324 relations: Accretion (astrophysics), Advances in Space Research, AIP Conference Proceedings, Alan Stern, Alpha Centauri, American Journal of Physics, Ammonia, Ancient Greece, Angular momentum, Ariel (moon), Aristarchus of Samos, Asteroid, Asteroid belt, Asteroid family, Astronomical symbols, Astronomical unit, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Astronomy & Geophysics, Astronomy Now, Atmosphere, Atmosphere of Earth, Aurora, Axial tilt, Barnard's Star, Barred spiral galaxy, Barycenter, Binary system, Bow shocks in astrophysics, Brown dwarf, Callisto (moon), Cambridge University Press, Capitalization, Carbon dioxide, Cassini–Huygens, Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy, Celsius, Centaur (minor planet), Ceres (dwarf planet), Classical Kuiper belt object, Clearing the neighbourhood, Cloud, Coma (cometary), Comet, Comet Hale–Bopp, Comet West, Compact star, Contemporary Physics, Cornell University, Coronal mass ejection, Cosmic dust, ..., Cosmic ray, Crust (geology), Definition of planet, Deimos (moon), Density, Dust storm, Dwarf planet, Dysnomia (moon), Earth, Earth's magnetic field, Earth, Moon, and Planets, Ecliptic, Electromagnetic radiation, Elena V. Pitjeva, Ellipse, Enceladus, Energy, Ephemeris, Epoch (astronomy), Ericsson Globe, Eris (dwarf planet), Europa (moon), Evolutionary history of life, Exoplanet, Fluid dynamics, Focus (geometry), Formation and evolution of the Solar System, Frost line (astrophysics), G-Cloud, G-type main-sequence star, Galactic Center, Galactic coordinate system, Galactic plane, Galactic tide, Galactic year, Galileo Galilei, Ganymede (moon), Gas giant, Geomagnetic storm, Geyser, Giant planet, Gravitational collapse, Gravity, Great Red Spot, Greenhouse gas, Halley's Comet, Haumea, Heliocentrism, Heliosphere, Heliospheric current sheet, Helium, Hercules (constellation), Hilda asteroid, Hill sphere, HIP 11915, Hydra (moon), Hydrogen, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydrosphere, Hydrostatic equilibrium, Hyperbolic trajectory, IAU definition of planet, Icarus (journal), Ice cap, Ice giant, Impact crater, Inclusion (mineral), Inferior and superior planets, International Astronomical Union, Interplanetary dust cloud, Interplanetary medium, Interstellar Boundary Explorer, Interstellar medium, Io (moon), Ion, Iron, Iron(III) oxide, Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, Johns Hopkins University Press, Journal of Geophysical Research, Jupiter, Jupiter trojan, Kepler's laws of planetary motion, Kerberos (moon), Kreutz sungrazer, Kuiper belt, Lagrangian point, Lalande 21185, Late Middle Ages, Life, Light, Light-year, Liquid nitrogen, List of gravitationally rounded objects of the Solar System, List of minor-planet groups, List of natural satellites, List of nearest stars and brown dwarfs, List of Solar System extremes, Lists of geological features of the Solar System, Local Bubble, Local Interstellar Cloud, Luhman 16, Luleå, Luyten 726-8, Main sequence, Main-belt comet, Makemake, Mantle (geology), Mars, Mass, Mercury (planet), Metallicity, Meteorite, Meteoroid, Methane, Michael E. Brown, Micrometeoroid, Milky Way, Mineral, Minor planet, Minor-planet moon, Miranda (moon), Molecular cloud, Moon, Moons of Jupiter, Moons of Neptune, Moons of Pluto, Moons of Saturn, Moons of Uranus, Mountain, Myr, NASA, Natural satellite, Nature (journal), Near-Earth object, Neon, Neptune, Neptune trojan, Nice model, Nickel, Nicolaus Copernicus, Nix (moon), Nuclear fusion, Numerical model of the Solar System, O-type main-sequence star, Oberon (moon), Observable universe, Olympus Mons, Oort cloud, Orbital eccentricity, Orbital inclination, Orbital pole, Orbital resonance, Orion Arm, Orrery, Outer space, Outline of the Solar System, Oxford English Dictionary, Oxygen, Pale Blue Dot, Perihelion and aphelion, Phobos (moon), Physics, Planet, Planet Nine, Planetary core, Planetary mnemonic, Planetary nebula, Planetary system, Planetesimal, Plasma (physics), Plate tectonics, Plutino, Pluto, Plutoid, Popular Astronomy (US magazine), Potentially hazardous object, Princeton University Press, Protoplanet, Protoplanetary disk, Protoplanetary nebula, Protostar, Proxima Centauri, Proxima Centauri b, Radiant energy, Radiation pressure, Red dwarf, Red giant, Refractory (planetary science), Renaissance, Resonant trans-Neptunian object, Retrograde and prograde motion, Rift valley, Ring system, Rings of Saturn, Rock (geology), Rogue planet, Ross 154, Rupes, Saturn, Scattered disc, Science (journal), Sednoid, Semi-major and semi-minor axes, Silicate, Sirius, Small Solar System body, Solar analog, Solar apex, Solar core, Solar flare, Solar mass, Solar System, Solar System in fiction, Solar System model, Solar wind, Space probe, Space weather, Sphere, Springer Science+Business Media, Star, Stellar population, Stellar-wind bubble, Stockholm, Stockholm Arlanda Airport, Styx (moon), Sublimation (phase transition), Sun, Sunlight, Super-Earth, Supernova, Sweden Solar System, Tau Ceti, Tectonics, Terrestrial planet, The Astronomical Journal, The Astrophysical Journal, Tidal force, Tidal locking, Timeline of Solar System exploration, Titan (moon), Titania (moon), Titius–Bode law, Trans-Neptunian object, Triton (moon), Umbriel (moon), Universe, Unmanned spacecraft, Uranus, Vacuum, Valles Marineris, Vapor pressure, Vega, Venus, Volatiles, Volcano, Voyager 1, Voyager 2, Voyager program, Water, Weather, White dwarf, Wiley-Blackwell, WISE 0855−0714, Wolf 359, Zodiacal light, 10199 Chariklo, 15760 Albion, 20000 Varuna, 2060 Chiron, 50000 Quaoar, 90377 Sedna, 90482 Orcus. 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In astrophysics, accretion is the accumulation of particles into a massive object by gravitationally attracting more matter, typically gaseous matter, in an accretion disk.
Advances in Space Research (ASR) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published 27 times per year by Elsevier.
AIP Conference Proceedings is a serial published by the American Institute of Physics since 1970.
Sol Alan Stern (born November 22, 1957) is an American engineer and planetary scientist.
Alpha Centauri (α Centauri, abbreviated Alf Cen or α Cen) is the star system closest to the Solar System, being from the Sun.
The American Journal of Physics is a monthly, peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Association of Physics Teachers and the American Institute of Physics.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
In physics, angular momentum (rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational equivalent of linear momentum.
Ariel is the fourth-largest of the 27 known moons of Uranus.
Aristarchus of Samos (Ἀρίσταρχος ὁ Σάμιος, Aristarkhos ho Samios; c. 310 – c. 230 BC) was an ancient Greek astronomer and mathematician who presented the first known model that placed the Sun at the center of the known universe with the Earth revolving around it (see Solar system).
Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
The asteroid belt is the circumstellar disc in the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter.
An asteroid family is a population of asteroids that share similar proper orbital elements, such as semimajor axis, eccentricity, and orbital inclination.
Astronomical symbols are symbols used to represent astronomical objects, theoretical constructs and observational events in astronomy.
The astronomical unit (symbol: au, ua, or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun.
Astronomy & Astrophysics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering theoretical, observational, and instrumental astronomy and astrophysics.
Astronomy & Geophysics (A&G) is a scientific journal and trade magazine published on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS) by Oxford University Press.
Astronomy Now is a monthly British magazine on astronomy and space.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
An aurora (plural: auroras or aurorae), sometimes referred to as polar lights, northern lights (aurora borealis) or southern lights (aurora australis), is a natural light display in the Earth's sky, predominantly seen in the high-latitude regions (around the Arctic and Antarctic).
In astronomy, axial tilt, also known as obliquity, is the angle between an object's rotational axis and its orbital axis, or, equivalently, the angle between its equatorial plane and orbital plane.
Barnard's Star is a very-low-mass red dwarf about 6 light-years away from Earth in the constellation of Ophiuchus.
A barred spiral galaxy is a spiral galaxy with a central bar-shaped structure composed of stars.
The barycenter (or barycentre; from the Ancient Greek βαρύς heavy + κέντρον centre) is the center of mass of two or more bodies that are orbiting each other, which is the point around which they both orbit.
A binary system is a system of two astronomical bodies which are close enough that their gravitational attraction causes them to orbit each other around a barycenter (also see animated examples).
Bow shocks form the boundary between a magnetosphere and an ambient magnetized medium.
Brown dwarfs are substellar objects that occupy the mass range between the heaviest gas giant planets and the lightest stars, having masses between approximately 13 to 75–80 times that of Jupiter, or approximately to about.
Callisto (Jupiter IV) is the second-largest moon of Jupiter, after Ganymede.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Capitalisation, or capitalization,see spelling differences is writing a word with its first letter as a capital letter (upper-case letter) and the remaining letters in lower case in writing systems with a case distinction.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
The Cassini–Huygens mission, commonly called Cassini, was a collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) to send a probe to study the planet Saturn and its system, including its rings and natural satellites.
Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy is a scientific journal covering the fields of astronomy and astrophysics.
The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).
Centaurs are small solar system bodies with a semi-major axis between those of the outer planets.
Ceres (minor-planet designation: 1 Ceres) is the largest object in the asteroid belt that lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, slightly closer to Mars' orbit.
A classical Kuiper belt object, also called a cubewano ("QB1-o"), is a low-eccentricity Kuiper belt object (KBO) that orbits beyond Neptune and is not controlled by an orbital resonance with Neptune.
"Clearing the neighbourhood around its orbit" is a criterion for a celestial body to be considered a planet in the Solar System.
In meteorology, a cloud is an aerosol consisting of a visible mass of minute liquid droplets, frozen crystals, or other particles suspended in the atmosphere of a planetary body.
The coma is the nebulous envelope around the nucleus of a comet, formed when the comet passes close to the Sun on its highly elliptical orbit; as the comet warms, parts of it sublime.
A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.
Comet Hale–Bopp (formally designated C/1995 O1) is a comet that was perhaps the most widely observed of the 20th century, and one of the brightest seen for many decades.
Comet West, formally designated C/1975 V1, 1976 VI, and 1975n, was a comet described as one of the brightest objects to pass through the inner solar system in 1976.
In astronomy, the term "compact star" (or "compact object") refers collectively to white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes.
Contemporary Physics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing introductory articles on important recent developments in physics.
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.
A coronal mass ejection (CME) is a significant release of plasma and magnetic field from the solar corona.
Cosmic dust, also called extraterrestrial dust or space dust, is dust which exists in outer space, as well as all over planet Earth.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
The definition of planet, since the word was coined by the ancient Greeks, has included within its scope a wide range of celestial bodies.
Deimos (systematic designation: Mars II) is the smaller and outer of the two natural satellites of the planet Mars, the other being Phobos.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
A dust storm is a meteorological phenomenon common in arid and semi-arid regions.
A dwarf planet is a planetary-mass object that is neither a planet nor a natural satellite.
Dysnomia (Greek: Δυσνομία)—officially (136199) Eris I Dysnomia—is the only known moon of the dwarf planet Eris (the most massive known dwarf planet in the Solar System).
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earth's magnetic field, also known as the geomagnetic field, is the magnetic field that extends from the Earth's interior out into space, where it meets the solar wind, a stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun.
Earth, Moon, and Planets is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, published approximately ten times per year by Springer Science+Business Media.
The ecliptic is the circular path on the celestial sphere that the Sun follows over the course of a year; it is the basis of the ecliptic coordinate system.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
Elena Vladimirovna Pitjeva is a Russian astronomer working at the Institute of Applied Astronomy, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg.
In mathematics, an ellipse is a curve in a plane surrounding two focal points such that the sum of the distances to the two focal points is constant for every point on the curve.
Enceladus is the sixth-largest moon of Saturn.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
In astronomy and celestial navigation, an ephemeris (plural: ephemerides) gives the positions of naturally occurring astronomical objects as well as artificial satellites in the sky at a given time or times.
In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time used as a reference point for some time-varying astronomical quantity, such as the celestial coordinates or elliptical orbital elements of a celestial body, because these are subject to perturbations and vary with time.
Ericsson Globe (originally known as Stockholm Globe Arena, commonly referred to in Swedish simply as Globen (The Globe) is an indoor arena located in Stockholm Globe City, Johanneshov district of Stockholm, Sweden. The Ericsson Globe is the largest hemispherical building on Earth and took two and a half years to build. Shaped like a large white ball, it has a diameter of 110 meters (361 feet) and an inner height of 85 meters (279 feet). The volume of the building is 605,000 cubic meters (21,188,800 cubic feet). It has a seating capacity of 16,000 spectators for shows and concerts, and 13,850 for ice hockey. It represents the Sun in the Sweden Solar System, the world's largest scale model of the Solar System.
Eris (minor-planet designation 136199 Eris) is the most massive and second-largest (by volume) dwarf planet in the known Solar System.
Europa or as Ευρώπη (Jupiter II) is the smallest of the four Galilean moons orbiting Jupiter, and the sixth-closest to the planet.
The evolutionary history of life on Earth traces the processes by which both living organisms and fossil organisms evolved since life emerged on the planet, until the present.
An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet outside our solar system.
In physics and engineering, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids - liquids and gases.
In geometry, focuses or foci, singular focus, are special points with reference to which any of a variety of curves is constructed.
The formation and evolution of the Solar System began 4.6 billion years ago with the gravitational collapse of a small part of a giant molecular cloud.
In astronomy or planetary science, the frost line, also known as the snow line or ice line, is the particular distance in the solar nebula from the central protostar where it is cold enough for volatile compounds such as water, ammonia, methane, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide to condense into solid ice grains.
The G-Cloud (or G-Cloud complex) is an interstellar cloud located next to the Local Interstellar Cloud.
A G-type main-sequence star (Spectral type: G-V), often (and imprecisely) called a yellow dwarf, or G dwarf star, is a main-sequence star (luminosity class V) of spectral type G. Such a star has about 0.84 to 1.15 solar masses and surface temperature of between 5,300 and 6,000 K., G. M. H. J. Habets and J. R. W. Heintze, Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement 46 (November 1981), pp.
The Galactic Center is the rotational center of the Milky Way.
The galactic coordinate system is a celestial coordinate system in spherical coordinates, with the Sun as its center, the primary direction aligned with the approximate center of the Milky Way galaxy, and the fundamental plane parallel to an approximation of the galactic plane but offset to its north.
The galactic plane is the plane on which the majority of a disk-shaped galaxy's mass lies.
A galactic tide is a tidal force experienced by objects subject to the gravitational field of a galaxy such as the Milky Way.
The galactic year, also known as a cosmic year, is the duration of time required for the Sun to orbit once around the center of the Milky Way Galaxy.
Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.
Ganymede (Jupiter III) is the largest and most massive moon of Jupiter and in the Solar System.
A gas giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen and helium.
A geomagnetic storm (commonly referred to as a solar storm) is a temporary disturbance of the Earth's magnetosphere caused by a solar wind shock wave and/or cloud of magnetic field that interacts with the Earth's magnetic field.
A geyser is a spring characterized by intermittent discharge of water ejected turbulently and accompanied by steam.
A giant planet is any massive planet.
Gravitational collapse is the contraction of an astronomical object due to the influence of its own gravity, which tends to draw matter inward toward the center of gravity.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
The Great Red Spot is a persistent high-pressure region in the atmosphere of Jupiter, producing an anticyclonic storm 22° south of the planet's equator.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
Halley's Comet or Comet Halley, officially designated 1P/Halley, is a short-period comet visible from Earth every 74–79 years.
Haumea, minor-planet designation 136108 Haumea, is a dwarf planet located beyond Neptune's orbit.
Heliocentrism is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System.
The heliosphere is the bubble-like region of space dominated by the Sun, which extends far beyond the orbit of Pluto.
The heliospheric current sheet is the surface within the Solar System where the polarity of the Sun's magnetic field changes from north to south.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
Hercules is a constellation named after Hercules, the Roman mythological hero adapted from the Greek hero Heracles.
The Hilda asteroids (adj. Hildian) are a dynamical group of asteroids in a 3:2 orbital resonance with Jupiter.
An astronomical body's Hill sphere is the region in which it dominates the attraction of satellites.
HIP 11915 is a G-type main-sequence star located about 190 light-years from Earth in the constellation Cetus.
Hydra is the outermost known moon of Pluto.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
The hydrosphere (from Greek ὕδωρ hydōr, "water" and σφαῖρα sphaira, "sphere") is the combined mass of water found on, under, and above the surface of a planet, minor planet or natural satellite.
In fluid mechanics, a fluid is said to be in hydrostatic equilibrium or hydrostatic balance when it is at rest, or when the flow velocity at each point is constant over time.
In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics, a hyperbolic trajectory is the trajectory of any object around a central body with more than enough speed to escape the central object's gravitational pull.
The International Astronomical Union (IAU) defined in August 2006 that, in the Solar System, a planet is a celestial body which.
Icarus is a scientific journal dedicated to the field of planetary science.
An ice cap is a mass of ice that covers less than 50,000 km2 of land area (usually covering a highland area).
An ice giant is a giant planet composed mainly of elements heavier than hydrogen and helium, such as oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur.
An impact crater is an approximately circular depression in the surface of a planet, moon, or other solid body in the Solar System or elsewhere, formed by the hypervelocity impact of a smaller body.
In mineralogy, an inclusion is any material that is trapped inside a mineral during its formation.
In the Solar System, a planet is said to be inferior with respect to another planet if its orbit lies inside the other planet's orbit around the Sun.
The International Astronomical Union (IAU; Union astronomique internationale, UAI) is an international association of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy.
The interplanetary dust cloud, or zodiacal cloud, consists of cosmic dust (small particles floating in outer space) that pervades the space between planets in the Solar System and other planetary systems.
The interplanetary medium is the material which fills the Solar System, and through which all the larger Solar System bodies, such as planets, dwarf planets, asteroids, and comets, move.
Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) is a NASA satellite that is making a map of the boundary between the Solar System and interstellar space.
In astronomy, the interstellar medium (ISM) is the matter and radiation that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy.
Io (Jupiter I) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of the planet Jupiter.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Iron(III) oxide or ferric oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Fe2O3.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer.
The Johns Hopkins University Press (also referred to as JHU Press or JHUP) is the publishing division of Johns Hopkins University.
The Journal of Geophysical Research is a peer-reviewed scientific journal.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
The Jupiter trojans, commonly called Trojan asteroids or just Trojans, are a large group of asteroids that share the planet Jupiter's orbit around the Sun.
In astronomy, Kepler's laws of planetary motion are three scientific laws describing the motion of planets around the Sun.
Kerberos is a small natural satellite of Pluto, about in its longest dimension.
The Kreutz sungrazers (pronounced kroits) are a family of sungrazing comets, characterized by orbits taking them extremely close to the Sun at perihelion.
The Kuiper belt, occasionally called the Edgeworth–Kuiper belt, is a circumstellar disc in the outer Solar System, extending from the orbit of Neptune (at 30 AU) to approximately 50 AU from the Sun.
In celestial mechanics, the Lagrangian points (also Lagrange points, L-points, or libration points) are positions in an orbital configuration of two large bodies, wherein a small object, affected only by the gravitational forces from the two larger objects, will maintain its position relative to them.
Lalande 21185 is a star in the constellation of Ursa Major, relevant for being the brightest red dwarf observable in the northern hemisphere (only AX Microscopii and Lacaille 9352, in the southern hemisphere, are brighter).
The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The light-year is a unit of length used to express astronomical distances and measures about 9.5 trillion kilometres or 5.9 trillion miles.
Liquid nitrogen is nitrogen in a liquid state at an extremely low temperature.
This is a list of gravitationally rounded objects of the Solar System, which are objects that have a rounded, ellipsoidal shape due to the forces of their own gravity (hydrostatic equilibrium).
A minor-planet group is a population of minor planets that share broadly similar orbits.
The Solar System's planets and officially recognized dwarf planets are known to be orbited by 184 natural satellites, or moons.
The following two lists include all the known stars and brown dwarfs that are within of the Sun, or were/will be within in the astronomically near past or future.
This article describes extreme locations of the Solar System.
This is a directory of lists of geological features on planets excepting Earth, moons and asteroids ordered by increasing distance from the Sun.
The Local Bubble, or Local Cavity, is a relative cavity in the interstellar medium (ISM) in the Orion Arm of the Milky Way.
The Local Interstellar Cloud (LIC), also known as the Local Fluff, is the interstellar cloud roughly across through which the Solar System is currently moving.
Luhman 16 (WISE 1049−5319, WISE J104915.57−531906.1) is a binary brown-dwarf system in the southern constellation Vela at a distance of approximately from the Sun.
Luleå (Westrobothnian: Lul, Leul, or Leol; Luleju) is a city on the coast of northern Sweden, and the capital of Norrbotten County, the northernmost county in Sweden.
Luyten 726-8, also known as Gliese 65, is a binary star system that is one of Earth's nearest neighbors, at about 8.7 light years from Earth in the constellation Cetus.
In astronomy, the main sequence is a continuous and distinctive band of stars that appear on plots of stellar color versus brightness.
Main-belt comets (MBCs) are bodies orbiting within the asteroid belt that have shown comet-like activity during part of their orbit.
Makemake (minor-planet designation 136472 Makemake) is a dwarf planet and perhaps the largest Kuiper belt object in the classical population, with a diameter approximately two thirds that of Pluto.
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System.
In astronomy, metallicity is used to describe the abundance of elements present in an object that are heavier than hydrogen or helium.
A meteorite is a solid piece of debris from an object, such as a comet, asteroid, or meteoroid, that originates in outer space and survives its passage through the atmosphere to reach the surface of a planet or moon.
A meteoroid is a small rocky or metallic body in outer space.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Michael E. Brown (born June 5, 1965) is an American astronomer, who has been professor of planetary astronomy at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) since 2003.
A micrometeoroid is a tiny meteoroid; a small particle of rock in space, usually weighing less than a gram.
The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
A minor planet is an astronomical object in direct orbit around the Sun (or more broadly, any star with a planetary system) that is neither a planet nor exclusively classified as a comet.
A minor-planet moon is an astronomical object that orbits a minor planet as its natural satellite.
Miranda, also designated Uranus V, is the smallest and innermost of Uranus's five round satellites.
A molecular cloud, sometimes called a stellar nursery (if star formation is occurring within), is a type of interstellar cloud, the density and size of which permit the formation of molecules, most commonly molecular hydrogen (H2).
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
There are 69 known moons of Jupiter.
Neptune has 14 known moons, which are named for minor water deities in Greek mythology.
The dwarf planet Pluto has five moons down to a detection limit of about 1 km in diameter.
The moons of Saturn are numerous and diverse, ranging from tiny moonlets less than 1 kilometer across to the enormous Titan, which is larger than the planet Mercury.
Uranus is the seventh planet of the Solar System; it has 27 known moons, all of which are named after characters from the works of William Shakespeare and Alexander Pope.
A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak.
The abbreviation myr, "million years", is a unit of a quantity of (i.e.) years, or 31.6 teraseconds.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
A natural satellite or moon is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet (or sometimes another small Solar System body).
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
A near-Earth object (NEO) is any small Solar System body whose orbit can bring it into proximity with Earth.
Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.
Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.
Neptune trojans are bodies that orbit the Sun near one of the stable Lagrangian points of Neptune, similar to the trojans of other planets.
The Nice model is a scenario for the dynamical evolution of the Solar System.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.
Nix is a natural satellite of Pluto.
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
A numerical model of the Solar System is a set of mathematical equations, which, when solved, give the approximate positions of the planets as a function of time.
An O-type main-sequence star (O V) is a main-sequence (core hydrogen-burning) star of spectral type O and luminosity class V. These stars have between 15 and 90 times the mass of the Sun and surface temperatures between 30,000 and 50,000 K. They are between 40,000 and 1,000,000 times as luminous as the Sun.
Oberon, also designated, is the outermost major moon of the planet Uranus.
The observable universe is a spherical region of the Universe comprising all matter that can be observed from Earth at the present time, because electromagnetic radiation from these objects has had time to reach Earth since the beginning of the cosmological expansion.
Olympus Mons (Latin for Mount Olympus) is a very large shield volcano on the planet Mars.
The Oort cloud, named after the Dutch astronomer Jan Oort, sometimes called the Öpik–Oort cloud, is a theoretical cloud of predominantly icy planetesimals proposed to surround the Sun at distances ranging from.
The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle.
Orbital inclination measures the tilt of an object's orbit around a celestial body.
An orbital pole is either point at the ends of an imaginary line segment that runs through the center of an orbit (of a revolving body like a planet) and is perpendicular to the orbital plane.
In celestial mechanics, an orbital resonance occurs when orbiting bodies exert a regular, periodic gravitational influence on each other, usually because their orbital periods are related by a ratio of small integers.
The Orion Arm is a minor spiral arm of the Milky Way some across and approximately in length, containing the Solar System, including the Earth.
An orrery is a mechanical model of the solar system that illustrates or predicts the relative positions and motions of the planets and moons, usually according to the heliocentric model.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the Solar System: Solar System – gravitationally bound system comprising the Sun and the objects that orbit it, either directly or indirectly.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Pale Blue Dot is a photograph of planet Earth taken on February 14, 1990, by the Voyager 1 space probe from a record distance of about kilometers (miles, 40.5 AU), as part of that day's ''Family Portrait'' series of images of the Solar System.
The perihelion of any orbit of a celestial body about the Sun is the point where the body comes nearest to the Sun.
Phobos (systematic designation) is the innermost and larger of the two natural satellites of Mars, the other being Deimos.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
Planet Nine is a hypothetical planet in the outer region of the Solar System.
The planetary core consists of the innermost layer(s) of a planet; which may be composed of solid and liquid layers.
A planetary mnemonic refers to a phrase used to remember the planets and dwarf planets of the Solar System, with the order of words corresponding to increasing sidereal periods of the bodies.
A planetary nebula, abbreviated as PN or plural PNe, is a type of emission nebula consisting of an expanding, glowing shell of ionized gas ejected from red giant stars late in their lives.
A planetary system is a set of gravitationally bound non-stellar objects in or out of orbit around a star or star system.
Planetesimals are solid objects thought to exist in protoplanetary disks and in debris disks.
Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
In astronomy, the plutinos are a dynamical group of trans-Neptunian objects in the outermost region of the Solar System that orbit in 2:3 mean-motion resonance with Neptune.
Pluto (minor planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune.
A plutoid or ice dwarf is a trans-Neptunian dwarf planet, i.e. a body orbiting beyond Neptune that is massive enough to be rounded in shape.
Popular Astronomy is an American magazine published by John August Media, LLC and hosted at TechnicaCuriosa.com for amateur astronomers.
A potentially hazardous object (PHO) is a near-Earth object – either an asteroid or a comet – with an orbit that can make exceptionally close approaches to the Earth and large enough to cause significant regional damage in the event of impact.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
A protoplanet is a large planetary embryo that originated within a protoplanetary disc and has undergone internal melting to produce a differentiated interior.
A protoplanetary disk is a rotating circumstellar disk of dense gas and dust surrounding a young newly formed star, a T Tauri star, or Herbig Ae/Be star.
A protoplanetary nebula or preplanetary nebula (PPN) is an astronomical object which is at the short-lived episode during a star's rapid evolution between the late asymptotic giant branch (LAGB) phase and the subsequent planetary nebula (PN) phase.
A protostar is a very young star that is still gathering mass from its parent molecular cloud.
Proxima Centauri, or Alpha Centauri C, is a red dwarf, a small low-mass star, about from the Sun in the constellation of Centaurus.
Proxima Centauri b (also called Proxima b or Alpha Centauri Cb) is an exoplanet orbiting within the habitable zone of the red dwarf star Proxima Centauri, which is the closest star to the Sun and part of a triple star system.
In physics, and in particular as measured by radiometry, radiant energy is the energy of electromagnetic and gravitational radiation.
Radiation pressure is the pressure exerted upon any surface due to the exchange of momentum between the object and the electromagnetic field.
A red dwarf (or M dwarf) is a small and relatively cool star on the main sequence, of M spectral type.
A red giant is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass (roughly 0.3–8 solar masses) in a late phase of stellar evolution.
In planetary science, any material that has a relatively high equilibrium condensation temperature is called refractory.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
In astronomy, a resonant trans-Neptunian object is a trans-Neptunian object (TNO) in mean-motion orbital resonance with Neptune.
Retrograde motion in astronomy is, in general, orbital or rotational motion of an object in the direction opposite the rotation of its primary, that is the central object (right figure).
A rift valley is a linear-shaped lowland between several highlands or mountain ranges created by the action of a geologic rift or fault.
A ring system is a disc or ring orbiting an astronomical object that is composed of solid material such as dust and moonlets, and is a common component of satellite systems around giant planets.
The rings of Saturn are the most extensive ring system of any planet in the Solar System.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
A rogue planet (also termed an interstellar planet, nomad planet, free-floating planet, orphan planet, wandering planet, starless planet, or sunless planet) is a planetary-mass object that orbits a galactic center directly.
Ross 154 (V1216 Sgr) is a star in the southern zodiac constellation of Sagittarius.
Rupes is the Latin word for 'cliff' (the same form rupes is both singular and plural).
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.
The scattered disc (or scattered disk) is a distant circumstellar disc in the Solar System that is sparsely populated by icy small solar system bodies, and are a subset of the broader family of trans-Neptunian objects.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
A sednoid is a trans-Neptunian object with a perihelion greater than and a semi-major axis greater than.
In geometry, the major axis of an ellipse is its longest diameter: a line segment that runs through the center and both foci, with ends at the widest points of the perimeter.
In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula, where 0 ≤ x Silicate anions are often large polymeric molecules with an extense variety of structures, including chains and rings (as in polymeric metasilicate), double chains (as in, and sheets (as in. In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to mean silicate minerals, ionic solids with silicate anions; as well as rock types that consist predominantly of such minerals. In that context, the term also includes the non-ionic compound silicon dioxide (silica, quartz), which would correspond to x.
Sirius (a romanization of Greek Σείριος, Seirios,."glowing" or "scorching") is a star system and the brightest star in the Earth's night sky.
A small Solar System body (SSSB) is an object in the Solar System that is neither a planet, nor a dwarf planet, nor a natural satellite.
Solar-type star, solar analogs (also analogues), and solar twins are stars that are particularly similar to the Sun.
The solar apex, or the Apex of the Sun's Way, refers to the direction that the Sun travels with respect to the Local Standard of Rest.
The core of the Sun is considered to extend from the center to about 0.2 to 0.25 of solar radius.
A solar flare is a sudden flash of increased Sun's brightness, usually observed near its surface.
The solar mass is a standard unit of mass in astronomy, equal to approximately.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
The Solar System and its various bodies (planets, asteroids, moons, etc.) were the earliest objects to be treated as fictional locations in works of science fiction.
Solar System models, especially mechanical models, called orreries, that illustrate the relative positions and motions of the planets and moons in the Solar System have been built for centuries.
The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona.
A space probe is a robotic spacecraft that does not orbit the Earth, but, instead, explores further into outer space.
Space weather is a branch of space physics and aeronomy concerned with the time varying conditions within the Solar System, including the solar wind, emphasizing the space surrounding the Earth, including conditions in the magnetosphere, ionosphere, thermosphere, and exosphere.
A sphere (from Greek σφαῖρα — sphaira, "globe, ball") is a perfectly round geometrical object in three-dimensional space that is the surface of a completely round ball (viz., analogous to the circular objects in two dimensions, where a "circle" circumscribes its "disk").
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
During 1944, Walter Baade categorized groups of stars within the Milky Way into bluer stars associated with the spiral arms and the general position of yellow stars near the central galactic bulge or within globular star clusters.
Stellar-wind bubble is a cavity light years across filled with hot gas blown into the interstellar medium by the high-velocity (several thousand km/s) stellar wind from a single massive star of type O or B. Weaker stellar winds also blow bubble structures, which are also called astrospheres.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
Stockholm Arlanda Airport, is an international airport located in the Sigtuna Municipality of Sweden, near the town of Märsta, north of Stockholm and nearly south-east of Uppsala.
Styx is a small natural satellite of Pluto whose discovery was announced on 11 July 2012.
Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
A super-Earth is an extrasolar planet with a mass higher than Earth's, but substantially below the masses of the Solar System's ice giants, Uranus and Neptune, which have masses of 15 and 17 times Earth's, respectively.
A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.
The Sweden Solar System is the world's largest permanent scale model of the Solar System.
Tau Ceti, Latinized from τ Ceti, is a single star in the constellation Cetus that is spectrally similar to the Sun, although it has only about 78% of the Sun's mass.
Tectonics is the process that controls the structure and properties of the Earth's crust and its evolution through time.
A terrestrial planet, telluric planet, or rocky planet is a planet that is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals.
The Astronomical Journal (often abbreviated AJ in scientific papers and references) is a peer-reviewed monthly scientific journal owned by the American Astronomical Society and currently published by IOP Publishing.
The Astrophysical Journal, often abbreviated ApJ (pronounced "ap jay") in references and speech, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics and astronomy, established in 1895 by American astronomers George Ellery Hale and James Edward Keeler.
The tidal force is an apparent force that stretches a body towards the center of mass of another body due to a gradient (difference in strength) in gravitational field from the other body; it is responsible for the diverse phenomena, including tides, tidal locking, breaking apart of celestial bodies and formation of ring systems within Roche limit, and in extreme cases, spaghettification of objects.
Tidal locking (also called gravitational locking or captured rotation) occurs when the long-term interaction between a pair of co-orbiting astronomical bodies drives the rotation rate of at least one of them into the state where there is no more net transfer of angular momentum between this body (e.g. a planet) and its orbit around the second body (e.g. a star); this condition of "no net transfer" must be satisfied over the course of one orbit around the second body.
This is a timeline of Solar System exploration ordered by date of spacecraft launch.
Titan is the largest moon of Saturn.
The Titius–Bode law (sometimes termed just Bode's law) is a hypothesis that the bodies in some orbital systems, including the Sun's, orbit at semi-major axes in a function of planetary sequence.
A trans-Neptunian object (TNO, also written transneptunian object) is any minor planet in the Solar System that orbits the Sun at a greater average distance (semi-major axis) than Neptune, 30 astronomical units (AU).
Triton is the largest natural satellite of the planet Neptune, and the first Neptunian moon to be discovered.
Umbriel is a moon of Uranus discovered on October 24, 1851, by William Lassell.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
Unmanned spacecraft are spacecraft without people ("man") on board, used for unmanned spaceflight.
Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.
Vacuum is space devoid of matter.
Valles Marineris (Latin for Mariner Valleys, named after the Mariner 9 Mars orbiter of 1971–72 which discovered it) is a system of canyons that runs along the Martian surface east of the Tharsis region.
Vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system.
Vega, also designated Alpha Lyrae (α Lyrae, abbreviated Alpha Lyr or α Lyr), is the brightest star in the constellation of Lyra, the fifth-brightest star in the night sky, and the second-brightest star in the northern celestial hemisphere, after Arcturus.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
In planetary science, volatiles are the group of chemical elements and chemical compounds with low boiling points that are associated with a planet's or moon's crust or atmosphere.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
Voyager 1 is a space probe launched by NASA on September 5, 1977.
Voyager 2 is a space probe launched by NASA on August 20, 1977, to study the outer planets.
The Voyager program is an American scientific program that employs two robotic probes, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, to study the outer Solar System.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degree to which it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy.
A white dwarf, also called a degenerate dwarf, is a stellar core remnant composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
WISE 0855−0714 (full designation WISE J085510.83−071442.5) is a (sub-) brown dwarf from Earth, whose discovery was announced in April 2014 by Kevin Luhman using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE).
Wolf 359 is a red dwarf star located in the constellation Leo, near the ecliptic.
Zodiacal light (also called false dawn when seen before sunrise) is a faint, diffuse, and roughly triangular white glow that is visible in the night sky and appears to extend from the Sun's direction and along the zodiac, straddling the ecliptic.
10199 Chariklo (or; Χαρικλώ; provisional designation) is the largest confirmed centaur (minor planet of the outer Solar System).
15760 Albion, provisional designation, was the first trans-Neptunian object to be discovered after Pluto and Charon.
20000 Varuna, provisional designation, is a large classical Kuiper belt object.
2060 Chiron, provisional designation, and also known as 95P/Chiron, is a minor planet in the outer Solar System, orbiting the Sun between Saturn and Uranus.
50000 Quaoar, provisional designation, is a non-resonant trans-Neptunian object (cubewano) and possibly a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, located in the outermost region of the Solar System.
90377 Sedna is a large minor planet in the outer reaches of the Solar System that was,, at a distance of about 86 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun, about three times as far as Neptune.
90482 Orcus, provisional designation, is a trans-Neptunian object from the Kuiper belt with a large moon, Vanth.
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