204 relations: Aerospace, AIM alliance, Air pollution, Alloy, Alpha decay, Alpha particle, Aluminium, Aluminium oxide, Ames Laboratory, Antimony, Arsenic, Bake-out, Ball grid array, Beta decay, Bismuth, Bismuth(III) oxide, Body solder, Borate, Borate glass, Borosilicate glass, Brass, Brazing, Cadmium, Cathode ray tube, Ceramic, Chip carrier, Chip-scale package, Chloride, Conformal coating, Copper, Copper(II) oxide, Corrosion, Covalent bond, Cryogenics, Dendrite, Desoldering, Detergent, Devitrification, Die (integrated circuit), Die casting, Die-cast toy, Diffusion barrier, Diffusion bonding, Dislocation, Doping (semiconductor), Dross, Dual in-line package, Ductility, Electrical conductor, Electricity meter, ..., Electrochemistry, Electromagnetic interference, Electromotive force, Electronic packaging, Electronics, European Union, Eutectic system, Extrinsic semiconductor, Failure analysis, Fatigue (material), Field's metal, Filler (materials), Flip chip, Flux (metallurgy), FR-4, Freezing, Frit, Fuel tank, Fusible alloy, Gallium arsenide, Gas meter, Geiger–Müller tube, Germanium, Glass, Glass frit bonding, Glass-ceramic, Glass-ceramic-to-metal seals, Glass-to-metal seal, Gold, Hazardous waste, Hot air solder leveling, Hydrocarbon, Hydrogen, IBM, Indium, Ink, Insulated glazing, Integrated circuit, Integrated circuit packaging, Intermetallic, Iowa State University, Iron, Iron(III) oxide, Isotopes of bismuth, Isotopes of lead, Isotopes of polonium, Isotopes of thorium, Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association, Jewellery, Kiln, Kovar, Latin, Lead, Lead glass, Lead poisoning, Lead(II) oxide, Liquid helium, Liquidus, Mainframe computer, Manganese, Mass production, Melting, Melting point, Meniscus (liquid), Metal, Metallurgical assay, Mica, Middle English, Motorola, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Newton's metal, Nickel, Nitrocellulose, Old French, Palladium, Panasonic, Patina, Pewter, Phosphate glass, Phosphide, Phosphorus, Phosphorus pentoxide, Plasma display, Platinum, Plumbing, Pottery, Printed circuit board, Purified water, Radiator (engine cooling), Radionuclide, Redox, Reducing agent, Reflow soldering, Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive, Reverse engineering, Rose's metal, Rosin, Safe Drinking Water Act, Sandia National Laboratories, Sealant, Semiconductor, Shear strength, Shearing (physics), Silicon, Silver, Silversmith, Soft error, Solder fatigue, Solder mask, Solder paste, Solderability, Soldering gun, Soldering iron, Solidus (chemistry), Solvent, Stainless steel, Steel, Sulfide, Sulfur, Superconductivity, Surface-mount technology, Thallium, Thermal expansion, Thermocouple, Through-hole technology, Tin, Tin can, Tin cry, Tin pest, Tin(II) oxide, Tin(IV) Oxide, Tin-silver-copper, Tinplate, Titanium, Titanium dioxide, Toxicity, Ultimate tensile strength, Ultrasonic soldering, Uranium-238, Vacuum, Vacuum tube, Van der Waals force, Vitreous enamel, Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive, Wave soldering, Welding, Wetting, Whisker (metallurgy), Window, Wire rope, Wood's metal, World War II, Zinc, Zinc oxide. Expand index (154 more) » « Shrink index
Aerospace is the human effort in science, engineering and business to fly in the atmosphere of Earth (aeronautics) and surrounding space (astronautics).
The AIM alliance was formed on October 2, 1991, between Apple Inc. (then Apple Computer), IBM, and Motorola to create a new computing standard based on the PowerPC architecture.
Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.
Ames Laboratory is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory located in Ames, Iowa and affiliated with Iowa State University.
Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
Bake-out, in several areas of technology and fabrication, and in building construction, refers to the process of using high heat temperature (heat), and possibly vacuum, to remove volatile compounds from materials and objects before placing them into situations where the slow release of the same volatile compounds would contaminate the contents of a container or vessel, spoil a vacuum, or cause discomfort (odor or irritation) or illness.
A ball grid array (BGA) is a type of surface-mount packaging (a chip carrier) used for integrated circuits.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.
Bismuth(III) oxide is perhaps the most industrially important compound of bismuth.
Body solder is a type of solder used to smooth the surface of automobile bodies before painting.
Borates are the name for a large number of boron-containing oxyanions.
Borate glasses have a more complex action of alkali ions than silicate glasses.
Borosilicate glass is a type of glass with silica and boron trioxide as the main glass-forming constituents.
Brass is a metallic alloy that is made of copper and zinc.
Brazing is a metal-joining process in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal into the joint, the filler metal having a lower melting point than the adjoining metal.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.
A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.
In electronics, a chip carrier is one of several kinds of surface mount technology packages for integrated circuits (commonly called "chips").
A chip scale package or chip-scale package (CSP) is a type of integrated circuit package.
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
Conformal coating material is a thin polymeric film which ‘conforms’ to the contours of a printed circuit board to protect the board's components.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Copper(II) oxide or cupric oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula CuO.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
In physics, cryogenics is the production and behaviour of materials at very low temperatures.
Dendrites (from Greek δένδρον déndron, "tree"), also dendrons, are branched protoplasmic extensions of a nerve cell that propagate the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project.
In electronics, desoldering is the removal of solder and components from a circuit board for troubleshooting, repair, replacement, and salvage.
A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleaning properties in dilute solutions.
Devitrification is the process of crystallization in a formerly crystal-free (amorphous) glass.
A die (pronunciation: /daɪ/) in the context of integrated circuits is a small block of semiconducting material, on which a given functional circuit is fabricated.
Die casting is a metal casting process that is characterized by forcing molten metal under high pressure into a mold cavity.
The term die-cast toy here refers to any toy or collectible model produced by using the die casting method of putting molten lead or zinc alloy in a mold to produce a particular shape.
A diffusion barrier is a thin layer (usually micrometres thick) of metal usually placed between two other metals.
Diffusion bonding or diffusion welding is a solid-state welding technique used in metalworking, capable of joining similar and dissimilar metals.
In materials science, a dislocation or Taylor's dislocation is a crystallographic defect or irregularity within a crystal structure.
In semiconductor production, doping is the intentional introduction of impurities into an intrinsic semiconductor for the purpose of modulating its electrical properties.
Dross is a mass of solid impurities floating on a molten metal or dispersed in the metal, such as in wrought iron.
In microelectronics, a dual in-line package (DIP or DIL), or dual in-line pin package (DIPP) is an electronic component package with a rectangular housing and two parallel rows of electrical connecting pins.
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.
In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions.
analog electricity meter. Electricity meter with transparent plastic case (Israel) North American domestic electronic electricity meter An electricity meter, electric meter, electrical meter, or energy meter is a device that measures the amount of electric energy consumed by a residence, a business, or an electrically powered device.
Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa.
Electromagnetic interference (EMI), also called radio-frequency interference (RFI) when in the radio frequency spectrum, is a disturbance generated by an external source that affects an electrical circuit by electromagnetic induction, electrostatic coupling, or conduction.
Electromotive force, abbreviated emf (denoted \mathcal and measured in volts), is the electrical intensity or "pressure" developed by a source of electrical energy such as a battery or generator.
Electronic packaging is a major discipline within the field of electrical engineering and includes a wide variety of technologies.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
A eutectic system from the Greek "ευ" (eu.
An extrinsic semiconductor is one that has been doped, that is, into which a doping agent has been introduced, giving it different electrical properties than the intrinsic (pure) semiconductor.
Failure analysis is the process of collecting and analyzing data to determine the cause of a failure, often with the goal of determining corrective actions or liability.
In materials science, fatigue is the weakening of a material caused by repeatedly applied loads.
Field's metal, also known as Field's alloy, is a fusible alloy that becomes liquid at approximately.
Fillers are particles added to material (plastics, composite material, concrete) to lower the consumption of more expensive binder material or to better some properties of the mixtured material.
Flip chip, also known as controlled collapse chip connection or its abbreviation, C4, is a method for interconnecting semiconductor devices, such as IC chips and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), to external circuitry with solder bumps that have been deposited onto the chip pads.
In metallurgy, a flux (derived from Latin fluxus meaning “flow”) is a chemical cleaning agent, flowing agent, or purifying agent.
FR-4 (or FR4) is a NEMA grade designation for glass-reinforced epoxy laminate material.
Freezing, or solidification, is a phase transition in which a liquid turns into a solid when its temperature is lowered below its freezing point.
A frit is a ceramic composition that has been fused in a special fusing oven, quenched to form a glass, and granulated.
A fuel tank (or petrol tank) is a safe container for flammable fluids.
A fusible alloy is a metal alloy capable of being easily fused, i.e. easily meltable, at relatively low temperatures.
Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is a compound of the elements gallium and arsenic.
A gas meter is a specialized flow meter, used to measure the volume of fuel gases such as natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas.
The Geiger–Müller tube or G–M tube is the sensing element of the Geiger counter instrument used for the detection of ionizing radiation.
Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
Glass frit bonding, also referred to as glass soldering or seal glass bonding, describes a wafer bonding technique with an intermediate glass layer.
Glass-ceramics have an amorphous phase and one or more crystalline phases and are produced by a so-called "controlled crystallization" in contrast to a spontaneous crystallization, which is usually not wanted in glass manufacturing.
Glass-to-metal seals have been around for many years, with one of the most common uses being lamp bulb seals.
Glass-to-metal seals are a very important element of the construction of vacuum tubes, electric discharge tubes, incandescent light bulbs, glass encapsulated semiconductor diodes, reed switches, pressure tight glass windows in metal cases, and metal or ceramic packages of electronic components.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Hazardous waste is waste that has substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment.
HASL or hot air solder leveling is a type of finish used on printed circuit boards (PCBs).
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
Indium is a chemical element with symbol In and atomic number 49.
Ink is a liquid or paste that contains pigments or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design.
Insulating glass (IG), more commonly known as double glazing (or double-pane, and increasingly triple glazing/pane), consists of two or three glass window panes separated by a vacuum or gas filled space to reduce heat transfer across a part of the building envelope.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
In electronics manufacturing, integrated circuit packaging is the final stage of semiconductor device fabrication, in which the tiny block of semiconducting material is encapsulated in a supporting case that prevents physical damage and corrosion.
An intermetallic (also called an intermetallic compound, intermetallic alloy, ordered intermetallic alloy, and a long-range-ordered alloy) is a solid-state compound exhibiting metallic bonding, defined stoichiometry and ordered crystal structure.
Iowa State University of Science and Technology, generally referred to as Iowa State, is a public flagship land-grant and space-grant research university located in Ames, Iowa, United States.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Iron(III) oxide or ferric oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Fe2O3.
Bismuth (83Bi) has no stable isotopes, but does have one very long-lived isotope; thus, the standard atomic weight can be given as.
Lead (82Pb) has four stable isotopes: 204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb.
Polonium (84Po) has 33 isotopes, all of which are radioactive, with between 186 and 227 nucleons.
Although thorium (90Th) has 6 naturally occurring isotopes, none of these isotopes are stable; however, one isotope, 232Th, is relatively stable, with a half-life of 1.405×1010 years, considerably longer than the age of the Earth, and even slightly longer than the generally accepted age of the universe.
The is a Japanese trade organization for the electronics and IT industries.
Jewellery (British English) or jewelry (American English)see American and British spelling differences consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks.
A kiln (or, originally pronounced "kill", with the "n" silent) is a thermally insulated chamber, a type of oven, that produces temperatures sufficient to complete some process, such as hardening, drying, or chemical changes.
Kovar (trademark of CRS Holdings, inc., Delaware) is a nickel–cobalt ferrous alloy compositionally identical to Fernico 1, designed to have substantially the same thermal expansion characteristics as borosilicate glass (~5 × 10−6 /K between 30 and 200 °C, to ~10 × 10−6 /K at 800 °C) in order to allow a tight mechanical joint between the two materials over a range of temperatures.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Lead glass, commonly called crystal, is a variety of glass in which lead replaces the calcium content of a typical potash glass.
Lead poisoning is a type of metal poisoning caused by lead in the body.
Lead(II) oxide, also called lead monoxide, is the inorganic compound with the molecular formula PbO.
At standard pressure, the chemical element helium exists in a liquid form only at the extremely low temperature of −270 °C (about 4 K or −452.2 °F).
The liquidus temperature, TL or Tliq specifies the temperature above which a material is completely liquid, and the maximum temperature at which crystals can co-exist with the melt in thermodynamic equilibrium.
Mainframe computers (colloquially referred to as "big iron") are computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications; bulk data processing, such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning; and transaction processing.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines.
Melting, or fusion, is a physical process that results in the phase transition of a substance from a solid to a liquid.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
The meniscus (plural: menisci, from the Greek for "crescent") is the curve in the upper surface of a liquid close to the surface of the container or another object, caused by surface tension.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
A metallurgical assay is a compositional analysis of an ore, metal, or alloy.
The mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals includes several closely related materials having nearly perfect basal cleavage.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
Motorola, Inc. was an American multinational telecommunications company founded on September 25, 1928, based in Schaumburg, Illinois.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.
Newton's metal is a fusible alloy with a low melting point.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nitrocellulose (also known as cellulose nitrate, flash paper, flash cotton, guncotton, and flash string) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46.
, formerly known as, is a Japanese multinational electronics corporation headquartered in Kadoma, Osaka, Japan.
Patina is a thin layer that variously forms on the surface of copper, bronze and similar metals (tarnish produced by oxidation or other chemical processes), or certain stones, and wooden furniture (sheen produced by age, wear, and polishing), or any similar acquired change of a surface through age and exposure.
Pewter is a malleable metal alloy.
Phosphate glass is a class of optical glasses composed of metaphosphates of various metals.
In chemistry, a phosphide is a compound containing the P3− ion or its equivalent.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Phosphorus pentoxide is a chemical compound with molecular formula P4O10 (with its common name derived from its empirical formula, P2O5).
A plasma display panel (PDP) is a type of flat panel display common to large TV displays or larger.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications.
Pottery is the ceramic material which makes up pottery wares, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.
A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate.
Purified water is water that has been mechanically filtered or processed to remove impurities and make it suitable for use.
Radiators are heat exchangers used for cooling internal combustion engines, mainly in automobiles but also in piston-engined aircraft, railway locomotives, motorcycles, stationary generating plant or any similar use of such an engine.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is an element (such as calcium) or compound that loses (or "donates") an electron to another chemical species in a redox chemical reaction.
Reflow soldering is a process in which a solder paste (a sticky mixture of powdered solder and flux) is used to temporarily attach one or several electrical components to their contact pads, after which the entire assembly is subjected to controlled heat, which melts the solder, permanently connecting the joint.
The Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive 2002/95/EC, (RoHS 1), short for Directive on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment, was adopted in February 2003 by the European Union.
Reverse engineering, also called back engineering, is the process by which a man-made object is deconstructed to reveal its designs, architecture, or to extract knowledge from the object; similar to scientific research, the only difference being that scientific research is about a natural phenomenon.
Rose's metal, Rose metal or Rose's alloy is a fusible alloy with a low melting point.
Rosin, also called colophony or Greek pitch (pix græca), is a solid form of resin obtained from pines and some other plants, mostly conifers, produced by heating fresh liquid resin to vaporize the volatile liquid terpene components.
The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) is the principal federal law in the United States intended to ensure safe drinking water for the public.
The Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), managed and operated by the National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia (a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International), is one of three National Nuclear Security Administration research and development laboratories.
Sealant is a substance used to block the passage of fluids through the surface or joints or openings in materials, a type of mechanical seal.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
In engineering, shear strength is the strength of a material or component against the type of yield or structural failure where the material or component fails in shear.
Shearing in continuum mechanics refers to the occurrence of a shear strain, which is a deformation of a material substance in which parallel internal surfaces slide past one another.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
A silversmith is a craftsman who crafts objects from silver.
In electronics and computing, a soft error is a type of error where a signal or datum is wrong.
Solder fatigue is the mechanical degradation of solder due to deformation under cyclic loading.
Solder mask or solder stop mask or solder resist is a thin lacquer-like layer of polymer that is usually applied to the copper traces of a printed circuit board (PCB) for protection against oxidation and to prevent solder bridges from forming between closely spaced solder pads.
Solder paste (or solder cream) is a material used in the manufacture of printed circuit boards to connect surface mount components to pads on the board.
The solderability of a substrate is a measure of the ease with which a soldered joint can be made to that material.
A soldering gun is an approximately pistol-shaped, electrically powered tool for soldering metals using tin-based solder to achieve a strong mechanical bond with good electrical contact.
A soldering iron is a hand tool used in soldering.
In chemistry, materials science, and physics, the solidus is the locus of temperatures (a curve on a phase diagram) below which a given substance is completely solid (crystallized).
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French inoxydable (inoxidizable), is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
Sulfide (systematically named sulfanediide, and sulfide(2−)) (British English sulphide) is an inorganic anion of sulfur with the chemical formula S2− or a compound containing one or more S2− ions.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.
Surface-mount technology (SMT) is a method for producing electronic circuits in which the components are mounted or placed directly onto the surface of printed circuit boards (PCBs).
Thallium is a chemical element with symbol Tl and atomic number 81.
Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature.
A thermocouple is an electrical device consisting of two dissimilar electrical conductors forming electrical junctions at differing temperatures.
Through-hole technology (tht), also spelled "thru-hole", refers to the mounting scheme used for electronic components that involves the use of leads on the components that are inserted into holes drilled in printed circuit boards (PCB) and soldered to pads on the opposite side either by manual assembly (hand placement) or by the use of automated insertion mount machines.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
A tin can, tin (especially in British English, Australian English and Canadian English), steel can, steel packaging or a can, is a container for the distribution or storage of goods, composed of thin metal.
A tin cry is the characteristic sound heard when a bar of tin is bent.
Tin pest is an autocatalytic, allotropic transformation of the element tin, which causes deterioration of tin objects at low temperatures.
Tin(II) oxide (stannous oxide) is a compound with the formula SnO.
Tin(IV) Oxide, also known as stannic oxide, is the inorganic compound with the formula SnO2.
Tin-silver-copper (SnAgCu, also known as SAC), is a lead-free (Pb-free) alloy commonly used for electronic solder.
Tinplate consists of sheets of steel, coated with a thin layer of tin.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS), ultimate strength, or Ftu within equations, is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size.
Ultrasonic soldering is a flux-less soldering process that uses ultrasonic energy, without the need for chemicals to solder materials, such as glass, ceramics, and composites, hard to solder metals and other sensitive components which cannot be soldered using conventional means.
Uranium-238 (238U or U-238) is the most common isotope of uranium found in nature, with a relative abundance of 99%.
Vacuum is space devoid of matter.
In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.
In molecular physics, the van der Waals forces, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, are distance-dependent interactions between atoms or molecules.
Vitreous enamel, also called porcelain enamel, is a material made by fusing powdered glass to a substrate by firing, usually between.
The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE Directive) is the European Community Directive 2012/19/EU on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) which, together with the RoHS Directive 2002/95/EC, became European Law in February 2003.
Wave soldering is a bulk soldering process used in the manufacture of printed circuit boards.
Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing fusion, which is distinct from lower temperature metal-joining techniques such as brazing and soldering, which do not melt the base metal.
Wetting is the ability of a liquid to maintain contact with a solid surface, resulting from intermolecular interactions when the two are brought together.
Metal whiskering is a phenomenon which occurs in electrical devices when metals form long whisker-like projections over time.
A window is an opening in a wall, door, roof or vehicle that allows the passage of light, sound, and air.
Steel wire rope (right hand langs lay) Wire rope is several strands of metal wire twisted into a helix forming a composite "rope", in a pattern known as "laid rope".
Wood's metal, also known as Lipowitz's alloy or by the commercial names Cerrobend, Bendalloy, Pewtalloy and MCP 158, is a eutectic, fusible alloy with a melting point of approximately.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zinc oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula ZnO.
Acid Flux, Easy solder, Enameling solder, Glass solder, Hard solder, Lead free solder, Lead-free solder, Lead-tin solder, Medium solder, Plumber's solder, Silver solder, Sodder, Soft solder, Soldar, Soldered.