158 relations: Abstract interpretation, Access control, Ada Lovelace, Agile software development, Analytical Engine, Anti-pattern, Application programming interface, Ariane 5, Arithmetic underflow, Automobile safety, Baffle Ball, Binary-coded decimal, Black hat, Boeing CH-47 Chinook, Bottleneck (engineering), Bounds checking, Buffer overflow, Bug bounty program, Bug tracking system, Charles Babbage, Cluster (spacecraft), Code review, Combinatorial explosion, Commodity, Communication protocol, Compiler, Computer History Museum, Computer program, Computer programming, Computer Weekly, Control Alt Delete (film), Crash (computing), Critical section, Dahlgren, Virginia, Data type, Deadlock, Debugger, Debugging, Defensive programming, Don't repeat yourself, Elias Levy, Ellen Ullman, Embedded system, Eric S. Raymond, European Space Agency, FADEC, Failure, Fault (technology), Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test, Formal specification, ..., Future US, Gary Kildall, Glitch, Glitch removal, Goddard Space Flight Center, Grace Hopper, HAL 9000, Halting problem, Handle leak, Hang (computing), Harvard Mark II, Harvard Mark III, Heisenbug, House of Lords, Human spaceflight, Hyphen, I, Robot, Ice cutting, Infinite loop, Input/output, Integer overflow, Isaac Asimov, ISO/IEC 9126, Issue tracking system, Java (programming language), Linus's Law, List of Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? top prize winners, Logic error, Louise Dickinson Rich, Maurice Wilkes, MediaWiki, Memory leak, Modular programming, Moth, Mull of Kintyre, Mutual exclusion, Namespace, National Institute of Standards and Technology, National Museum of American History, Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division, Next Generation (magazine), Nondeterministic algorithm, Null pointer, Numerical stability, Off-by-one error, Office Space, Open-source software, Operating system, Operator (mathematics), Orthogonal Defect Classification, Oxford English Dictionary, Pascal (programming language), Patch (computing), Picador (imprint), Pinball, Pointer (computer programming), Preventive maintenance, Privilege escalation, Programming language, Programming style, Race condition, Racetrack problem, Radiation therapy, Read-only memory, Recursion (computer science), Rendering (computer graphics), Ripple effect, RISKS Digest, Robert A. Heinlein, Rounding, Scripting language, Security bug, Segmentation fault, Significant figures, Simon Rogerson, Software architecture, Software defect indicator, Software engineering, Software regression, Software rot, Software system, Software testing, Software versioning, Source code, Source lines of code, Stack overflow, Static program analysis, Storage violation, Test-driven development, The Cathedral and the Bazaar, The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress, Therac-25, Thomas Edison, Time of check to time of use, Type system, Uncertainty principle, Uninitialized variable, Unit testing, United States Department of Commerce, Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?, Workaround, World War II, Year 2000 problem, 1994 Scotland RAF Chinook crash, 2001: A Space Odyssey (film), 2001: A Space Odyssey (novel), 2010: Odyssey Two, 2010: The Year We Make Contact. Expand index (108 more) » « Shrink index
In computer science, abstract interpretation is a theory of sound approximation of the semantics of computer programs, based on monotonic functions over ordered sets, especially lattices.
In the fields of physical security and information security, access control (AC) is the selective restriction of access to a place or other resource.
Augusta Ada King-Noel, Countess of Lovelace (née Byron; 10 December 1815 – 27 November 1852) was an English mathematician and writer, chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage's proposed mechanical general-purpose computer, the Analytical Engine.
Agile software development describes an approach to software development under which requirements and solutions evolve through the collaborative effort of self-organizing and cross-functional teams and their customer(s)/end user(s).
The Analytical Engine was a proposed mechanical general-purpose computer designed by English mathematician and computer pioneer Charles Babbage.
An anti-pattern is a common response to a recurring problem that is usually ineffective and risks being highly counterproductive.
In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building software.
Ariane 5 is a European heavy-lift launch vehicle that is part of the Ariane rocket family, an expendable launch system used to deliver payloads into geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) or low Earth orbit (LEO).
The term arithmetic underflow (or "floating point underflow", or just "underflow") is a condition in a computer program where the result of a calculation is a number of smaller absolute value than the computer can actually represent in memory on its CPU.
Automobile safety is the study and practice of design, construction, equipment and regulation to minimize the occurrence and consequences of traffic collisions.
Baffle Ball is a pinball machine created in 1931 by David Gottlieb, founder of the Gottlieb amusement company.
In computing and electronic systems, binary-coded decimal (BCD) is a class of binary encodings of decimal numbers where each decimal digit is represented by a fixed number of bits, usually four or eight.
A black hat hacker (or black-hat hacker) is a hacker who "violates computer security for little reason beyond maliciousness or for personal gain".
The Boeing CH-47 Chinook is an American twin-engine, tandem-rotor, heavy-lift helicopter developed by American rotorcraft company Vertol and manufactured by Boeing Vertol (later known as Boeing Rotorcraft Systems).
In engineering, a bottleneck is a phenomenon by which the performance or capacity of an entire system is severely limited by a single component.
In computer programming, bounds checking is any method of detecting whether a variable is within some bounds before it is used.
In information security and programming, a buffer overflow, or buffer overrun, is an anomaly where a program, while writing data to a buffer, overruns the buffer's boundary and overwrites adjacent memory locations.
A bug bounty program is a deal offered by many websites and software developers by which individuals can receive recognition and compensation for reporting bugs, especially those pertaining to exploits and vulnerabilities.
A bug tracking system or defect tracking system is a software application that keeps track of reported software bugs in software development projects.
Charles Babbage (26 December 1791 – 18 October 1871) was an English polymath.
Cluster was a constellation of four European Space Agency spacecraft which were launched on the maiden flight of the Ariane 5 rocket, Flight 501, and subsequently lost when that rocket failed to achieve orbit.
Code review is systematic examination (sometimes referred to as peer review) of computer source code.
In mathematics, a combinatorial explosion is the rapid growth of the complexity of a problem due to how the combinatorics of the problem is affected by the input, constraints, and bounds of the problem.
In economics, a commodity is an economic good or service that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.
In telecommunication, a communication protocol is a system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity.
A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language).
The Computer History Museum (CHM) is a museum established in 1996 in Mountain View, California, US.
A computer program is a collection of instructions for performing a specific task that is designed to solve a specific class of problems.
Computer programming is the process of building and designing an executable computer program for accomplishing a specific computing task.
Computer Weekly is a digital magazine and website for IT professionals in the United Kingdom.
Control Alt Delete is a 2008 comedy film.
In computing, a crash (or system crash) occurs when a computer program, such as a software application or an operating system, stops functioning properly and exits.
In concurrent programming, concurrent accesses to shared resources can lead to unexpected or erroneous behavior, so parts of the program where the shared resource is accessed are protected.
Dahlgren is a census-designated place (CDP) in King George County, Virginia, United States.
In computer science and computer programming, a data type or simply type is a classification of data which tells the compiler or interpreter how the programmer intends to use the data.
In concurrent computing, a deadlock is a state in which each member of a group is waiting for some other member to take action, such as sending a message or more commonly releasing a lock.
A debugger or debugging tool is a computer program that is used to test and debug other programs (the "target" program).
Debugging is the process of finding and resolving defects or problems within a computer program that prevent correct operation of computer software or a system.
Defensive programming is a form of defensive design intended to ensure the continuing function of a piece of software under unforeseen circumstances.
In software engineering, don't repeat yourself (DRY) is a principle of software development aimed at reducing repetition of software patterns, replacing it with abstractions, or repetition of the same data, using data normalization to avoid redundancy.
Elias Levy (also known as Aleph One) was the moderator of "Bugtraq", a full disclosure vulnerability mailing list, from May 14, 1996 until October 15, 2001.
Ellen Ullman is an American computer programmer and author.
An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.
Eric Steven Raymond (born December 4, 1957), often referred to as ESR, is an American software developer, author of the widely cited 1997 essay and 1999 book The Cathedral and the Bazaar and other works, and open-source software advocate.
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
A full authority digital engine (or electronics) control (FADEC) is a system consisting of a digital computer, called an "electronic engine controller" (EEC) or "engine control unit" (ECU), and its related accessories that control all aspects of aircraft engine performance.
Failure is the state or condition of not meeting a desirable or intended objective, and may be viewed as the opposite of success.
In document ISO 10303-226, a fault is defined as an abnormal condition or defect at the component, equipment, or sub-system level which may lead to a failure.
The Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test, or the FCAT/FCAT 2.0, was the standardized test used in the primary and secondary public schools of Florida.
In computer science, formal specifications are mathematically based techniques whose purpose are to help with the implementation of systems and software.
Future US, Inc. (formerly known as Imagine Media and The Future Network USA) is an American media corporation specializing in targeted magazines and websites in the video games, music, and technology markets.
Gary Arlen Kildall (May 19, 1942 – July 11, 1994) was an American computer scientist and microcomputer entrepreneur who created the CP/M operating system and founded Digital Research, Inc. (DRI).
A glitch is a short-lived fault in a system, such as a transient fault that corrects itself, making it difficult to troubleshoot.
Glitch removal is the elimination of glitchesunnecessary signal transitions without functionalityfrom electronic circuits.
The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is a major NASA space research laboratory located approximately northeast of Washington, D.C. in Greenbelt, Maryland, United States.
Grace Brewster Murray Hopper (December 9, 1906 – January 1, 1992) was an American computer scientist and United States Navy rear admiral.
HAL 9000 is a fictional character and the main antagonist in Arthur C. Clarke's Space Odyssey series.
In computability theory, the halting problem is the problem of determining, from a description of an arbitrary computer program and an input, whether the program will finish running (i.e., halt) or continue to run forever.
A handle leak is a type of software bug that occurs when a computer program asks for a handle to a resource but does not free the handle when it is no longer used.
In computing, a hang or freeze occurs when either a computer program or system ceases to respond to inputs.
The Harvard Mark II, also known as Aiken Relay Calculator, was an electromechanical computer built under the direction of Howard Aiken and was finished in 1947.
The Harvard Mark III, also known as ADEC (for Aiken Dahlgren Electronic Calculator) was an early computer that was partially electronic and partially electromechanical.
In computer programming jargon, a heisenbug is a software bug that seems to disappear or alter its behavior when one attempts to study it.
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Human spaceflight (also referred to as crewed spaceflight or manned spaceflight) is space travel with a crew or passengers aboard the spacecraft.
The hyphen (‐) is a punctuation mark used to join words and to separate syllables of a single word.
I, Robot is a fixup of science fiction short stories or essays by American writer Isaac Asimov.
Ice cutting is a winter task of collecting surface ice from lakes and rivers for storage in ice houses and use or sale as a cooling method.
An infinite loop (or endless loop) is a sequence of instructions in a computer program which loops endlessly, either due to the loop having no terminating condition, having one that can never be met, or one that causes the loop to start over.
In computing, input/output or I/O (or, informally, io or IO) is the communication between an information processing system, such as a computer, and the outside world, possibly a human or another information processing system.
In computer programming, an integer overflow occurs when an arithmetic operation attempts to create a numeric value that is outside of the range that can be represented with a given number of bits – either larger than the maximum or lower than the minimum representable value.
Isaac Asimov (January 2, 1920 – April 6, 1992) was an American writer and professor of biochemistry at Boston University.
ISO/IEC 9126 Software engineering — Product quality was an international standard for the evaluation of software quality.
An issue tracking system (also ITS, trouble ticket system, support ticket, request management or incident ticket system) is a computer software package that manages and maintains lists of issues, as needed by an organization.
Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
Linus's Law is a claim about software development, named in honor of Linus Torvalds and formulated by Eric S. Raymond in his essay and book The Cathedral and the Bazaar (1999).
Below is a list of the winners of the top prize for each international versions of Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?.
In computer programming, a logic error is a bug in a program that causes it to operate incorrectly, but not to terminate abnormally (or crash).
Louise Dickinson Rich (14 June 1903 – 9 April 1991) was a writer known for fiction and non-fiction works about the New England region of the United States, particularly Massachusetts and Maine.
Sir Maurice Vincent Wilkes (26 June 1913 – 29 November 2010) was a British computer scientist who designed and helped build the electronic delay storage automatic calculator (EDSAC), one of the earliest stored program computers and invented microprogramming, a method for using stored-program logic to operate the control unit of a central processing unit's circuits.
MediaWiki is a free and open-source wiki software.
In computer science, a memory leak is a type of resource leak that occurs when a computer program incorrectly manages memory allocations in such a way that memory which is no longer needed is not released.
Modular programming is a software design technique that emphasizes separating the functionality of a programme into independent, interchangeable modules, such that each contains everything necessary to execute only one aspect of the desired functionality.
Moths comprise a group of insects related to butterflies, belonging to the order Lepidoptera.
The Mull of Kintyre is the southwesternmost tip of the Kintyre Peninsula (formerly Cantyre) in southwest Scotland.
In computer science, mutual exclusion is a property of concurrency control, which is instituted for the purpose of preventing race conditions; it is the requirement that one thread of execution never enter its critical section at the same time that another concurrent thread of execution enters its own critical section.
In computing, a namespace is a set of symbols that are used to organize objects of various kinds, so that these objects may be referred to by name.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.
The National Museum of American History: Kenneth E. Behring Center collects, preserves, and displays the heritage of the United States in the areas of social, political, cultural, scientific, and military history.
The United States Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division (NSWCDD), named for Rear Admiral John A. Dahlgren, is located in Dahlgren, Virginia, with a geographically separated command, Combat Direction Systems Activity Dam Neck (CDSADN), located in Virginia Beach, VA, in close proximity to the largest fleet concentration area in the Navy.
Next Generation (also known as NextGen) was a video game magazine that was published by Imagine Media (now Future Network USA).
In computer science, a nondeterministic algorithm is an algorithm that, even for the same input, can exhibit different behaviors on different runs, as opposed to a deterministic algorithm.
In computing, a null pointer has a value reserved for indicating that the pointer does not refer to a valid object.
In the mathematical subfield of numerical analysis, numerical stability is a generally desirable property of numerical algorithms.
An off-by-one error (OBOE), also commonly known as an OBOB (off-by-one bug), or OB1 error is a logic error involving the discrete equivalent of a boundary condition.
Office Space is a 1999 American comedy film written and directed by Mike Judge.
Open-source software (OSS) is a type of computer software whose source code is released under a license in which the copyright holder grants users the rights to study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
In mathematics, an operator is generally a mapping that acts on the elements of a space to produce other elements of the same space.
Orthogonal Defect Classification (ODC) turns semantic information in the software defect stream into a measurement on the process.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, which Niklaus Wirth designed in 1968–69 and published in 1970, as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring. It is named in honor of the French mathematician, philosopher and physicist Blaise Pascal. Pascal was developed on the pattern of the ALGOL 60 language. Wirth had already developed several improvements to this language as part of the ALGOL X proposals, but these were not accepted and Pascal was developed separately and released in 1970. A derivative known as Object Pascal designed for object-oriented programming was developed in 1985; this was used by Apple Computer and Borland in the late 1980s and later developed into Delphi on the Microsoft Windows platform. Extensions to the Pascal concepts led to the Pascal-like languages Modula-2 and Oberon.
A patch is a set of changes to a computer program or its supporting data designed to update, fix, or improve it.
Picador is an imprint of Pan Macmillan in the United Kingdom and Australia and of Macmillan Publishing in the United States.
Pinball is a type of arcade game, in which points are scored by a player manipulating one or more steel balls on a play field inside a glass-covered cabinet called a pinball table (or "pinball machine").
In computer science, a pointer is a programming language object that stores the memory address of another value located in computer memory.
Preventive maintenance or preventative maintenance (PM) has the following meanings.
Privilege escalation is the act of exploiting a bug, design flaw or configuration oversight in an operating system or software application to gain elevated access to resources that are normally protected from an application or user.
A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.
Programming style is a set of rules or guidelines used when writing the source code for a computer program.
A race condition or race hazard is the behavior of an electronics, software, or other system where the output is dependent on the sequence or timing of other uncontrollable events.
A racetrack problem is a specific instance of a type of race condition.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
Read-only memory (ROM) is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices.
Recursion in computer science is a method of solving a problem where the solution depends on solutions to smaller instances of the same problem (as opposed to iteration).
Rendering or image synthesis is the automatic process of generating a photorealistic or non-photorealistic image from a 2D or 3D model (or models in what collectively could be called a scene file) by means of computer programs.
A ripple effect is a situation in which, like ripples expanding across the water when an object is dropped into it, an effect from an initial state can be followed outwards incrementally.
The RISKS Digest or Forum On Risks to the Public in Computers and Related Systems is an online periodical published since 1985 by the Committee on Computers and Public Policy of the Association for Computing Machinery.
Robert Anson Heinlein (See also the biography at the end of For Us, the Living, 2004 edition, p. 261. July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was an American science-fiction writer.
Rounding a numerical value means replacing it by another value that is approximately equal but has a shorter, simpler, or more explicit representation; for example, replacing $ with $, or the fraction 312/937 with 1/3, or the expression with.
A scripting or script language is a programming language that supports scripts: programs written for a special run-time environment that automate the execution of tasks that could alternatively be executed one-by-one by a human operator.
A security bug or security defect is a software bug that can be exploited to gain unauthorized access or privileges on a computer system.
In computing, a segmentation fault (often shortened to segfault) or access violation is a fault, or failure condition, raised by hardware with memory protection, notifying an operating system (OS) the software has attempted to access a restricted area of memory (a memory access violation).
The significant figures (also known as the significant digits) of a number are digits that carry meaning contributing to its measurement resolution.
Simon Rogerson is lifetime Professor Emeritus in Computer Ethics at the Centre for Computing and Social Responsibility (CCSR), De Montfort University.
Software architecture refers to the high level structures of a software system, the discipline of creating such structures, and the documentation of these structures.
A Software Defect Indicator is a pattern that can be found in source code that is strongly correlated with a software defect, an error or omission in the source code of a computer program that may cause it to malfunction.
Software engineering is the application of engineering to the development of software in a systematic method.
A software regression is a software bug that makes a feature stop functioning as intended after a certain event (for example, a system upgrade, system patching or a change to daylight saving time).
Software rot, also known as code rot, bit rot, software erosion, software decay or software entropy is either a slow deterioration of software performance over time or its diminishing responsiveness that will eventually lead to software becoming faulty, unusable, or otherwise called "legacy" and in need of upgrade.
A software system is a system on intercommunicating components based on software forming part of a computer system (a combination of hardware and software).
Software testing is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the software product or service under test.
Software versioning is the process of assigning either unique version names or unique version numbers to unique states of computer software.
In computing, source code is any collection of code, possibly with comments, written using a human-readable programming language, usually as plain text.
Source lines of code (SLOC), also known as lines of code (LOC), is a software metric used to measure the size of a computer program by counting the number of lines in the text of the program's source code.
In software, a stack overflow occurs if the call stack pointer exceeds the stack bound.
Static program analysis is the analysis of computer software that is performed without actually executing programs.
In computing a storage violation is a hardware or software fault that occurs when a task attempts to access an area of computer storage which it is not permitted to access.
Test-driven development (TDD) is a software development process that relies on the repetition of a very short development cycle: requirements are turned into very specific test cases, then the software is improved to pass the new tests, only.
The Cathedral and the Bazaar: Musings on Linux and Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary (abbreviated CatB) is an essay, and later a book, by Eric S. Raymond on software engineering methods, based on his observations of the Linux kernel development process and his experiences managing an open source project, fetchmail.
The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress is a 1966 science-fiction novel by American writer Robert A. Heinlein, about a lunar colony's revolt against rule from Earth.
The Therac-25 was a radiation therapy machine produced by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) in 1982 after the Therac-6 and Therac-20 units (the earlier units had been produced in partnership with CGR of France).
Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman, who has been described as America's greatest inventor.
In software development, time of check to time of use (TOCTTOU or TOCTOU, pronounced "tock too") is a class of software bugs caused by changes in a system between the checking of a condition (such as a security credential) and the use of the results of that check.
In programming languages, a type system is a set of rules that assigns a property called type to the various constructs of a computer program, such as variables, expressions, functions or modules.
In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle (also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle) is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known.
In computing, an uninitialized variable is a variable that is declared but is not set to a definite known value before it is used.
In computer programming, unit testing is a software testing method by which individual units of source code, sets of one or more computer program modules together with associated control data, usage procedures, and operating procedures, are tested to determine whether they are fit for use.
The United States Department of Commerce is the Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with promoting economic growth.
Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? (abbreviated WWTBAM and informally known as simply Millionaire) is an international television game show franchise of British origin, created by David Briggs, Mike Whitehill and Steven Knight.
A workaround is a bypass of a recognized problem or limitation in a system.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Year 2000 problem, also known as the Y2K problem, the Millennium bug, the Y2K bug, or Y2K, is a class of computer bugs related to the formatting and storage of calendar data for dates beginning in the year 2000.
The 1994 Mull of Kintyre RAF Chinook crash occurred on 2 June 1994 at about 18:00 hours when a Royal Air Force (RAF) Chinook helicopter (serial number ZD576, callsign F4J40) crashed on the Mull of Kintyre, Scotland.
2001: A Space Odyssey is a 1968 epic science fiction film produced and directed by Stanley Kubrick.
2001: A Space Odyssey is a 1968 science fiction novel by British writer Arthur C. Clarke.
2010: Odyssey Two is a 1982 science fiction novel by British writer Arthur C. Clarke.
2010, often styled with its promotional tagline 2010: The Year We Make Contact, is a 1984 science fiction film written, produced and directed by Peter Hyams.
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