85 relations: Alloy, Amalgam (chemistry), Aqueous solution, Atmosphere of Earth, Body fluid, Boiling point, Bronze, Carbon dioxide, Carbonated water, Chemical compound, Chemical polarity, Chemistry, Clinical chemistry, Coil–globule transition, Colligative properties, Colloid, Concentration, Effervescence, Electric dipole moment, Electrolyte, Emulsion, Enthalpy change of solution, Entropy, Ethanol, Exothermic process, Filtration, Gas, Gold, Hexane, Homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures, Hydrogen, Hydrogen bond, Hydrogen storage, Ideal solution, Ion, Ion association, Light, Linear combination, Liquid, Lower critical solution temperature, Mass, Melting point, Mercury (element), Mixture, Molar concentration, Mole fraction, Noble gas, Oil, Oxygen, Palladium, ..., Paraffin wax, Percentage solution, Petroleum, Phase (matter), Plasticizer, Polymer, Potassium, Pressure, Properties of water, Protic solvent, Salt, Salt (chemistry), Saturation (chemistry), Scattering, Sodium chloride, Solid, Solubility, Solubility equilibrium, Solvation, Solvent, State of matter, Steel, Stock solution, Sucrose, Sugar, Supersaturation, Surfactant, Suspension (chemistry), Temperature, Thermodynamic free energy, Total dissolved solids, Upper critical solution temperature, Urea, Volume fraction, Water. Expand index (35 more) » « Shrink index
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
An amalgam is an alloy of mercury with another metal, which may be a liquid, a soft paste or a solid, depending upon the proportion of mercury.
An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Body fluid, bodily fluids, or biofluids are liquids within the bodies of living people.
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbonated water (bubbly water, fizzy water) is water into which carbon dioxide gas under pressure has been dissolved, either by technology or by a natural geologic source.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Clinical chemistry (also known as chemical pathology, clinical biochemistry or medical biochemistry) is the area of chemistry that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily fluids for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
In polymer physics, the coil–globule transition is the collapse of a macromolecule from an expanded coil state through an ideal coil state to a collapsed globule state, or vice versa.
In chemistry, colligative properties are properties of solutions that depend on the ratio of the number of solute particles to the number of solvent molecules in a solution, and not on the nature of the chemical species present.
In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
Effervescence is the escape of gas from an aqueous solution and the foaming or fizzing that results from that release.
The electric dipole moment is a measure of the separation of positive and negative electrical charges within a system, that is, a measure of the system's overall polarity.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or unblendable).
The enthalpy of solution, enthalpy of dissolution, or heat of solution is the enthalpy change associated with the dissolution of a substance in a solvent at constant pressure resulting in infinite dilution.
In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo-: "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system to its surroundings, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen).
Filtration is any of various mechanical, physical or biological operations that separate solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by adding a medium through which only the fluid can pass.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Hexane is an alkane of six carbon atoms, with the chemical formula C6H14.
A homogeneous mixture is a solid, liquid, or gaseous mixture that has the same proportions of its components throughout any given sample.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
Methods of hydrogen storage for subsequent use span many approaches including high pressures, cryogenics, and chemical compounds that reversibly release H2 upon heating.
In chemistry, an ideal solution or ideal mixture is a solution with thermodynamic properties analogous to those of a mixture of ideal gases.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
In chemistry, ion association is a chemical reaction whereby ions of opposite electrical charge come together in solution to form a distinct chemical entity.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
In mathematics, a linear combination is an expression constructed from a set of terms by multiplying each term by a constant and adding the results (e.g. a linear combination of x and y would be any expression of the form ax + by, where a and b are constants).
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.
The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) or lower consolute temperature is the critical temperature below which the components of a mixture are miscible for all compositions.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
In chemistry, a mixture is a material made up of two or more different substances which are mixed.
Molar concentration (also called molarity, amount concentration or substance concentration) is a measure of the concentration of a chemical species, in particular of a solute in a solution, in terms of amount of substance per unit volume of solution.
In chemistry, the mole fraction or molar fraction (xi) is defined as the amount of a constituent (expressed in moles), ni, divided by the total amount of all constituents in a mixture (also expressed in moles), ntot: The sum of all the mole fractions is equal to 1: The same concept expressed with a denominator of 100 is the mole percent or molar percentage or molar proportion (mol%).
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance that is a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic (does not mix with water, literally "water fearing") and lipophilic (mixes with other oils, literally "fat loving").
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46.
Paraffin wax is a white or colourless soft solid, derived from petroleum, coal or oil shale, that consists of a mixture of hydrocarbon molecules containing between twenty and forty carbon atoms.
Percentage solution may refer to.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.
Plasticizers (UK: plasticisers) or dispersants are additives that increase the plasticity or decrease the viscosity of a material.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. Water is amphoteric, meaning that it is both an acid and a base—it produces + and - ions by self-ionization.
In chemistry, a protic solvent is a solvent that has a hydrogen atom bound to an oxygen (as in a hydroxyl group) or a nitrogen (as in an amine group).
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
In chemistry, saturation (from the Latin word saturare, meaning 'to fill') has diverse meanings, all based on the idea of reaching a maximum capacity.
Scattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
Solubility equilibrium is a type of dynamic equilibrium that exists when a chemical compound in the solid state is in chemical equilibrium with a solution of that compound.
Solvation describes the interaction of solvent with dissolved molecules.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
A stock solution is a concentrated solution that will be diluted to some lower concentration for actual use.
Sucrose is common table sugar.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Supersaturation is a state of a solution that contains more of the dissolved material than could be dissolved by the solvent under normal circumstances.
Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension (or interfacial tension) between two liquids, between a gas and a liquid, or between a liquid and a solid.
In chemistry, a suspension is a heterogeneous mixture that contains solid particles sufficiently large for sedimentation.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
The thermodynamic free energy is the amount of work that a thermodynamic system can perform.
Total dissolved solids (TDS) is a measure of the combined content of all inorganic and organic substances contained in a liquid in molecular, ionized or micro-granular (colloidal sol) suspended form.
The upper critical solution temperature (UCST) or upper consolute temperature is the critical temperature above which the components of a mixture are miscible in all proportions.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
In chemistry, the volume fraction φi is defined as the volume of a constituent Vi divided by the volume of all constituents of the mixture V prior to mixing: Being dimensionless, its unit is 1; it is expressed as a number, e.g., 0.18.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.