92 relations: Aaron Jay Kernis, Abraham ibn Daud, Abraham ibn Ezra, Abravanel, Al-Andalus, Albertus Magnus, Alexander of Hales, Arabic, Archdeacon, Aristotelianism, Ashkenazi Jews, Assassination, Azharot, Bahya ibn Paquda, Berechiah ha-Nakdan, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Bonaventure, Caliphate of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain, Chovot HaLevavot, Dominican Order, Dominicus Gundissalinus, Dunash ben Labrat, Duns Scotus, Elijah ben Joseph Chabillo, Ethics, Europe, Florilegium, Franciscans, Friar, Giordano Bruno, Golem, Granada, Hai Gaon, Hebrew language, Hellenistic philosophy, Hunayn ibn Ishaq, Hylomorphism, Ibn Gabirol Street, Isaac Abarbanel, Jabir ibn Aflah, Jewish holidays, Jewish philosophy, Joseph ibn Tzaddik, Joseph Solomon Delmedigo, Judah ben Saul ibn Tibbon, Judaism, Kabbalah, Karaite Judaism, Kinnot, ..., Latinisation of names, Lupus vulgaris, Machzor, Málaga, Medieval Latin, Medieval philosophy, Miguel Asín Palacios, Mivchar Hapeninim, Modern Hebrew, Moses Almosnino, Moses ibn Ezra, Neoplatonism, Paris, Philo, Philosopher, Piyyut, Poet, Religious philosophy, Salomon Munk, Samuel ibn Naghrillah, Scholasticism, Segovia, Selichot, Sephardi Jews, Shabbat, Shem-Tov ibn Falaquera, Solomon, Spanish language, Ta'anit, Taifa of Toledo, Taifa of Valencia, Temple in Jerusalem, Thomas Aquinas, Toledo School of Translators, Toledo, Spain, Valencia, William of Auvergne (bishop), Yehuda Alharizi, Yohanan Alemanno, Yom Kippur, Zaragoza, 613 commandments. Expand index (42 more) » « Shrink index
Aaron Jay Kernis (born January 15, 1960) is an American composer serving as a member of the Yale School of Music faculty.
Abraham ibn Daud (אברהם אבן דאוד; ابراهيم بن داود) was a Spanish-Jewish astronomer, historian, and philosopher; born at Cordoba, Spain about 1110; died in Toledo, Spain, according to common report, a martyr about 1180.
Abraham ben Meir Ibn Ezra (אַבְרָהָם אִבְּן עֶזְרָא or ראב"ע; ابن عزرا; also known as Abenezra or Aben Ezra, 1089–c.1167) was one of the most distinguished Jewish biblical commentators and philosophers of the Middle Ages.
The Abravanel family (אברבנאל), also spelled as Abarbanel, Abrabanel, Avravanel, Barbernell, or Barbanel, literally meaning Ab (father) Rabban (priest) El (of God) is one of the oldest and most distinguished Jewish families.
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
Albertus Magnus, O.P. (c. 1200 – November 15, 1280), also known as Saint Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a German Catholic Dominican friar and bishop.
Alexander of Hales (also Halensis, Alensis, Halesius, Alesius; 21 August 1245), also called Doctor Irrefragibilis (by Pope Alexander IV in the Bull De Fontibus Paradisi) and Theologorum Monarcha, was a theologian and philosopher important in the development of Scholasticism and of the Franciscan School.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
An archdeacon is a senior clergy position in the Syriac Orthodox Church, Church of the East, Chaldean Catholic Church, Anglican Communion, St Thomas Christians, Eastern Orthodox churches and some other Christian denominations, above that of most clergy and below a bishop.
Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle.
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.
Assassination is the killing of a prominent person, either for political or religious reasons or for payment.
Azharot (אזהרות), "exhortations") are didactic liturgical poems on, or versifications of, the 613 commandments in rabbinical enumeration. The first known example appears in the tenth century Siddur of Saadia Gaon; The best known include those by two Spanish authors of the Middle Ages; Isaac ben Reuben Albargeloni and Solomon ibn Gabirol.
Bahya ben Joseph ibn Paquda (also: Pakuda, Bakuda, Hebrew:, بهية بن باكودا) was a Jewish philosopher and rabbi who lived at Zaragoza, Al-Andalus (now Spain) in the first half of the eleventh century.
Berechiah ben Natronai Krespia ha-Nakdan (ha-Nakdan, meaning "the punctuator" or "grammarian"), commonly known as Berachya (13th century), was a Jewish exegete, ethical writer, grammarian, translator, poet, and philosopher.
The (BnF, English: National Library of France) is the national library of France, located in Paris.
Saint Bonaventure (Bonaventura; 1221 – 15 July 1274), born Giovanni di Fidanza, was an Italian medieval Franciscan, scholastic theologian and philosopher.
The Caliphate of Córdoba (خلافة قرطبة; trans. Khilāfat Qurṭuba) was a state in Islamic Iberia along with a part of North Africa ruled by the Umayyad dynasty.
Córdoba, also called Cordoba or Cordova in English, is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba.
Chovot HaLevavot, or Ḥobot HaLebabot (italic; English: Duties of the Heart), is the primary work of the Jewish rabbi and philosopher, Bahya ibn Paquda, full name Bahya ben Joseph ibn Pakuda.
The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation OP), also known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216.
Dominicus Gundissalinus, also known as Domingo Gundisalvi or Gundisalvo (1115 – post 1190), was a philosopher and translator of Arabic to Medieval Latin active in Toledo.
Dunash ha-Levi ben Labrat (920-990) (דוֹנָש הלוי בֵּן לָבְרָט; دناش بن لبراط) was a medieval Jewish commentator, poet, and grammarian of the Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain.
John Duns, commonly called Duns Scotus (1266 – 8 November 1308), is generally considered to be one of the three most important philosopher-theologians of the High Middle Ages (together with Thomas Aquinas and William of Ockham).
Eli (or Elijah) ben Joseph Chabillo (or Habillo) was a Spanish philosopher who lived in Monzón, Aragon, in the second half of the fifteenth century.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
In medieval Latin a (plural) was a compilation of excerpts from other writings.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
A friar is a brother member of one of the mendicant orders founded since the twelfth or thirteenth century; the term distinguishes the mendicants' itinerant apostolic character, exercised broadly under the jurisdiction of a superior general, from the older monastic orders' allegiance to a single monastery formalized by their vow of stability.
Giordano Bruno (Iordanus Brunus Nolanus; 1548 – 17 February 1600), born Filippo Bruno, was an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher, mathematician, poet, and cosmological theorist.
In Jewish folklore, a golem (גולם) is an animated anthropomorphic being that is magically created entirely from inanimate matter (specifically clay or mud).
Granada is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain.
Hai ben Sherira (or Hai b. Sherira (Gaon), Hebrew: האי בר שרירא; better known as Hai Gaon, Hebrew: האיי גאון), was a medieval Jewish theologian, rabbi and scholar who served as Gaon of the Talmudic academy of Pumbedita during the early 11th century.
Hellenistic philosophy is the period of Western philosophy that was developed in the Hellenistic civilization following Aristotle and ending with the beginning of Neoplatonism.
Hunayn ibn Ishaq al-Ibadi (also Hunain or Hunein) (أبو زيد حنين بن إسحاق العبادي;, Iohannitius, ܚܢܝܢ ܒܪ ܐܝܣܚܩ) (809 – 873) was an influential Arab Nestorian Christian translator, scholar, physician, and scientist.
Hylomorphism (or hylemorphism) is a philosophical theory developed by Aristotle, which conceives being (ousia) as a compound of matter and form.
Ibn Gabirol Street (רְחוֹב אִבְּן גַבִּירוֹל) (also Even Gvirol) is a major street in Tel Aviv, Israel.
Isaac ben Judah Abarbanel (Hebrew: יצחק בן יהודה אברבנאל;‎ 1437–1508), commonly referred to as Abarbanel (אַבַּרבְּנְאֵל), also spelled Abravanel, Avravanel or Abrabanel, was a Portuguese Jewish statesman, philosopher, Bible commentator, and financier.
Abū Muḥammad Jābir ibn Aflaḥ (أبو محمد جابر بن أفلح, Geber/Gebir; 1100–1150) was an Arab Muslim astronomer and mathematician from Seville, who was active in 12th century al-Andalus.
Jewish holidays, also known as Jewish festivals or Yamim Tovim ("Good Days", or singular Yom Tov, in transliterated Hebrew), are holidays observed in Judaism and by JewsThis article focuses on practices of mainstream Rabbinic Judaism.
Jewish philosophy includes all philosophy carried out by Jews, or in relation to the religion of Judaism.
Rabbi Joseph ben Jacob ibn Tzaddik (?-1149) was a Spanish rabbi, poet, and philosopher.
Joseph Solomon Delmedigo (or Del Medigo), also known as Yashar Mi-Qandia (ישר מקנדיא) (16 June 1591 – 16 October 1655), was a rabbi, author, physician, mathematician, and music theorist.
Judah ben Saul ibn Tibbon (1120 – after 1190) was a translator and physician.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Kabbalah (קַבָּלָה, literally "parallel/corresponding," or "received tradition") is an esoteric method, discipline, and school of thought that originated in Judaism.
Karaite Judaism or Karaism (also spelt Qaraite Judaism or Qaraism) is a Jewish religious movement characterized by the recognition of the Tanakh alone as its supreme authority in Halakha (Jewish religious law) and theology.
Kinnot (קינות; also kinnos, kinoth, qinot, qinoth; singular kinah or kinnah) are dirges (sad poems) or elegies traditionally recited by Jews on Tisha B'Av to mourn the destruction of both the First and Second Temple in Jerusalem and other tragedies in Jewish history, including the Crusades and the Holocaust.
Latinisation or Latinization is the practice of rendering a non-Latin name (or word) in a Latin style.
Lupus vulgaris (also known as tuberculosis luposa) are painful cutaneous tuberculosis skin lesions with nodular appearance, most often on the face around the nose, eyelids, lips, cheeks, ears and neck.
The mahzor (מחזור, alternately romanised machzor, plural mahzorim, and, respectively) is the prayer book used by Jews on the High Holy Days of Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur.
Málaga is a municipality, capital of the Province of Málaga, in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia, Spain.
Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.
Medieval philosophy is the philosophy in the era now known as medieval or the Middle Ages, the period roughly extending from the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century A.D. to the Renaissance in the 16th century.
Miguel Asín Palacios (1871–1944) was a Spanish scholar of Islamic studies and the Arabic language, and a Roman Catholic priest.
The Mivchar Hepeninim is an ethical work, dated 1484, written by Rabbi Shlomo ben Yehudah in Spain.
Moses ben Baruch Almosnino (1515 – 1580) was a distinguished rabbi; born at Thessaloniki about 1515, and died in Constantinople about 1580.
Rabbi Moses ben Jacob ibn Ezra, known as Ha-Sallaḥ ("writer of penitential prayers") (أبو هارون موسى بن يعقوب ابن عزرا, Abu Harun Musa bin Ya'acub ibn Ezra, משה בן יעקב הסלח אבן עזרא) was a Jewish, Spanish philosopher, linguist, and poet.
Neoplatonism is a term used to designate a strand of Platonic philosophy that began with Plotinus in the third century AD against the background of Hellenistic philosophy and religion.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Philo of Alexandria (Phílōn; Yedidia (Jedediah) HaCohen), also called Philo Judaeus, was a Hellenistic Jewish philosopher who lived in Alexandria, in the Roman province of Egypt.
A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.
A piyyut or piyut (plural piyyutim or piyutim, פִּיּוּטִים / פיוטים, פִּיּוּט / פיוט; from Greek ποιητής poiētḗs "poet") is a Jewish liturgical poem, usually designated to be sung, chanted, or recited during religious services.
A poet is a person who creates poetry.
Religious philosophy is philosophical thinking that is inspired and directed by a particular religion.
Salomon Munk (14 May 1803 – 5 February 1867) was a German-born Jewish-French Orientalist.
Samuel ibn Naghrillah (Sh'muel HaLevi ben Yosef HaNagid; Abu Iṣḥāq Ismā‘īl bin an-Naghrīlah), also known as Samuel HaNagid (Shmuel HaNagid, lit. Samuel the Prince) (born 993; died after 1056), was a medieval Spanish Talmudic scholar, grammarian, philologist, soldier, merchant, politician, and an influential poet who lived in Iberia at the time of the Moorish rule.
Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics", or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context.
Segovia is a city in the autonomous region of Castile and León, Spain.
Selichot or slichot (סליחות; singular סליחה, selichah) are Jewish penitential poems and prayers, especially those said in the period leading up to the High Holidays, and on Fast Days.
Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also Ye'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division.
Shabbat (שַׁבָּת, "rest" or "cessation") or Shabbos (Ashkenazi Hebrew and שבת), or the Sabbath is Judaism's day of rest and seventh day of the week, on which religious Jews, Samaritans and certain Christians (such as Seventh-day Adventists, the 7th Day movement and Seventh Day Baptists) remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, and look forward to a future Messianic Age.
Shem-Tov ben Joseph ibn Falaquera, also spelled Palquera (1225 – c. 1290) (Hebrew: שם טוב בן יוסף אבן פלקירה) was a Spanish Jewish philosopher and poet and commentator.
Solomon (שְׁלֹמֹה, Shlomoh), also called Jedidiah (Hebrew Yədidya), was, according to the Hebrew Bible, Quran, Hadith and Hidden Words, a fabulously wealthy and wise king of Israel who succeeded his father, King David. The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are circa 970 to 931 BCE, normally given in alignment with the dates of David's reign. He is described as the third king of the United Monarchy, which would break apart into the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah shortly after his death. Following the split, his patrilineal descendants ruled over Judah alone. According to the Talmud, Solomon is one of the 48 prophets. In the Quran, he is considered a major prophet, and Muslims generally refer to him by the Arabic variant Sulayman, son of David. The Hebrew Bible credits him as the builder of the First Temple in Jerusalem, beginning in the fourth year of his reign, using the vast wealth he had accumulated. He dedicated the temple to Yahweh, the God of Israel. He is portrayed as great in wisdom, wealth and power beyond either of the previous kings of the country, but also as a king who sinned. His sins included idolatry, marrying foreign women and, ultimately, turning away from Yahweh, and they led to the kingdom's being torn in two during the reign of his son Rehoboam. Solomon is the subject of many other later references and legends, most notably in the 1st-century apocryphal work known as the Testament of Solomon. In the New Testament, he is portrayed as a teacher of wisdom excelled by Jesus, and as arrayed in glory, but excelled by "the lilies of the field". In later years, in mostly non-biblical circles, Solomon also came to be known as a magician and an exorcist, with numerous amulets and medallion seals dating from the Hellenistic period invoking his name.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
A ta'anit, or taanis (in Ashkenaz pronunciation), or taʿanith in Classical Hebrew is a fast in Judaism in which one abstains from all food and drink, including water.
The taifa of Toledo was a Berber Muslim taifa located in what is now central Spain.
The Taifa of Valencia was a medieval Moorish taifa kingdom which existed, in and around Valencia, Spain during four distinct periods: from 1010 to 1065, from 1075 to 1099, from 1145 to 1147 and last from 1229 to 1238 when it was finally conquered by the Aragon.
The Temple in Jerusalem was any of a series of structures which were located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem, the current site of the Dome of the Rock and Al-Aqsa Mosque.
Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.
The Toledo School of Translators (Escuela de Traductores de Toledo) is the group of scholars who worked together in the city of Toledo during the 12th and 13th centuries, to translate many of the philosophical and scientific works from Classical Arabic.
Toledo is a city and municipality located in central Spain; it is the capital of the province of Toledo and the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha.
Valencia, officially València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre.
William of Auvergne (1180/90-1249) was a French priest who served as Bishop of Paris from 1228 until his death in 1249.
Yehuda Alharizi, also Judah ben Solomon Harizi or al-Harizi (יהודה בן שלמה אלחריזי, Yehudah ben Shelomo al-Harizi, يحيا بن سليمان بن شاؤل أبو زكريا الحريزي اليهودي من أهل طليطلة, Yahya bin Sulaiman bin Sha'ul abu Zakaria al-Harizi al-Yahudi min ahl Tulaitila) was a rabbi, translator, poet and traveller active in Spain in the Middle Ages (1165 in Toledo? – 1225 in Aleppo).
Yohanan Alemanno (born in Constantinople or in Mantua, c. 1435 – died after 1504) was an Italian Jewish humanist philosopher and exegete, and teacher of the Hebrew language to Italian humanists including Pico della Mirandola.
Yom Kippur (יוֹם כִּיפּוּר,, or), also known as the Day of Atonement, is the holiest day of the year in Judaism.
Zaragoza, also called Saragossa in English, is the capital city of the Zaragoza province and of the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain.
The tradition that 613 commandments (תרי"ג מצוות, taryag mitzvot, "613 mitzvot") is the number of mitzvot in the Torah, began in the 3rd century CE, when Rabbi Simlai mentioned it in a sermon that is recorded in Talmud Makkot 23b.
Abu Ayyub Sulaiman ibn Yahya ibn Jabirul, Avecebrol, Avencebron, Avicebrol, Avicebron, Even Gvirol, Gabirol, Ibn Gabirol, Ibn Gabirol, Solomon ben Yehuda, Ibn Gvirol, Salamo Ben Jehuda Ben Gebirol, Salamo bin Jehuda bin Gabirol, Shlomo Ibn Gabirol, Shlomo ben Yehudah, Solomon Gabirol, Solomon Ibn Gabirol, Solomon ben Gabirol, Solomon ben Judah Ibn Gabirol, Solomon ben Judah ibn Gabirol, Solomon ben Yehuda Ibn Gabirol, Sulaymān ibn Jabīrūl.