181 relations: Acetate, Albite, Alkali metal, Alkaline earth metal, Alloy, Ammonium, Amorphous solid, Anhydrous, Antarctica, Aphorism, Apparent molar property, Aqueous solution, Aragonite, Arthur Amos Noyes, Atmosphere (unit), Barium, Barium nitrate, Base metal, Benzene, Benzoic acid, Biopharmaceutics Classification System, Bromide, Bubble (physics), Calcite, Calcium, Calcium carbonate, Calcium hydroxide, Calcium sulfate, Carbon dioxide, Carbonate, Celsius, Cerium(III) sulfate, ChemComm, Chemical formula, Chemical polarity, Chemical reaction, Chemical structure, Chemical substance, Chemical synthesis, Chloride, Climate change, Common ion effect, Concentration, Coordination complex, Copper, Critical point (thermodynamics), Cyclodextrin, Data mining, Dühring's rule, Dichloromethane, ..., Diethyl ether, Diffusion, Disodium hydrogen arsenate, Drug delivery, Dry ice, Effervescence, Electronegativity, Enthalpy change of solution, Enthalpy of fusion, Entropy, Entropy of mixing, Equilibrium constant, Ethanol, Fajans–Paneth–Hahn Law, Filtration, Flory–Huggins solution theory, Gas, Gas constant, Gasoline, Geologic time scale, Gibbs free energy, Gibbsite, Greenhouse effect, Gypsum, Hansen solubility parameter, Henry's law, Hildebrand solubility parameter, Hot water extraction, Hydrate, Hydrophile, Hydrophobe, Hydrophobic effect, Hydrotrope, Hydroxide, Ideal solution, Incongruent transition, Intermolecular force, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Iodide, Ionic compound, Ionic strength, Iron(II) hydroxide, Kelvin, Le Chatelier's principle, Lead, Ligand, Lipophilicity, Liquid, Liquid–liquid extraction, Lithium, Litre, Mass concentration (chemistry), Mass diffusivity, Mass transfer, Mercury (element), Metallurgy, Metamorphic rock, Metastability, Methanol, Micellar solubilization, Milankovitch cycles, Mineral redox buffer, Miscibility, Mixture, Molality, Molar concentration, Mole (unit), Mole fraction, Naphthalene, Nitrate, Organic compound, Ostwald ripening, Oxide, Partial molar property, Partial pressure, Partition coefficient, Petroleum jelly, PH, Phase (matter), Phase diagram, Phenylmagnesium bromide, Phosphate, Polymorphism (materials science), Portlandite, Precipitation (chemistry), Quantitative structure–activity relationship, Raoult's law, Recrystallization (chemistry), Relative permittivity, Salt (chemistry), Saturation (chemistry), Seawater, Separatory funnel, Sieverts's law, Silver, Silver chloride, Sodium chloride, Sodium sulfate, Solar irradiance, Solid, Solid solution, Solubility, Solubility equilibrium, Solution, Solvation, Solvent, Solvent models, Solvolysis, Solvus, Specific surface area, Spent nuclear fuel, Strontium, Sublimation (phase transition), Sulfate, Sulfide, Sulfite, Supersaturation, Suspension (chemistry), Temperature, Thallium, Thermodynamic free energy, Thermodynamics, United States Pharmacopeia, Uranyl, Urea, Vapor–liquid equilibrium, Water, Water model, Water of crystallization, Young–Laplace equation, 1-Octanol. Expand index (131 more) » « Shrink index
An acetate is a salt formed by the combination of acetic acid with an alkaline, earthy, metallic or nonmetallic and other base.
Albite is a plagioclase feldspar mineral.
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
The ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula.
In condensed matter physics and materials science, an amorphous (from the Greek a, without, morphé, shape, form) or non-crystalline solid is a solid that lacks the long-range order that is characteristic of a crystal.
A substance is anhydrous if it contains no water.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
An aphorism (from Greek ἀφορισμός: aphorismos, denoting "delimitation", "distinction", and "definition") is a concise, terse, laconic, and/or memorable expression of a general truth or principle.
An apparent molar property of a solution component in a mixture or solution is a quantity defined with the purpose of isolating the contribution of each component to the non-ideality of the mixture.
An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water.
Aragonite is a carbonate mineral, one of the two most common, naturally occurring, crystal forms of calcium carbonate, CaCO3 (the other forms being the minerals calcite and vaterite).
Arthur Amos Noyes (September 13, 1866 – June 3, 1936) was a U.S. chemist, inventor and educator.
The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as.
Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.
Barium nitrate is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ba(NO3)2.
A base metal is a common and inexpensive metal, as opposed to a precious metal such as gold or silver.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
Benzoic acid, C7H6O2 (or C6H5COOH), is a colorless crystalline solid and a simple aromatic carboxylic acid.
The Biopharmaceutics Classification System is a system to differentiate the drugs on the basis of their solubility and permeability.
A bromide is a chemical compound containing a bromide ion or ligand.
A bubble is a globule of one substance in another, usually gas in a liquid.
Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.
Calcium hydroxide (traditionally called slaked lime) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2.
Calcium sulfate (or calcium sulphate) is the inorganic compound with the formula CaSO4 and related hydrates.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of.
The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).
Cerium(III) sulfate, also called cerous sulfate, is an inorganic compound with the formula Ce2(SO4)3.
ChemComm (or Chemical Communications), formerly known as Journal of the Chemical Society D: Chemical Communications (1969–1971), Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications (1972–1995), is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society of Chemistry.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
A chemical structure determination includes a chemist's specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid.
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
The common ion effect states that in a chemical solution, if the concentration of any one of the ions is increased, then, some of the ions in excess should be removed from solution, by combining with the oppositely charged ions.
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
In thermodynamics, a critical point (or critical state) is the end point of a phase equilibrium curve.
Cyclodextrins (sometimes called cycloamyloses) are a family of compounds made up of sugar molecules bound together in a ring (cyclic oligosaccharides).
Data mining is the process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of machine learning, statistics, and database systems.
Dühring's rule states that a linear relationship exists between the temperatures at which two solutions exert the same vapor pressure.
Methylene dichloride (DCM, or methylene chloride, or dichloromethane) is a geminal organic compound with the formula CH2Cl2.
Diethyl ether, or simply ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula, sometimes abbreviated as (see Pseudoelement symbols).
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.
Disodium hydrogen arsenate is the inorganic compound with the formula Na2HAsO4.
Drug delivery refers to approaches, formulations, technologies, and systems for transporting a pharmaceutical compound in the body as needed to safely achieve its desired therapeutic effect.
Dry ice, sometimes referred to as "cardice" (chiefly by British chemists), is the solid form of carbon dioxide.
Effervescence is the escape of gas from an aqueous solution and the foaming or fizzing that results from that release.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
The enthalpy of solution, enthalpy of dissolution, or heat of solution is the enthalpy change associated with the dissolution of a substance in a solvent at constant pressure resulting in infinite dilution.
The enthalpy of fusion of a substance, also known as (latent) heat of fusion, is the change in its enthalpy resulting from providing energy, typically heat, to a specific quantity of the substance to change its state from a solid to a liquid, at constant pressure.
In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.
In thermodynamics the entropy of mixing is the increase in the total entropy when several initially separate systems of different composition, each in a thermodynamic state of internal equilibrium, are mixed without chemical reaction by the thermodynamic operation of removal of impermeable partition(s) between them, followed by a time for establishment of a new thermodynamic state of internal equilibrium in the new unpartitioned closed system.
The equilibrium constant of a chemical reaction is the value of its reaction quotient at chemical equilibrium, a state approached by a dynamic chemical system after sufficient time has elapsed at which its composition has no measurable tendency towards further change.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
The Fajans–Paneth–Hahn Law (also Fajans precipitation rule, Fajans-Peneth precipitation and adsorption rule, Hahn law of precipitation and adsorption, Fajans Law), in chemistry, is a rule governing how a small amount of one substance (tracer) is carried down to a precipitate of another substance present in much larger amount (carrier) by coprecipitation or adsorption.
Filtration is any of various mechanical, physical or biological operations that separate solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by adding a medium through which only the fluid can pass.
Flory–Huggins solution theory is a mathematical model of the thermodynamics of polymer solutions which takes account of the great dissimilarity in molecular sizes in adapting the usual expression for the entropy of mixing.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
The gas constant is also known as the molar, universal, or ideal gas constant, denoted by the symbol or and is equivalent to the Boltzmann constant, but expressed in units of energy per temperature increment per mole, i.e. the pressure-volume product, rather than energy per temperature increment per particle.
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time.
In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy (IUPAC recommended name: Gibbs energy or Gibbs function; also known as free enthalpy to distinguish it from Helmholtz free energy) is a thermodynamic potential that can be used to calculate the maximum of reversible work that may be performed by a thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure (isothermal, isobaric).
Gibbsite, Al(OH)3, is one of the mineral forms of aluminium hydroxide.
The greenhouse effect is the process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without its atmosphere.
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.
Hansen solubility parameters were developed by Charles M. Hansen in his Ph.D thesis in 1967 as a way of predicting if one material will dissolve in another and form a solution.
In chemistry, Henry's law is a gas law that states that the amount of dissolved gas is proportional to its partial pressure in the gas phase.
The Hildebrand solubility parameter (δ) provides a numerical estimate of the degree of interaction between materials, and can be a good indication of solubility, particularly for nonpolar materials such as many polymers.
Hot Water Extraction (HWE) is a method of carpet cleaning.
In chemistry, a hydrate is a substance that contains water or its constituent elements.
A hydrophile is a molecule or other molecular entity that is attracted to water molecules and tends to be dissolved by water.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
The hydrophobic effect is the observed tendency of nonpolar substances to aggregate in an aqueous solution and exclude water molecules.
A hydrotrope is a compound that solubilises hydrophobic compounds in aqueous solutions (by means other than micellar solubilization).
Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.
In chemistry, an ideal solution or ideal mixture is a solution with thermodynamic properties analogous to those of a mixture of ideal gases.
Incongruent transition, in chemistry, is a mass transition between two phases which involves a change in composition.
Intermolecular forces (IMF) are the forces which mediate interaction between molecules, including forces of attraction or repulsion which act between molecules and other types of neighboring particles, e.g., atoms or ions.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
An iodide ion is the ion I−.
In chemistry, an ionic compound is a chemical compound composed of ions held together by electrostatic forces termed ionic bonding.
The concept of ionic strength was first introduced by Lewis and Randall in 1921 while describing the activity coefficients of strong electrolytes.
Iron(II) hydroxide or ferrous hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula Fe(OH)2.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
Le Chatelier's principle, also called Chatelier's principle or "The Equilibrium Law", can be used to predict the effect of a change in conditions on some chemical equilibria.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
Lipophilicity (from Greek λίπος "fat" and φίλος "friendly"), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene.
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.
Liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds or metal complexes, based on their relative solubilities in two different immiscible liquids, usually water (polar) and an organic solvent (non-polar).
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l, sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,, p. 124. ("Days" and "hours" are examples of other non-SI units that SI accepts.) although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). The spelling used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is "litre", a spelling which is shared by almost all English-speaking countries. The spelling "liter" is predominantly used in American English. One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, because the kilogram was originally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic decimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice. Subsequent redefinitions of the metre and kilogram mean that this relationship is no longer exact.
In chemistry, the mass concentration is defined as the mass of a constituent divided by the volume of the mixture: For a pure chemical the mass concentration equals its density (mass divided by volume); thus the mass concentration of a component in a mixture can be called the density of a component in a mixture.
Diffusivity or diffusion coefficient is a proportionality constant between the molar flux due to molecular diffusion and the gradient in the concentration of the species (or the driving force for diffusion).
Mass transfer is the net movement of mass from one location, usually meaning stream, phase, fraction or component, to another.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form".
In physics, metastability is a stable state of a dynamical system other than the system's state of least energy.
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).
Micellar solubilization (solubilization) is the process of incorporating the solubilizate (the component that undergoes solublization) into or onto micelles.
Milankovitch cycles describe the collective effects of changes in the Earth's movements on its climate over thousands of years.
In geology, a redox buffer is an assemblage of minerals or compounds that constrains oxygen fugacity as a function of temperature.
Miscibility is the property of substances to mix in all proportions (that is, to fully dissolve in each other at any concentration), forming a homogeneous solution.
In chemistry, a mixture is a material made up of two or more different substances which are mixed.
Molality, also called molal concentration, is a measure of the concentration of a solute in a solution in terms of amount of substance in a specified amount of mass of the solvent.
Molar concentration (also called molarity, amount concentration or substance concentration) is a measure of the concentration of a chemical species, in particular of a solute in a solution, in terms of amount of substance per unit volume of solution.
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.
In chemistry, the mole fraction or molar fraction (xi) is defined as the amount of a constituent (expressed in moles), ni, divided by the total amount of all constituents in a mixture (also expressed in moles), ntot: The sum of all the mole fractions is equal to 1: The same concept expressed with a denominator of 100 is the mole percent or molar percentage or molar proportion (mol%).
Naphthalene is an organic compound with formula.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Ostwald ripening is an observed phenomenon in solid solutions or liquid sols that describes the change of an inhomogeneous structure over time, i.e., small crystals or sol particles dissolve, and redeposit onto larger crystals or sol particles.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
A partial molar property is a thermodynamic quantity which indicates how an extensive property of a solution or mixture varies with changes in the molar composition of the mixture at constant temperature and pressure.
In a mixture of gases, each gas has a partial pressure which is the hypothetical pressure of that gas if it alone occupied the entire volume of the original mixture at the same temperature.
In the physical sciences, a partition-coefficient (P) or distribution-coefficient (D) is the ratio of concentrations of a compound in a mixture of two immiscible phases at equilibrium.
Petroleum jelly, petrolatum, white petrolatum, soft paraffin/paraffin wax or multi-hydrocarbon, CAS number 8009-03-8, is a semi-solid mixture of hydrocarbons (with carbon numbers mainly higher than 25), originally promoted as a topical ointment for its healing properties.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.
A phase diagram in physical chemistry, engineering, mineralogy, and materials science is a type of chart used to show conditions (pressure, temperature, volume, etc.) at which thermodynamically distinct phases occur and coexist at equilibrium.
Phenylmagnesium bromide, with the simplified formula, is a magnesium-containing organometallic compound.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
In materials science, polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one form or crystal structure.
Portlandite is an oxide mineral.
Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.
Quantitative structure–activity relationship models (QSAR models) are regression or classification models used in the chemical and biological sciences and engineering.
Raoult's law (law) is a law of thermodynamics established by French chemist François-Marie Raoult in 1887.
In chemistry, recrystallization is a technique used to purify chemicals.
The relative permittivity of a material is its (absolute) permittivity expressed as a ratio relative to the permittivity of vacuum.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
In chemistry, saturation (from the Latin word saturare, meaning 'to fill') has diverse meanings, all based on the idea of reaching a maximum capacity.
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
A separatory funnel, also known as separation funnel, separating funnel, or colloquially sep funnel, is a piece of laboratory glassware used in liquid-liquid extractions to separate (partition) the components of a mixture into two immiscible solvent phases of different densities.
Sieverts' law, in physical metallurgy and in chemistry, is a rule to predict the solubility of gases in metals.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Silver chloride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula AgCl.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
Sodium sulfate, also known as sulfate of soda, is the inorganic compound with formula Na2SO4 as well as several related hydrates.
Solar irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).
A solid solution is a solid-state solution of one or more solutes in a solvent.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
Solubility equilibrium is a type of dynamic equilibrium that exists when a chemical compound in the solid state is in chemical equilibrium with a solution of that compound.
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.
Solvation describes the interaction of solvent with dissolved molecules.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
Within the field of computational chemistry, solvent models are a variety of methods to account for the behavior of solvated condensed phases.
Solvolysis is a type of nucleophilic substitution (SN1) /(SN2) or elimination, where the nucleophile is a solvent molecule.
In a physical or geochemical system, a solvus is a line (binary system) or surface (ternary system) on a phase diagram which separates a homogeneous solid solution from a field of several phases which may form by exsolution or incongruent melting.
Specific surface area (SSA) is a property of solids defined as the total surface area of a material per unit of mass, (with units of m2/kg or m2/g) or solid or bulk volume (units of m2/m3 or m−1).
Spent nuclear fuel, occasionally called used nuclear fuel, is nuclear fuel that has been irradiated in a nuclear reactor (usually at a nuclear power plant).
Strontium is the chemical element with symbol Sr and atomic number 38.
Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
Sulfide (systematically named sulfanediide, and sulfide(2−)) (British English sulphide) is an inorganic anion of sulfur with the chemical formula S2− or a compound containing one or more S2− ions.
Sulfites or sulphites are compounds that contain the sulfite ion (or the sulfate(IV) ion, from its correct systematic name),.
Supersaturation is a state of a solution that contains more of the dissolved material than could be dissolved by the solvent under normal circumstances.
In chemistry, a suspension is a heterogeneous mixture that contains solid particles sufficiently large for sedimentation.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
Thallium is a chemical element with symbol Tl and atomic number 81.
The thermodynamic free energy is the amount of work that a thermodynamic system can perform.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.
The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) is a pharmacopeia (compendium of drug information) for the United States published annually by the United States Pharmacopeial Convention (usually also called the USP), a nonprofit organization that owns the trademark and copyright.
The uranyl ion is an oxycation of uranium in the oxidation state +6, with the chemical formula.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
In thermodynamics and chemical engineering, the vapor–liquid equilibrium (VLE) describes the distribution of a chemical species between the vapor phase and a liquid phase.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
In computational chemistry, a water model is used to simulate and thermodynamically calculate water clusters, liquid water, and aqueous solutions with explicit solvent.
In chemistry, water of crystallization or water of hydration or crystallization water is water molecules that are present inside crystals.
In physics, the Young–Laplace equation is a nonlinear partial differential equation that describes the capillary pressure difference sustained across the interface between two static fluids, such as water and air, due to the phenomenon of surface tension or wall tension, although usage on the latter is only applicable if assuming that the wall is very thin.
1-Octanol also known as octan-1-ol is the organic compound with the molecular formula CH3(CH2)7OH.
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