177 relations: Acetic acid, Acetone, Acetonitrile, Alcoholism, Aluminium oxide, Amalgam (chemistry), Amyl acetate, Anesthetic, Aquifer, Autoignition temperature, Benzene, Benzophenone, Bindeez, Boiling point, Bond dipole moment, Bunsen burner, Butanol, Butyl acetate, Cancer, Carbon disulfide, Carcinogen, Cataract, Chemical compound, Chemical formula, Chemical polarity, Chemical reaction, Chemical synthesis, Chloroform, Chronic solvent-induced encephalopathy, Color vision, Coordination complex, Crystal, Cyclohexane, Cyclopentane, Debye, Deep eutectic solvent, Density, Dermatitis, Desiccant, Detonation, Dichloromethane, Diethyl ether, Diglyme, Diisopropyl ether, Dimethyl sulfoxide, Dimethylformamide, Dipole, Distillation, Dry cleaning, Electric light, ..., Entropy, Ethanol, Ether, Ethyl acetate, Ethylene glycol, Explosion, Field strength, Flash fire, Formic acid, Gasoline, Grunwald–Winstein equation, Halogen, Hansen solubility parameter, HarperCollins, Hearing loss, Heat transfer, Hexane, Hildebrand solubility parameter, Hot plate, Human brain, Hydraulic fracturing proppants, Hydrogen, Hydrogen bond, Hypnotic, Hypotension, Inhalant, Inhalation, Inorganic chemistry, Iodide, Ion, Ionic compound, Ionic liquid, Iron(II) sulfate, Isopropyl alcohol, Kidney, Latin, Lewis acids and bases, Limonene, Liquid metal, List of water-miscible solvents, Liver, Lyoluminescence, Medication, Mercury (element), Metabolic acidosis, Methanol, Methyl acetate, Miscibility, Moisture, Molecule, N-Butanol, Nausea, Nervous system, Neurotoxicity, Nile red, Nitroaniline, Nitromethane, Occupational safety and health, Oil, Organic compound, Organic peroxide, Oxygen, Paint thinner, Partition coefficient, Pentane, Perfume, Phase (matter), Polarizability, Potassium thiocyanate, Precipitation (chemistry), Propanol, Properties of water, Property, Propylene carbonate, Protic solvent, Psychoactive drug, Pyridinium, Radical (chemistry), Reaction mechanism, Redox, Reichardt's dye, Relative permittivity, Salt, Salt (chemistry), Sedative, Separatory funnel, SN1 reaction, SN2 reaction, Sodium, Soil contamination, Solubility, Solution, Solvation, Solvatochromism, Solvent effects, Specific gravity, Steam, Sugar, Supercritical fluid, Synergy, Temperature, Tetrachloroethylene, Tetrahydrofuran, Thermodynamics, Thiocyanate, Toluene, Trial and error, Turpentine, Ultraviolet, Vacuum, Van der Waals force, Vinegar, Vomiting, Water model, Water pollution, Wax, Weighted arithmetic mean, White spirit, World Health Organization, Xylene, Zwitterion, 1,4-Butanediol, 1,4-Dioxane, 1,5-Pentanediol, 1-Propanol, 2-Butoxyethanol, 2-Ethoxyethanol. Expand index (127 more) » « Shrink index
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
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Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.
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Acetonitrile is the chemical compound with the formula.
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Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.
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Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.
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An amalgam is an alloy of mercury with another metal, which may be a liquid, a soft paste or a solid, depending upon the proportion of mercury.
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Amyl acetate (pentyl acetate) is an organic compound and an ester with the chemical formula CH3COO4CH3 and the molecular weight 130.19g/mol.
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An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery, completely blocking any feeling as opposed to an analgesic.
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An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt).
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The autoignition temperature or kindling point of a substance is the lowest temperature at which it spontaneously ignites in normal atmosphere without an external source of ignition, such as a flame or spark.
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Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
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Benzophenone is the organic compound with the formula (C6H5)2CO, generally abbreviated Ph2CO.
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Bindeez (also marketed as Aqua Dots, Beados,Moose Beados Site and PixosPixos Site http://www.pixos.com/) are a children's toy, consisting of small colored plastic beads that can be arranged in designs.
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The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.
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Bond dipole moment
The bond dipole moment uses the idea of electric dipole moment to measure the polarity of a chemical bond within a molecule.
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A Bunsen burner, named after Robert Bunsen, is a common piece of laboratory equipment that produces a single open gas flame, which is used for heating, sterilization, and combustion.
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Butanol (also called butyl alcohol (or βουτανόλη in Greek)) is a four-carbon alcohol with a formula of C4H9OH, which occurs in five isomeric structures, from a straight-chain primary alcohol to a branched-chain tertiary alcohol; all are a butyl or isobutyl group linked to a hydroxyl group (sometimes represented as BuOH, n-BuOH, and i-BuOH).
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n-Butyl acetate, also known as butyl ethanoate, is an ester which is a colorless flammable liquid at room temperature.
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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
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Carbon disulfide is a colorless volatile liquid with the formula CS2.
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A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
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A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye which leads to a decrease in vision.
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A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
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A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
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In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.
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A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
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Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
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Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.
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Chronic solvent-induced encephalopathy
Chronic solvent induced encephalopathy (CSE) is a condition induced by long-term exposure to organic solvents, often but not always in the workplace, that lead to a wide variety of persisting sensorimotor polyneuropathies and neurobehavioral deficits even after solvent exposure has been removed.
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Color vision is the ability of an organism or machine to distinguish objects based on the wavelengths (or frequencies) of the light they reflect, emit, or transmit.
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In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
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A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
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Cyclohexane is a cycloalkane with the molecular formula C6H12 (the alkyl is abbreviated Cy).
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Cyclopentane is a highly flammable alicyclic hydrocarbon with chemical formula C5H10 and CAS number 287-92-3, consisting of a ring of five carbon atoms each bonded with two hydrogen atoms above and below the plane.
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The debye (symbol: D) is a CGS unit (a non-SI metric unit) of electric dipole momentElectric dipole moment is defined as charge times displacement: |- |height.
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Deep eutectic solvent
Deep eutectic solvents are systems formed from a eutectic mixture of Lewis or Brønsted acids and bases which can contain a variety of anionic and/or cationic species.
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The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
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Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a group of diseases that results in inflammation of the skin.
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A desiccant is a hygroscopic substance that induces or sustains a state of dryness (desiccation) in its vicinity; it is the opposite of a humectant.
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Detonation is a type of combustion involving a supersonic exothermic front accelerating through a medium that eventually drives a shock front propagating directly in front of it.
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Methylene dichloride (DCM, or methylene chloride, or dichloromethane) is a geminal organic compound with the formula CH2Cl2.
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Diethyl ether, or simply ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula, sometimes abbreviated as (see Pseudoelement symbols).
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Diglyme, or bis(2-methoxyethyl) ether, is a solvent with a high boiling point.
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Diisopropyl ether is secondary ether that is used as a solvent.
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Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an organosulfur compound with the formula (CH3)2SO.
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Dimethylformamide is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)2NC(O)H.
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In electromagnetism, there are two kinds of dipoles.
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Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.
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Dry cleaning is any cleaning process for clothing and textiles using a chemical solvent other than water.
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An electric light is a device that produces visible light from electric current.
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In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.
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Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
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Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups.
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Ethyl acetate (systematically ethyl ethanoate, commonly abbreviated EtOAc or EA) is the organic compound with the formula, simplified to.
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Ethylene glycol (IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2OH)2.
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An explosion is a rapid increase in volume and release of energy in an extreme manner, usually with the generation of high temperatures and the release of gases.
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In physics, field strength means the magnitude of a vector-valued field (e.g., in volts per meter, V/m, for an electric field E).
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A flash fire is a sudden, intense fire caused by ignition of a mixture of air and a dispersed flammable substance such as a solid (including dust), flammable or combustible liquid (such as an aerosol or fine mist), or a flammable gas.
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Formic acid, systematically named methanoic acid, is the simplest carboxylic acid.
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Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
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In physical organic chemistry, the Grunwald–Winstein equation is a linear free energy relationship between relative rate constants and the ionizing power of various solvent systems, describing the effect of solvent as nucleophile on different substrates.
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The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
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Hansen solubility parameter
Hansen solubility parameters were developed by Charles M. Hansen in his Ph.D thesis in 1967 as a way of predicting if one material will dissolve in another and form a solution.
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HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster.
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Hearing loss, also known as hearing impairment, is a partial or total inability to hear.
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Heat transfer is a discipline of thermal engineering that concerns the generation, use, conversion, and exchange of thermal energy (heat) between physical systems.
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Hexane is an alkane of six carbon atoms, with the chemical formula C6H14.
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Hildebrand solubility parameter
The Hildebrand solubility parameter (δ) provides a numerical estimate of the degree of interaction between materials, and can be a good indication of solubility, particularly for nonpolar materials such as many polymers.
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A hot plate is a portable self-contained tabletop small appliance that features one, two or more electric heating elements or gas burners.
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The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
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Hydraulic fracturing proppants
A proppant is a solid material, typically sand, treated sand or man-made ceramic materials, designed to keep an induced hydraulic fracture open, during or following a fracturing treatment.
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Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
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A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
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Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or surgical anesthesia.
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Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
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Inhalants are a broad range of household and industrial chemicals whose volatile vapors or pressurized gases are concentrated and breathed in via the nose or mouth to produce intoxication (called "getting high" in slang), in a manner not intended by the manufacturer.
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Inhalation (also known as inspiration) happens when oxygen from the air enters the lungs.
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Inorganic chemistry deals with the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds.
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An iodide ion is the ion I−.
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An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
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In chemistry, an ionic compound is a chemical compound composed of ions held together by electrostatic forces termed ionic bonding.
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An ionic liquid (IL) is a salt in the liquid state.
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Iron(II) sulfate (British English: iron(II) sulphate) or ferrous sulfate denotes a range of salts with the formula FeSO4·xH2O.
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Isopropyl alcohol (IUPAC name propan-2-ol; commonly called isopropanol) is a compound with the chemical formula C3H8O.
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The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
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Lewis acids and bases
A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.
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Limonene is a clear, colorless liquid hydrocarbon classified as a cyclic monoterpene, and is the major component in the oil of citrus fruit peels.
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Liquid metal consists of alloys with very low melting points which form a eutectic that is liquid at room temperature.
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List of water-miscible solvents
The following compounds are liquid at room temperature and are completely miscible with water; they are often used as solvents.
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The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
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Lyoluminescence refers to the emission of light while dissolving a solid into a liquid solvent.
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A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
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Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
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Metabolic acidosis is a condition that occurs when the body produces excessive quantities of acid or when the kidneys are not removing enough acid from the body.
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Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).
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Methyl acetate, also known as MeOAc, acetic acid methyl ester or methyl ethanoate, is a carboxylate ester with the formula CH3COOCH3.
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Miscibility is the property of substances to mix in all proportions (that is, to fully dissolve in each other at any concentration), forming a homogeneous solution.
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Moisture is the presence of a liquid, especially water, often in trace amounts.
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A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
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n-Butanol or n-butyl alcohol or normal butanol is a primary alcohol with a 4-carbon structure and the chemical formula C4H9OH.
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Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
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The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
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Neurotoxicity is a form of toxicity in which a biological, chemical, or physical agent produces an adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system.
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Nile red (also known as Nile blue oxazone) is a lipophilic stain.
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The term nitroaniline in chemistry refers to a derivative of aniline (C6H5NH2) containing a nitro group (—NO2) There are three simple nitroanilines of formula C6H4(NH2)(NO2) which differ only in the position of the nitro group.
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Nitromethane is an organic compound with the chemical formula.
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Occupational safety and health
Occupational safety and health (OSH), also commonly referred to as occupational health and safety (OHS), occupational health, or workplace health and safety (WHS), is a multidisciplinary field concerned with the safety, health, and welfare of people at work.
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An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance that is a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic (does not mix with water, literally "water fearing") and lipophilic (mixes with other oils, literally "fat loving").
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In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
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Organic peroxides are organic compounds containing the peroxide functional group (ROOR′).
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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
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A paint thinner is a solvent used to thin oil-based paints or clean up after their use.
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In the physical sciences, a partition-coefficient (P) or distribution-coefficient (D) is the ratio of concentrations of a compound in a mixture of two immiscible phases at equilibrium.
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Pentane is an organic compound with the formula C5H12—that is, an alkane with five carbon atoms.
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Perfume (parfum) is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds, fixatives and solvents, used to give the human body, animals, food, objects, and living-spaces an agreeable scent.
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In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.
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Polarizability is the ability to form instantaneous dipoles.
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Potassium thiocyanate is the chemical compound with the molecular formula KSCN.
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Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.
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There are two isomers of propanol.
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Properties of water
Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. Water is amphoteric, meaning that it is both an acid and a base—it produces + and - ions by self-ionization.
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Property, in the abstract, is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing.
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Propylene carbonate (often abbreviated PC) is an organic compound with the formula CH3C2H3O2CO.
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In chemistry, a protic solvent is a solvent that has a hydrogen atom bound to an oxygen (as in a hydroxyl group) or a nitrogen (as in an amine group).
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A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
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Pyridinium refers to the cation +. It is the conjugate acid of pyridine.
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In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
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In chemistry, a reaction mechanism is the step by step sequence of elementary reactions by which overall chemical change occurs.
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Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
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Reichardt's dye (Betaine 30) is an organic dye belonging to the class of azomerocyanine betaines.
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The relative permittivity of a material is its (absolute) permittivity expressed as a ratio relative to the permittivity of vacuum.
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Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
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In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
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A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.
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A separatory funnel, also known as separation funnel, separating funnel, or colloquially sep funnel, is a piece of laboratory glassware used in liquid-liquid extractions to separate (partition) the components of a mixture into two immiscible solvent phases of different densities.
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The SN1 reaction is a substitution reaction in organic chemistry.
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The SN2 reaction is a type of reaction mechanism that is common in organic chemistry.
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Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
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Soil contamination or soil pollution as part of land degradation is caused by the presence of xenobiotic (human-made) chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment.
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Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
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In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.
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Solvation describes the interaction of solvent with dissolved molecules.
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Solvatochromism is the ability of a chemical substance to change color due to a change in solvent polarity.
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In chemistry, solvent effects are the influence of a solvent on chemical reactivity or molecular associations.
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Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance; equivalently, it is the ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of a reference substance for the same given volume.
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Steam is water in the gas phase, which is formed when water boils.
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Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
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A supercritical fluid (SCF) is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point, where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist.
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Synergy is the creation of a whole that is greater than the simple sum of its parts.
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Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
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Tetrachloroethylene, also known under the systematic name tetrachloroethene, or perchloroethylene ("perc" or "PERC"), and many other names, is a chlorocarbon with the formula Cl2C.
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Tetrahydrofuran (THF) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2)4O.
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Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.
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Thiocyanate (also known as rhodanide) is the anion −. It is the conjugate base of thiocyanic acid.
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Toluene, also known as toluol, is an aromatic hydrocarbon.
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Trial and error
Trial and error is a fundamental method of problem solving.
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Chemical structure of pinene, a major component of turpentine Turpentine (also called spirit of turpentine, oil of turpentine, wood turpentine and colloquially turps) is a fluid obtained by the distillation of resin obtained from live trees, mainly pines.
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Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
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Vacuum is space devoid of matter.
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Van der Waals force
In molecular physics, the van der Waals forces, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, are distance-dependent interactions between atoms or molecules.
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Vinegar is a liquid consisting of about 5–20% acetic acid (CH3COOH), water (H2O), and trace chemicals that may include flavorings.
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Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
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In computational chemistry, a water model is used to simulate and thermodynamically calculate water clusters, liquid water, and aqueous solutions with explicit solvent.
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Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities.
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Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures.
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Weighted arithmetic mean
The weighted arithmetic mean is similar to an ordinary arithmetic mean (the most common type of average), except that instead of each of the data points contributing equally to the final average, some data points contribute more than others.
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White spirit (UK)Primarily in the United Kingdom.
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World Health Organization
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
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Xylene (from Greek ξύλο, xylo, "wood"), xylol or dimethylbenzene is any one of three isomers of dimethylbenzene, or a combination thereof.
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In chemistry, a zwitterion, formerly called a dipolar ion, is a molecule with two or more functional groups, of which at least one has a positive and one has a negative electrical charge and the net charge of the entire molecule is zero.
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1,4-Butanediol, colloquially known as BD, is the organic compound with the formula HOCH2CH2CH2CH2OH.
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1,4-Dioxane is a heterocyclic organic compound, classified as an ether.
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1,5-Pentanediol is the organic compound with the formula HOCH2CH2CH2CH2CH2OH.
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1-Propanol is a primary alcohol with the formula CH3CH2CH2OH (sometimes represented as PrOH or n-PrOH).
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2-Butoxyethanol is an organic compound with the chemical formula BuOC2H4OH (Bu.
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2-Ethoxyethanol, also known by the trademark Cellosolve or ethyl cellosolve, is a solvent used widely in commercial and industrial applications.
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Chemical solvent, Extracting agent, Halogenated solvent, Halogenated solvents, High-boiling solvent, Multicomponent solvents, Non-polar solvent, Nonpolar solvent, Organic solvent, Organic solvents, Polar solvent, Polar solvents, Solvant, Solvents, Volatile solvent, Volatile solvents.