112 relations: Absolute zero, Acid, Acid salt, Alum, Ammonium sulfate, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Apothecary, Aqueous solution, Barium, Caesium sulfate, Calibration, Canada, Carbothermic reaction, Chelation, Chemical industry, Commodity, Concentration, CRC Press, Crystallization, Desiccant, Detergent, Double salt, Equilibrium constant, Ethanol, Fertilizer, Filler (materials), Finings, Germany, Glass, Glauberite, Glycerol, Heat, Hexagonal crystal family, Hydrate, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen bond, Hydrogen iodide, Hygroscopy, Inorganic compound, Ion, Iron, James Hargreaves (chemist), Johann Rudolf Glauber, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Kraft process, Laxative, Lead, Leblanc process, Liquid, List of R-phrases, ..., List of S-phrases, Lithium carbonate, Lithium sulfate, Longman, Magnesium sulfate, Mannheim process, McGraw-Hill Education, Merck & Co., Merck Index, Mexico, Michigan, Mirabilite, Monoclinic crystal system, Netherlands, Neutralization (chemistry), Nitric acid, Octahedral molecular geometry, Organic compound, Organic synthesis, Orthorhombic crystal system, Paracetamol, Phenol, Picometre, Potassium carbonate, Potassium chloride, Potassium sulfate, Proceedings of the Royal Society, Pulp (paper), Rayon, Redox, Residual entropy, Resorcinol, Rubidium sulfate, Russia, Saskatchewan, Searles Valley Minerals, Silicon dioxide, Sodium bicarbonate, Sodium bisulfate, Sodium carbonate, Sodium chloride, Sodium dichromate, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium persulfate, Sodium selenate, Sodium sulfide, Sodium sulfite, Solar thermal collector, Spain, Stainless steel, Starch, Sulfate, Sulfur dioxide, Sulfuric acid, Textile, Thenardite, Tonne, United States, United States Geological Survey, Vitamin C, Water, World Health Organization. Expand index (62 more) » « Shrink index
Absolute zero is the lower limit of the thermodynamic temperature scale, a state at which the enthalpy and entropy of a cooled ideal gas reach their minimum value, taken as 0.
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An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
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Acid salt is a class of salts that produces an acidic solution after being dissolved in a solvent.
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An alum is a type of chemical compound, usually a hydrated double sulfate salt of aluminium with the general formula, where X is a monovalent cation such as potassium or ammonium.
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Ammonium sulfate (American English and international scientific usage; ammonium sulphate in British English); (NH4)2SO4, is an inorganic salt with a number of commercial uses.
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Ann Arbor, Michigan
Ann Arbor is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan and the county seat of Washtenaw County.
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Apothecary is one term for a medical professional who formulates and dispenses materia medica to physicians, surgeons, and patients.
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An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water.
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Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.
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Caesium sulfate or cesium sulfate is the inorganic compound and salt with the formula Cs2SO4.
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Calibration in measurement technology and metrology is the comparison of measurement values delivered by a device under test with those of a calibration standard of known accuracy.
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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
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Carbothermic reactions involve the reduction of substances, often metal oxides (O2^2-), using carbon as the reducing agent.
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Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.
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The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals.
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In economics, a commodity is an economic good or service that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.
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In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
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The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
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Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized into a structure known as a crystal.
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A desiccant is a hygroscopic substance that induces or sustains a state of dryness (desiccation) in its vicinity; it is the opposite of a humectant.
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A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleaning properties in dilute solutions.
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Double salts are salts containing more than one cation or anion, and are obtained by combination of two different salts which were crystallized in the same regular ionic lattice.
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The equilibrium constant of a chemical reaction is the value of its reaction quotient at chemical equilibrium, a state approached by a dynamic chemical system after sufficient time has elapsed at which its composition has no measurable tendency towards further change.
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Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
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A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
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Fillers are particles added to material (plastics, composite material, concrete) to lower the consumption of more expensive binder material or to better some properties of the mixtured material.
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FiningsThe term is a mass noun rather than a plural.
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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
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Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
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Glauberite is a monoclinic sodium calcium sulfate mineral with the formula Na2Ca(SO4)2.
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Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
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In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.
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Hexagonal crystal family
In crystallography, the hexagonal crystal family is one of the 6 crystal families, which includes 2 crystal systems (hexagonal and trigonal) and 2 lattice systems (hexagonal and rhombohedral).
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In chemistry, a hydrate is a substance that contains water or its constituent elements.
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Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
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A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
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Hydrogen iodide is a diatomic molecule and hydrogen halide.
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Hygroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules from the surrounding environment, which is usually at normal or room temperature.
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An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.
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An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
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Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
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James Hargreaves (chemist)
James Hargreaves (May 1834 – 4 April 1915) was an English chemist and an inventor.
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Johann Rudolf Glauber
Johann Rudolf Glauber (10 March 1604 – 16 March 1670) was a German-Dutch alchemist and chemist.
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Journal of the American Chemical Society
The Journal of the American Chemical Society (also known as JACS) is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1879 by the American Chemical Society.
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The kraft process (also known as kraft pulping or sulfate process) is a process for conversion of wood into wood pulp, which consists of almost pure cellulose fibers, the main component of paper.
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Laxatives, purgatives, or aperients are substances that loosen stools and increase bowel movements.
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Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
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The Leblanc process was an early industrial process for the production of soda ash (sodium carbonate) used throughout the 19th century, named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc.
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A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.
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List of R-phrases
R-phrases (short for risk phrases) are defined in Annex III of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations.
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List of S-phrases
S-phrases are defined in Annex IV of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Safety advice concerning dangerous substances and preparations.
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Lithium sulfate is a white inorganic salt with the formula Li2SO4.
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Longman, commonly known as Pearson Longman, is a publishing company founded in London, England, in 1724 and is owned by Pearson PLC.
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Magnesium sulfate is an inorganic salt with the formula MgSO4(H2O)x where 0≤x≤7.
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The Mannheim process is an industrial process for the production of hydrogen chloride and sodium sulfate.
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McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
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Merck & Co.
Merck & Company, Inc., d.b.a. Merck Sharp & Dohme (MSD) outside the United States and Canada, is an American pharmaceutical company and one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world.
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The Merck Index is an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs and biologicals with over 10,000 monographs on single substances or groups of related compounds.
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Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
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Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States.
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Mirabilite, also known as Glauber's salt, is a hydrous sodium sulfate mineral with the chemical formula Na2SO4·10H2O.
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Monoclinic crystal system
In crystallography, the monoclinic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
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The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
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In chemistry, neutralization or neutralisation (see spelling differences), is a chemical reaction in which an acid and a base react quantitatively with each other.
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Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
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Octahedral molecular geometry
In chemistry, octahedral molecular geometry describes the shape of compounds with six atoms or groups of atoms or ligands symmetrically arranged around a central atom, defining the vertices of an octahedron.
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In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
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Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds.
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Orthorhombic crystal system
In crystallography, the orthorhombic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
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--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.
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Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.
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The picometre (international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: pm) or picometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to, or one trillionth of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length.
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Potassium carbonate (K2CO3) is a white salt, which is soluble in water (insoluble in ethanol) and forms a strongly alkaline solution.
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Potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine.
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Potassium sulfate (K2SO4) (in British English potassium sulphate, also called sulphate of potash, arcanite, or archaically known as potash of sulfur) is a non-flammable white crystalline salt which is soluble in water.
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Proceedings of the Royal Society
Proceedings of the Royal Society is the parent title of two scientific journals published by the Royal Society.
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Pulp is a lignocellulosic fibrous material prepared by chemically or mechanically separating cellulose fibres from wood, fiber crops, waste paper, or rags.
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Rayon is a manufactured fiber made from regenerated cellulose fiber.
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Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
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Residual entropy is the difference in entropy between a non-equilibrium state and crystal state of a substance close to absolute zero.
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Resorcinol (or resorcin) is a benzenediol (''m''-dihydroxybenzene).
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Rubidium sulfate is a sulfate of rubidium.
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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
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Saskatchewan is a prairie and boreal province in western Canada, the only province without natural borders.
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Searles Valley Minerals
Searles Valley Minerals Inc. is a raw materials mining and production company based in Overland Park, Kansas.
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Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
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Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3.
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Sodium bisulfate, also known as sodium hydrogen sulfate, is the sodium salt of the bisulfate anion, with the molecular formula NaHSO4.
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Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.
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Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
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Sodium dichromate is the inorganic compound with the formula Na2Cr2O7.
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Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
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Sodium persulfate is the inorganic compound with the formula Na2S2O8.
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Sodium selenate is the inorganic compound with the formula, not to be confused with sodium selenite.
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Sodium sulfide is the chemical compound with the formula Na2S, or more commonly its hydrate Na2S·9H2O.
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Sodium sulfite (sodium sulphite) is a soluble sodium salt of sulfurous acid (sulfite) with the chemical formula Na2SO3.
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Solar thermal collector
A solar thermal collector collects heat by absorbing sunlight.
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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
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In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French inoxydable (inoxidizable), is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass.
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Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
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The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
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Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
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Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
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A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
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Thenardite is an anhydrous sodium sulfate mineral, Na2SO4 which occurs in arid evaporite environments.
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The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
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The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
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United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
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Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
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Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
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World Health Organization
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
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ATC code A06AD13, ATC code A12CA02, ATCvet code QA06AD13, ATCvet code QA12CA02, E514, Glauber salt, Glauber's Salt, Glauber's salt, Na2O4S, Na2SO4, Na2so4, Sal mirabilis, Salt cake, Saltcake, Sodium sulphate, Sulphate of soda.