480 relations: Achaemenid Empire, Administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire, Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Air pollution, Albrecht Dürer, Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Sofia, Alexander of Battenberg, Algeria, Algiers, Alternative for Bulgarian Revival, American College of Sofia, Amman, Amphitheatre, Amphitheatre of Serdica, Ancient Rome, Ankara, Antarctica, Arena Armeec, Armenia, Armenians, Ashanti Empire, Ashkenazi Jews, Attack (political party), Auguste Rodin, Aurelian, Austria-Hungary, Balkan Mountains, Balkans, Ballet, Bankya, Banya Bashi Mosque, Baroque Revival architecture, Basilica, Basketball, Battle of Sofia, Bedesten, Birth rate, Black Sea, Bombing of Sofia in World War II, Borisova gradina, Botanical garden, Boyana, Boyana Church, Boyko Borisov, Bratislava, British Council, Brutalist architecture, BTV (Bulgaria), Bucharest, ..., Budapest, Buddhism, Bulgaria, Bulgaria Air, Bulgaria for Citizens Movement, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgarian Communist Party, Bulgarian language, Bulgarian mafia, Bulgarian National Bank, Bulgarian National Television, Bulgarian Socialist Party, Bulgarian Stock Exchange – Sofia, Bulgarian Turks, Bulgarian Volleyball Federation, Bulgarian–Ottoman wars, Bulgarians, Business Park Sofia, Byzantine Empire, Byzantium, Cambridge University Press, Capital city, Capital Fort, Catholic Church, Catholic Church in Bulgaria, Celts, Central Sofia Market Hall, Christian, Church of St. George, Sofia, City, City council, City Garden (Sofia), Coalition for Bulgaria, Cogeneration, Collège-lycée Jacques-Decour, Columbia University, Cometopuli dynasty, Communism, Communist state, Conan the Barbarian (2011 film), Confucius Institute, Constantine the Great, Constitutional Court of Bulgaria, Contract killing, Copyright, Council of Serdica, Croatia, Crusade of Varna, Crusades, Crypt, Czech Republic, Dacia Aureliana, Danube, Democrats for a Strong Bulgaria, Diocletian, Districts of Sofia, Divorce, Doctors' Garden, Drug, Dubrovnik, Duke University, Dutch Golden Age, Earth and Man National Museum, Eastern European Summer Time, Eastern European Time, Eastern Orthodox Church, Economic growth, Edict of Milan, Edict of Serdica, Electricity generation, Elin Pelin, Encyclopædia Britannica, EuroBasket 1957, European Commission, European Union, Executive (government), Eyalet, Fatherland Front (Bulgaria), FC Lokomotiv 1929 Sofia, First Bulgarian Empire, FIVB Volleyball World League, Forbes, Foreign direct investment, Fraud, Friedrich Grünanger, Galerius, Geographic coordinate system, Georgi Dimitrov, Georgi Dimitrov Mausoleum, Georgi Rakovski Military Academy, Georgia (country), Georgians, GERB, Ghena Dimitrova, Goethe-Institut, Golf, Gothic Revival architecture, Greek language, Green belt, Hachette (publisher), Hajduk, Heat-only boiler station, Hellenistic period, Hewlett-Packard, High-rise building, Higher education, History of the Jews in Bulgaria, Hitman (2007 film), Hot spring, Hotel Rodina, Humid continental climate, Huns, IBM, Ice skating, Ihtiman, Ilinden, Sofia, Illyrians, IMAX, Imperial Russian Army, IMRO – Bulgarian National Movement, Infant mortality, Institution, Instituto Cervantes, International Olympic Committee, Internet, Iosif Gurko, Irreligion, Iskar (river), Iskar, Sofia, Islam in Bulgaria, Israel, Ivan Asen I of Bulgaria, Ivan Shishman of Bulgaria, Ivan Vazov National Theatre, Izgrev, Sofia, Jama Masjid, Jean-Baptiste Greuze, John I Tzimiskes, Jordan, Judiciary, Justinian I, Kahramanmaraş, Karlovac, Köppen climate classification, Kiev, Kingdom of Bulgaria, Krasna polyana, Krasno selo, Kremikovtsi, Krum, Largo, Sofia, Latin, Lebanon, Legislature, Lenin's Mausoleum, Levski Sofia (sports club), Lisbon, List of Bulgaria province name etymologies, List of Byzantine emperors, List of churches in Sofia, List of cities and towns in Bulgaria, List of countries by incarceration rate, List of mayors of Sofia, List of oldest continuously inhabited cities, List of shopping malls in Bulgaria, List of sovereign states, List of tallest buildings in Sofia, Literacy, Livingston Island, Lokomotiv Stadium (Sofia), Lozenets, Sofia, Luxury goods, Lyulin, Sofia, Macedonia (region), Macedonian language, Madrid, Magdalena Maleeva, Mall of Sofia, Manufacturing, Marin Drinov, Maritime transport, Marriage, Marshrutka, Medical University, Sofia, Military history of Bulgaria during World War II, Mladost, Sofia, Mode of transport, Moment magnitude scale, Monument to the Tsar Liberator, Mortality rate, Moscow, Mountain pass, Muhammad al-Idrisi, Multinational corporation, Muslim, Nadezhda, Sofia, National Academy of Arts, National Archaeological Museum (Bulgaria), National Art Gallery (Bulgaria), National Assembly (Bulgaria), National Gallery for Foreign Art, National Historical Museum (Bulgaria), National Museum of Military History (Bulgaria), National Museum of Natural History (Bulgaria), National Opera and Ballet of Bulgaria, National Palace of Culture, National park, National Polytechnical Museum, National Sports Academy "Vasil Levski", National Statistical Institute (Bulgaria), Near East, Nedelya Petkova, Neoclassicism, Nicholas (komes), Nicolai Ghiaurov, Nilüfer River, Nitrogen oxide, Nova television (Bulgaria), Novi Iskar, Nu Boyana Film Studios, Nu Image, Numbeo, Oborishte, Sofia, Odeon Cinemas, Odrysian kingdom, Oman, Omurtag of Bulgaria, Open Society Foundations, Opera, Organized crime, Ottoman Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire, Outsourcing, Ovcha kupel, Pan-European Corridor IV, Pan-European Corridor VIII, Pan-European Corridor X, Pan-European corridors, Pancharevo, Paris, Particulates, Party of Bulgarian Social Democrats, PBC Academic, Pennsylvania State University, People's Republic of Bulgaria, Perlovska, Pernik, PFC CSKA Sofia, PFC Slavia Sofia, Philip II of Macedon, Pittsburgh, Plovdiv, Poduyane, Poland, Prague, Primate city, Protestantism in Bulgaria, Provinces of Bulgaria, Public bathing, Public buses in Sofia, Quantum optics, Rainbow, Red Army, Reformist Bloc, Religio licita, Renaissance, Renaissance Revival architecture, Republic of Macedonia, Republic of Ragusa, Rococo, Roman Catholic Diocese of Sofia and Plovdiv, Roman Dacia, Romani people, Romani people in Bulgaria, Romania, Romanian Land Forces, Romaniote Jews, Romanization of Bulgarian, Rumelia, Ruse, Bulgaria, Russia, Russian Church, Sofia, Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878), Saint Petersburg, Saint Sofia Church, Sofia, Salalah, Samuel of Bulgaria, Sanitary sewer, Sanjak of Sofia, SAP SE, Sardinian people, Süleyman Hüsnü Paşa, Second Balkan War, Second Bulgarian Empire, Sephardi Jews, Serbo-Croatian, Serdi, Serdica Peak, Serdika, Shanghai, Sheraton Hotels and Resorts, Shopi, Shopping mall, Shumen, Sidon, Siege of Serdica (809), Siemens, Singidunum, Sister city, Skopje, Slatina, Sofia, Slavic languages, Slovakia, Sofia Airport, Sofia Capital Municipality, Sofia Central Mineral Baths, Sofia Central Station, Sofia City Province, Sofia Metro, Sofia Province, Sofia Public Transport, Sofia 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The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
The administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire were administrative divisions of the state organisation of the Ottoman Empire.
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.
Albrecht Dürer (21 May 1471 – 6 April 1528)Müller, Peter O. (1993) Substantiv-Derivation in Den Schriften Albrecht Dürers, Walter de Gruyter.
The St. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral (Храм-паметник "Свети Александър Невски", Hram-pametnik "Sveti Aleksandar Nevski") is a Bulgarian Orthodox cathedral in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria.
Alexander Joseph (Александър I Батенберг; 5 April 185723 October 1893), known as Alexander of Battenberg, was the first prince (knyaz) of modern Bulgaria from 1879 until his abdication in 1886.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.
The Alternative for Bulgarian Revival (Алтернатива за българско възраждане, АБВ; Alternativa za balgarsko vazrazhdane) is a centre-left political party in Bulgaria.
The American College of Sofia (Американски колеж в София, Amerikanski kolezh v Sofiya; abbreviated as ACS) is among the top and most prestigious secondary schools in Bulgaria and the Balkans, based in the capital city of Sofia.
Amman (عمّان) is the capital and most populous city of Jordan, and the country's economic, political and cultural centre.
An amphitheatre or amphitheater is an open-air venue used for entertainment, performances, and sports.
The Amphitheatre of Serdica (AMPHITEATRUM SERDICENSE; Амфитеатър на Сердика, Amfiteatar na Serdika) was an amphitheatre in the Ancient Roman city of Ulpia Serdica, now Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Ankara (English; Turkish Ottoman Turkish Engürü), formerly known as Ancyra (Ἄγκυρα, Ankyra, "anchor") and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
Arena Armeets is a multi-purpose indoor arena located in Sofia, Bulgaria.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
The Ashanti Empire (also spelled Asante) was an Akan empire and kingdom in what is now modern-day Ghana from 1670 to 1957.
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.
Attack (Атака) is a Bulgarian nationalist party, founded by Volen Siderov in 2005, who was at the time presenter of the homonymous TV Show "Attack" on SKAT TV.
François Auguste René Rodin (12 November 1840 – 17 November 1917), known as Auguste Rodin, was a French sculptor.
Aurelian (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus Augustus; 9 September 214 or 215September or October 275) was Roman Emperor from 270 to 275.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
The Balkan mountain range (Bulgarian and Стара планина, Latin Serbian Stara planina, "Old Mountain") is a mountain range in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
Ballet is a type of performance dance that originated during the Italian Renaissance in the 15th century and later developed into a concert dance form in France and Russia.
Bankya (Банкя) is a small town located on the outskirts of Sofia in western Bulgaria.
Banya Bashi Mosque (Баня баши джамия, Banya bashi dzhamiya; Banya Başı Camii) is a mosque in Sofia, Bulgaria, built by the architect and civil engineer Mimar Sinan.
The Baroque Revival, also known as Neo-Baroque (or Second Empire architecture in France), was an architectural style of the late 19th century.
A basilica is a type of building, usually a church, that is typically rectangular with a central nave and aisles, usually with a slightly raised platform and an apse at one or both ends.
Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
The Battle of Sofia (Битката при София) was the culmination of Russian General Iosif Gurko's Western Squad for the defeat of the Orkhanie army in the Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878).
A bedestan (variants: bezistan, bezisten, bedesten) is a covered market usually for haberdashery and craftsmanship.
The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 in a population in a year or period.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
The Bulgarian capital of Sofia suffered a series of Allied bombing raids during World War II, from late 1943 to early 1944.
Borisova gradina or Knyaz-Borisova gradina (Борисова градина or Княз-Борисова градина, translated as Boris' Garden or Knyaz Boris' Garden) is the oldest and best known park in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria.
A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms botanic and botanical and garden or gardens are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word botanic is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens.
Boyana (Бояна) is a neighbourhood of the Bulgarian capital of Sofia, part of Vitosha municipality and situated 8 km south of the city centre, in the outskirts of Vitosha.
The Boyana Church (Боянска църква, Boyanska tsărkva) is a medieval Bulgarian Orthodox church situated on the outskirts of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria, in the Boyana quarter.
Boyko Metodiev Borisov (Бойко Методиев Борисов,; born 13 June 1959) is a Bulgarian politician who has been serving as the 50th Prime Minister of Bulgaria since 4 May 2017.
Bratislava (Preßburg or Pressburg, Pozsony) is the capital of Slovakia.
The British Council is a British organisation specialising in international cultural and educational opportunities.
Brutalist architecture flourished from 1951 to 1975, having descended from the modernist architectural movement of the early 20th century.
bTV is the first private national-wide broadcasting television channel in Bulgaria.
Bucharest (București) is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre.
Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Bulgaria Air (България Ер) is the flag carrier airline of Bulgaria, with its headquarters at Sofia Airport in Sofia.
Bulgaria for Citizens Movement (Движение „България на гражданите“, Dvizhenie „Bulgariya na grazhdanite“; Movement 'Bulgaria of the Citizens') is a political party in Bulgaria, founded by former European Commissioner and National Movement for Stability and Progress member Meglena Kuneva on July 1, 2012.
The Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (abbreviated BAS, in Bulgarian: Българска академия на науките, Balgarska akademiya na naukite, abbreviated БАН) is the National Academy of Bulgaria, established in 1869.
The Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP; Bulgarian: Българска Комунистическа Партия, Bâlgarska Komunisticheska Partiya (БКП)) was the Communist and Marxist-Leninist ruling party of the People's Republic of Bulgaria from 1946 until 1989 when the country ceased to be a communist state.
The Bulgarian mafia (мутри, mutri) is a series of organized crime elements originating from Bulgaria.
The Bulgarian National Bank (Българска народна банка, Balgarska narodna banka) is the central bank of the Republic of Bulgaria with its headquarters in Sofia.
Bulgarian National Television (Българска национална телевизия, Bŭlgarska natsionalna televiziya) or BNT (БНТ) is the public broadcaster of Bulgaria.
The Bulgarian Socialist Party (Българска социалистическа партия, БСП; Bulgarska sotsialisticheska partiya, BSP), known as the Centenarian (Столетницата, Stoletnitsata), is a social-democratic political party in Bulgaria and the successor to the Bulgarian Communist Party.
The Bulgarian Stock Exchange – Sofia (Българска фондова борса - София, Balgarska fondova borsa - Sofia, abbreviated BSE - Sofia) is a stock exchange operating in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria.
Bulgarian Turks (български турци, Bǎlgarski Turci, Bulgaristan Türkleri) are a Turkish ethnic group from Bulgaria.
Bulgarian Volleyball Federation (Bulgarian: Българска Федерация по Волейбол, Bŭlgarska Federatsiya po Voleĭbol) is the governing body of volleyball in Bulgaria.
The Bulgarian–Ottoman wars were fought between the kingdoms remaining from the disintegrating Second Bulgarian Empire, and the Ottoman Empire, in the second half of the 14th century.
Bulgarians (българи, Bǎlgari) are a South Slavic ethnic group who are native to Bulgaria and its neighboring regions.
Business Park Sofia (BPS) is the largest office park in Central and Eastern Europe and the first of its kind in Bulgaria.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
Capital Fort Business Center is a Class A office building in Sofia.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Catholic Church is the fourth largest religious congregation in Bulgaria, after Eastern Orthodoxy, Islam and Protestantism.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
The Central Sofia Market Hall (Централни софийски хали, Tsentralni sofiyski hali), known popularly simply as The Market Hall (Халите, Halite) is a covered market in the centre of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria, located on Marie Louise Boulevard.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
The Church of St George (Ротонда „Свети Георги“ Rotonda "Sveti Georgi") is an Early Christian red brick rotunda that is considered the oldest building in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria.
A city is a large human settlement.
A city council, town council, town board, or board of aldermen is the legislative body that governs a city, town, municipality, or local government area.
The City Garden (Градска градина, Gradska gradina) is Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria's oldest and most central public garden, in existence since 1872.
The Coalition for Bulgaria (Коалиция за България, Koalitsiya za Bulgaria, KB, or BSP for Bulgaria in 2017) is a leftist electoral alliance in Bulgaria, led by the Bulgarian Socialist Party.
Cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) is the use of a heat engine or power station to generate electricity and useful heat at the same time.
The collège-lycée Jacques-Decour is a school in Paris on the avenue Trudaine.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
The Cometopuli dynasty (Династия на комитопулите; Byzantine Greek: Κομητόπουλοι) was the last royal dynasty in the First Bulgarian Empire, ruling from ca.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
A Communist state (sometimes referred to as workers' state) is a state that is administered and governed by a single party, guided by Marxist–Leninist philosophy, with the aim of achieving communism.
Conan the Barbarian is a 2011 American sword and sorcery film based on the character of the same name created by Robert E. Howard.
Confucius Institute is a non-profit public educational organization affiliated with the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, whose aim is to promote Chinese language and culture, support local Chinese teaching internationally, and facilitate cultural exchanges.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
The Constitutional Court of Bulgaria is in charge of reviewing the constitutionality of laws and statutes brought before it, as well as the compliance of these laws with international treaties that the Government has signed.
Contract killing is a form of murder in which one party hires another party to kill a target individual or group of people.
Copyright is a legal right, existing globally in many countries, that basically grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine and decide whether, and under what conditions, this original work may be used by others.
The Council of Serdica, or Synod of Serdica (also Sardica), was a synod convened in 343 at Serdica in the civil diocese of Dacia, by Roman dominate Emperors Constans I, augustus in the West, and Constantius II, augustus in the East.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
The Crusade of Varna was an unsuccessful military campaign mounted by several European monarchs to check the expansion of the Ottoman Empire into Central Europe, specifically the Balkans between 1443 and 1444.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
A crypt (from Latin crypta "vault") is a stone chamber beneath the floor of a church or other building.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
Dacia Aureliana was a province in the eastern half of the Roman Empire established by Roman Emperor Aurelian in the territory of former Moesia Superior after his evacuation of Dacia Traiana beyond the Danube in 271.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
Democrats for a Strong Bulgaria (Демократи за силна България, Demokrati za silna Bălgarija, ДСБ, DSB) is a political party in Bulgaria established by former Bulgarian Prime Minister Ivan Kostov (1997–2001).
Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244–3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.
Sofia is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria.
Divorce, also known as dissolution of marriage, is the termination of a marriage or marital union, the canceling or reorganizing of the legal duties and responsibilities of marriage, thus dissolving the bonds of matrimony between a married couple under the rule of law of the particular country or state.
The Doctors' Garden (Докторска градина, Doktorska gradina) is a park in the Bulgarian capital Sofia between the Oborishte and Shipka streets.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
Dubrovnik (historically Ragusa) is a Croatian city on the Adriatic Sea.
Duke University is a private, non-profit, research university located in Durham, North Carolina.
The Dutch Golden Age (Gouden Eeuw) was a period in the history of the Netherlands, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, military, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world.
The Earth and Man National Museum (Национален музей „Земята и хората“, romanized Natsionalen muzey „Zemyata i horata“) is a mineralogical museum in the centre of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria.
Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+02:00 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.
The Edict of Milan (Edictum Mediolanense) was the February 313 AD agreement to treat Christians benevolently within the Roman Empire.
The Edict of Serdica, also called Edict of Toleration by Galerius, was issued in 311 in Serdica (today Sofia, Bulgaria) by the Roman emperor Galerius, officially ending the Diocletianic persecution of Christianity in the East.
Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy.
Elin Pelin (Елин Пелин) (8 July 1877 – 3 December 1949), born Dimitar Ivanov Stoyanov (Димитър Иванов Стоянов) is arguably considered Bulgaria’s best narrator of country life.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The 1957 FIBA European Championship, commonly called FIBA EuroBasket 1957, was the tenth FIBA EuroBasket regional basketball championship, held by FIBA Europe.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
Eyalets (ایالت,, English: State), also known as beylerbeyliks or pashaliks, were a primary administrative division of the Ottoman Empire.
The Fatherland Front (OF) (Отечествен фронт, ОФ) was originally a Bulgarian political resistance movement during World War II.
Lokomotiv 1929 (Локомотив 1929) is a Bulgarian professional football club in Sofia, which competes in the Second League, the second tier of Bulgarian football.
The First Bulgarian Empire (Old Bulgarian: ц︢рьство бл︢гарское, ts'rstvo bl'garskoe) was a medieval Bulgarian state that existed in southeastern Europe between the 7th and 11th centuries AD.
The FIVB Volleyball World League was an annual international men's volleyball competition.
Forbes is an American business magazine.
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.
In law, fraud is deliberate deception to secure unfair or unlawful gain, or to deprive a victim of a legal right.
Friedrich Grünanger (25 January 1856 – 14 December 1929) was a Transylvanian Hungarian-German architect who worked primarily in Bulgaria.
Galerius (Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus Augustus; c. 250 – April or May 311) was Roman Emperor from 305 to 311.
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.
Georgi Dimitrov Mikhaylov (Гео̀рги Димитро̀в Миха̀йлов), also known as Georgi Mikhaylovich Dimitrov (Гео́ргий Миха́йлович Дими́тров; 18 June 1882 – 2 July 1949), was a Bulgarian communist politician.
The Georgi Dimitrov Mausoleum (мавзолей на Георги Димитров) was a ceremonial tomb on Prince Alexander of Battenberg Square in Sofia, Bulgaria, from 1949 to 1999.
The Georgi Rakovski Military Academy (Военна академия „Георги Стойков Раковски“), based in Sofia, is Bulgaria's oldest military institution of higher education.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Georgians or Kartvelians (tr) are a nation and Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia.
GERB (ГЕРБ, Граждани за европейско развитие на България, "Citizens for European Development of Bulgaria") is a conservative Bulgarian political party established on 13 March 2006.
Ghena Dimitrova (Гeна Димитpова) (6 May 1941 – 11 June 2005) was a Bulgarian operatic soprano.
The Goethe-Institut (GI, "Goethe Institute") is a non-profit German cultural association operational worldwide with 159 institutes, promoting the study of the German language abroad and encouraging international cultural exchange and relations.
Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible.
Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic or neo-Gothic) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
A green belt or greenbelt is a policy and land use designation used in land use planning to retain areas of largely undeveloped, wild, or agricultural land surrounding or neighbouring urban areas.
Hachette is a French publisher.
A hajduk is a type of peasant irregular infantry found in Central and Southeast Europe from the early 17th to mid 19th centuries.
A heat-only boiler station generates thermal energy in the form of hot water for use in district heating applications.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
The Hewlett-Packard Company (commonly referred to as HP) or shortened to Hewlett-Packard was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California.
A high-rise building is a tall building, as opposed to a low-rise building and is defined by its height differently in various jurisdictions.
Higher education (also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education) is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education.
Jews have had a continuous presence in historic Bulgarian lands since before the 2nd century CE, and have often played an important part in the history of Bulgaria.
Hitman is a 2007 French-American-British action-thriller film directed by Xavier Gens and based on the video game series of the same name.
A hot spring is a spring produced by the emergence of geothermally heated groundwater that rises from the Earth's crust.
Hotel Rodina is a high-rise four-star hotel located in the centre of Sofia, Bulgaria.
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.
The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe, between the 4th and 6th century AD.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
Ice skating is the act of motion by wearer of the ice skates to propel the participant across a sheet of ice.
Ihtiman (Ихтиман) is a town in western Bulgaria, part of Sofia Province.
Ilinden (Илинден) is a district of Sofia, located in the western parts of the city.
The Illyrians (Ἰλλυριοί, Illyrioi; Illyrii or Illyri) were a group of Indo-European tribes in antiquity, who inhabited part of the western Balkans.
IMAX is a system of high-resolution cameras, film formats and film projectors.
The Imperial Russian Army (Ру́сская импера́торская а́рмия) was the land armed force of the Russian Empire, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917.
The IMRO – Bulgarian National Movement or IMRO-BNM (ВМРО – Българско Национално Движение, VMRO – Bulgarsko Natsionalno Dvizhenie) is a nationalist political party in Bulgaria that was founded in 1991.
Infant mortality refers to deaths of young children, typically those less than one year of age.
Institutions are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior".
The Cervantes Institute is a worldwide non-profit organization created by the Spanish government in 1991.
The International Olympic Committee (IOC; French: Comité International Olympique, CIO) is a Swiss private non-governmental organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, which is the authority responsible for the modern Olympic Games.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
Count Iosif Vladimirovich Romeyko-Gurko (Ио́сиф Влади́мирович Роме́йко-Гурко́; —), also known as Joseph or Ossip Gourko, was a prominent Russian field marshal during the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878).
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
The Iskar (Искър; Oescus) is a right tributary of the Danube.
Iskar (Искър) is a district located in the eastern parts of Sofia.
Islam in Bulgaria is a minority religion and the largest religion in the country after Christianity.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Ivan Asen I, also known as Asen I or John Asen I (Иван Асен I) was emperor (or tsar) of Bulgaria from 1187 or 1188 to 1196 as the co-ruler of his elder brother, Peter II.
Ivan Shishman (Иван Шишман) ruled as emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria in Tarnovo from 1371 to 3 June 1395.
The Ivan Vazov National Theatre (Народен театър „Иван Вазов“, Naroden teatar „Ivan Vazov“) is Bulgaria's national theatre, as well as the oldest and most authoritative theatre in the country and one of the important landmarks of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria.
Izgrev (Изгрев, meaning "Sunrise") is one of the 24 districts of Sofia.
Jama Masjid (جَامع مَسجد|Jāma‘ Masjid, also spelt Jame Mosque, Jami Masjid, Jameh Mosque, Jamia Masjid, or Jomeh Mosque) refers to the main mosque of a town, city or village, and is usually the place of gathering for Eid prayers and Friday prayers.
Jean-Baptiste Greuze (21 August 1725 – 4 March 1805) was a French painter of portraits, genre scenes, and history painting.
John I Tzimiskes (Iōánnēs I Tzimiskēs; c. 925 – 10 January 976) was the senior Byzantine Emperor from 11 December 969 to 10 January 976.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.
Kahramanmaraş is a city in the Mediterranean Region, Turkey and the administrative center of Kahramanmaraş Province.
Karlovac (is a city and municipality in central Croatia. According to the National census held in 2011 population of the settlement of Karlovac was 55,705. Karlovac is the administrative centre of Karlovac County. The city is located on the Zagreb-Rijeka highway and railway line, south-west of Zagreb and from Rijeka.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
The Kingdom of Bulgaria (Царство България, Tsarstvo Bǎlgariya), also referred to as the Tsardom of Bulgaria and the Third Bulgarian Tsardom, was a constitutional monarchy in Eastern and Southeastern Europe, which was established on 5 October (O.S. 22 September) 1908 when the Bulgarian state was raised from a principality to a kingdom.
Krasna Polyana (Красна поляна) is a district in the western parts of Sofia.
Krasno selo (Красно село) is a district and neighbourhood of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria, located in the western part of the city.
Kremikovtsi (Кремиковци) is an industrial district of Sofia, Bulgaria.
Krum (Крум, Κρούμος/Kroumos) was the Khan of Bulgaria from sometime after 796 but before 803 until his death in 814.
The Largo (Ларго, definite form Ларгото, Largoto) is an architectural ensemble of three Socialist Classicism edifices in central Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria, designed and built in the 1950s with the intention of becoming the city's new representative centre.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
Lenin's Mausoleum (formerly Lenin's & Stalin's Mausoleum (1953-1961)) (p), also known as Lenin's Tomb, situated in Red Square in the centre of Moscow, is a mausoleum that currently serves as the resting place of Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin.
Levski Sofia is a sports club from Sofia, Bulgaria, founded in 1914.
Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.
This is a list of the origins of the names of provinces of Bulgaria.
This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire (or the Eastern Roman Empire), to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD.
This is a list of Christian temples within the city limits of Sofia - the Bulgarian capital city.
This is a complete list of all cities and towns in Bulgaria sorted by population.
This is a list of countries by incarceration rate.
This is a chronological list of mayors of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria, since that post was established after the Liberation of Bulgaria in 1878.
This is a list of present-day cities by the time period over which they have been continuously inhabited.
This is a list of shopping malls in Bulgaria. Currently 32 malls are active in the country.
This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.
This list of tallest buildings in Sofia ranks buildings in the Bulgarian capital city Sofia by height.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
Livingston Island (Russian name Smolensk) is an Antarctic island in the South Shetland Islands, Western Antarctica lying between Greenwich Island and Snow Islands.
Lokomotiv Stadium (Стадион „Локомотив“) is a multi-purpose stadium, located in Sofia, Bulgaria.
Lozenets is a district and residential area located in the southern parts of Sofia, Bulgaria.
In economics, a luxury good (or upmarket good) is a good for which demand increases more than proportionally as income rises, and is a contrast to a "necessity good", where demand increases proportionally less than income.
Lyulin (Люлин, pronounced) is the largest residential complex in the capital of Bulgaria - Sofia.
Macedonia is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan peninsula in southeastern Europe.
Macedonian (македонски, tr. makedonski) is a South Slavic language spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in the Republic of Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.
Magdalena Georgieva Maleeva (Магдалена Георгиева Малеева) (born 1 April 1975) is a Bulgarian former professional tennis player.
Mall of Sofia is a shopping centre in the centre of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria.
Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation.
Marin Stoyanov Drinov (Марин Стоянов Дринов, known in Russia as Марин Степанович Дринов) (1838 – 13 March 1906) was a Bulgarian historian and philologist from the National Revival period who lived and worked in Russia through most of his life.
Maritime transport is the transport of people (passengers) or goods (cargo) by water.
Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock, is a socially or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity (in-laws and other family through marriage).
Marshrutka (Russian: маршру́тка), from marshrutne taksi routed taxicab, is a form of public transportation such as a share taxi for the countries of CIS, the Baltic states, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Armenia, and Georgia.
The Medical University, Sofia (Медицински университет в София) is a university in Sofia, Bulgaria which was founded in 1917 and is organized in four faculties.
The military history of Bulgaria during World War II encompasses an initial period of neutrality until 1 March 1941, a period of alliance with the Axis Powers until 9 September 1944 (on 8 September, the Red Army entered Bulgaria) and a period of alignment with the Allies in the final year of the war.
Mladost (Младост, meaning "Youth") is a district of Sofia.
Mode of transport is a term used to distinguish substantially different ways to perform.
The moment magnitude scale (MMS; denoted as Mw or M) is one of many seismic magnitude scales used to measure the size of earthquakes.
The Monument to the Tsar Liberator (Паметник на Цар Освободител, Pametnik na Tsar Osvoboditel) is an equestrian monument in the centre of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria.
Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
A mountain pass is a navigable route through a mountain range or over a ridge.
Abu Abdullah Muhammad al-Idrisi al-Qurtubi al-Hasani as-Sabti, or simply al-Idrisi (أبو عبد الله محمد الإدريسي القرطبي الحسني السبتي; Dreses; 1100 – 1165), was an Arab Muslim geographer, cartographer and Egyptologist who lived in Palermo, Sicily at the court of King Roger II.
A multinational corporation (MNC) or worldwide enterprise is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Nadezhda (Надежда, meaning "Hope") is a district located it the north-western parts of Sofia with an area of 19,300 decares.
The National Academy of Arts (Национална художествена академия; abbreviated НХА, NAA) is an institution of higher education in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria.
The National Archaeological Museum (Национален археологически музей, Natsionalen arheologicheski muzey) is an archaeological museum in the centre of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria.
The National Art Gallery (Национална художествена галерия, Natsionalna hudozhestvena galeriya) is Bulgaria's national gallery and houses over 50,000 pieces of Bulgarian art.
The National Assembly (Народно събрание, Narodno sabranie) is the unicameral parliament and body of the legislative of Bulgaria.
The National Gallery for Foreign Art (Национална галерия за чуждестранно изкуство, Natsionalna galeriya za chuzhdestranno izkustvo) of Bulgaria was a gallery located on St.
The National Historical Museum (Национален исторически музей, Natsionalen istoricheski muzey) in Sofia is Bulgaria's largest museum.
The National Military History Museum (Национален военноисторически музей, Natsionalen voennoistoricheski muzey) is a museum dedicated to military history in Sofia, Bulgaria.
The National Museum of Natural History (Национален природонаучен музей, Natsionalen prirodonauchen muzey; abbreviated НПМ, NMNHS) of Bulgaria is a museum of natural history located in Sofia, the capital of the country on "Tzar Osvoboditel" str.
The National Opera and Ballet (Национална опера и балет) is a national cultural institution in Bulgaria that covers opera and ballet.
The National Palace of Culture (Национален дворец на културата, Natsionalen dvorets na kulturata; abbreviated as НДК, NDK), located in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria, is the largest, multifunctional conference and exhibition centre in south-eastern Europe.
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes.
The National Polytechnical Museum (Национален политехнически музей) is a science museum located in Sofia, Bulgaria.
The Vassil Levski National Sports Academy (NSA; Национална Спортна Академия "Васил Левски") is Bulgaria's premiere higher education institution specializing in teaching physical education, physical therapy, and coaching.
The National Statistical Institute or NSI (Национален статистически институт or НСИ) is the Bulgarian state agency responsible for the collection and dissemination of statistical data on the population, economy and environment of the country.
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
Nedelya Petkova (Неделя Петкова) (1826 - 1894) was a Bulgarian education pioneer.
Neoclassicism (from Greek νέος nèos, "new" and Latin classicus, "of the highest rank") is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of classical antiquity.
The komes ("count") Nicholas Никола was a local ruler in Bulgaria, probably of Armenian origin, and progenitor of the Cometopuli ("the sons of the count") dynasty.
Nicolai Ghiaurov (or Nikolai Gjaurov, Nikolay Gyaurov, Николай Гяуров) (September 13, 1929 – June 2, 2004) was a Bulgarian opera singer and one of the most famous basses of the postwar period.
The Nilufer or Niloufer River (Nilüfer Çayı) is a river in Turkey.
Nitrogen oxide may refer to a binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or a mixture of such compounds.
NOVA is the first Bulgarian commercial local television network launched on July 16, 1994.
Novi Iskar (Нови Искър) is a town in Western Bulgaria, located in Sofia City Province, which is a part of the Municipality of Sofia (the capital of Bulgaria).
Nu Boyana Film Studios (Ню Бояна Филм) are film studios situated in Sofia, Bulgaria.
Nu Image is an American film company started by Avi Lerner, Trevor Short, Danny Dimbort and Danny Lerner in 1992.
Numbeo is a crowd-sourced global database of reported consumer prices, perceived crime rates, quality of health care, among other statistics.
Oborishte (Оборище) is an urban district located in the centre of the Bulgarian capital Sofia.
Odeon is a cinema brand name operating in the United Kingdom, Ireland and Norway, which along with UCI Cinemas and Nordic Cinema Group is part of the Odeon Cinemas Group subsidiary of AMC Theatres.
The Odrysian Kingdom (Ancient Greek: Βασίλειον Ὀδρυσῶν; Regnum Odrysium) was a state union of over 40 Thracian tribes and 22 kingdoms that existed between the 5th century BC and the 1st century AD.
Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.
Omurtag (or Omortag) (Омуртаг; original ΜορτάγωνTheophanes Continuatus, p.64 and George Kedrenos and Ομουρτάγ, Inscription No.64. Retrieved 10 April 2012.) was a Great Khan (Kanasubigi) of Bulgaria from 814 to 831.
Open Society Foundations (OSF), formerly the Open Society Institute, is an international grantmaking network founded by business magnate George Soros.
Opera (English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere) is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers.
Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals who intend to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for money and profit.
The history of Ottoman Bulgaria spans nearly 500 years, from the conquest by the Ottoman Empire of the smaller kingdoms emerging from the disintegrating Second Bulgarian Empire in the late 14th century, to the Liberation of Bulgaria in 1878.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
In business, outsourcing is an agreement in which one company contracts its own internal activity to a different company.
Ovcha Kupel (Овча Купел) is a district located in the south-western parts of Sofia.
The Corridor IV is one of the Pan-European transport corridors.
The Corridor VIII is one of the Pan-European corridors.
The Corridor X is one of the pan-European corridors.
The ten Pan-European transport corridors were defined at the second Pan-European transport Conference in Crete, March 1994, as routes in Central and Eastern Europe that required major investment over the next ten to fifteen years.
Pancharevo (Панчарево) is a resort village and district located on the outskirts of Sofia close to Vitosha, Lozenska and Plana mountains and occupies the southeastern part of the Capital Municipality.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Atmospheric aerosol particles, also known as atmospheric particulate matter, particulate matter (PM), particulates, or suspended particulate matter (SPM) are microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in Earth's atmosphere.
The Party of Bulgarian Social Democrats (партия Български социалдемократи, Partiya Balgarski Sotsialdemokrati, PBSD) is a social-democratic political party in Bulgaria.
PBC Academic (ПБК "Академик") is a Bulgarian professional basketball club based in the capital Sofia.
The Pennsylvania State University (commonly referred to as Penn State or PSU) is a state-related, land-grant, doctoral university with campuses and facilities throughout Pennsylvania.
The People's Republic of Bulgaria (PRB; Народна република България (НРБ) Narodna republika Bǎlgariya (NRB)) was the official name of Bulgaria when it was a socialist republic.
The Perlovska (Перловска река) is a small river in the Sofia Valley in western Bulgaria.
Pernik (Перник) is a city in western Bulgaria (about south-west of Sofia) with a population of 80,191.
CSKA (ЦСКА) is a Bulgarian professional association football club based in Sofia and currently competing in the country's premier football competition, the First League.
PFC Slavia Sofia (ПФК Славия София) is a Bulgarian professional association football club based in Sofia, which currently competes in the top tier of the Bulgarian football league system, the First League.
Philip II of Macedon (Φίλιππος Β΄ ὁ Μακεδών; 382–336 BC) was the king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon from until his assassination in.
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, and is the county seat of Allegheny County.
Plovdiv (Пловдив) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria, with a city population of 341,000 and 675,000 in the greater metropolitan area.
Poduyane (Подуяне) or Poduene (Подуене) is a residential complex and a district of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria with 85,996 inhabitants.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
A primate city (Latin: "prime, first rank") is the largest city in its country or region, disproportionately larger than any others in the urban hierarchy.
Protestantism is the third largest religious grouping in Bulgaria after Eastern Orthodoxy and Islam.
The provinces of Bulgaria (области на България Oblasti na Bǎlgarija) are the first level administrative subdivisions of the country.
Public baths originated from a communal need for cleanliness at a time when most people did not have access to private bathing facilities.
The Sofia public bus system (София Автобусен транспорт) forms part of the public transport network of Sofia, the capital city of Bulgaria.
Quantum optics (QO) is a field of research that uses semi-classical and quantum-mechanical physics to investigate phenomena involving light and its interactions with matter at submicroscopic levels.
A rainbow is a meteorological phenomenon that is caused by reflection, refraction and dispersion of light in water droplets resulting in a spectrum of light appearing in the sky.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The Reformist Bloc (Bulgarian: Реформаторски блок) is a centre-right electoral alliance in Bulgaria.
Religio licita ("permitted religion," also translated as "approved religion") is a phrase used in the Apologeticum of Tertullian to describe the special status of the Jews in the Roman Empire.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Renaissance Revival (sometimes referred to as "Neo-Renaissance") is a broad designation that covers many 19th century architectural revival styles which were neither Grecian (see Greek Revival) nor Gothic (see Gothic Revival) but which instead drew inspiration from a wide range of classicizing Italian modes.
Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Republic of Ragusa was a maritime republic centered on the city of Dubrovnik (Ragusa in Italian, German and Latin; Raguse in French) in Dalmatia (today in southernmost Croatia) that carried that name from 1358 until 1808.
Rococo, less commonly roccoco, or "Late Baroque", was an exuberantly decorative 18th-century European style which was the final expression of the baroque movement.
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Sofia and Plovdiv is a Roman Catholic diocese of the Latin Rite, Catholic-Hierarchy.org.
Roman Dacia (also Dacia Traiana "Trajan Dacia" or Dacia Felix "Fertile/Happy Dacia") was a province of the Roman Empire from 106 to 274–275 AD.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
Romani people (tsiɡɐni, роми) in Bulgaria constitute one of the country's largest ethnic minorities.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
The Romanian Land Forces (Forțele Terestre Române) is the army of Romania, and the main component of the Romanian Armed Forces.
The Romaniote Jews or Romaniots (Ῥωμανιῶτες, Rhōmaniṓtes; רומניוטים, Romanyotim) are an ethnic Jewish community with distinctive cultural features who have lived in the Eastern Mediterranean for more than 2,000 years and are the oldest Jewish community in the Levant.
Romanization of Bulgarian is the practice of transliteration of text in Bulgarian from its conventional Cyrillic orthography into the Latin alphabet.
Rumelia (روم ايلى, Rūm-ėli; Rumeli), also known as Turkey in Europe, was a historical term describing the area in southeastern Europe that was administered by the Ottoman Empire, mainly the Balkan Peninsula.
Ruse (also transliterated as Rousse, Russe or Rusçuk; Русе) is the fifth largest city in Bulgaria.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Church (translit), officially known as the Church of St Nicholas the Miracle-Maker (translit), is a Russian Orthodox church in central Sofia, Bulgaria, situated on Tsar Osvoboditel Boulevard.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 (lit, named for the year 1293 in the Islamic calendar; Руско-турска Освободителна война, Russian-Turkish Liberation war) was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
The Saint Sofia Church (църква „Света София“, tsyrkva „Sveta Sofia“) is the second oldest church in the Bulgarian capital Sofia, dating to the 4th-6th century.
Salalah (صلالة transliterated Ṣalālah), is the capital and largest city of the southern Omani governorate of Dhofar.
Samuel (also Samuil, representing Bulgarian Самуил, pronounced, Old Church Slavonic) was the Tsar (Emperor) of the First Bulgarian Empire from 997 to 6 October 1014.
A sanitary sewer or "foul sewer" is an underground carriage system specifically for transporting sewage from houses and commercial buildings through pipes to treatment facilities or disposal.
The Sanjak of Sofia (Sofia Sancağı, Софийски санджак) was one of the sanjaks of the Ottoman Empire which county town was Sofia.
SAP SE (Systeme, Anwendungen und Produkte in der Datenverarbeitung, "Systems, Applications & Products in Data Processing") is a German-based European multinational software corporation that makes enterprise software to manage business operations and customer relations.
The Sardinians, or also the Sards (Sardos or Sardus; Italian and Sassarese: Sardi; Catalan: Sards or Sardos; Gallurese: Saldi; Ligurian: Sordi), are the native people and ethnic group from which Sardinia, a western Mediterranean island and autonomous region of Italy, derives its name.
Süleyman Hüsnü Pasha (Süleyman Hüsnü Paşa; 1838–1892) was an Ottoman military commander.
The Second Balkan War was a conflict which broke out when Bulgaria, dissatisfied with its share of the spoils of the First Balkan War, attacked its former allies, Serbia and Greece, on 16 (O.S.) / 29 (N.S.) June 1913.
The Second Bulgarian Empire (Второ българско царство, Vtorо Bălgarskо Tsarstvo) was a medieval Bulgarian state that existed between 1185 and 1396.
Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also Ye'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division.
Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
The Serdi were a Celtic tribe inhabiting Thrace.
Serdica Peak (Vrah Serdica \'vr&h 'ser-di-ka\) rises to approximately 1,200m in Levski Ridge, Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica.
Serdica (Сердика) is a district located in the center of the capital Sofia.
Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.
Sheraton Hotels and Resorts is an international hotel chain owned by Marriott International.
Shopi, (South Slavic languages: Шопи, Šopi) is a regional term, used by a group of people in the Balkans, self-identifying as Bulgarians, Macedonians and Serbs.
A shopping mall is a modern, chiefly North American, term for a form of shopping precinct or shopping center, in which one or more buildings form a complex of shops representing merchandisers with interconnecting walkways that enable customers to walk from unit to unit.
Shumen (also spelled Shoumen, Šumen or Shumla Шумен) is the tenth largest city in Bulgaria and the administrative and economic capital of Shumen Province.
Sidon (صيدا, صيدون,; French: Saida; Phoenician: 𐤑𐤃𐤍, Ṣīdūn; Biblical Hebrew:, Ṣīḏōn; Σιδών), translated to 'fishery' or 'fishing-town', is the third-largest city in Lebanon.
The Siege of Serdica (Обсадата на Сердика) took place in the spring of 809 at modern Sofia, Bulgaria.
Siemens AG is a German conglomerate company headquartered in Berlin and Munich and the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe with branch offices abroad.
Singidunum (Сингидунум/Singidunum, from Celtic *Sindi-dūn-) is the name for the ancient city which evolved into Belgrade, the capital of Serbia.
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
Skopje (Скопје) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Macedonia.
Slatina (Слатина) is a district located in the eastern parts of the capital Sofia.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
Sofia Airport (Летище София, Letishte Sofiya) is the main international airport of Bulgaria located east from the centre of the capital city Sofia.
Sofia Capital Municipality (Столична община, Stolichna obshtina - Capital Municipality) is a obshtina (municipality) in Sofia City Province, Western Bulgaria.
The Central Mineral Baths (Централна минерална баня, Tsentralna mineralna banya) is a landmark in the centre of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria, a city known for the mineral springs in the area.
The Central Railway Station Sofia (Централна железопътна гара София, Tsentralna zhelezopatna gara Sofiya) is the main passenger railway station of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria, as well as the largest railway station of the country.
Sofia City Province (Област София-град, Oblast Sofiya-grad) is a province (oblast) of Bulgaria.
The Sofia Metro (Софийски метрополитен, translit. Sofiyski metropoliten, also colloquially called Софийско метро, translit. Sofiyskо metro) is the rapid transit network servicing the Bulgarian capital city Sofia.
Sofia Province (Софийска област, Sofiyska oblast) is a province (oblast) of Bulgaria.
Sofia Public Transport Company operates surface transit in the city.
The University of Sofia "St.
The Sofia Valley (Sofiyska kotlovina or Софийско поле, Sofiysko pole) is a valley in central western Bulgaria, bordering Stara Planina to the northeast, the Viskyar, Lyulin, Vitosha and Lozen mountains to the southwest, the Vakarel Mountain to the southeast and the low Slivnitsa Heights to the northwest.
Founded in 1969, Software AG is an enterprise software company with over 10,000 enterprise customers in over 70 countries.
Sophia (wisdom) is a central idea in Hellenistic philosophy and religion, Platonism, Gnosticism, and Christian theology.
The South Shetland Islands are a group of Antarctic islands, lying about north of the Antarctic Peninsula, with a total area of.
The South Slavic languages are one of three branches of the Slavic languages.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Space Research and Technology Institute (Институт за космически изследвания и технологии) of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences is one of the primary research bodies in the field of space science in Bulgaria.
Spartacus is a 2004 North American miniseries directed by Robert Dornhelm and produced by Ted Kurdyla from a teleplay by Robert Schenkkan.
A spring is any natural situation where water flows from an aquifer to the Earth's surface.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
Sredets (Средец) is a district located in the very centre of the capital Sofia.
The St Nedelya Church assault was a terrorist attack on St Nedelya Church in Sofia, Bulgaria.
Stalinist architecture, also referred to as Stalinist Empire style or Socialist Classicism, is a term given to architecture of the Soviet Union under the leadership of Joseph Stalin, between 1933, when Boris Iofan's draft for Palace of the Soviets was officially approved, and 1955, when Nikita Khrushchev condemned "excesses" of the past decades and disbanded the Soviet Academy of Architecture.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
The Statue of Sveta Sofia (English: The Statue of Saint Sophia; Bulgarian: Статуя на Света София; Transliteration: Statuya na Sveta Sofiya) is a monumental sculpture in Sofia, Bulgaria.
In Sofia, Bulgaria, there are many stray dogs (Bulgarian: безстопанствени кучета, romanized to bezstoˈpanstveni ˈkucheta or unowned dogs. Also called, colloquially,бездомни кучета, bezˈdomni ˈkucheta, or homeless dogs, or улични кучета, ˈulichni ˈkucheta, or street dogs).
Studentski grad (Студентски град, "Students' town/city") is the student campus area for most universities in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria, and also one of the 24 districts of Sofia.
A supreme court is the highest court within the hierarchy of courts in many legal jurisdictions.
Sviatoslav I Igorevich (Old East Slavic: С~тославъ / Свѧтославъ Игорєвичь, Sventoslavŭ / Svantoslavŭ Igorevičǐ; Old Norse: Sveinald Ingvarsson) (c. 942 – 26 March 972), also spelled Svyatoslav was a Grand prince of Kiev famous for his persistent campaigns in the east and south, which precipitated the collapse of two great powers of Eastern Europe, Khazaria and the First Bulgarian Empire.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
A taxicab, also known as a taxi or a cab, is a type of vehicle for hire with a driver, used by a single passenger or small group of passengers, often for a non-shared ride.
Taxidermy is the preserving of an animal's body via stuffing and mounting for the purpose of display or study.
Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
The Technical University (Технически университет), based in Sofia, is the largest technical university in Bulgaria.
Tel Aviv (תֵּל אָבִיב,, تل أَبيب) is the second most populous city in Israel – after Jerusalem – and the most populous city in the conurbation of Gush Dan, Israel's largest metropolitan area.
Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.
A tennis court is the venue where the sport of tennis is played.
The term "tetrarchy" (from the τετραρχία, tetrarchia, "leadership of four ") describes any form of government where power is divided among four individuals, but in modern usage usually refers to the system instituted by Roman Emperor Diocletian in 293, marking the end of the Crisis of the Third Century and the recovery of the Roman Empire.
The Black Dahlia is a 2006 French-American neo-noir crime thriller film directed by Brian De Palma and written by Josh Friedman.
The Contract is a 2006 German-American film directed by Bruce Beresford and written by television writer Stephen Katz and John Darrouzet.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Expendables 2 is a 2012 American action film directed by Simon West, written by Richard Wenk and Sylvester Stallone and based on a story by Ken Kaufman, David Agosto and Wenk.
The Greens (Зелените, Zelenite) are a green Bulgarian political party founded in 2008.
In common usage, theft is the taking of another person's property or services without that person's permission or consent with the intent to deprive the rightful owner of it.
In building design, thermal mass is a property of the mass of a building which enables it to store heat, providing "inertia" against temperature fluctuations.
Thrace (Modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakiya; Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.
The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times in Southeast Europe by the Thracians, the northern neighbors of the Ancient Greeks.
The Thracians (Θρᾷκες Thrāikes; Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Eastern and Southeastern Europe.
A thunderstorm, also known as an electrical storm, lightning storm, or thundershower, is a storm characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustic effect on the Earth's atmosphere, known as thunder.
Tilataei ("Τιλαταίοι") is the name of a Thracian tribe that was located in Serdica.
Toplofikatsiya Sofia (Топлофикация София, literally "District Heating Sofia") is the district heating company in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria.
Torlakian, or Torlak (Torlački/Торлачки,; Торлашки, Torlashki), is a group of South Slavic dialects of southeastern Serbia, southern Kosovo (Prizren), northeastern Republic of Macedonia (Kumanovo, Kratovo and Kriva Palanka dialects), western Bulgaria (Belogradchik–Godech–Tran-Breznik), which is intermediate between Serbian, Bulgarian and Macedonian.
Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.
Traffic congestion is a condition on transport networks that occurs as use increases, and is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased vehicular queueing.
Trajan (Imperator Caesar Nerva Trajanus Divi Nervae filius Augustus; 18 September 538August 117 AD) was Roman emperor from 98 to 117AD.
The Sofia tram network is a main public transportation facility in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria.
Triaditsa (Триадица) is a district located in the southern parts of Sofia.
The Sofia trolleybus system (Тролейбусен транспорт София) forms part of the public transport network of Sofia, the capital city of Bulgaria.
Trud (Труд, Labor), is the largest-circulation Bulgarian daily newspaper.
Tsarigradsko shose (Цариградско шосе, Tsarigradsko shosé, literally meaning Tsarigrad (Istanbul) Chaussée (Road)) is the largest boulevard in the capital of Bulgaria, Sofia.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
A Turkish bath (hamam, translit) is a type of public bathing associated with the culture of the Ottoman Empire and more widely the Islamic world.
Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.
In architecture, a turret (from Italian: torretta, little tower; Latin: turris, tower) is a small tower that projects vertically from the wall of a building such as a medieval castle.
TZUM-Sofia (ЦУМ, abbreviated from Централен универсален магазин, Tsentralen universalen magazin, Central Department Store) is an upmarket department store in the centre of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria, officially opened in 1957 and situated in a monumental edifice (part of The Largo complex) on one of the city's main boulevards.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The gens Ulpia was a Roman family that rose to prominence during the first century AD.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The Union of Democratic Forces (Съюз на демократичните сили, Sayuz na demokratichnite sili, СДС, SDS) is a political party in Bulgaria, founded in 1989 as a union of several political organizations in opposition to the communist government.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.
The University of Architecture, Civil Engineering and Geodesy is located in Sofia, Bulgaria.
The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
The University of National and World Economy (Университет за национално и световно стопанство) is a university in Sofia, Bulgaria.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
Vandalism is an "action involving deliberate destruction of or damage to public or private property".
Varna (Варна, Varna) is the third-largest city in Bulgaria and the largest city and seaside resort on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast.
Vasil Levski (Васил Левски, originally spelled Василъ Лѣвскій, pronounced), born Vasil Ivanov Kunchev (Васил Иванов Кунчев; 18 July 1837 – 18 February 1873), was a Bulgarian revolutionary and is a national hero of Bulgaria today.
Vasil Levski National Stadium (Национален стадион „Васил Левски“), named after Bulgarian national hero and revolutionary Vasil Levski, is the country's second largest stadium.
Vazrazhdane (Възраждане) is a district in the centre of Sofia.
A vehicle registration plate, also known as a number plate (British English) or a license plate (American English), is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes.
The modern Veliki Preslav or Great Preslav (Велики Преслав), former Preslav (until 1993), is a city and the seat of government of the Veliki Preslav Municipality (Great Preslav Municipality, new Bulgarian: obshtina), which in turn is part of Shumen Province.
A velodrome is an arena for track cycling.
Via Militaris or Via Diagonalis was an ancient Roman road, starting from Singidunum (today the Serbian capital Belgrade), passing by Danube coast to Viminacium (mod. Požarevac), through Naissus (mod. Niš), Serdica (mod. Sofia), Philippopolis (mod. Plovdiv), Adrianopolis (mod. Edirne in Turkish Thrace), and reaching Constantinople (mod. Istanbul).
The Vienna Secession (Wiener Secession; also known as the Union of Austrian Artists, or Vereinigung Bildender Künstler Österreichs) was an art movement formed in 1897 by a group of Austrian artists who had resigned from the Association of Austrian Artists, housed in the Vienna Künstlerhaus.
Viktor Rumpelmayer (7 November 1830 – 14 June 1885, Vienna) was a 19th-century Austro-Hungarian architect, whose style was a combination of French and Italian influences and the Viennese trends characteristic for the period.
Vittorio "Vito" Positano, (2 October 1833 – 26 November 1886) was an Italian diplomat known for saving the Bulgarian capital city of Sofia from burning during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878.
Vitosha (Витоша), the ancient Scomius or Scombrus, is a mountain massif, on the outskirts of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria.
Vitosha Boulevard (булевард "Витоша", often called just "Витошка", Vitoshka) is the main commercial street in the centre of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria, which is abundant in posh stores, restaurants and bars.
Vitosha Metro Station (Метростанция „Витоша“) is a station on the Sofia Metro in Bulgaria, named after Vitosha mountain.
Vitosha (Витоша) is one of the 24 districts of Sofia, situated in the southern parts of the City on the foot of the Vitosha mountain.
Georgi Asparuhov (Виваком Арена - Георги Аспарухов), also known as Gerena (Герена, meaning "the flood plain"), is a multi-purpose stadium situated in the Suhata reka neighbourhood of the Bulgarian capital Sofia.
The Vladayska (Владайска река, Vladayska reka) is a river in western Bulgaria, a tributary of the Perlovska.
Vrabnitsa (Връбница) is a district of Sofia, located in the western part of the Sofia municipality.
Wall Street is an eight-block-long street running roughly northwest to southeast from Broadway to South Street, at the East River, in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan in New York City.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities commercial organisations, community endeavors or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes.
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
Władysław III (31 October 1424 – 10 November 1444), also known as Władysław of Varna, was King of Poland from 1434, and King of Hungary and Croatia from 1440, until his death at the Battle of Varna.
A widow is a woman whose spouse has died and a widower is a man whose spouse has died.
The Winter Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'hiver) is a major international sporting event held once every four years for sports practised on snow and ice.
The Winter Sports Palace is an ice hockey arena in Sofia, Bulgaria.
The Women's Tennis Association (WTA), founded in 1973 by Billie Jean King, is the principal organising body of women's professional tennis.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
Yerevan (Երևան, sometimes spelled Erevan) is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.
Yordanka Asenova Fandakova (Йорданка Асенова Фандъкова) is a Bulgarian politician and Mayor of Sofia.
Yugozapaden Planning Region (Southwest Planning Region) is a planning region in Bulgaria.
The 1961 Summer Universiade, also known as the II Summer Universiade, was an international sporting event for university students that took place in Sofia, Bulgaria.
The 1977 Summer Universiade, also known as the IX Summer Universiade, took place in Sofia, Bulgaria.
The 1983 Winter Universiade, the XI Winter Universiade, took place in Sofia, Bulgaria.
The 1989 Winter Universiade, the XIV Winter Universiade, took place in Sofia, Bulgaria.
The 2012 Pernik earthquake was a 5.6 Mw magnitude earthquake, which struck 24 km (15 miles) west of Bulgaria's capital Sofia and 9 km (6 miles) north-northwest of the provincial center Pernik on at 3:00 am local time (00:00 UTC) at a depth of.
The 2014 Aegean Sea earthquake occurred in the northern Aegean Sea between Greece and Turkey on May 24.
The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially called the XXII Olympic Winter Games (Les XXIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) (r) and commonly known as Sochi 2014, was an international winter multi-sport event that was held from 7 to 23 February 2014 in Sochi, Krasnodar Krai, Russia, with opening rounds in certain events held on the eve of the opening ceremony, 6 February 2014.
24 Chasa (24 часа, translated as 24 Hours) is one of the newspapers published in Sofia, Bulgaria.
Capital of Bulgaria, City of Sofia, Crime in Sofia, Geography of Sofia, Sofia City, Sofia city, Sofia, Bulgaria, Sofija, Sofiya, Sofía, Búlgaria, Sophia, Bulgaria, UN/LOCODE:BGSOF, София, Софија, Софія.