110 relations: Acid, Adhesive, Alchemy, Alkali, Antifreeze, Aquaculture, Argillaceous minerals, BASF, Basil Valentine, Building, Calcination, Car Allowance Rebate System, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Caulking, Cement, Chemical compound, Chemical garden, Chemical reactor, Clarifying agent, Clay minerals, Coagulation, Coating, Collagen, Colloid, Colt's Manufacturing Company, Concrete, Curing (chemistry), Cylinder head, Desiccant, Deutsches Institut für Bautechnik, Double layer (surface science), Drilling fluid, Drywall, Endothermic process, Exhaust system, Fireproofing, Firestop, Flocculation, Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, Gel, Geological formation, Georgius Agricola, Giambattista della Porta, Head gasket, Hydrate, Intumescent, Ionic strength, Isinglass, Jan Baptist van Helmont, ..., Johann Nepomuk von Fuchs, Johann Rudolf Glauber, Kaolinite, Masonry, Melting point, Montmorillonite, Motor oil, Muffler, North America, Operating temperature, Oxy-fuel welding and cutting, Paper cartridge, Passive fire protection, Perlite, PH, Pipe (fluid conveyance), Plaster, Plastic, Polymer, Porosity, Portlandite, Potash, Potassium, Potassium bitartrate, Potassium carbonate, Potassium silicate, Prill, Quartz, Reactive dye, Refractory, Safe, Sawdust, Shotgun shell, Silica gel, Silicate, Silicate mineral paint, Silicic acid, Silicon dioxide, Silicone, Smoke, Soda–lime glass, Sodium carbonate, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium metasilicate, Sodium orthosilicate, Sodium pyrosilicate, Sodium sulfate, Solution, Stalagmite, Stucco, Sturgeon, Swim bladder, Talc, Ton, USS Nautilus (SSN-571), Vermiculite, Viscosity, Water treatment, Waterproofing, 3M. Expand index (60 more) » « Shrink index
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
An adhesive, also known as glue, cement, mucilage, or paste, is any substance applied to one surface, or both surfaces, of two separate items that binds them together and resists their separation.
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
An antifreeze is an additive which lowers the freezing point of a water-based liquid and increases its boiling point.
Aquaculture (less commonly spelled aquiculture), also known as aquafarming, is the farming of fish, crustaceans, molluscs, aquatic plants, algae, and other organisms.
Argillaceous minerals may appear silvery upon optical reflection and are minerals containing substantial amounts of clay-like components (ἄργιλλος.
BASF SE is a German chemical company and the largest chemical producer in the world.
Basil Valentine is the Anglicised version of the name Basilius Valentinus, ostensibly a 15th-century alchemist, possibly Canon of the Benedictine Priory of Saint Peter in Erfurt, Germany but more likely a pseudonym used by one or several 16th-century German authors.
A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory.
The IUPAC defines calcination as "heating to high temperatures in air or oxygen".
The Car Allowance Rebate System (CARS), colloquially known as "cash for clunkers", was a $3 billion U.S. federal scrappage program intended to provide economic incentives to U.S. residents to purchase a new, more fuel-efficient vehicle when trading in a less fuel-efficient vehicle.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Caulking is both the processes and material (also called sealant) to seal joints or seams in various structures and some types of piping.
A cement is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets, hardens and adheres to other materials, binding them together.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
Comparison of chemical gardens grown by NASA scientists on the International Space Station (left) and on the ground (right) A chemical garden while growing Cobalt(II) chloride A chemical garden A chemical garden is an experiment in chemistry normally performed by adding metal salts such as copper sulfate or cobalt(II) chloride to an aqueous solution of sodium silicate (otherwise known as waterglass).
A chemical reactor is an enclosed volume in which a chemical reaction takes place.
Clarifying agents are used to remove suspended solids from liquids by inducing flocculation (the solids begin to aggregate forming flakes, which either precipitate to the bottom or float to the surface of the liquid, and then they can be removed or collected).
Clay minerals are hydrous aluminium phyllosilicates, sometimes with variable amounts of iron, magnesium, alkali metals, alkaline earths, and other cations found on or near some planetary surfaces.
Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot.
A coating is a covering that is applied to the surface of an object, usually referred to as the substrate.
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.
Colt's Manufacturing Company, LLC (CMC, formerly Colt's Patent Firearms Manufacturing Company) is an American firearms manufacturer, founded in 1855 by Samuel Colt.
Concrete, usually Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens over time—most frequently a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement.
Curing is a term in polymer chemistry and process engineering that refers to the toughening or hardening of a polymer material by cross-linking of polymer chains, brought about by electron beams, heat, or chemical additives.
In an internal combustion engine, the cylinder head (often informally abbreviated to just head) sits above the cylinders on top of the cylinder block.
A desiccant is a hygroscopic substance that induces or sustains a state of dryness (desiccation) in its vicinity; it is the opposite of a humectant.
Deutsches Institut für Bautechnik (DIBt) is a technical authority in the construction sector.
A double layer (DL, also called an electrical double layer, EDL) is a structure that appears on the surface of an object when it is exposed to a fluid.
In geotechnical engineering, drilling fluid is used to aid the drilling of boreholes into the earth.
Drywall (also known as plasterboard, wallboard, gypsum panel, sheet rock, or gypsum board) is a panel made of calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum), with or without additives, typically extruded between thick sheets of facer and backer paper, utilized in the construction of interior walls and ceilings.
The term endothermic process describes the process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings, usually in the form of heat.
An exhaust system is usually piping used to guide reaction exhaust gases away from a controlled combustion inside an engine or stove.
Fireproofing is rendering something (structures, materials, etc.) resistant to fire, or incombustible; or material for use in making anything fire-proof.
A firestop is a passive fire protection system made up of various components and used to seal openings and joints in a fire-resistance-rated wall or floor assembly.
Flocculation, in the field of chemistry, is a process wherein colloids come out of suspension in the form of floc or flake, either spontaneously or due to the addition of a clarifying agent.
The is a disabled nuclear power plant located on a site in the towns of Ōkuma and Futaba in the Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.
A gel is a solid jelly-like material that can have properties ranging from soft and weak to hard and tough.
A formation or geological formation is the fundamental unit of lithostratigraphy.
Georgius Agricola (24 March 1494 – 21 November 1555) was a German mineralogist and metallurgist.
Giambattista della Porta (1535? – 4 February 1615), also known as Giovanni Battista Della Porta, was an Italian scholar, polymath and playwright who lived in Naples at the time of the Scientific Revolution and Reformation.
A head gasket is a gasket that sits between the engine block and cylinder head(s) in an internal combustion engine.
In chemistry, a hydrate is a substance that contains water or its constituent elements.
An intumescent is a substance that swells as a result of heat exposure, thus increasing in volume and decreasing in density.
The concept of ionic strength was first introduced by Lewis and Randall in 1921 while describing the activity coefficients of strong electrolytes.
Isinglass is a substance obtained from the dried swim bladders of fish.
Jan Baptist van Helmont (12 January 1580 – 30 December 1644) was a Flemish chemist, physiologist, and physician.
Johann Nepomuk von Fuchs (15 May 1774 – 5 March 1856) was a German chemist and mineralogist, and royal Bavarian privy councillor.
Johann Rudolf Glauber (10 March 1604 – 16 March 1670) was a German-Dutch alchemist and chemist.
Kaolinite is a clay mineral, part of the group of industrial minerals, with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4.
Masonry is the building of structures from individual units, which are often laid in and bound together by mortar; the term masonry can also refer to the units themselves.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Montmorillonite is a very soft phyllosilicate group of minerals that form when they precipitate from water solution as microscopic crystals, known as clay. It is named after Montmorillon in France. Montmorillonite, a member of the smectite group, is a 2:1 clay, meaning that it has two tetrahedral sheets of silica sandwiching a central octahedral sheet of alumina. The particles are plate-shaped with an average diameter around 1 μm and a thickness of 9.6 nm; magnification of about 25,000 times, using an electron microscope, is required to "see" individual clay particles. Members of this group include saponite. Montmorillonite is a subclass of smectite, a 2:1 phyllosilicate mineral characterized as having greater than 50% octahedral charge; its cation exchange capacity is due to isomorphous substitution of Mg for Al in the central alumina plane. The substitution of lower valence cations in such instances leaves the nearby oxygen atoms with a net negative charge that can attract cations. In contrast, beidellite is smectite with greater than 50% tetrahedral charge originating from isomorphous substitution of Al for Si in the silica sheet. The individual crystals of montmorillonite clay are not tightly bound hence water can intervene, causing the clay to swell. The water content of montmorillonite is variable and it increases greatly in volume when it absorbs water. Chemically, it is hydrated sodium calcium aluminium magnesium silicate hydroxide (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2·nH2O. Potassium, iron, and other cations are common substitutes, and the exact ratio of cations varies with source. It often occurs intermixed with chlorite, muscovite, illite, cookeite, and kaolinite.
Motor oil, engine oil, or engine lubricant is any of various substances comprising base oils enhanced with additives, particularly antiwear additive plus detergents, dispersants and, for multi-grade oils viscosity index improvers.
A muffler (silencer in many non-US English speaking countries) is a device for decreasing the amount of noise emitted by the exhaust of an internal combustion engine.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
An operating temperature is the temperature at which an electrical or mechanical device operates.
Principle of the burn cutting Oxy-fuel welding (commonly called oxyacetylene welding, oxy welding, or gas welding in the U.S.) and oxy-fuel cutting are processes that use fuel gases and oxygen to weld and cut metals, respectively.
This article addresses older paper small-arms cartridges, for modern metallic small arms cartridges see Cartridge (firearms).
Passive fire protection (PFP) is an integral component of the components of structural fire protection and fire safety in a building.
Perlite is an amorphous volcanic glass that has a relatively high water content, typically formed by the hydration of obsidian.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
A pipe is a tubular section or hollow cylinder, usually but not necessarily of circular cross-section, used mainly to convey substances which can flow — liquids and gases (fluids), slurries, powders and masses of small solids.
Plaster is a building material used for the protective and/or decorative coating of walls and ceilings and for moulding and casting decorative elements.
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Porosity or void fraction is a measure of the void (i.e. "empty") spaces in a material, and is a fraction of the volume of voids over the total volume, between 0 and 1, or as a percentage between 0% and 100%.
Portlandite is an oxide mineral.
Potash is some of various mined and manufactured salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Potassium bitartrate, also known as potassium hydrogen tartrate, with formula K C4 H5 O6, is a byproduct of winemaking.
Potassium carbonate (K2CO3) is a white salt, which is soluble in water (insoluble in ethanol) and forms a strongly alkaline solution.
Potassium silicate is the name for a family of inorganic compounds.
A prill is a small aggregate or globule of a material, most often a dry sphere, formed from a melted liquid.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
In a reactive dye, a chromophore (an atom or group whose presence is responsible for the colour of a compound) contains a substituent that reacts with the substrate.
A refractory mineral is a mineral that is resistant to decomposition by heat, pressure, or chemical attack.
A safe (also called a strongbox or coffer) is a secure lockable box used for securing valuable objects against theft and/or damage from fire.
Sawdust or wood dust is a by-product or waste product of woodworking operations such as sawing, milling, planing, routing, drilling and sanding.
A shotgun shell is a self-contained cartridge typically loaded with multiple metallic "shot", which are small, generally spherical projectiles.
Silica gel is an amorphous and porous form of silicon dioxide (silica), consisting of an irregular tridimensional framework of alternating silicon and oxygen atoms with nanometer-scale voids and pores.
In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula, where 0 ≤ x Silicate anions are often large polymeric molecules with an extense variety of structures, including chains and rings (as in polymeric metasilicate), double chains (as in, and sheets (as in. In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to mean silicate minerals, ionic solids with silicate anions; as well as rock types that consist predominantly of such minerals. In that context, the term also includes the non-ionic compound silicon dioxide (silica, quartz), which would correspond to x.
Silicate mineral paints or mineral colors are paint coats with mineral binding agents.
Silicic acid is the general name for a family of chemical compounds containing the element silicon attached to oxide and hydroxyl groups, with the general formula n or,equivalently, n. They are generally colorless and sparingly soluble in water.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Silicones, also known as polysiloxanes, are polymers that include any inert, synthetic compound made up of repeating units of siloxane, which is a chain of alternating silicon atoms and oxygen atoms, combined with carbon, hydrogen, and sometimes other elements.
Smoke is a collection of airborne solid and liquid particulates and gases emitted when a material undergoes combustion or pyrolysis, together with the quantity of air that is entrained or otherwise mixed into the mass.
Soda–lime glass, also called soda–lime–silica glass, is the most prevalent type of glass, used for windowpanes and glass containers (bottles and jars) for beverages, food, and some commodity items.
Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
Sodium metasilicate is the chemical substance with formula, which is the main component of commercial sodium silicate solutions.
Sodium orhosilicate is the chemical compound.
Sodium pyrosilicate is the chemical compound.
Sodium sulfate, also known as sulfate of soda, is the inorganic compound with formula Na2SO4 as well as several related hydrates.
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.
A stalagmite (or; from the Greek σταλαγμίτης -, from σταλαγμίας -, "dropping, trickling") is a type of rock formation that rises from the floor of a cave due to the accumulation of material deposited on the floor from ceiling drippings.
Stucco or render is a material made of aggregates, a binder and water.
Sturgeon is the common name for the 27 species of fish belonging to the family Acipenseridae.
The swim bladder, gas bladder, fish maw or air bladder is an internal gas-filled organ that contributes to the ability of many bony fish (but not cartilaginous fish) to control their buoyancy, and thus to stay at their current water depth without having to waste energy in swimming.
Talc or talcum is a clay mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2.
The ton is a unit of measure.
USS Nautilus (SSN-571) was the world's first operational nuclear-powered submarine and the first submarine to complete a submerged transit of the North Pole on 3rd August 1958.
Vermiculite is a hydrous phyllosilicate mineral.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
Water treatment is any process that improves the quality of water to make it more acceptable for a specific end-use.
Waterproofing is the process of making an object or structure waterproof or water-resistant so that it remains relatively unaffected by water or resisting the ingress of water under specified conditions.
The 3M Company, formerly known as the Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company, is an American multinational conglomerate corporation based in Maplewood, Minnesota, a suburb of St. Paul.