula 4−.
Sodium fluoride (NaF) is an inorganic compound with the formula NaF.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
Sodium iodide (chemical formula NaI) is an ionic compound formed from the chemical reaction of sodium metal and iodine.
Sodium sulfate, also known as sulfate of soda, is the inorganic compound with formula Na2SO4 as well as several related hydrates.
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.
The Solvay process or ammonia-soda process is the major industrial process for the production of sodium carbonate (soda ash, Na2CO3).
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
Stoichiometry is the calculation of reactants and products in chemical reactions.
Sulfolane (also tetramethylene sulfone, systematic name: 2,3,4,5-tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide) is an organosulfur compound, formally a cyclic sulfone, with the formula (CH2)4SO2.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
A synthetic rubber is any artificial elastomer.
Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.
A thermoplastic, or thermosoftening plastic, is a plastic material, a polymer, that becomes pliable or moldable above a specific temperature and solidifies upon cooling.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
In chemistry, water of crystallization or water of hydration or crystallization water is water molecules that are present inside crystals.
Winsford is a town and civil parish within the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England.
A winter service vehicle (WSV), or snow removal vehicle, is used to clear thoroughfares of ice and snow.
Zinc selenide (ZnSe) is a light-yellow, solid compound comprising zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se).
1,3-Butadiene is the organic compound with the formula (CH2.
1-Pentanol, (or n-pentanol, pentan-1-ol), is an alcohol with five carbon atoms and the molecular formula C5H11OH.
1-Propanol is a primary alcohol with the formula CH3CH2CH2OH (sometimes represented as PrOH or n-PrOH).
ATC code A12CA01, ATC code B05CB01, ATC code B05XA03, ATCvet code QA12CA01, ATCvet code QB05CB01, ATCvet code QB05XA03, Broncho Saline, Environmental effects of road salt, Halite structure, Muriate of soda, NACL, Na Cl, NaCL, NaCl, Nacl, Natrium chloride, Natrum Mur., Road salt, Salt (compound), Salt (sodium chloride), Sodium Chloride, Sodium chlorine.