123 relations: Afar language, Affricate consonant, Afroasiatic languages, Agglutination, Alveolar consonant, Amharic, Ancient inscriptions in Somalia, Approximant consonant, Arabic, Arabic script, B. W. Andrzejewski, Baidoa, Benadiri Somali, Bilabial consonant, Borama alphabet, Clusivity, Cushitic languages, Dabarre language, Dental consonant, Diacritic, Digraph (orthography), Djibouti, Djibouti (city), Eastern Television Network, Egyptian Arabic, English language, Ethiopia, Europe, Excavation (archaeology), Focus (linguistics), French language, Fricative consonant, Garre language, Glottal consonant, Glottal stop, Google Translate, Greater Somalia, Gulf of Aden, Head-directionality parameter, Hindi, Horn Cable Television, Horn of Africa, Hussein Sheikh Ahmed Kaddare, Indian Ocean, Indo-European languages, Inflection, Italian language, Jiiddu language, Johann Maria Hildebrandt, Kaddare alphabet, ..., Kenya, Kismayo, Labiodental consonant, Languages of Djibouti, Languages of Somalia, Latin script, Lilias Armstrong, List of official languages by country and territory, Loanword, Lowland East Cushitic languages, Maay Maay, Middle East, Mogadishu, Mohamed Diriye Abdullahi, Morpheme, Mutual intelligibility, Nasal consonant, Near East, Neologism, North America, Oromo language, Osman Yusuf Kenadid, Osmanya alphabet, Palatal consonant, Palato-alveolar consonant, Persian language, Pharyngeal consonant, Phoneme, Pitch-accent language, Portuguese language, Preposition and postposition, Puntland TV and Radio, Qasida, Radio Mogadishu, Radio Television of Djibouti, Rahanweyn, Regional Somali Language Academy, Rendille language, Retroflex consonant, Romance languages, Royal Geographical Society, Saho language, Sheikh Abdurahman Sh. Nur, Shire Jama Ahmed, SIL International, Somali Civil War, Somali Democratic Republic, Somali diaspora, Somali languages, Somali Latin alphabet, Somali Region, Somali Sign Language, Somali studies, Somalia, Somalian literature, Somaliland, Somaliland National TV, Somalis, South Asia, Spanish language, Stop consonant, Subject–object–verb, Supreme Revolutionary Council (Somalia), Tone (linguistics), Trill consonant, Tunni language, Urdu, Uvular consonant, Velar consonant, Vowel, Wadaad writing, Writing system, Yemen. Expand index (73 more) » « Shrink index
The Afar language (Qafaraf) (also known as ’Afar Af, Afaraf, Qafar af) is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.
Agglutination is a linguistic process pertaining to derivational morphology in which complex words are formed by stringing together morphemes without changing them in spelling or phonetics.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
Amharic (or; Amharic: አማርኛ) is one of the Ethiopian Semitic languages, which are a subgrouping within the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages.
Encyclopedias from ca.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.
Bogumił Witalis "Goosh" Andrzejewski (1922–1994) was a Polish-born, British-naturalised linguist whose research focused on the Somali language.
Baidoa (Baydhabo), is capital in the southwestern Bay region of Somalia.
Benadiri Somali is a dialect of the Somali language.
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.
The Borama alphabet (Borama) or more generally known as the Gadabuursi script, is a writing script for the Somali language.
In linguistics, clusivity is a grammatical distinction between inclusive and exclusive first-person pronouns and verbal morphology, also called inclusive "we" and exclusive "we".
The Cushitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
Dabarre (also known as Af-Dabarre) is an Afro-Asiatic language spoken by the Dabarre and Iroole Digil (Rahanweyn) subclans of Somalis inhabiting southwestern Somalia.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
Djibouti (جيبوتي, Djibouti, Jabuuti, Gabuuti), officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Djibouti City (also called Djibouti; مدينة جيبوتي, Ville de Djibouti, Magaalada Jabuuti, Magaala Gabuuti) is the eponymous capital and largest city of Djibouti.
Eastern Television Network (ETN TV) is a Somali private television channel.
Egyptian Arabic, locally known as the Egyptian colloquial language or Masri, also spelled Masry, meaning simply "Egyptian", is spoken by most contemporary Egyptians.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
In archaeology, excavation is the exposure, processing and recording of archaeological remains.
Focus (abbreviated) is a grammatical category that determines which part of the sentence contributes new, non-derivable, or contrastive information.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Garre (also known as Af-Garre) is an Afro-Asiatic language spoken by the Garre people inhabiting southern Somalia, Ethiopia and northern Kenya.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
Google Translate is a free multilingual machine translation service developed by Google, to translate text.
Greater Somalia (Soomaaliweyn, الصومال الكبير) comprises the regions in or near the Horn of Africa in which ethnic Somalis live and have historically inhabited.
The Gulf of Aden, also known as the Gulf of Berbera, (خليج عدن,, Gacanka Berbera) is a gulf amidst Yemen to the north, the Arabian Sea and Guardafui Channel to the east, Somalia to the south, and Djibouti to the west.
In linguistics, the head directionality is a proposed parameter that classifies languages according to whether they are head-initial (the head of a phrase precedes its complements) or head-final (the head follows its complements).
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Horn Cable Television (HCTV) is a Somali private television channel.
The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.
Hussein Sheikh Ahmed Kaddare (Xuseen Sheekh Axmed Kaddare, February 1, 2015) was a Somali inventor.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Jiiddu (also known as Jiddu or Af-Jiiddu) is an Afro-Asiatic language spoken by the Jiiddu sub-clan of the Rahanweyn, a Somali clan inhabiting southern Somalia.
Johann Maria Hildebrandt (born 13 or 19 March 1847; died 29 May 1881) was a German explorer, collector, and scientist.
The Kaddare alphabet is a writing script created to transcribe Somali, an Afro-Asiatic language.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
Kismayo (Kismaayo; كيسمايو,; Italian: Chisimaio) is a port city in the southern Lower Juba (Jubbada Hoose) province of Somalia.
In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.
The languages of Djibouti include Afar, Arabic, Somali and French.
Somali is the official language of Somalia and the mother tongue of the Somali people, the nation's most populous ethnic group.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Lilias Eveline Armstrong (29 September 1882 – 9 December 1937) was an English phonetician.
This is a complete list of the official languages of countries and dependent territories of the world.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
Lowland East Cushitic is a group of roughly two dozen diverse languages of the Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic family.
Maay Maay (also known as Af-Maay, Af-Maymay, Rahanween, Rahanweyn or simply Maay, and sometimes spelled Mai Mai) is a dialect of the Somali language of the Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic family.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Mogadishu (Muqdisho), known locally as Xamar or Hamar, is the capital and most populous city of Somalia.
Mohamed Diriye Abdullahi (Maxamed Diriye Abdullahi, محمد ديري عبد الله) is a Somali-Canadian scholar, linguist, writer, translator and professor.
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
Oromo (pron. or) is an Afroasiatic language spoken in the Horn of Africa.
Osman Yusuf Kenadid (Cusmaan Yuusuf Keenadiid; عثمان يوسف كينايديض), was a Somali poet, writer, teacher and ruler.
The Osmanya alphabet (Farta Cismaanya; Osmanya), also known as Far Soomaali ("Somali writing") and, in Arabic, as al-kitābah al-ʿuthmānīyah, is a writing script created to transcribe the Somali language.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
In phonetics, palato-alveolar (or palatoalveolar) consonants are postalveolar consonants, nearly always sibilants, that are weakly palatalized with a domed (bunched-up) tongue.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
A pharyngeal consonant is a consonant that is articulated primarily in the pharynx.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
A pitch-accent language is a language that has word-accents—that is, where one syllable in a word or morpheme is more prominent than the others, but the accentuated syllable is indicated by a particular pitch contour (linguistic tones) rather than by stress.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
Puntland TV and Radio is the public broadcasting network of the autonomous Puntland region of Somalia.
The qaṣīdaᵗ (also spelled qaṣīdah; is originally an Arabic word Arabic: قصيدة, plural qaṣā'id, قــصــائـد; that was passed to some other languages such as Persian: قصیده or چكامه, chakameh, in Turkish: kaside) is an ancient Arabic word and form of writing poetry, often translated as ode, passed to other cultures after the Arab Muslim expansion.
Radio Mogadishu (Radio Muqdisho, راديو مقديشو) is the federal government-run radio station of Somalia.
Radio Television of Djibouti (RTD) (إذاعة وتلفزيون جيبوتي, Radiodiffusion Télévision de Djibouti) is the national broadcaster of Djibouti.
The Rahaweyn (Somali Maay: Reewing; traditional Raxaweyn, رحنوين) is a Somali clan, composed of two major sub-clans, the Digil and the Mirifle.
The Regional Somali Language Academy (RSLA) is an intergovernmental regulating body for the Somali language in the Horn region.
Rendille (also known as Rendile, Randile) is an Afro-Asiatic language spoken by the Rendille people inhabiting northern Kenya.
A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers) is the UK's learned society and professional body for geography, founded in 1830 for the advancement of geographical sciences.
The Saho language (Tigrinya: ሳሆኛ) is an Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Eritrea, Sudan and Ethiopia.
Sheikh Abdurahman Sh.
Shire Jama Ahmed (Shire Jaamac Axmed, شيري جامع أحمد) was a Somali linguist notable for his contribution to the creation of the modern Latin script for transcribing the Somali language.
SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics) is a U.S.-based, worldwide, Christian non-profit organization, whose main purpose is to study, develop and document languages, especially those that are lesser-known, in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy, translate the Christian Bible into local languages, and aid minority language development.
The Somali Civil War (Dagaalkii Sokeeye ee Soomaaliya, الحرب الأهلية الصومالية) is an ongoing civil war taking place in Somalia.
The Somali Democratic Republic (Jamhuuriyadda Dimuqraadiya Soomaaliya, الجمهورية الديمقراطية الصومالية al-Jumhūrīyah ad-Dīmuqrāṭīyah aṣ-Ṣūmālīyah, Repubblica Democratica Somala) was the name that the Marxist–Leninist military dictatorship government of former President of Somalia Major General Mohamed Siad Barre gave to Somalia during its rule, after having seized power in a bloodless 1969 coup d'état.
The Somali diaspora refers to expatriate Somalis who reside in areas of the world that have traditionally not been inhabited by their ethnic group.
The Somali languages form a group that are part of the Afro-Asiatic language family.
The Somali Latin alphabet is an official writing script in the Federal Republic of Somalia and its constituent Federal Member States.
The Ethiopian Somali State (Dawlada Deegaanka Soomaalida Itoobiya, الدولة الاثيوبية المنطقة الصومالية) is the easternmost of the nine ethnic divisions (kililoch) of Ethiopia.
Somali Sign Language (SSL) is a sign language used by the deaf community in Somalia (more specifically Somaliland) and Djibouti.
Somali studies is the scholarly term for research concerning Somalis and Greater Somalia.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
Somali literature refers to the literary tradition of Somalia.
Somaliland (Somaliland; صوماليلاند, rtl), officially the Republic of Somaliland (Jamhuuriyadda Somaliland, جمهورية صوماليلاند Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd), is a self-declared state internationally recognised as an autonomous region of Somalia.
Somaliland National TV (SLNTV) is a Somali television channel.
Somalis (Soomaali, صوماليون) are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa (Somali Peninsula).
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order.
The Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC) (Gollaha Sare ee Kacaanka, المجلس الثوري الأعلى) was the governmental body that ruled Somalia from 1969 to 1976.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.
Tunni (also known as Af-Tunni) is an Afro-Asiatic language spoken by the Tunni sub-group of the Rahanweyn Somali clan, who reside in the Lower Shebelle and Middle Juba regions in southern Somalia.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
Wadaad writing, also known as wadaad Arabic, is the traditional Somali adaptation of written Arabic, as well as the Arabic script as historically used to transcribe the Somali language.
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Af Soomaali, Af-Somali, Af-Soomaaliga, Afsoomali, ISO 639:so, ISO 639:som, North-Central Somali, Northern Somali, Northern Somali language, Somali (language), Somali Language, Somalia language, Somalian language, Somaliland language, Soomaaliga.