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Solar sail

Index Solar sail

Solar sails (also called light sails or photon sails) are a proposed method of spacecraft propulsion using radiation pressure exerted by sunlight on large mirrors. [1]

158 relations: Aerobraking, Akari (satellite), Akatsuki (spacecraft), Albert Einstein, Alpha Centauri, Aluminium oxide, Ames Research Center, Astronomical unit, Atmospheric entry, Attitude control, Bajoran, Barents Sea, Beam-powered propulsion, Beryllium, BoPET, Breakthrough Starshot, Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, Carbon nanotube, Center of mass, Center of pressure (fluid mechanics), Comet, Cosmos 1, Cranfield University, CubeSail, CubeSat, Deep Space Climate Observatory, Directed panspermia, Earth, Electric field, Electric sail, Electrically powered spacecraft propulsion, Electromagnetic field, Emissivity, Energy, Energy–momentum relation, European Space Agency, Evaporation, Exploration Mission 1, Explorers (Star Trek: Deep Space Nine), Extremophile, Falcon 1, Falcon 9, Falcon Heavy, FASTSAT, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Flight dynamics (fixed-wing aircraft), Flight dynamics (spacecraft), Fresnel lens, Friedrich Zander, Geoffrey A. Landis, ..., Gravitational lens, Gravity assist, Guy (sailing), Guy-wire, Halley's Comet, Hayabusa, Helicopter, IKAROS, InflateSail, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Interplanetary spaceflight, Ion thruster, J. B. S. Haldane, James Clerk Maxwell, JAXA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Johannes Kepler, John Desmond Bernal, Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, Jules Verne, Jupiter trojan, K. Eric Drexler, Kapton, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, Lagrangian point, Laser propulsion, Life, LightSail 2, Liquid crystal, Liquid-crystal display, Lithium, Low Earth orbit, M-V, Magnesium, Magnetic sail, Mariner 10, Marshall Space Flight Center, Maser, Maxwell's equations, Mercury (planet), MESSENGER, Metallised film, Metallizing, Micrometre, Minotaur IV, Mir, Molecular assembler, Momentum, Multi-Functional Transport Satellite, Nanometre, NanoSail-D2, NASA, NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts, Near-Earth Asteroid Scout, Near-Earth object, New Scientist, Nichols radiometer, Optical lift, Panspermia, Pascal (unit), Pekka Janhunen, Photon, Polyimide, Poynting–Robertson effect, Pyotr Lebedev, Radiation pressure, Radius, Reaction wheel, Robert L. Forward, Robert Zubrin, Rocheworld, Russian Academy of Sciences, Sailboat, Sailcraft, Sailing ship, Solar cell, Solar constant, Solar panels on spacecraft, Solar System, Solar wind, Space Launch System, Spacecraft, Spacecraft design, Spacecraft propulsion, SpaceX, Specular reflection, Speed of light, Springer Science+Business Media, Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, Starwisp, Statite, Sun, Sunjammer (spacecraft), Sunlight, Svante Arrhenius, Tension (physics), Terminator (solar), The Case for Mars, The Planetary Society, Thrust, University of Arizona Press, Venus, Volna, Watt, World, X-Level Studios, Yarkovsky effect, Zone plate. Expand index (108 more) »


Aerobraking is a spaceflight maneuver that reduces the high point of an elliptical orbit (apoapsis) by flying the vehicle through the atmosphere at the low point of the orbit (periapsis).

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Akari (satellite)

Akari (ASTRO-F) is an infrared astronomy satellite developed by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, in cooperation with institutes of Europe and Korea.

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Akatsuki (spacecraft)

, also known as the Venus Climate Orbiter (VCO) and Planet-C, is a Japanese (JAXA) space probe tasked to study the atmosphere of Venus.

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Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).

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Alpha Centauri

Alpha Centauri (α Centauri, abbreviated Alf Cen or α Cen) is the star system closest to the Solar System, being from the Sun.

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Aluminium oxide

Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.

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Ames Research Center

Ames Research Center (ARC), also known as NASA Ames, is a major NASA research center at Moffett Federal Airfield in California's Silicon Valley.

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Astronomical unit

The astronomical unit (symbol: au, ua, or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun.

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Atmospheric entry

Atmospheric entry is the movement of an object from outer space into and through the gases of an atmosphere of a planet, dwarf planet or natural satellite.

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Attitude control

Attitude control is controlling the orientation of an object with respect to an inertial frame of reference or another entity like the celestial sphere, certain fields, and nearby objects, etc.

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In the Star Trek science-fiction franchise, the Bajorans are a humanoid extraterrestrial species native to the planet Bajor.

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Barents Sea

The Barents Sea (Barentshavet; Баренцево море, Barentsevo More) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, located off the northern coasts of Norway and Russia divided between Norwegian and Russian territorial waters.

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Beam-powered propulsion

Beam-powered propulsion, also known as directed energy propulsion, is a class of aircraft or spacecraft propulsion that uses energy beamed to the spacecraft from a remote power plant to provide energy.

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Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.

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BoPET (biaxially-oriented polyethylene terephthalate) is a polyester film made from stretched polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and is used for its high tensile strength, chemical and dimensional stability, transparency, reflectivity, gas and aroma barrier properties, and electrical insulation.

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Breakthrough Starshot

Breakthrough Starshot is a research and engineering project by the Breakthrough Initiatives to develop a proof-of-concept fleet of light sail spacecraft named StarChip, to be capable of making the journey to the Alpha Centauri star system 4.37 light-years away.

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Carbon fiber reinforced polymer

Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, carbon fiber reinforced plastic or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic (CFRP, CRP, CFRTP or often simply carbon fiber, carbon composite or even carbon), is an extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers.

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Carbon nanotube

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure.

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Center of mass

In physics, the center of mass of a distribution of mass in space is the unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass sums to zero, or the point where if a force is applied it moves in the direction of the force without rotating.

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Center of pressure (fluid mechanics)

The center of pressure is the point where the total sum of a pressure field acts on a body, causing a force to act through that point.

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A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.

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Cosmos 1

Cosmos 1 was a project by Cosmos Studios and The Planetary Society to test a solar sail in space.

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Cranfield University

Cranfield University is a British postgraduate and research-based public university specialising in science, engineering, technology and management.

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CubeSail is a nanosatellite project by the Surrey Space Centre (SSC) in England.

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A CubeSat (U-class spacecraft) is a type of miniaturized satellite for space research that is made up of multiples of 10×10×10 cm cubic units.

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Deep Space Climate Observatory

Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR; formerly known as Triana, unofficially known as GoreSat) is a NOAA space weather and Earth observation satellite.

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Directed panspermia

Directed panspermia is the deliberate transport of microorganisms in space to be used as introduced species on lifeless but habitable astronomical objects.

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Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Electric field

An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.

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Electric sail

An electric sail (also called electric solar wind sail or E-sail) is a proposed form of spacecraft propulsion using the dynamic pressure of the solar wind as a source of thrust.

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Electrically powered spacecraft propulsion

An electrically-powered spacecraft propulsion system uses electrical energy to change the velocity of a spacecraft.

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Electromagnetic field

An electromagnetic field (also EMF or EM field) is a physical field produced by electrically charged objects.

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The emissivity of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in emitting energy as thermal radiation.

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In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.

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Energy–momentum relation

In physics, the energy–momentum relation, or relativistic dispersion relation, is the relativistic equation relating any object's rest (intrinsic) mass, total energy, and momentum: holds for a system, such as a particle or macroscopic body, having intrinsic rest mass, total energy, and a momentum of magnitude, where the constant is the speed of light, assuming the special relativity case of flat spacetime.

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European Space Agency

The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.

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Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.

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Exploration Mission 1

Exploration Mission 1 or EM-1 (previously known as Space Launch System 1 or SLS-1) is the uncrewed first planned flight of the Space Launch System and the second flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle.

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Explorers (Star Trek: Deep Space Nine)

"Explorers" is the 68th episode of the television series Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, the 22nd episode of the third season.

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An extremophile (from Latin extremus meaning "extreme" and Greek philiā (φιλία) meaning "love") is an organism that thrives in physically or geochemically extreme conditions that are detrimental to most life on Earth.

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Falcon 1

The Falcon 1 was an expendable launch system privately developed and manufactured by SpaceX during 2006–2009.

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Falcon 9

Falcon 9 is a family of two-stage-to-orbit medium lift launch vehicles, named for its use of nine Merlin first-stage engines, designed and manufactured by SpaceX.

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Falcon Heavy

Falcon Heavy is a partially reusable heavy-lift launch vehicle designed and manufactured by SpaceX.

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Fast, Affordable, Science and Technology Satellite or FASTSAT, also known as US(PISA), Miniature Imager for Neutral Ionospheric atoms and Magnetosphereic electrons (MINI-ME), a Miniature Star Tracker (MST), and NanoSail-D2.

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Finnish Meteorological Institute

The Finnish Meteorological Institute (Ilmatieteen laitos, Meteorologiska institutet, or simply FMI) is the government agency responsible for gathering and reporting weather data and forecasts in Finland.

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Flight dynamics (fixed-wing aircraft)

Flight dynamics is the science of air vehicle orientation and control in three dimensions.

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Flight dynamics (spacecraft)

Spacecraft flight dynamics is the science of space vehicle performance, stability, and control.

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Fresnel lens

A Fresnel lens is a type of compact lens originally developed by French physicist Augustin-Jean Fresnel for lighthouses.

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Friedrich Zander

Friedrich Zander (Фридрих Артурович Цандер Fridrikh Arturovich Tsander. Frīdrihs Canders, – 28 March 1933), was a Baltic German pioneer of rocketry and spaceflight in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union.

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Geoffrey A. Landis

Geoffrey Alan Landis (born May 28, 1955) is an American scientist, working for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on planetary exploration, interstellar propulsion, solar power and photovoltaics.

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Gravitational lens

A gravitational lens is a distribution of matter (such as a cluster of galaxies) between a distant light source and an observer, that is capable of bending the light from the source as the light travels towards the observer.

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Gravity assist

In orbital mechanics and aerospace engineering, a gravitational slingshot, gravity assist maneuver, or swing-by is the use of the relative movement (e.g. orbit around the Sun) and gravity of a planet or other astronomical object to alter the path and speed of a spacecraft, typically to save propellant and reduce expense.

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Guy (sailing)

A guy (probably from Dutch gei, "brail") is a line (rope) attached to and intended to control the end of a spar on a sailboat.

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A guy-wire, guy-line, or guy-rope, also known as simply a guy, is a tensioned cable designed to add stability to a free-standing structure.

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Halley's Comet

Halley's Comet or Comet Halley, officially designated 1P/Halley, is a short-period comet visible from Earth every 74–79 years.

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No description.

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A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors.

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IKAROS (Interplanetary Kite-craft Accelerated by Radiation Of the Sun) is a Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) experimental spacecraft.

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InflateSail was a 3U CubeSat launched on PSLV C38 on 23 June 2017 into a 505 km polar Sun-synchronous orbit.

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Institute of Space and Astronautical Science

(ISAS) is a Japanese national research organization of astrophysics using rockets, astronomical satellites and interplanetary probes which played a major role in Japan's space development.

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Interplanetary spaceflight

Interplanetary spaceflight or interplanetary travel is travel between planets, usually within a single planetary system.

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Ion thruster

An ion thruster or ion drive is a form of electric propulsion used for spacecraft propulsion.

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J. B. S. Haldane

John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (5 November 18921 December 1964) was an English scientist known for his work in the study of physiology, genetics, evolutionary biology, and in mathematics, where he made innovative contributions to the fields of statistics and biostatistics.

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James Clerk Maxwell

James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.

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The is the Japanese national aerospace and space agency.

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Jet Propulsion Laboratory

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center in Pasadena, California, United States, with large portions of the campus in La Cañada Flintridge, California.

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Johannes Kepler

Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer.

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John Desmond Bernal

John Desmond Bernal (10 May 1901 – 15 September 1971) was an Irish scientist who pioneered the use of X-ray crystallography in molecular biology.

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Journal of the British Interplanetary Society

The Journal of the British Interplanetary Society (JBIS) is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1934.

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Jules Verne

Jules Gabriel Verne (Longman Pronunciation Dictionary.; 8 February 1828 – 24 March 1905) was a French novelist, poet, and playwright.

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Jupiter trojan

The Jupiter trojans, commonly called Trojan asteroids or just Trojans, are a large group of asteroids that share the planet Jupiter's orbit around the Sun.

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K. Eric Drexler

Kim Eric Drexler (born April 25, 1955) is an American engineer best known for popularizing the potential of molecular nanotechnology (MNT), from the 1970s and 1980s.

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Kapton is a polyimide film developed by DuPont in the late 1960s that remains stable across a wide range of temperatures, from.

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Konstantin Tsiolkovsky

Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky (a; Konstanty Ciołkowski; 19 September 1935) was a Russian and Soviet rocket scientist and pioneer of the astronautic theory of ethnic Polish descent.

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Lagrangian point

In celestial mechanics, the Lagrangian points (also Lagrange points, L-points, or libration points) are positions in an orbital configuration of two large bodies, wherein a small object, affected only by the gravitational forces from the two larger objects, will maintain its position relative to them.

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Laser propulsion

Laser propulsion is a form of beam-powered propulsion where the energy source is a remote (usually ground-based) laser system and separate from the reaction mass.

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Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.

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LightSail 2

LightSail 2 is a project to demonstrate controlled solar sailing using a CubeSat developed by The Planetary Society, a global non-profit organization devoted to space exploration.

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Liquid crystal

Liquid crystals (LCs) are matter in a state which has properties between those of conventional liquids and those of solid crystals.

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Liquid-crystal display

A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat-panel display or other electronically modulated optical device that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals.

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Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.

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Low Earth orbit

A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes.

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The M-V rocket, also called M-5 or Mu-5, was a Japanese solid-fuel rocket designed to launch scientific satellites.

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Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.

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Magnetic sail

A magnetic sail or magsail is a proposed method of spacecraft propulsion which would use a static magnetic field to deflect charged particles radiated by the Sun as a plasma wind, and thus impart momentum to accelerate the spacecraft.

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Mariner 10

Mariner 10 was an American robotic space probe launched by NASA on November 3, 1973, to fly by the planets Mercury and Venus.

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Marshall Space Flight Center

The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), located in Huntsville, Alabama, is the U.S. government's civilian rocketry and spacecraft propulsion research center.

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A maser (an acronym for "microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation") is a device that produces coherent electromagnetic waves through amplification by stimulated emission.

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Maxwell's equations

Maxwell's equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetism, classical optics, and electric circuits.

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Mercury (planet)

Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System.

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Messenger (stylized as MESSENGER, whose backronym is "MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging", and which is a reference to the messenger of the same name from Roman mythology) was a NASA robotic spacecraft that orbited the planet Mercury between 2011 and 2015.

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Metallised film

Metallised films (or metalized films) are polymer films coated with a thin layer of metal, usually aluminium.

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Metallizing is the general name for the technique of coating metal on the surface of objects.

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The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".

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Minotaur IV

Minotaur IV, also known as Peacekeeper SLV and OSP-2 PK is an active expendable launch system derived from the LGM-118 Peacekeeper ICBM.

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Mir (Мир,; lit. peace or world) was a space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, operated by the Soviet Union and later by Russia.

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Molecular assembler

A molecular assembler, as defined by K. Eric Drexler, is a "proposed device able to guide chemical reactions by positioning reactive molecules with atomic precision".

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In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.

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Multi-Functional Transport Satellite

Multifunctional Transport Satellites (MTSAT) were a series of weather and aviation control satellites.

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The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).

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NanoSail-D2 was a small satellite built by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and Ames Research Center to study the deployment of a solar sail in space.

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts

200px The NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC) is a NASA program for development of far reaching, long term advanced concepts by "creating breakthroughs, radically better or entirely new aerospace concepts".

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Near-Earth Asteroid Scout

The Near-Earth Asteroid Scout (NEA Scout) is a planned mission by NASA to develop a controllable low-cost CubeSat solar sail spacecraft capable of encountering near-Earth asteroids (NEA).

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Near-Earth object

A near-Earth object (NEO) is any small Solar System body whose orbit can bring it into proximity with Earth.

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New Scientist

New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.

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Nichols radiometer

A Nichols radiometer was the apparatus used by Ernest Fox Nichols and Gordon Ferrie Hull in 1901 for the measurement of radiation pressure.

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Optical lift

Optical lift is an optical analogue of aerodynamic lift, in which a cambered refractive object with differently shaped top and bottom surfaces experiences a stable transverse lift force when placed in a uniform stream of light.

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Panspermia is the hypothesis that life exists throughout the Universe, distributed by space dust, meteoroids, asteroids, comets, planetoids, and also by spacecraft carrying unintended contamination by microorganisms.

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Pascal (unit)

The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.

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Pekka Janhunen

Pekka Janhunen, Ph.D., is a researcher in Finnish Meteorological Institute.

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The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

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Polyimide (sometimes abbreviated PI) is a polymer of imide monomers.

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Poynting–Robertson effect

The Poynting–Robertson effect, also known as Poynting–Robertson drag, named after John Henry Poynting and Howard P. Robertson, is a process by which solar radiation causes a dust grain orbiting a star to lose angular momentum relative to its orbit around the star.

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Pyotr Lebedev

Pyotr Nikolaevich Lebedev was a Russian physicist.

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Radiation pressure

Radiation pressure is the pressure exerted upon any surface due to the exchange of momentum between the object and the electromagnetic field.

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In classical geometry, a radius of a circle or sphere is any of the line segments from its center to its perimeter, and in more modern usage, it is also their length.

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Reaction wheel

A reaction wheel (RW) is a type of flywheel used primarily by spacecraft for three axis attitude control, which doesn't require rockets or external applicators of torque.

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Robert L. Forward

Robert Lull Forward (August 15, 1932 – September 21, 2002) was an American physicist and science fiction writer.

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Robert Zubrin

Robert Zubrin (born April 9, 1952) is an American aerospace engineer and author, best known for his advocacy of the manned exploration of Mars.

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Rocheworld (first published in serial form in 1982; first book publication, under the title The Flight of the Dragonfly, 1984)Internet science fiction database entry, is a science fiction novel by Robert Forward which depicts a realistic interstellar mission using a laser driven light sail propulsion system to send the spaceship and crew on a journey of 20 5.9 light-years (ca. 34 trillion miles; ca. 56 trillion km) to the double planet that orbits Barnard's Star, which they call Rocheworld, where they make startling discoveries stranger than anything ever encountered before.

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Russian Academy of Sciences

The Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS; Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к (РАН) Rossíiskaya akadémiya naúk) consists of the national academy of Russia; a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation; and additional scientific and social units such as libraries, publishing units, and hospitals.

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A sailboat or sailing boat is a boat propelled partly or entirely by sails smaller than a sailing ship.

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For sailcraft referring to a boat etc., see.

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Sailing ship

The term "sailing ship" is most often used to describe any large vessel that uses sails to harness the power of wind.

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Solar cell

A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.

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Solar constant

The solar constant is a flux density measuring mean solar electromagnetic radiation (solar irradiance) per unit area.

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Solar panels on spacecraft

Spacecraft operating in the inner Solar System usually rely on the use of photovoltaic solar panels to derive electricity from sunlight.

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Solar System

The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.

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Solar wind

The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona.

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Space Launch System

The Space Launch System (SLS) is an American Space Shuttle-derived heavy-lift expendable launch vehicle.

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A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.

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Spacecraft design

The design of spacecraft covers a broad area, including the design of both robotic spacecraft (satellites and planetary probes), and spacecraft for human spaceflight (spaceships and space stations).

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Spacecraft propulsion

Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites.

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Space Exploration Technologies Corp., doing business as SpaceX, is a private American aerospace manufacturer and space transportation services company headquartered in Hawthorne, California.

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Specular reflection

Specular reflection, also known as regular reflection, is the mirror-like reflection of waves, such as light, from a surface.

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Speed of light

The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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Star Trek: Deep Space Nine

Star Trek: Deep Space Nine (sometimes abbreviated to DS9) is a science fiction television series set in the Star Trek universe in the Milky Way galaxy, in the years 2369–2375.

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Starwisp is a hypothetical unmanned interstellar probe design proposed by Robert L. Forward.

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A statite (a portmanteau of static and satellite) is a hypothetical type of artificial satellite that employs a solar sail to continuously modify its orbit in ways that gravity alone would not allow.

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The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.

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Sunjammer (spacecraft)

Sunjammer (Solar Sail Demonstrator) was a NASA mission intended to demonstrate a solar sail constructed by LGarde, but was cancelled before launch.

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Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.

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Svante Arrhenius

Svante August Arrhenius (19 February 1859 – 2 October 1927) was a Nobel-Prize winning Swedish scientist, originally a physicist, but often referred to as a chemist, and one of the founders of the science of physical chemistry.

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Tension (physics)

In physics, tension may be described as the pulling force transmitted axially by the means of a string, cable, chain, or similar one-dimensional continuous object, or by each end of a rod, truss member, or similar three-dimensional object; tension might also be described as the action-reaction pair of forces acting at each end of said elements.

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Terminator (solar)

A terminator or twilight zone is a moving line that divides the daylit side and the dark night side of a planetary body.

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The Case for Mars

The Case for Mars: The Plan to Settle the Red Planet and Why We Must is a nonfiction science book by Robert Zubrin, first published in 1996, and revised and updated in 2011.

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The Planetary Society

The Planetary Society is an American internationally active, non-governmental, nonprofit foundation.

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Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newton's third law.

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University of Arizona Press

The University of Arizona Press, a publishing house founded in 1959 as a department of the University of Arizona, is a nonprofit publisher of scholarly and regional books.

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Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.

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Space launch vehicle Volna (Волна "wave"), is a converted Submarine-launched ballistic missile used for launching satellites into orbit.

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The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.

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The world is the planet Earth and all life upon it, including human civilization.

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X-Level Studios

X-Level Studios, formerly known as EMI Studios, Abbey Road Studios and Cosmos Studios, is a recording studio in Skärmarbrink on the outskirts of Stockholm, Sweden.

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Yarkovsky effect

The Yarkovsky effect is a force acting on a rotating body in space caused by the anisotropic emission of thermal photons, which carry momentum.

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Zone plate

A zone plate is a device used to focus light or other things exhibiting wave character.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_sail

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