694 relations: Abiotic component, Absorption (chemistry), Academic Press, Acclimatization, Acid, Acid rain, Acid sulfate soil, Acid–base reaction, Acrisol, Actinomycetales, Adaptation, Adhesion, Adsorption, Aeolian processes, Aeration, Aggregate (composite), Aggregate (geology), Aggregate demand, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Agriculture, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Agronomy, Agronomy for Sustainable Development, Agronomy Journal, Agrophysics, Albedo, Albeluvisols, Alexander von Humboldt, Alfalfa, Alfisol, Algae, Alkali soil, Alluvium, Aluminium, Amendment, American Journal of Science, American Society for Horticultural Science, American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, American Society of Agronomy, Ammonia, Amoeba, Amphibole, Andisol, Andosol, Angus & Robertson, Annals of Botany, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Annual Reviews (publisher), Ant, Anthrosol, ..., Antoine Lavoisier, Apatite, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Aquifer, Archaea, Archean, Argonne National Laboratory, Arid, Aridisol, Assarting, Atmosphere, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric chemistry, Available water capacity, Ångström, Bacteria, Bacteriophage, Basalt, Base (chemistry), Bauxite, Bedrock, Bentonite, Biochar, Biochemical oxygen demand, Biodegradable waste, Biodiversity, Biological life cycle, Biomass, Biome, Bioremediation, BioScience, Biosphere, Biotic component, Biotite, Bioturbation, Bison, Bog, Boron, Building material, Bulk density, Bulk soil, Buoyancy, Burrow, Cadmium, Calcareous, Calcisol, Calcite, Calcium, Calcium bicarbonate, Caliche, Cambisol, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Canadian Journal of Forest Research, Canadian system of soil classification, Capillary, Capillary action, Capillary fringe, Carbon, Carbon capture and storage, Carbon cycle, Carbon dioxide, Carbon sink, Carbonate, Carbonation, Carbonic acid, Catena (soil), Cation-exchange capacity, Cellular respiration, Cellulose, Cenozoic, Centipede, Central Thailand, Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International, Chelation, Chemical compound, Chemical decomposition, Chemical polarity, Chernozem, China, Chlorine, Chlorite group, Clay, Clay minerals, Climate, Climate change, Climate Research (journal), Climatic Change (journal), Clover, Cobalt, Cohesion (geology), Coke (fuel), Colloid, Colluvium, Colorfulness, Columbia University Press, Columella, Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Concretion, Connectedness, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, Consistency, Construction, Contamination, Copper, Cornell University, CRC Press, Crop, Crop rotation, Crop yield, Crust (geology), Current Opinion (Elsevier), Curtis F. Marbut, Cyanobacteria, Daily cover, Danish Journal of Geography, Dark Ages (historiography), Darkling beetle, David R. Montgomery, Deciduous, Decomposer, Decomposition, Deforestation, Desert, Desertification, Desiccation, Desorption, Dirt, Discipline (academia), Dispersion (geology), Dissolved organic carbon, Dolomite, Drainage, Drainage system (agriculture), Drought, Duripan, Earth, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Earth Institute Center for Environmental Sustainability, Earth sheltering, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Earthworm, Ecological Economics (journal), Ecology (journal), Economic Geology (journal), Ecosystem, Ecosystem engineer, Ecosystem services, Edaphology, Electric charge, Electric current, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electrolyte, Elevation, Elsevier, Eluvium, Enchytraeidae, Energy, Enthalpy of vaporization, Entisol, Environmental flow, Environmental Pollution (journal), Environmental remediation, Environmental Science & Technology, Erosion, ETH Zurich, Eugene W. Hilgard, European Geosciences Union, Evaporation, Evapotranspiration, Factors affecting permeability of soils, Fall of the Western Roman Empire, Fat, Fatigue (material), Fauna, Feedback, Feldspar, Fertility, Fertilizer, Field capacity, Flocculation, Flood, Fluvisol, Flux, Food and Agriculture Organization, Forest Ecology and Management, Forest floor, Fractal dimension, Freezing, French Revolution, Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, Frost weathering, Fruit, Fulvic acid, Galvanic corrosion, Gastrointestinal tract, Gebruder Borntraeger Verlagsbuchhandlung, Gelisol, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Geomorphology (journal), Geophagia, Geoponic, Germination, Gleysol, Global Change Biology, Global Ecology and Biogeography, Global warming, Gondwana Research, Gopher, Gradient, Gravity, Grazing, Great Plains, Green manure, Greenhouse effect, Greenhouse gas, Groundwater pollution, Groundwater recharge, Guttation, Gypsisols, Gypsum, Halogenation, Harrison and Sons, Heat, Heat capacity, Heat flux, Hemicellulose, Hermann Hellriegel, Heterotroph, Histosol, Hornblende, Hue, Human impact on the environment, Humic acid, Humin, Humus, Hydration reaction, Hydraulic conductivity, Hydrocarbon, Hydrogen, Hydrolysis, Hydroponics, Hydrosphere, Hypha, Hypoxia (environmental), Ibn al-'Awwam, Illite, Illuvium, Immobilization (soil science), Imperial Valley, Inceptisol, Index of soil-related articles, Indiana, Infiltration (hydrology), Insect, International Soil Reference and Information Centre, International System of Units, International Water Management Institute, Invertebrate, Ion, Ion exchange, Iowa State University, Iron, Iron oxide, Irrigation, Jan Baptist van Helmont, Jean-Baptiste Boussingault, Jethro Tull (agriculturist), John Bennet Lawes, John Woodward (naturalist), Joseph Henry Gilbert, Journal of Applied Ecology, Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, Journal of Arid Environments, Journal of Ecology, Journal of Environmental Quality, Journal of Geophysical Research, Journal of Hydrology, Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Justus von Liebig, Kaolinite, Kastanozems, Köppen climate classification, Kelvin, Khon Kaen University, Konstantin Glinka, Lacustrine plain, Lake Bonneville, Land & Water Australia, Land (economics), Land degradation, Land use, Landfill, Laterite, Leaching (agriculture), Leaching (chemistry), Leaching model (soil), Lead, Leaf, Leaf area index, Legume, Leptosol, Lichen, Life, Lightness, Lightning, Lignin, Liming (soil), Lithophyte, Lithosphere, Loam, Loess, Loess Plateau, Macmillan Publishers, Macropore, Magnesium, Manganese, Mantle (geology), Manure, Martinus Beijerinck, McGraw-Hill Education, Meadows, Mean, Melting, Merrimack River, Met Office, Metabolism, Methane, Metre, Mica, Michigan, Microbial loop, Microfauna, Micrometre, Microorganism, Microporous material, Middle Ages, Millipede, Mineral, Mineralization (soil science), Mineralogy, Mite, Mixture, Mole (animal), Mole (unit), Mollisol, Molybdenum, Monkey, Monocalcium phosphate, Montmorillonite, Moraine, Mucigel, Mucilage, Mucus, Mulch, Munsell color system, Mycorrhiza, Mycorrhizal fungi and soil carbon storage, Nanotechnology (journal), National Cooperative Soil Survey, National Geographic, National Science Teachers Association, Native Americans in the United States, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Nature (journal), Nature Climate Change, Nematode, New Phytologist, Nickel, Nitrate, Nitric acid, Nitrification, Nitrogen, Nitrogen cycle, Nitrogen deficiency, Nitrogen fixation, Nitrous oxide, Northern Arizona University, Nutrient, Oecologia, Ohm, Oklahoma State University–Stillwater, Olivier de Serres, Olivine, Oregon State University, Organic acid, Organic compound, Organic matter, Orthoclase, Osmosis, Osmotic pressure, Overgrazing, Oxidation state, Oxisol, Oxygen, Ozone depletion, Paleopedological record, Parent material, Parent rock, Particle aggregation, Particle density (packed density), Particle density (particle count), PDF, Peat, Ped, Pedogenesis, Pedology, Pedosphere, Percolation, Permafrost, Permanent wilting point, Permeability (earth sciences), Perturbation (geology), Pest (organism), Pesticide, Phaeozem, Phenols, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, Phosphate, Phosphorus, Photoelectrochemical process, Photoperiodism, Photosynthesis, Physical Review Letters, Phytolith, Phytoremediation, Pinophyta, Planosol, Plant, Plant and Soil, Plant development, Plant Ecology (journal), Plant nutrition, Plant Physiology (journal), Pleistocene, PLOS One, Poaceae, Podzol, Pollutant, Polychlorinated biphenyl, Polyphenol, Populus balsamifera, Populus tremuloides, Pore space in soil, Porosity, Porous medium, Port Silt Loam, Positive feedback, Potassium, Potassium hydroxide, Prairie, Precipitation, Precipitation (chemistry), Predation, Prentice Hall, Pressure gradient, Primary production, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Progress in Physical Geography, Prokaryote, Properties of water, Protist, Protoplasm, Protozoa, Psamment, Pyroxene, Quartz, Rainforest, Ramial chipped wood, Red River of the South, Redox, Regolith, Regosol, Relief, Restoration ecology, Rhizobia, Rhizobium, Rhizosphere, Robert Warington, Roman Empire, Root, Root hair, Root nodule, Rothamsted Research, Salinity, Salt, Salt (chemistry), Salt marsh, Sand, Sapric, Saprolite, Science (journal), Scree, Sediment, Seed dormancy, Seedling, Semi-arid climate, Septic drain field, Septic tank, Sergei Winogradsky, Sesquioxide, Shrink–swell capacity, Silicate, Silicon, Silicon dioxide, Silt, Sinkhole, Slaking (geology), Slope, Slug, Snail, Sodic soil, Sodium, Soil, Soil acidification, Soil biology, Soil biomantle, Soil compaction, Soil contamination, Soil ecology, Soil fertility, Soil functions, Soil health, Soil horizon, Soil management, Soil mesofauna, Soil morphology, Soil organic matter, Soil pH, Soil Research, Soil resistivity, Soil retrogression and degradation, Soil salinity, Soil salinity control, Soil science, Soil Science Society of America, Soil structure, Soil texture, Soil water (retention), Soil zoology, Solonchak, Solonetz, Solubility, Solum, Solution, Specific surface area, Sphagnum, Springer Science+Business Media, Springtail, Starch, State of matter, Stoma, Stonelayer, Stratum, Stream bed, Stress (mechanics), Strontium, Suction, Sugar, Sulfate, Sulfur, Surface area, Surface irrigation, Surface mining, Surface runoff, Surface tension, Sustainable agriculture, Swales, Symbiosis, Taiga, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Tannin, Taproot, Tellus B, Temperature, Temperature gradient, Termite, Terra preta, Terra rossa (soil), Terrace (agriculture), Terrain, Terroir, Texas A&M University Press, The ISME Journal, The Scientific World Journal, Thermal conductivity, Thermal mass, Tile drainage, Tillage, Topography, Torrey Botanical Society, Transpiration, Trends (journals), Turgor pressure, Ultisol, Umbrisol, United Nations, United States Department of Agriculture, United States Geological Survey, United States Government Publishing Office, University of California Press, University of Maryland, College Park, University of Minnesota, USDA soil taxonomy, Vadose zone, Vanadium, Vascular plant, Vasily Dokuchaev, Vermiculite, Vertisol, Vineyard, Virginia Tech, Virus, Volatilisation, Vomiting, Washington, D.C., Waste management, Water activity, Water content, Water pollution, Water potential, Water quality, Water Resources Research, Water storage, Water table, Waterlogging (agriculture), Watertable control, Watt, Wax, Weathered, Weathering, Wetland, White spruce, Wiley-Blackwell, Wiley-VCH, Wood-decay fungus, Woodlouse, World Reference Base for Soil Resources, World Soil Museum, Xenophon, Yangtze, Yellow River, Zinc. Expand index (644 more) » « Shrink index
In biology and ecology, abiotic components or abiotic factors are non-living chemical and physical parts of the environment that affect living organisms and the functioning of ecosystems.
In chemistry, absorption is a physical or chemical phenomenon or a process in which atoms, molecules or ions enter some bulk phase – liquid or solid material.
Academic Press is an academic book publisher.
Acclimatization or acclimatisation (also called acclimation or acclimatation) is the process in which an individual organism adjusts to a change in its environment (such as a change in altitude, temperature, humidity, photoperiod, or pH), allowing it to maintain performance across a range of environmental conditions.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it has elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH).
Acid sulfate soils are naturally occurring soils, sediments or organic substrates (e.g. peat) that are formed under waterlogged conditions.
An acid–base reaction is a chemical reaction that occurs between an acid and a base, which can be used to determine pH.
An acrisol is a type of soil as classified by the Food and Agriculture Organization.
The Actinomycetales are an order of Actinobacteria.
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
Adhesion is the tendency of dissimilar particles or surfaces to cling to one another (cohesion refers to the tendency of similar or identical particles/surfaces to cling to one another).
Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions or molecules from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid to a surface.
Aeolian processes, also spelled eolian or æolian, pertain to wind activity in the study of geology and weather and specifically to the wind's ability to shape the surface of the Earth (or other planets).
Aeration (also called aerification) is the process by which air is circulated through, mixed with or dissolved in a liquid or substance.
Aggregate is the component of a composite material that resists compressive stress and provides bulk to the composite material.
In the Earth sciences, aggregrate has three possible meanings.
In macroeconomics, aggregate demand (AD) or domestic final demand (DFD) is the total demand for final goods and services in an economy at a given time.
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on the relationships between meteorology and the fields of plant, animal, and soil sciences, ecology, and biogeochemistry.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
The Department of Agriculture and Agri-Food, also referred to as Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) (Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada), is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for policies governing agriculture production, farming income, research and development, inspection, and the regulation of animals and plants.
Agronomy (Ancient Greek ἀγρός agrós 'field' + νόμος nómos 'law') is the science and technology of producing and using plants for food, fuel, fiber, and land reclamation.
Agronomy for Sustainable Development is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on the interactions between cropping systems and other activities in the context of sustainable development.
Agronomy Journal is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by American Society of Agronomy.
Agrophysics is a branch of science bordering on agronomy and physics, whose objects of study are the agroecosystem - the biological objects, biotope and biocoenosis affected by human activity, studied and described using the methods of physical sciences.
Albedo (albedo, meaning "whiteness") is the measure of the diffuse reflection of solar radiation out of the total solar radiation received by an astronomical body (e.g. a planet like Earth).
An albeluvisol in the FAO World Reference Base for Soil Resources is a soil with a thin, dark surface horizon on a bleached subsurface horizon (an albic horizon) that tongues into a clay illuviation (Bt) horizon.
Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (14 September 17696 May 1859) was a Prussian polymath, geographer, naturalist, explorer, and influential proponent of Romantic philosophy and science.
Alfalfa, Medicago sativa also called lucerne, is a perennial flowering plant in the pea family Fabaceae cultivated as an important forage crop in many countries around the world.
Alfisols are a soil order in USDA soil taxonomy.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
Alkali, or Alkaline, soils are clay soils with high pH (> 8.5), a poor soil structure and a low infiltration capacity.
Alluvium (from the Latin alluvius, from alluere, "to wash against") is loose, unconsolidated (not cemented together into a solid rock) soil or sediments, which has been eroded, reshaped by water in some form, and redeposited in a non-marine setting.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
An amendment is a formal or official change made to a law, contract, constitution, or other legal document.
The American Journal of Science (AJS) is the United States of America's longest-running scientific journal, having been published continuously since its conception in 1818 by Professor Benjamin Silliman, who edited and financed it himself.
Founded in 1903, the American Society for Horticultural Science in Alexandria, Virginia is "the largest, most visible organization dedicated to advancing all facets of horticultural research, education, and application." Its purpose is to promote the science of Horticulture.
The American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) is an international professional society devoted to agricultural and biological engineering.
The American Society of Agronomy (ASA) is a scientific and professional society of agronomists and scientists of related disciplines, principally in the United States but with a large number of non-U.S. members as well.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
An amoeba (rarely spelled amœba, US English spelled ameba; plural am(o)ebas or am(o)ebae), often called amoeboid, is a type of cell or organism which has the ability to alter its shape, primarily by extending and retracting pseudopods.
Amphibole is an important group of generally dark-colored, inosilicate minerals, forming prism or needlelike crystals, composed of double chain tetrahedra, linked at the vertices and generally containing ions of iron and/or magnesium in their structures.
In USDA soil taxonomy, andisols are soils formed in volcanic ash and defined as soils containing high proportions of glass and amorphous colloidal materials, including allophane, imogolite and ferrihydrite.
Andosols (from Japanese an meaning dark and do soil, a synonym of kuroboku) are soils found in volcanic areas formed in volcanic tephra.
Angus & Robertson (A&R) was a major Australian bookseller, book publisher and book printer.
Annals of Botany is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal, founded in 1887, that publishes research articles, brief communications, and reviews in all areas of botany.
Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences is an annual peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Annual Reviews, which broadly covers Earth and planetary sciences, including geology, atmospheric sciences, climate, geophysics, environmental science, geological hazards, geodynamics, planet formation, and solar system origins.
Annual Reviews, located in Palo Alto California, Annual Reviews is a nonprofit publisher dedicated to synthesizing and integrating knowledge for the progress of science and the benefit of society.
Ants are eusocial insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera.
An Anthrosol in the FAO World Reference Base for Soil Resources is a type of soil that has been formed or heavily modified due to long-term human activity, such as from irrigation, addition of organic waste or wet-field cultivation used to create paddy fields.
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.
Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals, usually referring to hydroxylapatite, fluorapatite and chlorapatite, with high concentrations of OH−, F− and Cl− ions, respectively, in the crystal.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Society for Microbiology.
An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt).
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
The Archean Eon (also spelled Archaean or Archæan) is one of the four geologic eons of Earth history, occurring (4 to 2.5 billion years ago).
Argonne National Laboratory is a science and engineering research national laboratory operated by the University of Chicago Argonne LLC for the United States Department of Energy located near Lemont, Illinois, outside Chicago.
A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life.
Aridisols (or desert soils) are a soil order in USA soil taxonomy.
Assarting is the act of clearing forested lands for use in agriculture or other purposes.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Atmospheric chemistry is a branch of atmospheric science in which the chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere and that of other planets is studied.
Available water capacity or available water content (AWC) is the range of available water that can be stored in soil and be available for growing crops.
The ångström or angstrom is a unit of length equal to (one ten-billionth of a metre) or 0.1 nanometre.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
A bacteriophage, also known informally as a phage, is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria and Archaea.
Basalt is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
Bauxite is a sedimentary rock with a relatively high aluminium content.
In geology, bedrock is the lithified rock that lies under a loose softer material called regolith at the surface of the Earth or other terrestrial planets.
Bentonite (/ˈbɛntənʌɪt/) is an absorbent aluminium phyllosilicate clay consisting mostly of montmorillonite.
Biochar is charcoal used as a soil amendment.
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, also called Biological Oxygen Demand) is the amount of dissolved oxygen needed (i.e. demanded) by aerobic biological organisms to break down organic material present in a given water sample at certain temperature over a specific time period.
Biodegradable waste includes any organic matter in waste which can be broken down into carbon dioxide, water, methane or simple organic molecules by micro-organisms and other living things using composting, aerobic digestion, anaerobic digestion or similar processes.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.
Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.
A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in.
Bioremediation is a process used to treat contaminated media, including water, soil and subsurface material, by altering environmental conditions to stimulate growth of microorganisms and degrade the target pollutants.
BioScience is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Institute of Biological Sciences.
The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.
Biotic components or biotic factors, can be described as any living component that affects another organism, or shapes the ecosystem.
Biotite is a common phyllosilicate mineral within the mica group, with the approximate chemical formula.
Bioturbation is defined as the reworking of soils and sediments by animals or plants.
Bison are large, even-toed ungulates in the genus Bison within the subfamily Bovinae.
A bog is a wetland that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material—often mosses, and in a majority of cases, sphagnum moss.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes.
Bulk density is a property of powders, granules, and other "divided" solids, especially used in reference to mineral components (soil, gravel), chemical substances, (pharmaceutical) ingredients, foodstuff, or any other masses of corpuscular or particulate matter.
Bulk soil is soil outside the rhizosphere.
In physics, buoyancy or upthrust, is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object.
A burrow is a hole or tunnel excavated into the ground by an animal to create a space suitable for habitation, temporary refuge, or as a byproduct of locomotion.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
Calcareous is an adjective meaning "mostly or partly composed of calcium carbonate", in other words, containing lime or being chalky.
A Calcisol in the FAO World Reference Base for Soil Resources is a soil with a substantial secondary accumulation of lime.
Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Calcium bicarbonate, also called calcium hydrogen carbonate, has a chemical formula Ca(HCO3)2.
Caliche is a sedimentary rock, a hardened natural cement of calcium carbonate that binds other materials—such as gravel, sand, clay, and silt.
A Cambisol in the FAO World Reference Base for Soil Resources is a soil with a beginning of soil formation.
The Canadian Geotechnical Journal has been published since 1963 by NRC Research Press.
The Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1963, which reports current research on all aspects of the Earth sciences.
The Canadian Journal of Forest Research is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by NRC Research Press.
The Canadian System of Soil Classification is more closely related to the American system than any other, but they differ in several ways.
A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick.
Capillary action (sometimes capillarity, capillary motion, capillary effect, or wicking) is the ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces without the assistance of, or even in opposition to, external forces like gravity.
The capillary fringe is the subsurface layer in which groundwater seeps up from a water table by capillary action to fill pores.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) (or carbon capture and sequestration or carbon control and sequestration) is the process of capturing waste carbon dioxide from large point sources, such as fossil fuel power plants, transporting it to a storage site, and depositing it where it will not enter the atmosphere, normally an underground geological formation.
The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
A carbon sink is a natural or artificial reservoir that accumulates and stores some carbon-containing chemical compound for an indefinite period.
In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of.
Carbonation refers to reactions of carbon dioxide to give carbonates, bicarbonates, and carbonic acid.
Carbonic acid is a chemical compound with the chemical formula H2CO3 (equivalently OC(OH)2).
A Catena in soil science (pedology) is a series of distinct but co-evolving soils arrayed a slope.
Cation-exchange capacity (CEC) is a measure of how many cations can be retained on soil particle surfaces.
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
The Cenozoic Era meaning "new life", is the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras, following the Mesozoic Era and, extending from 66 million years ago to the present day.
Centipedes (from Latin prefix centi-, "hundred", and pes, pedis, "foot") are arthropods belonging to the class Chilopoda of the subphylum Myriapoda, an arthropod group which also includes Millipedes and other multi-legged creatures.
Central Thailand (central plain) is a region of Thailand, covering the broad alluvial plain of the Chao Phraya River.
The Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International (CABI, sometimes also referred to as CAB International) is a not-for-profit inter-governmental development and information organisation focusing primarily on agricultural and environmental issues in the developing world.
Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
Chemical decomposition, analysis or breakdown is the separation of a single chemical compound into its two or more elemental parts or to simpler compounds.
In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.
Chernozem (r; "black soil") is a black-colored soil containing a high percentage of humus (4% to 16%), and high percentages of phosphoric acids, phosphorus and ammonia.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
The chlorites are a group of phyllosilicate minerals.
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.
Clay minerals are hydrous aluminium phyllosilicates, sometimes with variable amounts of iron, magnesium, alkali metals, alkaline earths, and other cations found on or near some planetary surfaces.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
Climate Research is a small peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Inter-Research Science Center that was established in 1990.
Climatic Change is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Springer Science+Business Media covering cross-disciplinary work on all aspects of climate change and variability.
Clover or trefoil are common names for plants of the genus Trifolium (Latin, tres "three" + folium "leaf"), consisting of about 300 species of plants in the leguminous pea family Fabaceae.
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
Cohesion is the component of shear strength of a rock or soil that is independent of interparticle friction.
Coke is a fuel with a high carbon content and few impurities, usually made from coal.
In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.
Colluvium (also colluvial material or colluvial soil) is a general name for loose, unconsolidated sediments that have been deposited at the base of hillslopes by either rainwash, sheetwash, slow continuous downslope creep, or a variable combination of these processes.
Colorfulness, chroma and saturation are attributes of perceived color relating to chromatic intensity.
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella (4 – c. 70 AD) was a prominent writer on agriculture in the Roman empire.
Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences (English: Proceedings of the Academy of sciences), or simply Comptes rendus, is a French scientific journal which has been published since 1666.
A concretion is a hard, compact mass of matter formed by the precipitation of mineral cement within the spaces between particles, and is found in sedimentary rock or soil.
In mathematics, connectedness is used to refer to various properties meaning, in some sense, "all one piece".
The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station (CAES) is the Connecticut state government's agricultural experiment station, a state government component that engages in scientific research and public outreach in agriculture and related fields.
In classical deductive logic, a consistent theory is one that does not contain a contradiction.
Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure.
Contamination is the presence of an unwanted constituent, contaminant or impurity in a material, physical body, natural environment, workplace, etc.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
A crop is a plant or animal product that can be grown and harvested extensively for profit or subsistence.
Crop rotation is the practice of growing a series of dissimilar or different types of crops in the same area in sequenced seasons.
In agriculture, crop yield (also known as "agricultural output") refers to both the measure of the yield of a crop per unit area of land cultivation, and the seed generation of the plant itself (e.g. if three grains are harvested for each grain seeded, the resulting yield is 1:3).
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
Current Opinion is a collection of review journals on various disciplines of the life sciences published by Elsevier.
Curtis Fletcher Marbut (1863–1935) served as Director of the Soil Survey Division from 1913 until his death in 1935.
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
Daily cover is the name given to the layer of compressed soil or earth which is laid on top of a day's deposition of waste on an operational landfill site.
Danish Journal of Geography (Geografisk Tidsskrift) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Taylor & Francis on behalf of the Royal Danish Geographical Society.
The "Dark Ages" is a historical periodization traditionally referring to the Middle Ages, that asserts that a demographic, cultural, and economic deterioration occurred in Western Europe following the decline of the Roman Empire.
Darkling beetle is the common name of the large family of beetles, Tenebrionidae.
David R. Montgomery is a Professor of Earth and Space Sciences at the University of Washington in Seattle, where he is a member of the Quaternary Research Center.
In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous (/dɪˈsɪdʒuəs/) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to the shedding of petals, after flowering; and to the shedding of ripe fruit.
Decomposers are organisms that break down dead or decaying organisms, and in doing so, they carry out the natural process of decomposition.
Decomposition is the process by which organic substances are broken down into simpler organic matter.
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
Desertification is a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry area of land becomes increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife.
Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying.
Desorption is a phenomenon whereby a substance is released from or through a surface.
Dirt is unclean matter, especially when in contact with a person's clothes, skin or possessions when they are said to become dirty.
An academic discipline or academic field is a branch of knowledge.
Dispersion is a process that occurs in soils that are particularly vulnerable to erosion by water.
Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), sometimes known as dissolved organic material (DOM), is a broad classification for organic molecules of varied origin and composition within aquatic systems.
Dolomite is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally The term is also used for a sedimentary carbonate rock composed mostly of the mineral dolomite.
Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of a surface's water and sub-surface water from an area.
An agricultural drainage system is a system by which water is drained on or in the soil to enhance agricultural production of crops.
A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water.
A duripan is a diagnostic soil horizon of the USDA soil taxonomy that is cemented by illuvial silica into a subsurface hardpan.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earth and Planetary Science Letters is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on physical, chemical and mechanical processes of the Earth and other planets, including extrasolar ones.
The Earth Institute Center for Environmental Sustainability (EICES, pronounced), formerly known as the Center for Environmental Research and Conservation (CERC), consists of two institutions located at Columbia University.
Earth sheltering is the architectural practice of using earth against building walls for external thermal mass, to reduce heat loss, and to easily maintain a steady indoor air temperature.
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms is the journal of the British Society for Geomorphology (BSG), formerly the British Geomorphological Research Group (BGRG) and is an international journal of geomorphology, publishing on all aspects of Earth Surface Science.
An earthworm is a tube-shaped, segmented worm found in the phylum Annelida.
Ecological Economics is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by Elsevier on behalf of the International Society for Ecological Economics.
Ecology is a scientific journal that publishes research and synthesizes papers in the field of ecology.
Economic Geology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal about economic geologies published by the Economic Geology Publishing Company from 1905 until 2001, when the company merged with the Society of Economic Geologists (SEG).
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
An ecosystem engineer is any organism that creates, significantly modifies, maintains or destroys a habitat.
Ecosystem services are the many and varied benefits that humans freely gain from the natural environment and from properly-functioning ecosystems.
Edaphology (from Greek ἔδαφος, edaphos, "ground", and -λογία, -logia) is one of two main divisions of soil science, the other being pedology.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
The elevation of a geographic location is its height above or below a fixed reference point, most commonly a reference geoid, a mathematical model of the Earth's sea level as an equipotential gravitational surface (see Geodetic datum § Vertical datum).
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
In geology, eluvium or eluvial deposits are those geological deposits and soils that are derived by in situ weathering or weathering plus gravitational movement or accumulation.
The Enchytraeidae are a microdrile oligochaete family.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
The enthalpy of vaporization, (symbol ∆Hvap) also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation, is the amount of energy (enthalpy) that must be added to a liquid substance, to transform a quantity of that substance into a gas.
In USDA soil taxonomy, entisols are defined as soils that do not show any profile development other than an A horizon.
Environmental flows describe the quantity, timing, and quality of water flows required to sustain freshwater and estuarine ecosystems and the human livelihoods and well being that depend on these ecosystems.
Environmental Pollution is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the biological, health, and ecological effects of environmental pollution.
Environmental remediation deals with the removal of pollution or contaminants from environmental media such as soil, groundwater, sediment, or surface water.
Environmental Science & Technology is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published since 1967 by the American Chemical Society.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich; Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich) is a science, technology, engineering and mathematics STEM university in the city of Zürich, Switzerland.
Eugene Woldemar Hilgard (January 5, 1833, Zweibrücken, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany – January 8, 1916, Berkeley, California, United States) was a German-American expert on pedology (the study of soil resources).
The European Geosciences Union (EGU) is a non-profit international union in the fields of Earth, planetary, and space sciences.
Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.
Evapotranspiration (ET) is the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration from the Earth's land and ocean surface to the atmosphere.
A number of factors affect the permeability of soils, from particle size, impurities in the water, void ratio, the degree of saturation, and adsorbed water, to entrapped air and organic material.
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
In materials science, fatigue is the weakening of a material caused by repeatedly applied loads.
Fauna is all of the animal life of any particular region or time.
Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop.
Feldspars (KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8) are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals that make up about 41% of the Earth's continental crust by weight.
Fertility is the natural capability to produce offspring.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
Field Capacity is the amount of soil moisture or water content held in the soil after excess water has drained away and the rate of downward movement has decreased.
Flocculation, in the field of chemistry, is a process wherein colloids come out of suspension in the form of floc or flake, either spontaneously or due to the addition of a clarifying agent.
A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry.
A Fluvisol in the FAO World Reference Base for Soil Resources is a genetically young soil in alluvial deposits.
Flux describes the quantity which passes through a surface or substance.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
Forest Ecology and Management is an international peer-reviewed journal that publishes articles linking forest ecology with the management of forest resources.
The forest floor, also called detritus, duff and the O horizon, is one of the most distinctive features of a forest ecosystem.
In mathematics, more specifically in fractal geometry, a fractal dimension is a ratio providing a statistical index of complexity comparing how detail in a pattern (strictly speaking, a fractal pattern) changes with the scale at which it is measured.
Freezing, or solidification, is a phase transition in which a liquid turns into a solid when its temperature is lowered below its freezing point.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Ecological Society of America (ESA).
Frost weathering is a collective term for several mechanical weathering processes induced by stresses created by the freezing of water into ice.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
Fulvic acids are a family of organic acids, natural compounds, and components of the humus (which is a fraction of soil organic matter).
Galvanic corrosion (also called bimetallic corrosion) is an electrochemical process in which one metal corrodes preferentially when it is in electrical contact with another, in the presence of an electrolyte.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Gebrüder Borntraeger Verlagsbuchhandlung (Borntraeger Brothers) is a scientific publisher covering the fields of Botany, Earth and Environmental Sciences.
Gelisols are an order in USDA soil taxonomy.
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta (GCA) is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier.
Geomorphology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal about geomorphology.
Geophagia, also known as geophagy, is the practice of eating earth or soil-like substrates such as clay or chalk.
The terms geoponic and geoponics refer to growing plants in a normal soil.
Germination is the process by which an organism grows from a seed or similar structure.
A Gley (глей) is a wetland soil (hydric soil) that, unless drained, is saturated with groundwater for long enough periods to develop a characteristic gleyic colour pattern.
Global Change Biology is a monthly scientific journal covering research in conservation biology, environmental sciences, and ecology.
Global Ecology and Biogeography is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1991.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
Gondwana Research is a peer-reviewed scientific journal with an "all earth science" scope and an emphasis on the origin and evolution of continents.
Pocket gophers, commonly referred to as gophers, are burrowing rodents of the family Geomyidae.
In mathematics, the gradient is a multi-variable generalization of the derivative.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
Grazing is a method of feeding in which a herbivore feeds on plants such as grasses, or other multicellular organisms such as algae.
The Great Plains (sometimes simply "the Plains") is the broad expanse of flat land (a plain), much of it covered in prairie, steppe, and grassland, that lies west of the Mississippi River tallgrass prairie in the United States and east of the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. and Canada.
In agriculture, green manure is created by leaving uprooted or sown crop parts to wither on a field so that they serve as a mulch and soil amendment.
The greenhouse effect is the process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without its atmosphere.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
Groundwater pollution (also called groundwater contamination) occurs when pollutants are released to the ground and make their way down into groundwater.
Groundwater recharge or deep drainage or deep percolation is a hydrologic process where water moves downward from surface water to groundwater.
Guttation is the exudation of drops of xylem sap on the tips or edges of leaves of some vascular plants, such as grasses.
Gypsisols in the FAO World Reference Base for Soil Resources are soils with substantial secondary accumulation of gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O).
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.
Halogenation is a chemical reaction that involves the addition of one or more halogens to a compound or material.
Harrison and Sons was a major worldwide engraver and printer of postage stamps and banknotes.
In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.
Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.
Heat flux or thermal flux, sometimes also referred to as heat flux density or heat flow rate intensity is a flow of energy per unit of area per unit of time.
A hemicellulose (also known as polyose) is any of several heteropolymers (matrix polysaccharides), such as arabinoxylans, present along with cellulose in almost all plant cell walls.
Hermann Hellriegel (October 21, 1831 – September 24, 1895) was a German agricultural chemist who discovered that leguminous plants assimilate the free nitrogen of the atmosphere.
A heterotroph (Ancient Greek ἕτερος héteros.
In both the FAO soil classification and the USDA soil taxonomy, a histosol is a soil consisting primarily of organic materials.
Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals (ferrohornblende – magnesiohornblende).
Hue is one of the main properties (called color appearance parameters) of a color, defined technically (in the CIECAM02 model), as "the degree to which a stimulus can be described as similar to or different from stimuli that are described as red, green, blue, and yellow", (which in certain theories of color vision are called unique hues).
Human impact on the environment or anthropogenic impact on the environment includes changes to biophysical environments and ecosystems, biodiversity, and natural resources caused directly or indirectly by humans, including global warming, environmental degradation (such as ocean acidification), mass extinction and biodiversity loss, ecological crises, and ecological collapse.
Humic acids are the result of a severe chemical extraction from the soil organic matter, and recently their natural existence was jeopardized, since it is a product of the chemical procedure.
Humins are a class of organic compounds that are insoluble in water at all pH's.
In soil science, humus (derived in 1790–1800 from the Latin humus for earth, ground) denominates the fraction of soil organic matter that is amorphous and without the "cellular cake structure characteristic of plants, micro-organisms or animals." Humus significantly affects the bulk density of soil and contributes to its retention of moisture and nutrients.
In chemistry, a hydration reaction is a chemical reaction in which a substance combines with water.
Hydraulic conductivity, symbolically represented as K, is a property of vascular plants, soils and rocks, that describes the ease with which a fluid (usually water) can move through pore spaces or fractures.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Hydroponics is a subset of hydroculture, the method of growing plants without soil, using mineral nutrient solutions in a water solvent.
The hydrosphere (from Greek ὕδωρ hydōr, "water" and σφαῖρα sphaira, "sphere") is the combined mass of water found on, under, and above the surface of a planet, minor planet or natural satellite.
A hypha (plural hyphae, from Greek ὑφή, huphḗ, "web") is a long, branching filamentous structure of a fungus, oomycete, or actinobacterium.
Hypoxia refers to low oxygen conditions.
Ibn al-Awwam (ابن العوام), also called Abu Zakariya Ibn al-Awwam or Abū l-Khayr al-Ishbīlī (أبو زكريا بن العوام), was an Andalusian Arab agriculturist who flourished at Seville in southern Spain in the later 12th century.
Illite is a group of closely related non-expanding clay minerals.
Illuvium is material displaced across a soil profile, from one layer to another one, by the action of rainwater.
Immobilization in soil science is the conversion of inorganic compounds to organic compounds by micro-organisms or plants, by which it is prevented from being accessible to plants.
The Imperial Valley lies in California's Imperial County.
Inceptisols are a soil order in USDA soil taxonomy.
This is an index of articles relating to soil.
Indiana is a U.S. state located in the Midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America.
Infiltration is the process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
(ISRIC - World Soil Information).
The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.
The International Water Management Institute (IWMI) is a non-profit research organisation with headquarters in Colombo, Sri Lanka, and offices across Africa and Asia.
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ion exchange is an exchange of ions between two electrolytes or between an electrolyte solution and a complex.
Iowa State University of Science and Technology, generally referred to as Iowa State, is a public flagship land-grant and space-grant research university located in Ames, Iowa, United States.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Iron oxides are chemical compounds composed of iron and oxygen.
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
Jan Baptist van Helmont (12 January 1580 – 30 December 1644) was a Flemish chemist, physiologist, and physician.
Jean-Baptiste Joseph Dieudonné Boussingault (1 February 1801 – 11 May 1887) was a French chemist who made significant contributions to agricultural science, petroleum science and metallurgy.
Jethro Tull (1674 – 21 February 1741, New Style) was an English agricultural pioneer from Berkshire who helped bring about the British Agricultural Revolution.
Sir John Bennet Lawes, 1st Baronet, FRS (28 December 1814 – 31 August 1900) was an English entrepreneur and agricultural scientist.
John Woodward (1 May 1665 – 25 April 1728) was an English naturalist, antiquarian and geologist, and founder by bequest of the Woodwardian Professorship of Geology at Cambridge University.
Sir Joseph Henry Gilbert, Fellow of the Royal Society (1 August 1817 – 23 December 1901) was an English chemist, noteworthy for his long career spent improving the methods of practical agriculture.
The Journal of Applied Ecology is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing research in all areas of environmental management.
The Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology (formerly Journal of Applied Meteorology) is a scientific journal published by the American Meteorological Society.
The Journal of Arid Environments is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier.
The Journal of Ecology is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of the ecology of plants.
The Journal of Environmental Quality is a peer-reviewed bimonthly journal publishes original research in the area of anthropogenic impacts on the environment, including terrestrial, atmospheric and aquatic systems.
The Journal of Geophysical Research is a peer-reviewed scientific journal.
Journal of Hydrology is a peer-reviewed academic journal about hydrological sciences including water based management and related policy issues.
The Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology is the flagship peer-reviewed scientific journal of the National Institute of Standards and Technology.
The Journal of the American Chemical Society (also known as JACS) is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1879 by the American Chemical Society.
Justus Freiherr von Liebig (12 May 1803 – 18 April 1873) was a German chemist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and was considered the founder of organic chemistry.
Kaolinite is a clay mineral, part of the group of industrial minerals, with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4.
Kastanozems is one of the 30 soil groups in the classification system of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
Khon Kaen University (มหาวิทยาลัยขอนแก่น) or KKU (มข.) is a public research university in Thailand.
Konstantin Dmitrievich Glinka (1867–1927) was a prominent Russian soil scientist.
Lacustrine Plains (or lake plains) are lakes that get filled by incoming sediment.
Lake Bonneville was a prehistoric pluvial lake that covered much of the eastern part of North America's Great Basin region.
Land & Water Australia was a Statutory Corporation established under the Primary Industries and Energy Research and Development Act of 1989.
In economics, land comprises all naturally occurring resources as well as geographic land.
Land degradation is a process in which the value of the biophysical environment is affected by a combination of human-induced processes acting upon the land.
Land use involves the management and modification of natural environment or wilderness into built environment such as settlements and semi-natural habitats such as arable fields, pastures, and managed woods.
A landfill site (also known as a tip, dump, rubbish dump, garbage dump or dumping ground and historically as a midden) is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial.
Laterite is a soil and rock type rich in iron and aluminium, and is commonly considered to have formed in hot and wet tropical areas.
In agriculture, leaching refers to the loss of water-soluble plant nutrients from the soil, due to rain and irrigation.
Leaching is the process of extracting substances from a solid by dissolving them in a liquid, either naturally or through an industrial process.
A leaching model is a hydrological model by which the leaching with irrigation water of dissolved substances, notably salt, in the soil is described depending on the hydrological regime and the soil's properties.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
Leaf area index (LAI) is a dimensionless quantity that characterizes plant canopies.
A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
A Leptosol in the FAO World Reference Base for Soil Resources is a very shallow soil over hard rock or highly calcareous material or a deeper soil that is extremely gravelly and/or stony.
A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi in a symbiotic relationship.
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
In colorimetry and color theory, lightness, also known as value or tone, is a representation of variation in the perception of a color or color space's brightness.
Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.
Lignin is a class of complex organic polymers that form important structural materials in the support tissues of vascular plants and some algae. Lignins are particularly important in the formation of cell walls, especially in wood and bark, because they lend rigidity and do not rot easily. Chemically, lignins are cross-linked phenolic polymers.
Liming is the application (to soil) of calcium- and magnesium-rich materials in various forms, including marl, chalk, limestone, or hydrated lime.
Lithophytes are plants that grow in or on rocks.
A lithosphere (λίθος for "rocky", and σφαίρα for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties.
Loam is soil composed mostly of sand (particle size > 63 µm), silt (particle size > 2 µm), and a smaller amount of clay (particle size These proportions can vary to a degree, however, and result in different types of loam soils: sandy loam, silty loam, clay loam, sandy clay loam, silty clay loam, and loam. In the USDA textural classification triangle, the only soil that is not predominantly sand, silt, or clay is called "loam". Loam soils generally contain more nutrients, moisture, and humus than sandy soils, have better drainage and infiltration of water and air than silt and clay-rich soils, and are easier to till than clay soils. The different types of loam soils each have slightly different characteristics, with some draining liquids more efficiently than others. The soil's texture, especially its ability to retain nutrients and water are crucial. Loam soil is suitable for growing most plant varieties. Bricks made of loam, mud, sand, and water, with an added binding material such as rice husks or straw, have been used in construction since ancient times.
Loess (from German Löss) is a clastic, predominantly silt-sized sediment that is formed by the accumulation of wind-blown dust.
The Loess Plateau, also known as the Huangtu Plateau, is a plateau located around the Wei River valley and the southern half of the Ordos Loop of the Yellow River in central China.
Macmillan Publishers Ltd (occasionally known as the Macmillan Group) is an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group.
In soil, macropores are defined as cavities that are larger than 75 μm.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.
Manure is organic matter, mostly derived from animal feces except in the case of green manure, which can be used as organic fertilizer in agriculture.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
Meadows is a medieval English surname.
In mathematics, mean has several different definitions depending on the context.
Melting, or fusion, is a physical process that results in the phase transition of a substance from a solid to a liquid.
The Merrimack River (or Merrimac River, an occasional earlier spelling) is a river in the northeastern United States.
The Met Office (officially the Meteorological Office) is the United Kingdom's national weather service.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
The metre (British spelling and BIPM spelling) or meter (American spelling) (from the French unit mètre, from the Greek noun μέτρον, "measure") is the base unit of length in some metric systems, including the International System of Units (SI).
The mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals includes several closely related materials having nearly perfect basal cleavage.
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States.
The microbial loop describes a trophic pathway in the marine microbial food web where dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is returned to higher trophic levels via its incorporation into bacterial biomass, and then coupled with the classic food chain formed by phytoplankton-zooplankton-nekton.
Microfauna (Ancient Greek mikros "small" + New Latin fauna "animal") refers to microscopic organisms that exhibit animal-like qualities.
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
A microporous material is a material containing pores with diameters less than 2 nm.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Millipedes are a group of arthropods that are characterised by having two pairs of jointed legs on most body segments; they are known scientifically as the class Diplopoda, the name being derived from this feature.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Mineralization in soil science is the decomposition, i. e. oxidation, of the chemical compounds in organic matter, by which the nutrients in those compounds are released in soluble inorganic forms that may be available to plants.
Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts.
Mites are small arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida and the subclass Acari (also known as Acarina).
In chemistry, a mixture is a material made up of two or more different substances which are mixed.
Moles are small mammals adapted to a subterranean lifestyle (i.e., fossorial).
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.
Mollisols are a soil order in USDA soil taxonomy.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
Monkeys are non-hominoid simians, generally possessing tails and consisting of about 260 known living species.
Monocalcium phosphate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(H2PO4)2 ("ACMP" or "CMP-A" for anhydrous monocalcium phosphate).
Montmorillonite is a very soft phyllosilicate group of minerals that form when they precipitate from water solution as microscopic crystals, known as clay. It is named after Montmorillon in France. Montmorillonite, a member of the smectite group, is a 2:1 clay, meaning that it has two tetrahedral sheets of silica sandwiching a central octahedral sheet of alumina. The particles are plate-shaped with an average diameter around 1 μm and a thickness of 9.6 nm; magnification of about 25,000 times, using an electron microscope, is required to "see" individual clay particles. Members of this group include saponite. Montmorillonite is a subclass of smectite, a 2:1 phyllosilicate mineral characterized as having greater than 50% octahedral charge; its cation exchange capacity is due to isomorphous substitution of Mg for Al in the central alumina plane. The substitution of lower valence cations in such instances leaves the nearby oxygen atoms with a net negative charge that can attract cations. In contrast, beidellite is smectite with greater than 50% tetrahedral charge originating from isomorphous substitution of Al for Si in the silica sheet. The individual crystals of montmorillonite clay are not tightly bound hence water can intervene, causing the clay to swell. The water content of montmorillonite is variable and it increases greatly in volume when it absorbs water. Chemically, it is hydrated sodium calcium aluminium magnesium silicate hydroxide (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2·nH2O. Potassium, iron, and other cations are common substitutes, and the exact ratio of cations varies with source. It often occurs intermixed with chlorite, muscovite, illite, cookeite, and kaolinite.
A moraine is any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris (regolith and rock) that occurs in both currently and formerly glaciated regions on Earth (i.e. a past glacial maximum), through geomorphological processes.
Mucigel is a slimy substance that covers the root cap of the roots of plants.
Mucilage is a thick, gluey substance produced by nearly all plants and some microorganisms.
Mucus is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.
A mulch is a layer of material applied to the surface of soil.
In colorimetry, the Munsell color system is a color space that specifies colors based on three color dimensions: hue, value (lightness), and chroma (color purity).
A mycorrhiza (from Greek μύκης mýkēs, "fungus", and ῥίζα rhiza, "root"; pl. mycorrhizae, mycorrhiza or mycorrhizas) is a symbiotic association between a fungus and the roots of a vascular host plant.
Soil carbon storage is an important function of terrestrial ecosystems.
Nanotechnology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by IOP Publishing.
The National Cooperative Soil Survey (NCSS) in the United States is a nationwide partnership of federal, regional, state, and local agencies and institutions.
National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
The National Science Teachers Association (NSTA), founded in 1944 and headquartered in Arlington, Virginia, is an association of science teachers in the United States and is the largest organization of science teachers worldwide.
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.
Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), formerly known as the Soil Conservation Service (SCS), is an agency of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) that provides technical assistance to farmers and other private landowners and managers.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Nature Climate Change is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Nature Publishing Group covering all aspects of research on global warming, especially its effects.
The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).
New Phytologist is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published on behalf of the New Phytologist Trust by Wiley-Blackwell.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
Nitrification is the biological oxidation of ammonia or ammonium to nitrite followed by the oxidation of the nitrite to nitrate.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
The nitrogen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which nitrogen is converted into multiple chemical forms as it circulates among the atmosphere, terrestrial, and marine ecosystems.
All plants require sufficient supplies of macronutrients for healthy growth, and nitrogen (N) is a nutrient that is commonly in limited supply.
Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other molecules available to living organisms.
Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas or nitrous, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula.
Northern Arizona University (NAU) is a public higher-research university with a main campus at the base of the San Francisco Peaks in Flagstaff, Arizona, statewide campuses, and NAU Online.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
Oecologia is an international peer-reviewed English-language journal published by Springer since 1968 (some articles were published in German or French until 1976).
The ohm (symbol: Ω) is the SI derived unit of electrical resistance, named after German physicist Georg Simon Ohm.
Oklahoma State University (also referred to informally as Oklahoma State, OKState, and OSU), is a land-grant, sun-grant, coeducational public research university located in Stillwater, Oklahoma, United States.
Olivier de Serres (1539–1619) was a French author and soil scientist whose Théâtre d'Agriculture (1600) was the accepted textbook of French agriculture in the 17th century.
The mineral olivine is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg2+, Fe2+)2SiO4.
Oregon State University (OSU) is an international, public research university in the northwest United States, located in Corvallis, Oregon.
An organic acid is an organic compound with acidic properties.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter (NOM) refers to the large pool of carbon-based compounds found within natural and engineered, terrestrial and aquatic environments.
Orthoclase, or orthoclase feldspar (endmember formula KAlSi3O8), is an important tectosilicate mineral which forms igneous rock.
Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a selectively permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.
Osmotic pressure is the minimum pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of its pure solvent across a semipermeable membrane.
Overgrazing occurs when plants are exposed to intensive grazing for extended periods of time, or without sufficient recovery periods.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
Oxisols are an order in USDA soil taxonomy, best known for their occurrence in tropical rain forest, 15–25 degrees north and south of the Equator.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Ozone depletion describes two related events observed since the late 1970s: a steady lowering of about four percent in the total amount of ozone in Earth's atmosphere(the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth's polar regions.
The paleopedological record is, essentially, the fossil record of soils.
Parent material is the underlying geological material (generally bedrock or a superficial or drift deposit) in which soil horizons form.
Parent rock, also referred to as substratum, refers to the original rock from which something else was formed.
Particle agglomeration refers to formation of assemblages in a suspension and represents a mechanism leading to destabilization of colloidal systems.
The particle density or true density of a particulate solid or powder, is the density of the particles that make up the powder, in contrast to the bulk density, which measures the average density of a large volume of the powder in a specific medium (usually air).
Particle density, in the context of particle counts, is a measurement of the number of particles in a spatial unit of a particle-bearing medium.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
Peat, also called turf, is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter that is unique to natural areas called peatlands, bogs, mires, moors, or muskegs.
Peds are aggregates of soil particles formed as a result of pedogenic processes; this natural organization of particles forms discrete units separated by pores or voids.
Pedogenesis (from the Greek pedo-, or pedon, meaning 'soil, earth,' and genesis, meaning 'origin, birth') (also termed soil development, soil evolution, soil formation, and soil genesis) is the process of soil formation as regulated by the effects of place, environment, and history.
Pedology (from Greek: πέδον, pedon, "soil"; and λόγος, logos, "study") is the study of soils in their natural environment.
The pedosphere (from Greek πέδον pedon "soil" or "earth" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") is the outermost layer of the Earth that is composed of soil and subject to soil formation processes.
In physics, chemistry and materials science, percolation (from Latin percōlāre, "to filter" or "trickle through") refers to the movement and filtering of fluids through porous materials.
In geology, permafrost is ground, including rock or (cryotic) soil, at or below the freezing point of water for two or more years.
Permanent wilting point (PWP) or wilting point (WP) is defined as the minimal point of soil moisture the plant requires not to wilt.
Permeability in fluid mechanics and the earth sciences (commonly symbolized as κ, or k) is a measure of the ability of a porous material (often, a rock or an unconsolidated material) to allow fluids to pass through it.
Perturbation (from Latin: perturbare "to confuse, disorder, disturb", from per- "through" + turbare "disturb, confuse," from turba "turmoil, crowd") is a set of pedology (soil study) and sedimentary geology processes relating to changes in the nature of water-borne alluvial sediments and in situ soil deposits over time.
A pest is a plant or animal detrimental to humans or human concerns including crops, livestock, and forestry.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
A phaeozem in the FAO World Reference Base for Soil Resources is a dark soil with a high base status, but without a calcareous soil horizon within one metre of the soil surface.
In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (—OH) bonded directly to an aromatic hydrocarbon group.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Photoelectrochemical processes are processes in photoelectrochemistry; they usually involve transforming light into other forms of energy.
Photoperiodism is the physiological reaction of organisms to the length of day or night.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Physical Review Letters (PRL), established in 1958, is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that is published 52 times per year by the American Physical Society.
Phytoliths (from Greek, "plant stone") are rigid, microscopic structures made of silica, found in some plant tissues and persisting after the decay of the plant.
Phytoremediation /ˌfaɪtəʊrɪˌmiːdɪˈeɪʃən/ refers to the technologies that use living plants to clean up soil, air, and water contaminated with hazardous contaminants.
The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.
A planosol in the FAO World Reference Base for Soil Resources is a soil with a light-coloured, coarse-textured, surface horizon that shows signs of periodic water stagnation and abruptly overlies a dense, slowly permeable subsoil with significantly more clay than the surface horizon.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Plant and Soil is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on the relationships between plants and soil, such as relationships and interactions of plants with minerals, water and microbes, the anatomy and morphology of roots, soil biology and ecology, etc.
Plants produce new tissues and structures throughout their life from meristems located at the tips of organs, or between mature tissues.
Plant Ecology is a scientific journal on plant ecology, formerly known as Vegetatio, a journal whose editors resigned in protest of high pricing.
Plant nutrition is the study of the chemical elements and compounds necessary for plant growth, plant metabolism and their external supply.
Plant Physiology is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that covers research on physiology, biochemistry, cellular and molecular biology, genetics, biophysics, and environmental biology of plants.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
PLOS One (stylized PLOS ONE, and formerly PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.
Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass.
In soil science, Podzols (known as Spodosols in China and the United States of America and Podosols in Australia) are the typical soils of coniferous, or boreal forests.
A pollutant is a substance or energy introduced into the environment that has undesired effects, or adversely affects the usefulness of a resource.
A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C12H10−xClx.
Polyphenols (also known as polyhydroxyphenols) are a structural class of mainly natural, but also synthetic or semisynthetic, organic chemicals characterized by the presence of large multiples of phenol structural units.
Populus balsamifera, commonly called balsam poplar, bam, bamtree, eastern balsam-poplar, hackmatack, tacamahac poplar, tacamahaca, is a tree species in the balsam poplar species group in the poplar genus, Populus. The genus name Populus is from the Latin for poplar, and the specific epithet balsamifera from Latin for "balsam-bearing".
Populus tremuloides is a deciduous tree native to cooler areas of North America, one of several species referred to by the common name aspen.
The pore space of soil contains the liquid and gas phases of soil, i.e., everything but the solid phase that contains mainly minerals of varying sizes as well as organic compounds.
Porosity or void fraction is a measure of the void (i.e. "empty") spaces in a material, and is a fraction of the volume of voids over the total volume, between 0 and 1, or as a percentage between 0% and 100%.
A porous medium or a porous material is a material containing pores (voids).
Port Silt Loam is the state soil of Oklahoma.
Positive feedback is a process that occurs in a feedback loop in which the effects of a small disturbance on a system include an increase in the magnitude of the perturbation.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Potassium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula KOH, and is commonly called caustic potash.
Prairies are ecosystems considered part of the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome by ecologists, based on similar temperate climates, moderate rainfall, and a composition of grasses, herbs, and shrubs, rather than trees, as the dominant vegetation type.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.
Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).
Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc.
In atmospheric science (meteorology, climatology and related fields), the pressure gradient (typically of air, more generally of any fluid) is a physical quantity that describes in which direction and at what rate the pressure increases the most rapidly around a particular location.
Global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance, from September 1997 to August 2000. As an estimate of autotroph biomass, it is only a rough indicator of primary-production potential, and not an actual estimate of it. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and ORBIMAGE. In ecology, primary production is the synthesis of organic compounds from atmospheric or aqueous carbon dioxide.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
Progress in Physical Geography is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the fields of Geosciences, multidisciplinary and physical geography.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. Water is amphoteric, meaning that it is both an acid and a base—it produces + and - ions by self-ionization.
A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.
Protoplasm is the living content of a cell that is surrounded by a plasma membrane.
Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.
In USDA soil taxonomy, a psamment is defined as an entisol which consists basically of unconsolidated sand deposits, often found in shifting sand dunes but also in areas of very coarse-textured parent material subject to millions of years of weathering.
The pyroxenes (commonly abbreviated to Px) are a group of important rock-forming inosilicate minerals found in many igneous and metamorphic rocks.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between, and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests.
Ramial chipped wood (RCW), also called BRF (from the French name, bois raméal fragmenté, "chipped branch-wood"), is a type of woodchips made solely from small to medium-sized branches.
The Red River, or sometimes the Red River of the South, is a major river in the southern United States of America. The river was named for the red-bed country of its watershed. It is one of several rivers with that name. Although it was once a tributary of the Mississippi River, the Red River is now a tributary of the Atchafalaya River, a distributary of the Mississippi that flows separately into the Gulf of Mexico. It is connected to the Mississippi River by the Old River Control Structure. The south bank of the Red River formed part of the US–Mexico border from the Adams–Onís Treaty (in force 1821) until the Texas Annexation and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The Red River is the second-largest river basin in the southern Great Plains. It rises in two branches in the Texas Panhandle and flows east, where it acts as the border between the states of Texas and Oklahoma. It forms a short border between Texas and Arkansas before entering Arkansas, turning south near Fulton, Arkansas, and flowing into Louisiana, where it flows into the Atchafalaya River. The total length of the river is, with a mean flow of over at the mouth.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Regolith is a layer of loose, heterogeneous superficial deposits covering solid rock.
A Regosol in the FAO World Reference Base for Soil Resources is very weakly developed mineral soil in unconsolidated materials.
Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material.
Restoration ecology is the scientific study supporting the practice of ecological restoration, which is the practice of renewing and restoring degraded, damaged, or destroyed ecosystems and habitats in the environment by active human intervention and action.
Rhizobia are bacteria that fix nitrogen (diazotrophs) after becoming established inside root nodules of legumes (Fabaceae).
Rhizobium is a genus of Gram-negative soil bacteria that fix nitrogen.
The rhizosphere is the narrow region of soil that is directly influenced by root secretions and associated soil microorganisms.
Robert Warington FRS (7 September 1807 – 17 November 1867) was an English chemist considered the driving force behind the creation of the world's first enduring chemistry society, The Chemical Society of London, which later became the Royal Society of Chemistry.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil.
A root hair, or absorbent hair, the rhizoid of a vascular plant, is a tubular outgrowth of a trichoblast, a hair-forming cell on the epidermis of a plant root.
Root nodules occur on the roots of plants (primarily Fabaceae) that associate with symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
Rothamsted Research, previously known as the Rothamsted Experimental Station and then the Institute of Arable Crops Research, is one of the oldest agricultural research institutions in the world, having been founded in 1843.
Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
A salt marsh or saltmarsh, also known as a coastal salt marsh or a tidal marsh, is a coastal ecosystem in the upper coastal intertidal zone between land and open saltwater or brackish water that is regularly flooded by the tides.
Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.
In the World Reference Base for Soil Resources and similar soil classification systems, a sapric is a subtype of a histosol where virtually all of the organic material has undergone sufficient decomposition to prevent the identification of plant parts.
Saprolite is a chemically weathered rock.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Scree is a collection of broken rock fragments at the base of crags, mountain cliffs, volcanoes or valley shoulders that has accumulated through periodic rockfall from adjacent cliff faces.
Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.
A dormant seed is one that is unable to germinate in a specified period of time under a combination of environmental factors that are normally suitable for the germination of the non-dormant seed.
A seedling is a young plant sporophyte developing out of a plant embryo from a seed.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.
Septic drain fields, also called leach fields or leach drains, are subsurface wastewater disposal facilities used to remove contaminants and impurities from the liquid that emerges after anaerobic digestion in a septic tank.
A septic tank is a chamber made of concrete, fiberglass, PVC or plastic, through which domestic wastewater (sewage) flows for primary treatment.
Sergei Nikolaievich Winogradsky (or Vinogradskiy; Сергій Миколайович Виноградський; 1 September 1856 – 25 February 1953) was a Russian microbiologist, ecologist and soil scientist who pioneered the cycle-of-life concept.
A sesquioxide is an oxide containing three atoms of oxygen with two atoms (or radicals) of another element.
The shrink–swell capacity of clay refers to the extent certain clay minerals will expand when wet and retract when dry.
In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula, where 0 ≤ x Silicate anions are often large polymeric molecules with an extense variety of structures, including chains and rings (as in polymeric metasilicate), double chains (as in, and sheets (as in. In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to mean silicate minerals, ionic solids with silicate anions; as well as rock types that consist predominantly of such minerals. In that context, the term also includes the non-ionic compound silicon dioxide (silica, quartz), which would correspond to x.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Silt is granular material of a size between sand and clay, whose mineral origin is quartz and feldspar.
A sinkhole, also known as a cenote, sink, sink-hole, swallet, swallow hole, or doline (the different terms for sinkholes are often used interchangeably), is a depression or hole in the ground caused by some form of collapse of the surface layer.
Slaking is the process in which earth materials disintegrate and crumble when exposed to moisture.
In mathematics, the slope or gradient of a line is a number that describes both the direction and the steepness of the line.
Slug, or land slug, is a common name for any apparently shell-less terrestrial gastropod mollusc.
Snail is a common name loosely applied to shelled gastropods.
Sodic soils are characterized by a disproportionately high concentration of sodium (Na) in their cation exchange complex.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
Soil acidification is the buildup of hydrogen cations, also called protons, reducing the soil pH.
Soil biology is the study of microbial and faunal activity and ecology in soil.
The soil biomantle can be described and defined in several ways.
In geotechnical engineering, soil compaction is the process in which a stress applied to a soil causes densification as air is displaced from the pores between the soil grains.
Soil contamination or soil pollution as part of land degradation is caused by the presence of xenobiotic (human-made) chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment.
Soil ecology is the study of the interactions among soil biology, and between biotic and abiotic aspects of the soil environment.
Soil fertility refers to the ability of a soil to sustain agricultural plant growth, i.e. to provide plant habitat and result in sustained and consistent yields of high quality.
Soil functions are general capabilities of soils that are important for various agricultural, environmental, nature protection, landscape architecture and urban applications.
Soil health is a state of a soil meeting its range of ecosystem functions as appropriate to its environment.
A soil horizon is a layer parallel to the soil surface, whose physical characteristics differ from the layers above and beneath.
Soil management is the application of operations, practices, and treatments to protect soil and enhance its performance (such as soil fertility or soil mechanics).
Soil Mesofauna are invertebrates between 0.1mm and 2mm in size, which live in the soil or in a leaf litter layer on the soil surface.
Soil morphology is the field observable attributes of the soil within the various soil horizons and the description of the kind and arrangement of the horizons.
Soil organic matter (SOM) is the organic matter component of soil, consisting of plant and animal residues at various stages of decomposition, cells and tissues of soil organisms, and substances synthesized by soil organisms.
Soil pH is a measure of the acidity or basicity (alkalinity) of a soil.
Soil Research is an international peer-reviewed scientific journal published by CSIRO Publishing.
Soil resistivity is a measure of how much the soil resists the flow of electricity.
Soil retrogression and degradation are two regressive evolution processes associated with the loss of equilibrium of a stable soil.
Soil salinity is the salt content in the soil; the process of increasing the salt content is known as salinization.
Soil salinity control relates to controlling the problem of soil salinity and reclaiming salinized agricultural land.
Soil science is the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the Earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils.
The Soil Science Society of America (SSSA), is the largest soil-specific society in the United States.
Soil structure describes the arrangement of the solid parts of the soil and of the pore space located between them.
Soil texture is a classification instrument used both in the field and laboratory to determine soil classes based on their physical texture.
Soils can process and hold considerable amount of water.
Soil zoology is the study of animals living fully or partially in the soil (soil fauna).
Solonchak (Russian and Ukrainian: Солончак) is pale or grey soil type found in arid to subhumid, poorly drained conditions.
Solonetz (Солонець, p) is a type of soil in FAO soil classification.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
The solum (plural, sola) in soil science consists of the surface and subsoil layers that have undergone the same soil forming conditions.
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.
Specific surface area (SSA) is a property of solids defined as the total surface area of a material per unit of mass, (with units of m2/kg or m2/g) or solid or bulk volume (units of m2/m3 or m−1).
Sphagnum is a genus of approximately 380 accepted species of mosses, commonly known as peat moss.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
Springtails (Collembola) form the largest of the three lineages of modern hexapods that are no longer considered insects (the other two are the Protura and Diplura).
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist.
In botany, a stoma (plural "stomata"), also called a stomata (plural "stomates") (from Greek στόμα, "mouth"), is a pore, found in the epidermis of leaves, stems, and other organs, that facilitates gas exchange.
A stonelayer, or soil stonelayer, or stone line, is a three-dimensional subsurface layer, or soil horizon, dominated by coarse particles (>2mm), that generally follows (mimics) the surface topography (Sharpe 1938).
In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface, with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers.
A stream bed is the channel bottom of a stream or river, the physical confine of the normal water flow.
In continuum mechanics, stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other, while strain is the measure of the deformation of the material.
Strontium is the chemical element with symbol Sr and atomic number 38.
Suction is the flow of a fluid into a partial vacuum, or region of low pressure.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
The surface area of a solid object is a measure of the total area that the surface of the object occupies.
Surface irrigation is defined as the group of application techniques where water is applied and distributed over the soil surface by gravity.
Surface mining, including strip mining, open-pit mining and mountaintop removal mining, is a broad category of mining in which soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit (the overburden) are removed, in contrast to underground mining, in which the overlying rock is left in place, and the mineral is removed through shafts or tunnels.
Surface runoff (also known as overland flow) is the flow of water that occurs when excess stormwater, meltwater, or other sources flows over the Earth's surface.
Surface tension is the elastic tendency of a fluid surface which makes it acquire the least surface area possible.
Sustainable agriculture is farming in sustainable ways based on an understanding of ecosystem services, the study of relationships between organisms and their environment.
Swales is a surname.
Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.
Taiga (p; from Turkic), also known as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces and larches.
Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU) is an agricultural university located in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.
Tannins (or tannoids) are a class of astringent, polyphenolic biomolecules that bind to and precipitate proteins and various other organic compounds including amino acids and alkaloids.
A taproot is a large, central, and dominant root from which other roots sprout laterally.
Tellus Series B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology is a scientific journal that was published by Blackwell Publishing for the International Meteorological Institute in Stockholm, Sweden until December 2011.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
A temperature gradient is a physical quantity that describes in which direction and at what rate the temperature changes the most rapidly around a particular location.
Termites are eusocial insects that are classified at the taxonomic rank of infraorder Isoptera, or as epifamily Termitoidae within the cockroach order Blattodea.
Terra preta (locally, literally "black soil" in Portuguese) is a type of very dark, fertile artificial (anthropogenic) soil found in the Amazon Basin.
Terra rossa (Italian for "red soil") is a well-drained, reddish, clayey to silty clayey soil with neutral pH conditions and is typical of the Mediterranean region.
In agriculture, a terrace is a piece of sloped plane that has been cut into a series of successively receding flat surfaces or platforms, which resemble steps, for the purposes of more effective farming.
Terrain or relief (also topographical relief) involves the vertical and horizontal dimensions of land surface.
Terroir (from terre, "land") is the set of all environmental factors that affect a crop's phenotype, including unique environment contexts, farming practices and a crop's specific growth habitat.
Texas A&M University Press (also known informally as TAMU Press) is a scholarly publishing house associated with Texas A&M University.
The ISME Journal: Multidisciplinary Journal of Microbial Ecology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all areas of microbial ecology spanning the breadth of microbial life, including bacteria, archaea, microbial eukaryotes, and viruses.
The Scientific World Journal (formerly, The ScientificWorldJournal) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering fields in the life sciences ranging from biomedicine to environmental sciences.
Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.
In building design, thermal mass is a property of the mass of a building which enables it to store heat, providing "inertia" against temperature fluctuations.
In agriculture, tile drainage is a type of drainage system that removes excess water from soil below the surface.
Tillage is the agricultural preparation of soil by mechanical agitation of various types, such as digging, stirring, and overturning.
Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.
Torrey Botanical Society (formerly Torrey Botanical Club) was started in the 1860s by colleagues of John Torrey.
Transpiration is the process of water movement through a plant and its evaporation from aerial parts, such as leaves, stems and flowers.
Trends is a series of scientific journals owned by Elsevier that publish review articles in a range of areas of biology.
Turgor pressure is the force within the cell that pushes the plasma membrane against the cell wall.
Ultisols, commonly known as red clay soils, are one of twelve soil orders in the United States Department of Agriculture soil taxonomy.
In soil classification, an umbrisol is a soil with a dark topsoil and in which organic matter has accumulated within the mineral surface soil—in most cases with low base saturation—to the extent that it significantly affects the behaviour and utilization of the soil.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
The United States Government Publishing Office (GPO) (formerly the Government Printing Office) is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States federal government.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Maryland, College Park (commonly referred to as the University of Maryland, UMD, or simply Maryland) is a public research university located in the city of College Park in Prince George's County, Maryland, approximately from the northeast border of Washington, D.C. Founded in 1856, the university is the flagship institution of the University System of Maryland.
The University of Minnesota, Twin Cities (often referred to as the University of Minnesota, Minnesota, the U of M, UMN, or simply the U) is a public research university in Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota.
USDA soil taxonomy (ST) developed by United States Department of Agriculture and the National Cooperative Soil Survey provides an elaborate classification of soil types according to several parameters (most commonly their properties) and in several levels: Order, Suborder, Great Group, Subgroup, Family, and Series.
The vadose zone, also termed the unsaturated zone, is the part of Earth between the land surface and the top of the phreatic zone, the position at which the groundwater (the water in the soil's pores) is at atmospheric pressure ("vadose" is from the Latin for "shallow").
Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23.
Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.
Vasily Vasilyevich Dokuchaev (Васи́лий Васи́льевич Докуча́ев) (March 1, 1846 in Milyukovo, Smolensk Governorate – November 8, 1903 in Saint Petersburg) was a Russian geologist and geographer who is credited with laying the foundations of soil science.
Vermiculite is a hydrous phyllosilicate mineral.
In both the FAO and USDA soil taxonomy, a vertisol (Vertosol in the Australian Soil Classification) is a soil in which there is a high content of expansive clay known as montmorillonite that forms deep cracks in drier seasons or years.
A vineyard is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown mainly for winemaking, but also raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice.
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, commonly known as Virginia Tech, and traditionally known as VPI since 1896, is an American public, land-grant, research university with a main campus in Blacksburg, Virginia, educational facilities in six regions statewide, and a study-abroad site in Lugano, Switzerland.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Volatilization is the process whereby a dissolved sample is vaporised.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Waste management or waste disposal are all the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal.
Water activity or aw is the partial vapor pressure of water in a substance divided by the standard state partial vapor pressure of water.
Water content or moisture content is the quantity of water contained in a material, such as soil (called soil moisture), rock, ceramics, crops, or wood.
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities.
Water potential is the potential energy of water per unit volume relative to pure water in reference conditions.
Water quality refers to the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological characteristics of water.
Water Resources Research is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Geophysical Union, covering research in the social and natural sciences of water.
Water storage is a broad term referring to storage of both potable water for consumption, and non potable water for use in agriculture.
The water table is the upper surface of the zone of saturation.
Waterlogging refers to the saturation of soil with water.
Watertable control is the practice of controlling the height of the water table by drainage.
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures.
Weathered is the third studio album by American rock band Creed, released on November 20, 2001.
Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms.
A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem.
White spruce is a common name for several species of spruce (Picea) and may refer to.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
Wiley-VCH is a German publisher owned by John Wiley & Sons.
A wood-decay fungus is any species of fungus that digests moist wood, causing it to rot.
A woodlouse (plural woodlice) is a terrestrial isopod crustacean with a rigid, segmented, long exoskeleton and fourteen jointed limbs.
The World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB) is the international standard taxonomic soil classification system endorsed by the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS).
The World Soil Museum is a museum exhibiting the various soil types in the world, from the volcanic ash soil from Indonesia to the soil from the Amazon.
Xenophon of Athens (Ξενοφῶν,, Xenophōn; – 354 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates.
The Yangtze, which is 6,380 km (3,964 miles) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.
The Yellow River or Huang He is the second longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Derelict soil, Earthen, High phosphorus and titanium, Low phosphorus and titanium, Mineral soil, Moisture in the soil, Organic soil, Parts of soil, Pedolith, Plant-essential nutrient, Plant-essential nutrients, Soil (pedology), Soil density, Soil evaporation, Soil moisture, Soil nutrient, Soil water, Soils.