202 relations: Acrylic resin, Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, Adiabatic process, Aggregate (geology), Alloy, Aluminium oxide, Amorphous solid, Augite, Boride, Boron, Boron carbide, Brittleness, Bromine, Bulletproof vest, Calcium, Calcium carbonate, Capacitance, Capacitor, Carbide, Carbon, Catalysis, Cellulose, Ceramic, Ceramic engineering, Cerium, Chemical composition, Chemical element, Chemical property, Chemical synthesis, Chlorine, Chlorite group, Clay, Composite material, Compressive strength, Condensed matter physics, CorningWare, Covalent bond, CRC Press, Crust (geology), Crystal, Crystal structure, Crystallite, Crystallographic defect, Deformation (engineering), Dielectric, Diode, Ductility, Elastic modulus, Elasticity (physics), Electret, ..., Electric current, Electrical impedance, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electron, Electron hole, Electronic band structure, Epidote, Fast ion conductor, Feldspar, Fluorine, Fracture mechanics, Fracture toughness, Free electron model, Friction, Fulgurite, Furfural, Gallium arsenide, Gas, Gas turbine, Geometric lattice, Germanium, Glass-ceramic, Graphite, Heat capacity, Heat engine, Hematite, Hooke's law, Hornblende, Hydrogen, Hysteresis, Ice, Indentation hardness, Infobase Publishing, Infrared, Infrared homing, Integrated circuit, Iodine, Ion, Ionic bonding, John Wiley & Sons, Kaolinite, Lamination, Lanthanum, Light, Lightning, Lignin, Limonite, Linear elasticity, Liquid, Lithium–titanate battery, Lumber, Lustre (mineralogy), Magnesium, Magnetite, Materials science, Melting, Metallic bonding, Mica, Microstructure, Mineraloid, Nanoparticle, Naphthalene, Nearly free electron model, Nitride, Nitrogen, Olivine, Operating temperature, Oxide, Oxygen, Paraffin wax, Periodic table, Permeability (earth sciences), Phenol formaldehyde resin, Phonon, Phosphorus, Photoelectric effect, Physical property, Physics, Piezoelectricity, Plasma (physics), Plastic, Plasticity (physics), Polonium, Polycarbonate, Polyester, Polyethylene, Polymer, Polypropylene, Polystyrene, Polyurethane, Polyvinyl chloride, Polyvinylidene fluoride, Precipitation (chemistry), Proton-exchange membrane, Quantum dot, Quartz, Rayon, Refractory, Reinforced carbon–carbon, Rock (geology), Salt (chemistry), Sand, Sapphire, Scattering, Self-assembly, Semiconductor, Shear strength, Shellac, Silicate, Silicate minerals, Silicon, Silicon carbide, Silicon nitride, Silicone, Single crystal, Sodium, Sodium chloride, Solar cell, Sol–gel process, Solid mechanics, Solid oxide fuel cell, Solid-state chemistry, Solid-state physics, Space Shuttle thermal protection system, Spectroscopy, State of matter, Strength of materials, Stress (mechanics), Sulfur, Sunburn, Superconductivity, Talc, Thermal conduction, Thermal conductivity, Thermal energy, Thermal expansion, Thermal shock, Toughness, Toyota, Transistor, Transparency and translucency, Transparent ceramics, Tungsten carbide, Ultimate tensile strength, Ultraviolet, Van der Waals force, Viscoelasticity, Visible spectrum, Waste heat, Wavelength, Young's modulus, Zirconium dioxide. Expand index (152 more) » « Shrink index
Acrylic resins are a group of related thermoplastic or thermosetting plastic substances derived from acrylic acid, methacrylic acid or other related compounds.
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) (chemical formula (C8H8)x·(C4H6)y·(C3H3N)z) is a common thermoplastic polymer.
In thermodynamics, an adiabatic process is one that occurs without transfer of heat or matter between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings.
In the Earth sciences, aggregrate has three possible meanings.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.
In condensed matter physics and materials science, an amorphous (from the Greek a, without, morphé, shape, form) or non-crystalline solid is a solid that lacks the long-range order that is characteristic of a crystal.
Augite is a common rock-forming pyroxene mineral with formula (Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe,Al,Ti)(Si,Al)2O6.
A boride is a compound between boron and a less electronegative element, for example silicon boride (SiB3 and SiB6).
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
Boron carbide (chemical formula approximately B4C) is an extremely hard boron–carbon ceramic, and covalent material used in tank armor, bulletproof vests, engine sabotage powders, as well as numerous industrial applications.
# A material is brittle if, when subjected to stress, it breaks without significant plastic deformation.
Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.
A ballistic vest or bullet-resistant vest, often called a bulletproof vest, is an item of personal armor that helps absorb the impact and reduce or stop penetration to the body from firearm-fired projectiles- and shrapnel from explosions, and is worn on the torso.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.
Capacitance is the ratio of the change in an electric charge in a system to the corresponding change in its electric potential.
A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores potential energy in an electric field.
In chemistry, a carbide is a compound composed of carbon and a less electronegative element.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.
Ceramic engineering is the science and technology of creating objects from inorganic, non-metallic materials.
Cerium is a chemical element with symbol Ce and atomic number 58.
Chemical composition refers to the identity and relative number of the chemical elements that make up any particular compound.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
A chemical property is any of a material's properties that becomes evident during, or after, a chemical reaction; that is, any quality that can be established only by changing a substance's chemical identity.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
The chlorites are a group of phyllosilicate minerals.
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.
A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite, which is the common name) is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components.
Compressive strength or compression strength is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to reduce size, as opposed to tensile strength, which withstands loads tending to elongate.
Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic and microscopic physical properties of matter.
Corning Ware, also written CorningWare, was originally a brand name for a unique glass-ceramic (Pyroceram) cookware resistant to thermal shock.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
A crystallite is a small or even microscopic crystal which forms, for example, during the cooling of many materials.
Crystalline solids exhibit a periodic crystal structure.
In materials science, deformation refers to any changes in the shape or size of an object due to-.
A dielectric (or dielectric material) is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field.
A diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts current primarily in one direction (asymmetric conductance); it has low (ideally zero) resistance in one direction, and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other.
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.
An elastic modulus (also known as modulus of elasticity) is a quantity that measures an object or substance's resistance to being deformed elastically (i.e., non-permanently) when a stress is applied to it.
In physics, elasticity (from Greek ἐλαστός "ductible") is the ability of a body to resist a distorting influence and to return to its original size and shape when that influence or force is removed.
Electret (formed of electr- from "electricity" and -et from "magnet") is a dielectric material that has a quasi-permanent electric charge or dipole polarisation.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
Electrical impedance is the measure of the opposition that a circuit presents to a current when a voltage is applied.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In physics, chemistry, and electronic engineering, an electron hole (often simply called a hole) is the lack of an electron at a position where one could exist in an atom or atomic lattice.
In solid-state physics, the electronic band structure (or simply band structure) of a solid describes the range of energies that an electron within the solid may have (called energy bands, allowed bands, or simply bands) and ranges of energy that it may not have (called band gaps or forbidden bands).
Epidote is a calcium aluminium iron sorosilicate mineral.
In materials science, fast ion conductors are solids with highly mobile ions.
Feldspars (KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8) are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals that make up about 41% of the Earth's continental crust by weight.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
Fracture mechanics is the field of mechanics concerned with the study of the propagation of cracks in materials.
In materials science, fracture toughness is a property which describes the ability of a material to resist fracture, and is one of the most important properties of any material for many design applications.
In solid-state physics, the free electron model is a simple model for the behaviour of charge carriers in a metallic solid.
Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.
Fulgurites (from the Latin fulgur, meaning "lightning") are natural tubes, clumps, or masses of sintered, vitrified, and/or fused soil, sand, rock, organic debris and other sediments that can form when lightning discharges into ground.
Furfural is an organic compound produced from a variety of agricultural byproducts, including corncobs, oat, wheat bran, and sawdust.
Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is a compound of the elements gallium and arsenic.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of continuous combustion, internal combustion engine.
In the mathematics of matroids and lattices, a geometric lattice is a finite atomistic semimodular lattice, and a matroid lattice is an atomistic semimodular lattice without the assumptions of finiteness.
Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.
Glass-ceramics have an amorphous phase and one or more crystalline phases and are produced by a so-called "controlled crystallization" in contrast to a spontaneous crystallization, which is usually not wanted in glass manufacturing.
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.
In thermodynamics, a heat engine is a system that converts heat or thermal energy—and chemical energy—to mechanical energy, which can then be used to do mechanical work.
Hematite, also spelled as haematite, is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides.
Hooke's law is a principle of physics that states that the force needed to extend or compress a spring by some distance scales linearly with respect to that distance.
Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals (ferrohornblende – magnesiohornblende).
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hysteresis is the dependence of the state of a system on its history.
Ice is water frozen into a solid state.
Indentation hardness tests are used in mechanical engineering to determine the hardness of a material to deformation.
Infobase Publishing is an American publisher of reference book titles and textbooks geared towards the North American library, secondary school, and university-level curriculum markets.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
Infrared homing is a passive weapon guidance system which uses the infrared (IR) light emission from a target to track and follow it.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
Kaolinite is a clay mineral, part of the group of industrial minerals, with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4.
Lamination is the technique of manufacturing a material in multiple layers, so that the composite material achieves improved strength, stability, sound insulation, appearance or other properties from the use of differing materials.
Lanthanum is a chemical element with symbol La and atomic number 57.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.
Lignin is a class of complex organic polymers that form important structural materials in the support tissues of vascular plants and some algae. Lignins are particularly important in the formation of cell walls, especially in wood and bark, because they lend rigidity and do not rot easily. Chemically, lignins are cross-linked phenolic polymers.
Limonite is an iron ore consisting of a mixture of hydrated iron(III) oxide-hydroxides in varying composition.
Linear elasticity is the mathematical study of how solid objects deform and become internally stressed due to prescribed loading conditions.
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.
The lithium–titanate battery is a type of rechargeable battery which has the advantage of being faster to charge than other lithium-ion batteries.
Lumber (American English; used only in North America) or timber (used in the rest of the English speaking world) is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production.
Lustre or luster is the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock, or mineral.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Magnetite is a rock mineral and one of the main iron ores, with the chemical formula Fe3O4.
The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.
Melting, or fusion, is a physical process that results in the phase transition of a substance from a solid to a liquid.
Metallic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that arises from the electrostatic attractive force between conduction electrons (in the form of an electron cloud of delocalized electrons) and positively charged metal ions.
The mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals includes several closely related materials having nearly perfect basal cleavage.
Microstructure is the very small scale structure of a material, defined as the structure of a prepared surface of material as revealed by a microscope above 25× magnification.
A mineraloid is a mineral-like substance that does not demonstrate crystallinity.
Nanoparticles are particles between 1 and 100 nanometres (nm) in size with a surrounding interfacial layer.
Naphthalene is an organic compound with formula.
In solid-state physics, the nearly free electron model (or NFE model) is a quantum mechanical model of physical properties of electrons that can move almost freely through the crystal lattice of a solid.
In chemistry, a nitride is a compound of nitrogen where nitrogen has a formal oxidation state of 3-.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
The mineral olivine is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg2+, Fe2+)2SiO4.
An operating temperature is the temperature at which an electrical or mechanical device operates.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Paraffin wax is a white or colourless soft solid, derived from petroleum, coal or oil shale, that consists of a mixture of hydrocarbon molecules containing between twenty and forty carbon atoms.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
Permeability in fluid mechanics and the earth sciences (commonly symbolized as κ, or k) is a measure of the ability of a porous material (often, a rock or an unconsolidated material) to allow fluids to pass through it.
Phenol formaldehyde resins (PF) or phenolic resins are synthetic polymers obtained by the reaction of phenol or substituted phenol with formaldehyde.
In physics, a phonon is a collective excitation in a periodic, elastic arrangement of atoms or molecules in condensed matter, like solids and some liquids.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons or other free carriers when light shines on a material.
A physical property is any property that is measurable, whose value describes a state of a physical system.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials (such as crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as bone, DNA and various proteins) in response to applied mechanical stress.
Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
In physics and materials science, plasticity describes the deformation of a (solid) material undergoing non-reversible changes of shape in response to applied forces.
Polonium is a chemical element with symbol Po and atomic number 84.
Polycarbonates (PC) are a group of thermoplastic polymers containing carbonate groups in their chemical structures.
Polyester is a category of polymers that contain the ester functional group in their main chain.
Polyethylene or polythene (abbreviated PE; IUPAC name polyethene or poly(ethylene)) is the most common plastic.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Polypropylene (PP), also known as polypropene, is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications.
Polystyrene (PS) is a synthetic aromatic hydrocarbon polymer made from the monomer styrene.
Polyurethane (PUR and PU) is a polymer composed of organic units joined by carbamate (urethane) links.
Polyvinyl chloride, also known as polyvinyl or '''vinyl''', commonly abbreviated PVC, is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene.
Polyvinylidene fluoride or polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) is a highly non-reactive thermoplastic fluoropolymer produced by the polymerization of vinylidene difluoride.
Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.
A proton-exchange membrane, or polymer-electrolyte membrane (PEM), is a semipermeable membrane generally made from ionomers and designed to conduct protons while acting as an electronic insulator and reactant barrier, e.g. to oxygen and hydrogen gas.
Quantum dots (QD) are very small semiconductor particles, only several nanometres in size, so small that their optical and electronic properties differ from those of larger particles.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
Rayon is a manufactured fiber made from regenerated cellulose fiber.
A refractory mineral is a mineral that is resistant to decomposition by heat, pressure, or chemical attack.
Carbon fibre reinforced carbon (CFRC), carbon–carbon (C/C), or reinforced carbon–carbon (RCC) is a composite material consisting of carbon fiber reinforcement in a matrix of graphite.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.
Sapphire is a precious gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum, an aluminium oxide.
Scattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass.
Self-assembly is a process in which a disordered system of pre-existing components forms an organized structure or pattern as a consequence of specific, local interactions among the components themselves, without external direction.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
In engineering, shear strength is the strength of a material or component against the type of yield or structural failure where the material or component fails in shear.
Shellac is a resin secreted by the female lac bug, on trees in the forests of India and Thailand.
In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula, where 0 ≤ x Silicate anions are often large polymeric molecules with an extense variety of structures, including chains and rings (as in polymeric metasilicate), double chains (as in, and sheets (as in. In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to mean silicate minerals, ionic solids with silicate anions; as well as rock types that consist predominantly of such minerals. In that context, the term also includes the non-ionic compound silicon dioxide (silica, quartz), which would correspond to x.
Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals with predominantly silicate anions.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Silicon carbide (SiC), also known as carborundum, is a semiconductor containing silicon and carbon.
Silicon nitride is a chemical compound of the elements silicon and nitrogen.
Silicones, also known as polysiloxanes, are polymers that include any inert, synthetic compound made up of repeating units of siloxane, which is a chain of alternating silicon atoms and oxygen atoms, combined with carbon, hydrogen, and sometimes other elements.
A single crystal or monocrystalline solid is a material in which the crystal lattice of the entire sample is continuous and unbroken to the edges of the sample, with no grain boundaries.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.
In materials science, the sol–gel process is a method for producing solid materials from small molecules.
Solid mechanics is the branch of continuum mechanics that studies the behavior of solid materials, especially their motion and deformation under the action of forces, temperature changes, phase changes, and other external or internal agents.
A solid oxide fuel cell (or SOFC) is an electrochemical conversion device that produces electricity directly from oxidizing a fuel.
Solid-state chemistry, also sometimes referred to as materials chemistry, is the study of the synthesis, structure, and properties of solid phase materials, particularly, but not necessarily exclusively of, non-molecular solids.
Solid-state physics is the study of rigid matter, or solids, through methods such as quantum mechanics, crystallography, electromagnetism, and metallurgy.
The Space Shuttle thermal protection system (TPS) is the barrier that protected the Space Shuttle Orbiter during the searing heat of atmospheric reentry.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist.
Strength of materials, also called mechanics of materials, is a subject which deals with the behavior of solid objects subject to stresses and strains.
In continuum mechanics, stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other, while strain is the measure of the deformation of the material.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sunburn is a form of radiation burn that affects living tissue, such as skin, that results from an overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, commonly from the sun.
Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.
Talc or talcum is a clay mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2.
Thermal conduction is the transfer of heat (internal energy) by microscopic collisions of particles and movement of electrons within a body.
Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.
Thermal energy is a term used loosely as a synonym for more rigorously-defined thermodynamic quantities such as the internal energy of a system; heat or sensible heat, which are defined as types of transfer of energy (as is work); or for the characteristic energy of a degree of freedom in a thermal system kT, where T is temperature and k is the Boltzmann constant.
Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature.
Thermal shock occurs when a thermal gradient causes different parts of an object to expand by different amounts.
In materials science and metallurgy, toughness is the ability of a material to absorb energy and plastically deform without fracturing.
, usually shortened to Toyota, is a Japanese multinational automotive manufacturer headquartered in Toyota, Aichi, Japan.
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.
In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.
Many ceramic materials, both glassy and crystalline, have found use as optically transparent materials in various forms from bulk solid-state components to high surface area forms such as thin films, coatings, and fibers.
Tungsten carbide (chemical formula: WC) is a chemical compound (specifically, a carbide) containing equal parts of tungsten and carbon atoms.
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS), ultimate strength, or Ftu within equations, is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
In molecular physics, the van der Waals forces, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, are distance-dependent interactions between atoms or molecules.
Viscoelasticity is the property of materials that exhibit both viscous and elastic characteristics when undergoing deformation.
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
Waste heat is heat that is produced by a machine, or other process that uses energy, as a byproduct of doing work.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
Young's modulus, also known as the elastic modulus, is a measure of the stiffness of a solid material.
Zirconium dioxide, sometimes known as zirconia (not to be confused with zircon), is a white crystalline oxide of zirconium.