124 relations: ACRIMSAT, Aircraft, Albedo, Amateur radio operator, American Geophysical Union, Astronaut, Atmospheric pressure, Aurora, Babcock Model, Beryllium-10, Boreal (age), Broadcasting, Brown dwarf, Carbon-14, CERN, Chernobyl disaster, Chromosphere, Chronobiology, Cloud condensation nuclei, CNN, Communication, Convection zone, Corona, Coronal mass ejection, Cosmic ray, Cosmic ray spallation, Dalton Minimum, Dendrochronology, Dendroclimatology, Dipole, Earth's magnetic field, Edward Walter Maunder, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electromagnetic radiation, European Space Agency, Extreme ultraviolet, Facula, Formation and evolution of the Solar System, Frequency, Galileo Galilei, Geology (journal), Geomagnetic storm, George Ellery Hale, Global warming, Gnevyshev-Ohl rule, Goddard Institute for Space Studies, Gustav Spörer, Harold D. Babcock, Heinrich Schwabe, Heliosphere, ..., High frequency, Horace W. Babcock, Human mission to Mars, Ice sheet, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Ionosphere, Julian calendar, Latitude, List of articles related to the Sun, List of coronal mass ejections, List of solar cycles, List of solar storms, Magnetic field, Magnetic flux, Magnetogram, Marshall Space Flight Center, Maunder Minimum, Max Waldmeier, Maximum usable frequency, Medical Hypotheses, Modern Maximum, NASA, Nature Geoscience, Ocean, Oxygen, Ozone, Ozone layer, Ozone–oxygen cycle, Pascal (unit), Permian, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, Photodissociation, Photosphere, Phys.org, Physical Review Letters, Proton, Radiative forcing, Radio, Radio propagation, Radiometer, Refraction, Richard Christopher Carrington, Rudolf Wolf, Satellite, Science (journal), Shortwave radio, Single event upset, Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, Solar cell, Solar constant, Solar cycle 24, Solar dynamo, Solar flare, Solar irradiance, Solar luminosity, Solar maximum, Solar minimum, Solar Physics (journal), Solar wind, Space debris, Space weather, Spörer Minimum, Stellar evolution, Stratosphere, Sun, Sunlight, Sunspot, Tachocline, Toroidal and poloidal, TRACE, Troposphere, Very high frequency, X-ray, Yohkoh. Expand index (74 more) » « Shrink index
The Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor Satellite, or ACRIMSAT is a defunct satellite and instrument that was one of the 21 observational components of NASA's Earth Observing System program.
An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air.
Albedo (albedo, meaning "whiteness") is the measure of the diffuse reflection of solar radiation out of the total solar radiation received by an astronomical body (e.g. a planet like Earth).
An amateur radio operator is someone who uses equipment at an amateur radio station to engage in two-way personal communications with other amateur operators on radio frequencies assigned to the amateur radio service.
The American Geophysical Union (AGU) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization of geophysicists, consisting of over 62,000 members from 144 countries.
An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.
Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).
An aurora (plural: auroras or aurorae), sometimes referred to as polar lights, northern lights (aurora borealis) or southern lights (aurora australis), is a natural light display in the Earth's sky, predominantly seen in the high-latitude regions (around the Arctic and Antarctic).
The Babcock Model describes a mechanism which can explain magnetic and sunspot patterns observed on the Sun.
Beryllium-10 (10Be) is a radioactive isotope of beryllium.
In paleoclimatology of the Holocene, the Boreal was the first of the Blytt-Sernander sequence of north European climatic phases that were originally based on the study of Danish peat bogs, named for Axel Blytt and Rutger Sernander, who first established the sequence.
Broadcasting is the distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves), in a one-to-many model.
Brown dwarfs are substellar objects that occupy the mass range between the heaviest gas giant planets and the lightest stars, having masses between approximately 13 to 75–80 times that of Jupiter, or approximately to about.
Carbon-14, 14C, or radiocarbon, is a radioactive isotope of carbon with an atomic nucleus containing 6 protons and 8 neutrons.
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.
The Chernobyl disaster, also referred to as the Chernobyl accident, was a catastrophic nuclear accident.
The chromosphere (literally, "sphere of color") is the second of the three main layers in the Sun's atmosphere and is roughly 3,000 to 5,000 kilometers deep.
Chronobiology is a field of biology that examines periodic (cyclic) phenomena in living organisms and their adaptation to solar- and lunar-related rhythms.
Cloud condensation nuclei or CCNs (also known as cloud seeds) are small particles typically 0.2 µm, or 1/100th the size of a cloud droplet on which water vapor condenses.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.
A convection zone, convective zone or convective region of a star is a layer which is unstable to convection.
A corona (Latin, 'crown') is an aura of plasma that surrounds the Sun and other stars.
A coronal mass ejection (CME) is a significant release of plasma and magnetic field from the solar corona.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
Cosmic ray spallation is a naturally occurring nuclear reaction causing nucleosynthesis.
The Dalton Minimum was a period of low sunspot count, representing low solar activity, named after the English meteorologist John Dalton, lasting from about 1790 to 1830 or 1796 to 1820, corresponding to the period solar cycle 4 to solar cycle 7.
Dendrochronology (or tree-ring dating) is the scientific method of dating tree rings (also called growth rings) to the exact year they were formed in order to analyze atmospheric conditions during different periods in history.
Dendroclimatology is the science of determining past climates from trees (primarily properties of the annual tree rings).
In electromagnetism, there are two kinds of dipoles.
Earth's magnetic field, also known as the geomagnetic field, is the magnetic field that extends from the Earth's interior out into space, where it meets the solar wind, a stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun.
(Edward) Walter Maunder (12 April 1851 – 21 March 1928) was a British astronomer best remembered for his study of sunspots and the solar magnetic cycle that led to his identification of the period from 1645 to 1715 that is now known as the Maunder Minimum.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
Extreme ultraviolet radiation (EUV or XUV) or high-energy ultraviolet radiation is electromagnetic radiation in the part of the electromagnetic spectrum spanning wavelengths from 124 nm down to 10 nm, and therefore (by the Planck–Einstein equation) having photons with energies from 10 eV up to 124 eV (corresponding to 124 nm to 10 nm respectively).
A facula (plural: faculae), Latin for "little torch", is literally a "bright spot".
The formation and evolution of the Solar System began 4.6 billion years ago with the gravitational collapse of a small part of a giant molecular cloud.
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.
Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.
Geology is a peer-reviewed publication of the Geological Society of America (GSA).
A geomagnetic storm (commonly referred to as a solar storm) is a temporary disturbance of the Earth's magnetosphere caused by a solar wind shock wave and/or cloud of magnetic field that interacts with the Earth's magnetic field.
George Ellery Hale (June 29, 1868 – February 21, 1938) was an American solar astronomer, best known for his discovery of magnetic fields in sunspots, and as the leader or key figure in the planning or construction of several world-leading telescopes; namely, the 40-inch refracting telescope at Yerkes Observatory, 60-inch Hale reflecting telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory, 100-inch Hooker reflecting telescope at Mount Wilson, and the 200-inch Hale reflecting telescope at Palomar Observatory.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
The Gnevyshev-Ohl rule is an empirical rule according to which the sum of sunspot numbers over an odd cycle exceeds that of the preceding even cycle.
The Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) is a laboratory in the Earth Sciences Division of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and a unit of the Columbia University Earth Institute.
Friederich Wilhelm Gustav Spörer (23 October 1822 – 7 July 1895) was a German astronomer.
Harold Delos Babcock (January 24, 1882 – April 8, 1968) was an American astronomer, and the father of Horace W. Babcock.
Samuel Heinrich Schwabe (25 October 1789 – 11 April 1875) a German astronomer remembered for his work on sunspots.
The heliosphere is the bubble-like region of space dominated by the Sun, which extends far beyond the orbit of Pluto.
High frequency (HF) is the ITU designation for the range of radio frequency electromagnetic waves (radio waves) between 3 and 30 megahertz (MHz).
Horace Welcome Babcock (September 13, 1912 – August 29, 2003) was an American astronomer.
A human mission to Mars has been the subject of science fiction, aerospace engineering, and scientific proposals since the 19th century.
An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than, this is also known as continental glacier.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific and intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations, set up at the request of member governments, dedicated to the task of providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change and its political and economic impacts.
The ionosphere is the ionized part of Earth's upper atmosphere, from about to altitude, a region that includes the thermosphere and parts of the mesosphere and exosphere.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Articles related to the Sun include.
The following contains a list of coronal mass ejections.
The following is a list of solar cycles (sometimes called sunspot cycles), tracked since 1755 following the original numbering proposed by Rudolf Wolf in the mid-19th centuryKane, R.P. (2002).
Solar storms of different types are caused by disturbances on the Sun, most often coronal clouds associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) produced by solar flares emanating from active sunspot regions, or, less often, from coronal holes.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
In physics, specifically electromagnetism, the magnetic flux (often denoted or) through a surface is the surface integral of the normal component of the magnetic field B passing through that surface.
The term magnetogram has two meanings, used separately in the contexts of magnetic fields of the Sun and the Earth.
The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), located in Huntsville, Alabama, is the U.S. government's civilian rocketry and spacecraft propulsion research center.
The Maunder Minimum, also known as the "prolonged sunspot minimum", is the name used for the period around 1645 to 1715 during which sunspots became exceedingly rare, as was then noted by solar observers.
Max Waldmeier (April 18, 1912 – September 26, 2000) was a Swiss astronomer, known for his research on sunspots.
In radio transmission maximum usable frequency (MUF) is the highest radio frequency that can be used for transmission between two points via reflection from the ionosphere (skywave or "skip" propagation) at a specified time, independent of transmitter power.
Medical Hypotheses is a medical journal published by Elsevier.
The Modern Maximum, refers to the period of relatively high solar activity which began with Solar Cycle 15 in 1914.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
Nature Geoscience is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Nature Publishing Group.
An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.
The ozone layer or ozone shield is a region of Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation.
The ozone–oxygen cycle is the process by which ozone is continually regenerated in Earth's stratosphere, converting ultraviolet radiation (UV) into heat.
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.
The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences is a fortnightly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society.
Photodissociation, photolysis, or photodecomposition is a chemical reaction in which a chemical compound is broken down by photons.
The photosphere is a star's outer shell from which light is radiated.
Phys.org is a science, research and technology news aggregator where much of the content is republished directly from press releases and news agencies-in a practice known as churnalism.
Physical Review Letters (PRL), established in 1958, is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that is published 52 times per year by the American Physical Society.
Radiative forcing or climate forcing is the difference between insolation (sunlight) absorbed by the Earth and energy radiated back to space.
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
Radio propagation is the behavior of radio waves as they travel, or are propagated, from one point to another, or into various parts of the atmosphere.
A radiometer or roentgenometer is a device for measuring the radiant flux (power) of electromagnetic radiation.
Refraction is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium.
Richard Christopher Carrington (26 May 1826 – 27 November 1875) was an English amateur astronomer whose 1859 astronomical observations demonstrated the existence of solar flares as well as suggesting their electrical influence upon the Earth and its aurorae; and whose 1863 records of sunspot observations revealed the differential rotation of the Sun.
Johann Rudolf Wolf (7 July 1816 – 6 December 1893) was a Swiss astronomer and mathematician best known for his research on sunspots.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Shortwave radio is radio transmission using shortwave radio frequencies.
A single event upset (SEU) is a change of state caused by one single ionizing particle (ions, electrons, photons...) striking a sensitive node in a micro-electronic device, such as in a microprocessor, semiconductor memory, or power transistors.
The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) is a spacecraft built by a European industrial consortium led by Matra Marconi Space (now Astrium) that was launched on a Lockheed Martin Atlas II AS launch vehicle on December 2, 1995, to study the Sun, and has discovered over 3000 comets.
A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.
The solar constant is a flux density measuring mean solar electromagnetic radiation (solar irradiance) per unit area.
Solar Cycle 24 is the 24th solar cycle since 1755, when extensive recording of solar sunspot activity began.
The solar dynamo is the physical process that generates the Sun's magnetic field.
A solar flare is a sudden flash of increased Sun's brightness, usually observed near its surface.
Solar irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.
The solar luminosity,, is a unit of radiant flux (power emitted in the form of photons) conventionally used by astronomers to measure the luminosity of stars, galaxies and other celestial objects in terms of the output of the Sun.
Solar maximum or solar max is a regular period of greatest Sun activity during the 11-year solar cycle.
Solar minimum is the period of least solar activity in the 11 year solar cycle of the sun.
Solar Physics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published approximately monthly by Springer Science+Business Media.
The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona.
Space debris (also known as space junk, space waste, space trash, space litter or space garbage) is a term for the mass of defunct, artificially created objects in space, most notably in Earth orbit, such as old satellites and spent rocket stages.
Space weather is a branch of space physics and aeronomy concerned with the time varying conditions within the Solar System, including the solar wind, emphasizing the space surrounding the Earth, including conditions in the magnetosphere, ionosphere, thermosphere, and exosphere.
The Spörer Minimum is a hypothesized 90-year span of low solar activity, from about 1460 until 1550, which was identified and named by John A. Eddy in a landmark 1976 paper published in Science titled "The Maunder Minimum".
Stellar evolution is the process by which a star changes over the course of time.
The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
Sunspots are temporary phenomena on the Sun's photosphere that appear as spots darker than the surrounding areas.
The tachocline is the transition region of the Sun between the radiative interior and the differentially rotating outer convective zone.
The earliest use of these terms cited by the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is by Walter M. Elsasser (1946) in the context of the generation of the Earth's magnetic field by currents in the core, with "toroidal" being parallel to lines of latitude and "poloidal" being in the direction of the magnetic field (i.e. towards the poles).
Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) was a NASA heliophysics and solar observatory designed to investigate the connections between fine-scale magnetic fields and the associated plasma structures on the Sun by providing high resolution images and observation of the solar photosphere, the transition region, and the corona.
The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere, and is also where nearly all weather conditions take place.
Very high frequency (VHF) is the ITU designation for the range of radio frequency electromagnetic waves (radio waves) from 30 to 300 megahertz (MHz), with corresponding wavelengths of ten to one meter.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Yohkoh (ようこう, Sunbeam in Japanese), known before launch as Solar-A, was a Solar observatory spacecraft of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan), in collaboration with space agencies in the United States and the United Kingdom. It was launched into Earth orbit on August 30, 1991 by the M-3S-5 rocket from Kagoshima Space Center. It took its first soft X-ray image on September 13, 1991 21:53:40, and movie representations of the X-ray corona over 1991-2001 are available at the.
11-year sunspot cycle, Effects of solar cycles on Earth's climate, Hale cycle, Hallstatt cycle, Quiet sun, Relative global warming, Schwabe cycle, Schwabe solar cycle, Schwabe-Wolf cycle, Solar Cycle, Solar Cycle Length, Solar Variation, Solar activity and irradiance measurement, Solar activity variations, Solar magnetic activity cycle, Solar magnetic cycle, Solar radiance, Solar system warming, Solar variation, Solar variation theory, Sun cycle, Sun spot cycle, Sunspot cycle, Sunspot cycles, Wolf minimum.