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Saacid Farah (Cabdi Faarax Shirdoon; عبدي فارح شردون; born 1958) is a Somali businessman, economist and politician.
Abdiqasim Salad Hassan (Cabdiqaasim Salaad Xasan; عبدي قاسم صلاد حسن; born on January 1, 1941) is a Somali politician.
Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke (Cabdirashiid Cali Sharmaarke, عبد الرشيد علي شارماركي) (June 8, 1919 – October 15, 1969) was Prime Minister of Somalia from July 12, 1960, to June 14, 1964, and President of Somalia from June 10, 1967, until his assassination on October 15, 1969.
Abdiweli Mohamed Ali Gaas (Cabdiweli Maxamed Cali; عبدالولي محمد علي), also known as Abdiweli Gaas, is a Somali American economist, professor and politician.
Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed (Cabdiweli Sheekh Axmed, عبدالولي الشيخ أحمد; born 1959), also known as Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed Mohammad, is a Somali economist and politician.
Abdullahi Issa Mohamud (Cabdullaahi Ciise Maxamuud, عبد الله عيسى محمد (November 11, 1922 – March 11, 1988) was a Somali politician. He was the 1st Prime Minister of Somalia during the trusteeship period, serving from February 29, 1956, to July 1, 1960.
Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed (Cabdullaahi Yuusuf Axmed, عبدالله يوسف أحمد‎; 15 December 1934 – 23 March 2012) was a Somali politician and former Colonel in the Somali National Army.
Abudwak Maternity and Children's Hospital (Isbitaalka Caabudwaaq ee Daryeelka Umulaha iyo Caruurta) is a health services center in Abudwak, the largest city in Galgadud Region.
The Abyssinian–Adal war was a military conflict between the Ethiopian Empire and the Adal Sultanate that took place from 1529 until 1543.
Acacia, commonly known as the wattles or acacias, is a large genus of shrubs and trees in the subfamily Mimosoideae of the pea family Fabaceae.
The Adal Sultanate, or Kingdom of Adal (alt. spelling Adel Sultanate), was a Muslim Sultanate located in the Horn of Africa. It was founded by Sabr ad-Din II after the fall of the Sultanate of Ifat. The kingdom flourished from around 1415 to 1577. The sultanate and state were established by the local inhabitants of Harar. At its height, the polity controlled most of the territory in the Horn region immediately east of the Ethiopian Empire (Abyssinia). The Adal Empire maintained a robust commercial and political relationship with the Ottoman Empire.
Adale (Cadale; Adalei or Itala), also known as Cadaley, is a coastal town in the southern Middle Shabelle (Shabeellaha Dhexe) region of Somalia.
Aden (عدن Yemeni) is a port city in Yemen, located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some east of Bab-el-Mandeb.
Aden Abdulle Osman Daar (Aadan Cabdulle Cismaan Daar, آدم عبد الله عثمان دار.) (December 9, 1908 – June 8, 2007), popularly known as Aden Adde, was a Somali politician.
Aden Adde International Airport (Garoonka Caalamiga Ee Aadan Cadde, مطار آدم عدي الدولي), Aden Abdulle International Airport, formerly known as Mogadishu International Airport, is an international airport serving Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia.
Adeso, formerly known as Horn Relief, is a non-governmental organization founded in 1991 by Fatima Jibrell.
Somalia is officially divided into eighteen (18) administrative regions (gobollada, singular gobol), which in turn are subdivided into ninety (90) districts (plural degmooyin; singular degmo).
The Afar language (Qafaraf) (also known as ’Afar Af, Afaraf, Qafar af) is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch.
The Afar (Qafár), also known as the Danakil, Adali and Odali, are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
The African bush elephant (Loxodonta africana), also known as the African savanna elephant, is the larger of the two species of African elephants, and the largest living terrestrial animal.
The African Development Bank Group (AfDB) or Banque Africaine de Développement (BAD) is a multilateral development finance institution.
African Express Airways Somali-owned Kenyan airline with its head office at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport in Embakasi, Nairobi, Kenya.
The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent, extending slightly into Asia via the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt.
The African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) is an active, regional peacekeeping mission operated by the African Union with the approval of the United Nations in Somalia.
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.
The term Afroasiatic Urheimat refers to the hypothetical place where speakers of the proto-Afroasiatic language lived in a single linguistic community, or complex of communities, before this original language dispersed geographically and divided into separate distinct languages.
Agamodon anguliceps is a species of reptile in the family Trogonophidae.
Agriculture in Somalia (Beeraha Soomaaliya) is a major employment activity and is the largest economic sector in the country.
Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a (ASWJ) (Ahlu Suna Waljamaaca) is a Somalia-based paramilitary group consisting of moderate Sufis opposed to radical Islamist groups such as Al-Shabaab.
Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi (Axmad Ibraahim al-Gaasi, Harari: አሕመድ ኢቢን ኢብራሂም አል ጋዚ, "Acmad Ibni Ibrahim Al-Gaazi" Afar, أحمد بن إبراهيم الغازي) "the Conqueror" (c. 1506 – February 21, 1543) was an Imam and General of the Adal Sultanate who fought against the Abyssinian empire and defeated several Abysinian Emperors.
Ahmed Yusuf (Axmed Yuusuf, أحمد يوسف) was a Somali ruler.
Ahmedou Ould-Abdallah (أحمدو ولد عبد الله) (born November 21, 1940) is a Mauritanian diplomat who was a senior United Nations official.
An airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight.
The Ajuran Sultanate (Dawladdii Ajuuraan, الدولة الأجورانيون), also spelled Ajuuraan Sultanate, and often simply as Ajuran, was a Somali empire in the medieval times that dominated the Indian Ocean trade.
Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen (HSM; حركة الشباب المجاهدين,; Xarakada Mujaahidiinta Alshabaab, lit. "Mujahideen Youth Movement" or "Movement of Striving Youth"), more commonly known as al-Shabaab (lit), is a jihadist fundamentalist group based in East Africa.
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.
Ali Mahdi Muhammad (Cali Mahdi Maxamed, علي مهدي محمد) (born January 1, 1939) is a Somali entrepreneur and politician.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Amda Seyon I (also Amde Tsiyon and other variants, Ge'ez ዐምደ ፡ ጽዮን ʿamda ṣiyōn, Amharic āmde ṣiyōn, "Pillar of Zion") was Emperor of Ethiopia (1314–1344; throne name Gebre Mesqel Ge'ez ገብረ ፡ መስቀል gabra masḳal, Amh. gebre mesḳel, "slave of the cross"), and a member of the Solomonic dynasty.
Amoud University (Jaamacada Camuud.), abbreviated to AU, is a comprehensive public university, located in the city of, Borama in the northern of Somaliland.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life") is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.
An antelope is a member of a number of even-toed ungulate species indigenous to various regions in Africa and Eurasia.
An aqueduct is a watercourse constructed to convey water.
The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.
Arab News is an English-language daily newspaper published in Saudi Arabia.
The Arab states of the Persian Gulf are the seven Arab states which border the Persian Gulf, namely Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.
Arable land (from Latin arabilis, "able to be plowed") is, according to one definition, land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops.
In Christianity, an archbishop (via Latin archiepiscopus, from Greek αρχιεπίσκοπος, from αρχι-, 'chief', and επίσκοπος, 'bishop') is a bishop of higher rank or office.
Archer's lark (Heteromirafra archeri) is a species of lark in the Alaudidae family.
A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life.
An arms embargo is an embargo that applies solely to weaponry, and may also apply to "dual-use technology".
The arquebus, derived from the German Hakenbüchse, was a form of long gun that appeared in Europe during the 15th century.
Ash's lark (Mirafra ashi) or Ash's bushlark is a species of lark in the family Alaudidae endemic to Somalia.
Ashlar is finely dressed (cut, worked) stone, either an individual stone that has been worked until squared or the structure built of it.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
An asylum seeker (also rarely called an asylee) is a person who flees his or her home country, 'spontaneously' enters another country and applies for asylum, i.e. the right to international protection, in this other country.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subdivision or dependent territory of a country that has a degree of self-governance, or autonomy, from an external authority.
Awdal (Awdal) is an administrative region in Somaliland.
Ayn (Cayn, عين) is a region in Somalia.
The Bab-el-Mandeb (Arabic: باب المندب, "Gate of Tears") is a strait located between Yemen on the Arabian Peninsula, and Djibouti and Eritrea in the Horn of Africa.
Baboons are Old World monkeys belonging to the genus Papio, part of the subfamily Cercopithecinae which are found natively in very specific areas of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.
Baidoa (Baydhabo), is capital in the southwestern Bay region of Somalia.
Baidoa Airport is an airport serving Baidoa, the capital city of the Bay region in Somalia.
Bajuni (Kibajuni), also known as Tikulu (Tikuu), is a variety of Swahili spoken by the Bajuni people who inhabit the tiny Bajuni Islands and coastal Kenya, in addition to parts of southern Somalia, where they constitute a minority ethnic group.
The Bajuni Islands (also known as the Bajun Islands or Baajun Islands) are an archipelago in the Indian Ocean, situated on the southern coast of Somalia, from Kismayo to Ras Kiyamboni (not to be confused with Ras Kamboni).
The Bajuni people are a minority clan mainly residing on the Bajuni Islands and surrounding coastal areas between the port city of Kismayo and Mombasa area of Kenya and Somalia.
Bakool (Bakool, باكول) is a region (gobol) in southwestern Somalia.
Benaadir (Banaadir, بنادر) is an administrative region (gobol) in southeastern Somalia.
A banana is an edible fruit – botanically a berry – produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa.
A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit.
The Bantu languages (English:, Proto-Bantu: */baⁿtʊ̀/) technically the Narrow Bantu languages, as opposed to "Wide Bantu", a loosely defined categorization which includes other "Bantoid" languages are a large family of languages spoken by the Bantu peoples throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.
Barawa (Baraawe, مدينة ﺑﺮﺍﻭة Madīna Barāwa), also known as Barawe and Brava, is a port town in the southwestern Lower Shebelle region of Somalia.
Barbara, also referred to as Barbaria, referred to an ancient region in littoral Horn of Africa.
Bari (Bari, باري) is an administrative region (gobol) in northeastern Somalia.
Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
Basketball has been an Pan Arab Games event since the first edition in 1953 in Alexandria, Egypt.
Basmati (pronounced in South Asia) is a variety of long, slender-grained aromatic rice which is traditionally from the Indian subcontinent.
The Battle of Mogadishu, or Day of the Rangers (Maalintii Rangers), was part of Operation Gothic Serpent.
The Battle of Ras Kamboni was a battle in the 2006-2007 Somali War fought by the Islamic Courts Union (ICU) and affiliated militias against Ethiopian and the Somali Transitional Federal Government (TFG) forces for control of Ras Kamboni, a town near the Kenyan border which once served as a training camp for the militant Islamist group Al-Itihaad al-Islamiya.
Bauxite is a sedimentary rock with a relatively high aluminium content.
Bay (Baay, باي) is an administrative region (gobol) in southern Somalia.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
The Beden, badan, or alternate type names Beden-seyed and Beden-safar, is a fast, ancient Somali single or double-masted maritime vessel and ship, typified by its towering stern-post and powerful rudder.
The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.
Benadir University (BU) (Jaamacadda Banadir, جامعـــة بنـــادر), also known as the University of Benadir, is a private university located in Mogadishu, Somalia.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
Berbera (Barbara, بربرة) is a city in the northwestern Woqooyi Galbeed region of Somaliland.
The Berlin Conference of 1884–85, also known as the Congo Conference (Kongokonferenz) or West Africa Conference (Westafrika-Konferenz), regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power.
Bilateralism is the conduct of political, economic, or cultural relations between two sovereign states.
Many cultures consume blood as food, often in combination with meat.
Bloomberg L.P. is a privately held financial, software, data, and media company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
A boat is a watercraft of a large range of type and size.
The Borama alphabet (Borama) or more generally known as the Gadabuursi script, is a writing script for the Somali language.
Borlänge is a locality in Dalarna County, Sweden.
Bosaso (Boosaaso, بوساسو) is a city in the northeastern Bari province (gobol) of Somalia.
Bosaso Airport, also known as Bender Qassim International Airport, is an airport in Somalia.
Boutros Boutros-Ghali (بطرس بطرس غالي,; 14 November 1922 – 16 February 2016) was an Egyptian politician and diplomat who was the sixth Secretary-General of the United Nations (UN) from January 1992 to December 1996.
Bravanese, also called Chimwiini (ChiMwini, Mwiini, Mwini) or Chimbalazi) is a variety of Swahili patwa spoken by the Bravanese people, who are the predominant inhabitants of Barawa, or Brava, in Somalia. Maho (2009) considers it a distinct dialect.
The Bravanese people, also known as the Barawani, are a group inhabiting southern coast of Somalia.
The British Chambers of Commerce (BCC) is the national representative body of 52 Accredited Chambers of Commerce across the UK, representing 75,000 businesses, which employ over 5m people.
The British people, or the Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, and the Crown dependencies.
British Somaliland, officially the British Somaliland Protectorate (Dhulka Maxmiyada Soomaalida ee Biritishka, translit) was a British protectorate in present-day northwestern Somalia.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
The Buffett Foundation is a charitable organization formed by Omaha, Nebraska investor and industrialist Warren Buffett as a vehicle to manage his charitable giving.
Bulhar is an archaeological site in the northwestern Woqooyi Galbeed region of Somaliland.
The University of Burao UB is a university in Burao, Somaliland.
The bushpig (Potamochoerus larvatus) is a member of the pig family and lives in forests, woodland, riverine vegetation and reedbeds in East and Southern Africa.
A cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials, typically consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch.
A cairn is a human-made pile (or stack) of stones.
Cal Madow (also Al Madow, Al Medu, Calmadow or Al Mado) (Buuraha Calmadow, علمدو) is a mountain range in western Puntland state of Somalia, extending into the east of Somaliland state of Somalia.
Caliche is a sedimentary rock, a hardened natural cement of calcium carbonate that binds other materials—such as gravel, sand, clay, and silt.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Cambyses II (𐎣𐎲𐎢𐎪𐎡𐎹 Kambūjiya כנבוזי Kanbūzī; Καμβύσης Kambúsēs; Latin Cambyses; Medieval Hebrew, Kambisha) (d. 522 BC) son of Cyrus the Great (r. 559–530 BC), was emperor of the Achaemenid Empire.
A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back.
Capra is a genus of mammals, the goats, composed of up to nine species, including the wild goat, the markhor, and several species known as ibex.
Cardamom, sometimes cardamon or cardamum, is a spice made from the seeds of several plants in the genera Elettaria and Amomum in the family Zingiberaceae.
A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders.
Catherine Margaret Ashton, Baroness Ashton of Upholland, (born 20 March 1956 at Upholland, Lancashire) is a British Labour politician who served as the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and First Vice President of the European Commission in the Barroso Commission from 2009 to 2014.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Cave paintings, also known as parietal art, are painted drawings on cave walls or ceilings, mainly of prehistoric origin, beginning roughly 40,000 years ago (around 38,000 BCE) in Eurasia.
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.
The Central Bank of Somalia (CBS) (Bankiga Dhexe ee Soomaaliya, البنك المركزي الصومالي) is the monetary authority of Somalia.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
Central Regions State is a prospective autonomous region in the Federal Republic of Somalia.
Cesare Maria De Vecchi, 1st Conte di Val Cismon (14 November 1884 – 23 June 1959) was an Italian soldier, colonial administrator and Fascist politician.
Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter sets out the UN Security Council's powers to maintain peace.
Charcoal is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
China–Somalia relations (中索关系/中索關係, Xiriirka Shiinaha-Soomaaliya) refers to the bilateral relations between China and Somalia.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
A Christian mission is an organized effort to spread Christianity.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum.
A cistern (Middle English cisterne, from Latin cisterna, from cista, "box", from Greek κίστη, "basket") is a waterproof receptacle for holding liquids, usually water.
A citadel is the core fortified area of a town or city.
CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, also known as the Washington Convention) is a multilateral treaty to protect endangered plants and animals.
A civet is a small, lithe-bodied, mostly nocturnal mammal native to tropical Asia and Africa, especially the tropical forests.
The Civil Aviation Caretaker Authority of Somalia (CACAS) is a civil aviation authority programme created in 1996 by the International Civil Aviation Organization and the United Nations Development Programme, with a mandate in Somalia.
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
A clinic (or outpatient clinic or ambulatory care clinic) is a healthcare facility that is primarily focused on the care of outpatients.
Cloves are the aromatic flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae, Syzygium aromaticum.
Coca-Cola, or Coke (also Pemberton's Cola at certain Georgian vendors), is a carbonated soft drink produced by The Coca-Cola Company.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Combined Task Force 150 (CTF-150) is a multinational coalition naval task force working under the 25-nation coalition of Combined Maritime Forces and is based in Bahrain established to monitor, board, inspect, and stop suspect shipping to pursue the "Global War on Terrorism" and in the Horn of Africa region (HOA) (includes operations in the North Arabia Sea to support operations in the Indian Ocean. These activities are referred to as Maritime Security Operations (MSO). Countries presently contributing to CTF-150 include Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Pakistan, Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States. Other nations who have participated include Italy, India, Malaysia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Portugal, Singapore, Spain, Thailand and Turkey. The command of the task force rotates among the different participating navies, with commands usually lasting between four and six months. The task force usually comprises 14 or 15 ships. CTF-150 is coordinated by the Combined Maritime Forces (CMF), a 25-nation coalition operating from the US Navy base in Manama, Bahrain.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
Commerce relates to "the exchange of goods and services, especially on a large scale.” Commerce includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural and technological systems that operate in any country or internationally.
Communications in Somalia encompasses the communications services and capacity of Somalia.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
Confectionery is the art of making confections, which are food items that are rich in sugar and carbohydrates.
A conglomerate is the combination of two or more corporations operating in entirely different industries under one corporate group, usually involving a parent company and many subsidiaries.
The Provisional Constitution of the Federal Republic of Somalia (Dastuurka Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya) is the supreme law of Somalia.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Coral rag is a rubbly limestone composed of ancient coral reef material.
Corn starch, cornstarch, cornflour or maize starch or maize is the starch derived from the corn (maize) grain.
Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".
A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is an Internet top-level domain generally used or reserved for a country, sovereign state, or dependent territory identified with a country code.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
A courtyard or court is a circumscribed area, often surrounded by a building or complex, that is open to the sky.
Cristóvão da Gama (c. 1516 – 29 August 1542), anglicised as Christopher da Gama, was a Portuguese military commander who led a Portuguese army of 400 musketeers on a crusade in Ethiopia and Somalia (1541–1543) against the far larger Adal Muslim army of Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi (also known as Ahmad Gragn) aided by the Ottoman Empire.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native to a territory including Middle East and stretching east to India.
Currency substitution, dollarization, or elminting (from el-, meaning foreign) is the use of a foreign currency in parallel to or instead of the domestic currency.
The Cushitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
Custom in law is the established pattern of behavior that can be objectively verified within a particular social setting.
Daallo Airlines is a Somali-owned airline based at Dubai Airport Free Zone in Al Garhoud, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
The dabqaad (Somali for "fire raiser"), also known as unsi or girgire, is an incense burner, or censer.
Dahabshiil (Dahabshiil, دهب شيل) is an international funds transfer company headquartered in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
Dakkar was a Somali historical town located in modern day of Somali Region in Ethiopia.
Dawit I (Ge'ez: ዳዊት dāwīt, "David") was Emperor (nəgusä nägäst) (1382 – 6 October 1413) of Ethiopia, and a member of the Solomonic dynasty.
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
Deir el-Bahari or Dayr al-Bahri (الدير البحري al-Dayr al-Baḥrī "the Monastery of the Sea") is a complex of mortuary temples and tombs located on the west bank of the Nile, opposite the city of Luxor, Egypt.
The demersal zone is the part of the sea or ocean (or deep lake) consisting of the part of the water column near to (and significantly affected by) the seabed and the benthos.
The demographics of Somalia encompass the demographic features of Somalia's inhabitants, including ethnicity, languages, population density, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
Denmark–Somalia relations are bilateral relations between Denmark and Somalia.
The Derg, Common Derg or Dergue (Ge'ez: ደርግ, meaning "committee" or "council") is the short name of the Coordinating Committee of the Armed Forces, Police and Territorial Army that ruled Ethiopia from 1974 to 1987.
The Dervish state (Dawlada Daraawiish, دولة الدراويش Dawlat ad-Darāwīsh) was an early 20th-century Somali Muslim kingdom.
Desertification is a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry area of land becomes increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife.
A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleaning properties in dilute solutions.
Dhambalin ("half, vertically cut mountain") is an archaeological site in the northwestern Togdheer province of Somaliland.
The Dhulbahante (Dhulbahante, البهانتة) is a Somali clan, part of the larger Harti Darod clan.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
A dik-dik is the name for any of four species of small antelope in the genus Madoqua that live in the bushlands of eastern and southern Africa.
Dire Dawa (ድሬ ዳዋ, Dirre Dhawaa, lit. "Place of Remedy", Dir Dhabe, meaning "where Dir hit his spear into the ground", ديري داوا) is one of two chartered cities (astedader akabibi) in Ethiopia (the other being the capital, Addis Ababa).
Djibouti (جيبوتي, Djibouti, Jabuuti, Gabuuti), officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Djibouti–Somalia relations (Xiriirka Jabuuti-Soomaaliya) are bilateral relations between Djibouti and Somalia.
Dole Food Company, Inc. is an American agricultural multinational corporation headquartered in Westlake Village, California.
A dolmen is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb, usually consisting of two or more vertical megaliths supporting a large flat horizontal capstone or "table".
The dottybacks are a family, Pseudochromidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes.
The dromedary, also called the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius), is a large, even-toed ungulate with one hump on its back.
Dry stone, sometimes called drystack or, in Scotland, drystane, is a building method by which structures are constructed from stones without any mortar to bind them together.
Duarte Barbosa (c. 1480, Lisbon, Portugal1 May 1521, Philippines) was a Portuguese writer and officer from Portuguese India (between 1500 and 1516).
Dubai (دبي) is the largest and most populous city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
In physical geography, a dune is a hill of loose sand built by aeolian processes (wind) or the flow of water.
Early childhood education (ECE; also nursery education) is a branch of education theory which relates to the teaching of older children (formally and informally) up until the age of about eighteen (birth to Grade 2).
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.
East Africa Time, or EAT, is a time zone used in eastern Africa.
East Africa University (EAU) (جامعة شرق أفريقيا) is a private university in the autonomous Puntland state in northeastern Somalia.
The East African Campaign (also known as the Abyssinian Campaign) was fought in East Africa during World War II by Allied forces, mainly from the British Empire, against Axis forces, primarily from Italy of Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana, or AOI), between June 1940 and November 1941.
The East African lion (Panthera leo melanochaita) occurs in East Africa, but is regionally extinct in Djibouti and Eritrea.
East Bardera Mothers and Children's Hospital (EBMCH) is a non-profit institution women's and children's hospital located in Baardheere, Somalia.
Echis (common names: saw-scaled vipers, carpet vipersSpawls S, Branch B. 1995. The Dangerous Snakes of Africa. Dubai: Ralph Curtis Books. Oriental Press. 192 pp..) is a genus of venomous vipers found in the dry regions of Africa, the Middle East, Pakistan, India, and Sri Lanka.
An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.
An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.
Edna Adan Maternity Hospital is a non-profit charity hospital built in Hargeisa, Somaliland.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Egypt–Somalia relations are bilateral relations between Egypt and Somalia.
Eid al-Fitr (عيد الفطر) is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting (sawm).
The Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XVIII, alternatively 18th Dynasty or Dynasty 18) is classified as the first Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom period, lasting from 1549/1550 BC to 1292 BC.
El Ayo (Ceelaayo, عيلايو), also known as El Ayum, is a coastal town in the northern Sanaag region of Somalia.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
Electronic funds transfer (EFT) is the electronic transfer of money from one bank account to another, either within a single financial institution or across multiple institutions, via computer-based systems, without the direct intervention of bank staff.
Emirates Post is the official postal operator for the United Arab Emirates.
In archaeology, an enclosure is one of the most common types of archaeological site.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
Eremias is a genus of lizards in the family Lacertidae, the wall lizards.
Erigavo (Ceerigaabo), also spelled as Erigabo, is the capital and largest city of the Northeastern Sanaag region of Somaliland.
The Erycinae are a subfamily of nonvenomous snakes, commonly called boas, found in Europe, Asia Minor, Africa, Arabia, central and southwestern Asia, India, Sri Lanka, and western North America.
Essina (Εσσίναn) was an ancient emporium located on the southeastern coast of Somalia in the Horn of Africa.
Ethical codes are adopted by organizations to assist members in understanding the difference between 'right' and 'wrong' and in applying that understanding to their decisions.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Ethiopia–Somalia relations (Xiriirka Itoobiya-Soomaaliya) are bilateral relations between Ethiopia and Somalia.
The Ethiopian Empire (የኢትዮጵያ ንጉሠ ነገሥት መንግሥተ), also known as Abyssinia (derived from the Arabic al-Habash), was a kingdom that spanned a geographical area in the current state of Ethiopia.
The Ethiopian Highlands is a rugged mass of mountains in Ethiopia, situated in the Horn region in Northeast Africa.
The Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF) is the military of Ethiopia.
The Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands ecoregion is a semi-desert strip on or near the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden coasts in Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti and Somalia.
The European Green Party (EGP), sometimes referred to as European Greens, is the European political party that operates as a federation of political parties across Europe supporting green politics.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The European Union Training Mission Somalia (EUTM Somalia) is a training operation for the Somali Armed Forces conducted by military officials from European Union states.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
Over the course of the Somali Civil War, there have been many revolutionary movements and militia groups run by competing rebel leaders which have held de facto control over vast areas of the country.
A failed state is a political body that has disintegrated to a point where basic conditions and responsibilities of a sovereign government no longer function properly (see also fragile state and state collapse).
Faisal Jeylani Aweys (Faysal Jaylaani Caweeys, فيصل جيلاني عويس) is a Somali taekwondo practitioner.
Farah Mohamed Jama Awl (Faarax Maxamed Jaamac Cawl, فارح محمد جامع عول; 1937–1991), usually credited as Faarax M.J. Cawl, was a Somali writer.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
Fatima Jibrell (Fadumo Jibriil; فاطمة جبريل; born December 30, 1947) is a Somali-American environmental activist.
The Federal Government of Somalia (FGS) (Dowladda Federaalka Soomaaliya, حكومة الصومال الاتحادية) is the internationally recognised government of Somalia, and the first attempt to create a central government in Somalia since the collapse of the Somali Democratic Republic.
The Federal Parliament of Somalia (Golaha Shacabka Soomaaliya; often Baarlamaanka Federaalka Soomaaliya; البرلمان الاتحادي في الصومال; Il parlamento federale della Somalia) is the national parliament of Somalia.
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.
Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia.
The FIBA Africa Championship 1981 was hosted by Somalia from December 15 to December 23, 1981.
Finance is a field that is concerned with the allocation (investment) of assets and liabilities (known as elements of the balance statement) over space and time, often under conditions of risk or uncertainty.
Fiqh (فقه) is Islamic jurisprudence.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given sovereign state, enjoys preferential rights or privileges accorded by the government for international operations.
Flight International (or simply Flight) is a weekly magazine focused on aerospace, published in the United Kingdom.
In religious studies and folkloristics, folk religion, popular religion, or vernacular religion comprises various forms and expressions of religion that are distinct from the official doctrines and practices of organized religion.
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.
Foreign exchange controls are various forms of controls imposed by a government on the purchase/sale of foreign currencies by residents or on the purchase/sale of local currency by nonresidents.
Foreign relations of Somalia are handled by the President as the head of state, the Prime Minister as the head of government, and the Minister of Foreign Affairs Federal Government of Somalia.
A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.
Fox News (officially known as the Fox News Channel, commonly abbreviated to FNC) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel owned by the Fox Entertainment Group, a subsidiary of 21st Century Fox.
A fragile state is a low-income country characterized by weak state capacity and/or weak state legitimacy leaving citizens vulnerable to a range of shocks.
The Fragile States Index (FSI; formerly the Failed States Index) is an annual report published by the United States think tank the Fund for Peace and the American magazine Foreign Policy since 2005.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
France–Somalia relations are bilateral relations between France and Somalia.
Frankincense (also known as olibanum, לבונה, Arabic) is an aromatic resin used in incense and perfumes, obtained from trees of the genus Boswellia in the family Burseraceae, particularly Boswellia sacra (syn: B. bhaw-dajiana), B. carterii33, B. frereana, B. serrata (B. thurifera, Indian frankincense), and B. papyrifera.
French Somaliland (Côte française des Somalis, lit. "French Coast of the Somalis"; Dhulka Soomaaliyeed ee Faransiiska) was a French colony in the Horn of Africa.
A referendum on the new constitution of France was held in French Somaliland on 28 September 1958 as part of a wider referendum held across the French Union.
From a Crooked Rib is the first published novel by Somali novelist Nuruddin Farah.
The Fund for Peace is a US non-profit, non-governmental research and educational institution.
Fusion cuisine is cuisine that combines elements of different culinary traditions.
Galguduud (Galgaduud, جلجدود) is an administrative region (gobol) in central Galmudug state of Somalia.
Galkayo (Gaalkacyo, جالكعيو), also known as Gallacaio or Rocca Littorio,Dr Badal Kariye Ba Bsit Ma Mba & Phd, The Kaleidoscopic Lover: The Civil War in the Horn of Africa & My Itinerary for a Peaceful Lover, (AuthorHouse: 2010), p.116.
Galmudug, officially Galmudug State, is an autonomous region in central Somalia.
Garowe (Garoowe, غاروي); is the capital of Nugaal region and administrative capital of Puntland state in northeastern Somalia.
Garowe Online is an independently operated news agency based in Puntland, Somalia.
A gazelle is any of many antelope species in the genus Gazella or formerly considered to belong to it.
Geckos are lizards belonging to the infraorder Gekkota, found in warm climates throughout the world.
Gedo (Gedo, جوبا الوسطى) is an administrative region (gobol), formerly part of the historic Upper Juba Region in southern Somalia.
General Motors Company, commonly referred to as General Motors (GM), is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Detroit that designs, manufactures, markets, and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts, and sells financial services.
Ghee is a class of clarified butter that originated from the Indian subcontinent.
Global Peace Index (GPI) measures the relative position of nations' and regions' peacefulness.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
The Goldman Environmental Prize is a prize awarded annually to grassroots environmental activists, one from each of the world's six geographic regions: Africa, Asia, Europe, Islands and Island Nations, North America, and South and Central America.
The Golis Mountains are a mountain range in northern Somalia.
Golis Telecom Somalia (Shirkadda Isgaadhsiinta ee Golis Soomaaliya), shortened to Golis, is the largest telecommunications operator in the Puntland state of northeastern Somalia.
A grain is a small, hard, dry seed, with or without an attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption.
A grassroots movement (often referenced in the context of a left-wing political movement) is one which uses the people in a given district, region, or community as the basis for a political or economic movement.
The Grévy's zebra (Equus grevyi), also known as the imperial zebra, is the largest living wild equid and the largest and most threatened of the three species of zebra, the other two being the plains zebra and the mountain zebra.
Greater Somalia (Soomaaliweyn, الصومال الكبير) comprises the regions in or near the Horn of Africa in which ethnic Somalis live and have historically inhabited.
ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
The Group of 77 (G77) at the United Nations is a coalition of developing nations, designed to promote its members' collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations.
The Guardafui Channel is an oceanic strait off the tip of the Horn of Africa.
The Guban (Guban, 'burnt' or 'burned') is a coastal desert in northwestern Somalia.
The Gulf of Aden, also known as the Gulf of Berbera, (خليج عدن,, Gacanka Berbera) is a gulf amidst Yemen to the north, the Arabian Sea and Guardafui Channel to the east, Somalia to the south, and Djibouti to the west.
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Haji Bashir Ismail Yusuf (Xaaji Bashiir Ismaaciil Yuusuf, حاجي بشير اسماعيل يوسف) (b. 1912 in Hobyo, Somalia – d. 1984 in Cairo, Egypt), also spelled Hagi Bashir Ismail Yousuf, was a Somali politician.
Halal (حلال, "permissible"), also spelled hallal or halaal, refers to what is permissible or lawful in traditional Islamic law.
Halva (halawa, alva, haleweh, halava, helava, helva, halwa, halua, aluva, chalva, chałwa) is any of various dense, sweet confections served across the Middle East, South Asia, Central Asia, West Asia, the Caucasus, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, the Balkans, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Malta and the Jewish diaspora.
Hamites (from the biblical Ham) is a historical term in ethnology and linguistics for a division of the Caucasian race and the group of related languages these populations spoke.
The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).
Harar (Harari: ሐረር), and known to its inhabitants as Gēy (Harari: ጌይ), is a walled city in eastern Ethiopia.
Hargeisa (Hargeysa, هرجيسا) is a city situated in the Woqooyi Galbeed region of the self-declared but internationally unrecognised Republic of Somaliland in the Horn of Africa.
Hargeisa Egal International Airport ((Madaarka Hargaysa ee Cigaal مطار هرجيسا إيغال الدولية) is an airport in Hargeisa, the capital of Somaliland, self-declared state internationally recognised as an autonomous region of Somalia. Named after Somaliland's second president Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal, the airport underwent major renovations in 2012–2013. In 2002 the airport handled 56,000 passengers & 2,300 tons of cargo on a total of 1,750 landings.http://www.eeas.europa.eu/delegations/somalia/documents/more_info/berbera_corridor_pre_feasibilitystudy_executivesummary_en.pdf.
Hargeisa National Park (HNP) is a national park in Hargeisa, Somaliland.
The Harla, also known as Harla Koombe, Harala and Arla, were an ethnic group that inhabited Ethiopia and Somalia.
Hassan Ali Khayre (Somali: Xasan Cali Khayre, Arabic: حسن علي خيري) is the current Prime Minister of Somalia.
Hassan Gouled Aptidon (Xasan Guuleed Abtidoon. حسن جوليد أبتيدون) (October 15, 1916 – November 21, 2006) was the first President of Djibouti from 1977 to 1999.
Hassan Sheikh Mohamud (Xasan Sheekh Maxamuud, حسن شيخ محمود; born 29 November 1955) is a Somali politician.
Hatshepsut (also Hatchepsut; Egyptian: ḥꜣt-šps.wt "Foremost of Noble Ladies"; 1507–1458 BCE) was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt.
Haud (or Hawd; Amharic: ሓውድ) is a region of thorn-bush and grasslands in the Horn of Africa.
Hawala or hewala (حِوالة, meaning transfer or sometimes trust), also known as hundi or—in Somali, xawala or xawilaad—is a popular and informal value transfer system based not on the movement of cash, or on telegraph or computer network wire transfers between banks, but instead on the performance and honour of a huge network of money brokers (known as "hawaladars").
The hawkfishes are strictly tropical, perciform marine fishes of the family Cirrhitidae associated with the coral reefs of the western and eastern Atlantic and Indo-Pacific.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.
Heis (Xiis) is a coastal town in the northern Sanaag province of Somaliland.
A heptatonic scale is a musical scale that has seven pitches per octave.
Highlands or uplands are any mountainous region or elevated mountainous plateau.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Hiran (Hiiraan, هيران) is an administrative region (gobol) in south-central Somalia.
Muammar Gaddafi became the de facto leader of Libya on 1 September 1969 after leading a group of young Libyan military officers against King Idris I in a bloodless coup d'état.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; الصومال), officially the Federal Republic of Somalia (Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya, جمهورية الصومال الفدرالية) and formerly known as the Somali Democratic Republic, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Hobyo (Hobyo, also known as Obbia), is an ancient port city in Galmudug state in the north-central Mudug region of Somalia.
Hormuud Telecom Somalia Inc. is a privately held telecommunications company based in Mogadishu, Somalia.
Horn Cable Television (HCTV) is a Somali private television channel.
The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment.
Hussein Sheikh Ahmed Kaddare (Xuseen Sheekh Axmed Kaddare, February 1, 2015) was a Somali inventor.
Idd Mohamed (Ciid Maxamed, عيد محمد) is a Somali diplomat.
Incense is aromatic biotic material which releases fragrant smoke when burned.
The following is an index of Somalia-related articles.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
Infant mortality refers to deaths of young children, typically those less than one year of age.
The informal sector, informal economy, or grey economy is the part of an economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government.
Inner City Press is a public interest organization founded by Matthew Lee, who serves as Executive Director.
The Institute for Economics & Peace (IEP), is a global think tank headquartered in Sydney, Australia with branches in New York City, Mexico City and The Hague.
The Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) is an eight-country trade bloc in Africa.
An internally displaced person (IDP) is someone who is forced to flee his or her home but who remains within his or her country's borders.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) is an international financial institution that offers loans to middle-income developing countries.
The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO Organisation de l'aviation civile internationale, OACI), is a specialized agency of the United Nations.
The International Development Association (IDA) is an international financial institution which offers concessional loans and grants to the world's poorest developing countries.
The International Finance Corporation (IFC) is an international financial institution that offers investment, advisory, and asset-management services to encourage private-sector development in developing countries.
The International Journal of African Historical Studies publishes peer reviewed articles on all aspects of African history.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
IRIN (formerly Integrated Regional Information Networks) is a news agency focusing on humanitarian stories in regions that are often forgotten, under-reported, misunderstood or ignored.
Irkutsk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, and one of the largest cities in Siberia.
Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.
The Isaaq (also Isaq, Ishaak, Isaac) (Reer Sheekh Isaxaaq, إسحاق) is a Somali clan.
Iskushuban (Iskushubaan) is a small town in the northeastern Bari province of Somalia.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the early history of Islam to the present day.
The Islamic Courts Union (ICU; Midowga Maxkamadaha Islaamiga; اتحاد المحاكم الإسلامية Ittihād al-mahākim al-islāmiyya) was a group of Sharia courts that united themselves to form a rival administration to the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) of Somalia, with Sharif Sheikh Ahmed as their head.
Islamic literature is literature written with an Islamic perspective, in any language.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Italian Somaliland (Somalia italiana, الصومال الإيطالي Al-Sumal Al-Italiy, Dhulka Talyaaniga ee Soomaaliya), also known as Italian Somalia, was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy in present-day northeastern, central and southern Somalia.
Italian Somalis (Italo-Somali) are Somali descendants from Italian colonists, as well as long-term Italian residents in Somalia.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Italy–Somalia relations (Xiriirka Talyaaniga-Soomaaliya) are bilateral relations between Italy and Somalia.
ITT Inc., formerly ITT Corporation, is an American worldwide manufacturing company based in White Plains, New York.
Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks (traditionally elephants') and teeth of animals, that can be used in art or manufacturing.
The ivory trade is the commercial, often illegal trade in the ivory tusks of the hippopotamus, walrus, narwhal, mammoth, and most commonly, African and Asian elephants.
Jama Ali Korshel (Cali Qoorsheel Jaamac, جامع علي قورشيل) was a Somali army Major General and former Head of the Somali Police Force.
Japan–Somalia relations (Xiriirka Jabaan-Soomaaliya) are bilateral relations between Japan and Somalia.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jijiga (Jigjiga) is a city in eastern Ethiopia and the capital of the Somali Region of the country.
Jilib (other names: Gilib, Gelib, Jillib, Jillio) is a town in Somalia, with an estimated population of approximately 125.000 Mainly subclan of Darod Marehan and other minority clans.
Jilib National Park (JNP) is a national park in Jilib, Somalia.
The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland.
Jubaland (Jubbaland, جوبالاند), the Juba Valley (Dooxada Jubba) or Azania (Asaaniya, آزانيا), is an autonomous region in southern Somalia.
Jubba Airways is a Somali airline.
The Jubba River (Wabiga Jubba, Giuba) is a river in southern Somalia.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
The judiciary of Somalia is defined by the Provisional Constitution of the Federal Republic of Somalia.
A jurist (from medieval Latin) is someone who researches and studies jurisprudence (theory of law).
K-1 began in 1993 and is a kickboxing platform and martial arts brand well-known worldwide mainly for its heavyweight division fights.
The Kaddare alphabet is a writing script created to transcribe Somali, an Afro-Asiatic language.
Kafir (كافر; plural كَافِرُونَ, كفّار or كَفَرَة; feminine كافرة) is an Arabic term (from the root K-F-R "to cover") meaning "unbeliever", or "disbeliever".
Karinhegane is an archaeological site in the northern Sanaag region of Somalia.
Kenneth R. Rutherford (born August 25, 1962) is co-founder of the Landmine Survivors Network and a researcher in the field of political science.
Kenneth Menkhaus is a political scientist who is a professor at Davidson College in North Carolina, where he has taught since 1991.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
Khambhat (/kɑːmˈbɑːt/), also known as Cambay, is a town and the surrounding urban agglomeration in Khambhat Taluka, Anand district in the Indian state of Gujarat.
Khat or qat (Catha edulis, qat from القات) is a flowering plant native to the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.
The Kilwa Sultanate was a Medieval sultanate, centered at Kilwa (an island off modern-day Tanzania), whose authority, at its height, stretched over the entire length of the Swahili Coast.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
Kismayo (Kismaayo; كيسمايو,; Italian: Chisimaio) is a port city in the southern Lower Juba (Jubbada Hoose) province of Somalia.
Kismayo Airport, also known as Kisimayu Airport, is an international airport serving Kismayo, the capital city of the Lower Juba region in Somalia.
Kismayo National Park (KNP) is a national park in Kismayo, Somalia, also known as Haabar Waalid.
Kismayo University is a private university located in Kismayo, Somalia's third largest city.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
The kudus are two species of antelope of the genus Tragelaphus.
Laas Geel (Laas Geel), also spelled Laas Gaal, are cave formations on the rural outskirts of Hargeisa, Somalia (situated in the Woqooyi Galbeed region of the self-declared but internationally unrecognised Republic of Somaliland).
Lag Badana National Park (Bushbush National Park) is a national park of Somalia.
Lamadaya are waterfalls located in the Cal Madow mountain range in the northern Sanaag region of Somaliland.
The Land of Punt, also called Pwenet or Pwene by the ancient Egyptians, was an ancient kingdom.
Las Anod (Laascaanood; لاس عانود) is the administrative capital of the Sool region of Somaliland.
Las Khorey (Laasqoray, لاسقُرَى) is an ancient coastal city in the northern Sanaag region of Somalia.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
Joannes Leo Africanus, (c. 1494 – c. 1554?) (born al-Hasan ibn Muhammad al-Wazzan al-Fasi, حسن ابن محمد الوزان الفاسي) was a Berber Andalusi diplomat and author who is best known for his book Descrittione dell’Africa (Description of Africa) centered on the geography of the Maghreb and Nile Valley.
The lesser hoopoe-lark (Alaemon hamertoni) is a species of lark in the family Alaudidae.
Libertarianism (from libertas, meaning "freedom") is a collection of political philosophies and movements that uphold liberty as a core principle.
The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
A lighthouse is a tower, building, or other type of structure designed to emit light from a system of lamps and lenses and to serve as a navigational aid for maritime pilots at sea or on inland waterways.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
Irreligion, which may include deism, agnosticism, ignosticism, anti-religion, atheism, skepticism, ietsism, spiritual but not religious, freethought, anti-theism, apatheism, non-belief, pandeism, secular humanism, non-religious theism, pantheism and panentheism, varies in the different countries around the world.
This is a list of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel.
This is a list of diplomatic missions in Somalia.
This is a list of diplomatic missions of Somalia, excluding honorary consulates.
This article lists the monarchs of Persia, who ruled over the area of modern-day Iran from the establishment of the Achaemenid dynasty by Achaemenes around 705 BCE until the deposition of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1979.
This is a list of Presidents of Somalia.
This is a list of Prime Ministers of Somalia.
A number of polities have declared independence and sought diplomatic recognition from the international community as de jure sovereign states, but have not been universally recognised as such.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
The littoral zone is the part of a sea, lake or river that is close to the shore.
Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Lower Juba (Jubbada Hoose, جوبا السفلى) is an administrative region (gobol) in southern Somalia.
Lower Shabelle (Shabeellaha Hoose, شبيلي السفلى) is an administrative region (gobol) in southern Somalia.
Luigi Robecchi Bricchetti (21 May 1855 – 31 May 1926) was an Italian explorer, geographer, and naturalist.
A lyricist or lyrist is a person who writes lyrics—words for songs—as opposed to a composer, who writes the song's melody.
Maay Maay (also known as Af-Maay, Af-Maymay, Rahanween, Rahanweyn or simply Maay, and sometimes spelled Mai Mai) is a dialect of the Somali language of the Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic family.
The Macrobians (Μακροβίοι), meaning long-lived, were an ancient tribal Kingdom of Aethiopia positioned in the farthest land towards the western sunset south of ancient Libya (Africa).
Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix makro- meaning "large" and economics) is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole.
Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.
The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.
Mahmoud Harbi Farah (محمود الحربي) (1921 – October 1960) was a Somali politician.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
The Majeerteen Sultanate (Suldanadda Majeerteen, سلطنة مجرتين), also known as Majeerteenia and Migiurtinia, was a Somali kingdom centered in the Horn of Africa.
The major scale (or Ionian scale) is one of the most commonly used musical scales, especially in Western music.
Malacca (Melaka; மலாக்கா) dubbed "The Historic State", is a state in Malaysia located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca.
Malao was an ancient Somali port city in present-day Somalia.
Malindi (known as Melinde in antiquity) is a town on Malindi Bay at the mouth of the Galana River, lying on the Indian Ocean coast of Kenya.
The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas are an archipelago within Banda Sea, Indonesia.
Maritime history of Somalia refers to the seafaring tradition of the Somali people.
The Maritime Security Patrol Area (MSPA) is a specified patrol zone in the Gulf of Aden and Guardafui Channel.
Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practices, which are practiced for a number of reasons: as self-defense, military and law enforcement applications, mental and spiritual development; as well as entertainment and the preservation of a nation's intangible cultural heritage.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
The Mosque of the Two Qiblas (مَـسْـجِـد الْـقِـبْـلَـتَـیْـن, Masjid al-Qiblaṫayn) is a mosque in Medina that is historically important for Muslims as the place where, after the Islamic Prophet Muhammad received the command to change the Qiblah (قِـبْـلَـة, Direction of Prayer) from Jerusalem to Mecca, the entire congregation led by a companion changed direction in prayer.
Masjid al-Qiblaṫayn (مَـسْـجِـد الْـقِـبْـلَـتَـيْـن; "Mosque of the two Qiblahs") is a mosque in Zeila, situated in the northwestern Awdal region of Somalia.
The matchlock was the first mechanism invented to facilitate the firing of a hand-held firearm.
A mattress is a large, rectangular pad for supporting the reclining body, designed to be used as a bed or on a bed frame, as part of a bed.
A mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or people.
Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.
A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones.
Emperor Menelik II GCB, GCMG (ዳግማዊ ምኒልክ), baptised as Sahle Maryam (17 August 1844 – 12 December 1913), was Negus of Shewa (1866–89), then Emperor of Ethiopia from 1889 to his death in 1913.
A menhir (from Brittonic languages: maen or men, "stone" and hir or hîr, "long"), standing stone, orthostat, lith or masseba/matseva is a large manmade upright stone.
Merca (Marka, مركة) is an ancient port city in the southern Lower Shebelle province of Somalia.
A merchant navy or merchant marine is the fleet of merchant vessels that are registered in a specific country.
Mesalina is a genus of wall lizards of the family Lacertidae.
Middle Juba (Jubbada Dhexe, جوبا الأوسط) is an administrative region (gobol) in southern Somalia.
Middle Shabelle (Shabeellaha Dhexe, شبيلي الوسطى) is an administrative region (gobol) in southern Somalia.
Mihrab (محراب, pl. محاريب) is a semicircular niche in the wall of a mosque that indicates the qibla; that is, the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca and hence the direction that Muslims should face when praying.
Mineral water is water from a mineral spring that contains various minerals, such as salts and sulfur compounds.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
The Ministry of Defence (Wasaaradda Gaashaandhigga) is charged with co-ordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the Somali Armed Forces.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Federal Republic of Somalia (Wasaarada Arrimaha Dibadda Soomaaliya) (وزارة الخارجية) is the Somali government ministry which oversees the foreign relations of Somalia.
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.
A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.
Mogadishu (Muqdisho), known locally as Xamar or Hamar, is the capital and most populous city of Somalia.
The Mogadishu Cathedral is a Roman Catholic cathedral located in Mogadishu, Somalia.
Mogadishu University (جامعة مقديشو, Jaamacadda Muqdisho) is an accredited non-governmental university in Mogadishu, Somalia.
Mohamed Abdullahi "Farmajo" Mohamed (Maxamed Cabdulaahi Maxamed Farmaajo, محمد عبد الله محمد; born 11 March 1962) is a Somali diplomat and politician who is the 9th and current President of Somalia.
Mohamed Deq Abdulle (Maxamed Deeq Cabdulle, محمد دق عبد الله) is a Somali taekwondo practitioner.
Mohamed Farrah Hassan Aidid (محمد فرح حسن عيديد; December 15, 1934 – August 1, 1996) was a Somali military commander and political leader.
Mohamed Jama (Maxamed Jaamac, محمد جامع) is a Somali kickboxer.
Mohamed Osman Jawari (Maxamed Cismaan Jawaari, محمد عثمان جواري) (born December 7, 1945 in Afgooye, Somalia) is a Somali attorney and politician.
Mohammed Abdullah Hassan (April 7, 1856 – December 21, 1920) was a Somali religious and patriotic leader.
Mombasa is a city on the coast of Kenya.
Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country, typically the central bank or currency board, controls either the cost of very short-term borrowing or the monetary base, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
A monument is a type of—usually three-dimensional—structure that was explicitly created to commemorate a person or event, or which has become relevant to a social group as a part of their remembrance of historic times or cultural heritage, due to its artistic, historical, political, technical or architectural importance.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
Mosylon (Μοσυλλόν), also known as Mosullon, was an ancient Somali trading center on or near the site that later became the city of Bosaso.
Mount Shimbiris is the highest peak in Somalia.
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground.
Muay Thai (มวยไทย) or Thai boxing is a combat sport of Thailand that uses stand-up striking along with various clinching techniques.
A mudbrick or mud-brick is a brick, made of a mixture of loam, mud, sand and water mixed with a binding material such as rice husks or straw.
Mudug (Mudug) is an administrative region (gobol) in north-central Somalia.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Mohamed Haji Ibrahim Egal (Maxamed Xaaji Ibraahim Cigaal, محمد الحاج ابراهيم ايغال) (August 15, 1928 – May 3, 2002) was a Somali politician.
A musket is a muzzle-loaded, smoothbore long gun that appeared in early 16th century Europe, at first as a heavier variant of the arquebus, capable of penetrating heavy armor.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Mycenaean Greece (or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece, spanning the period from approximately 1600–1100 BC.
Myrrh (from Aramaic, but see § Etymology) is a natural gum or resin extracted from a number of small, thorny tree species of the genus Commiphora.
Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies (religious experiences during alternate states of consciousness), together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them.
The Nabataean Kingdom (المملكة النبطية), also named Nabatea, was a political state of the Arab Nabataeans during classical antiquity.
A national aviation authority (NAA) or civil aviation authority is a government statutory authority in each country that maintains an aircraft register and oversees the approval and regulation of civil aviation.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
The National Intelligence and Security Agency (NISA) (Hay'ada Sirdoonka iyo Nabadsugida Qaranka) is the national intelligence agency of the Federal Republic of Somalia is in-charge of secret service, intelligence and covert operations for the national interests of Somalia, The main objective of (NISA) is to collect the intelligence data through different means and to safeguard the national interests.
The National Security Service (NSS) (Hay'ada Nabadsugida Qaranka) was the primary intelligence agency of Somalia under the government of Siad Barre.
NationLink Telecom is a telecommunications firm based in Somalia.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
North Eastern Telecommunications Company (Netco Ltd.) is a telecommunications company established in 1993 in Bosaso, the commercial capital of Puntland an autonomous region of Somalia.
The Neustadt International Prize for Literature is a biennial award for literature sponsored by the University of Oklahoma and its international literary publication, World Literature Today.
Sir Nicholas Peter Kay (born 1958) is a British diplomat who is ambassador to Afghanistan.
Nikon (alternatively spelled Nicon; Νίκων in Ancient Greek) was an ancient coastal emporium in the Horn of Africa.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
Non-formal learning includes various structured learning situations, such as swimming sessions for toddlers, community-based sports programs and conference style seminars, which do not either have the level of curriculum, syllabus, accreditation and certification associated with 'formal learning', but have more structure than that associated with 'informal learning', which typically take place naturally and spontaneously as part of other activities.
The North Eastern Province (Gobolka Woqooyi Bari) is one of the former Provinces in Kenya.
The Northeast African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus soemmeringii) is a cheetah subspecies occurring in Northeast Africa.
Nugal (Nugaal, نوغال) is an administrative region (gobol) in northeastern Somalia.
Nuruddin Farah (Nuuradiin Faarax, نورالدين فارح) (born 24 November 1945) is a Somali novelist.
Nutmeg is the seed or ground spice of several species of the genus Myristica.
The Obbia lark (Spizocorys obbiensis) is a species of lark in the family Alaudidae.
In music, an octave (octavus: eighth) or perfect octave is the interval between one musical pitch and another with half or double its frequency.
Ogaden (pronounced and often spelled Ogadēn; Ogaadeen) is the unofficial name of the Somali Region, the territory comprising the eastern portion of Ethiopia.
The Ogaden War was a Somali military offensive between July 1977 and March 1978 over the disputed Ethiopian region Ogaden starting with the Somali Democratic Republic's invasion of Ethiopia.
The Ogo Mountains, also known as the Galgodon Highlands, are a mountain range in Somalia.
Oil exploration in Somalia, an autonomous region in northeastern Somalia which is a federal state, began in the mid-2000s as a series of negotiations between the provincial administration and foreign oil companies.
Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke (Cumar Cabdirashiid Cali Sharmaarke, عمر عبد الرشيد علي شرماركي) (born 18 June 1960) is a Somali diplomat and politician.
EU NAVFOR Somalia, also known as Operation Atalanta, is a current counter-piracy military operation at sea off the Horn of Africa and in the Western Indian Ocean, that is the first undertaken by the European Union Naval Force.
Operation Indian Ocean was a joint military operation between the Somali military, AMISOM and the United States military against the Al-Shabaab militant group in southern Somalia.
Operation Linda Nchi ("Protect the country"; Linda Nchi) is the codename for a co-ordinated military operation between the Kenyan military and the Somali military that began on 16 October 2011, when troops from Kenya crossed the border into the conflict zones of southern Somalia.
Operation United Shield was the codename of a military operation, conducted 9 January to 3 March 1995, bringing a conclusion to the United Nations Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II).
Opone (Οπώνη) was an ancient Somali city situated in the Horn of Africa.
The Organisation of African Unity (OAU; Organisation de l'unité africaine (OUA)) was established on 25 May 1963 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia with 32 signatory governments.
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; منظمة التعاون الإسلامي; Organisation de la coopération islamique) is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.3 billion as of 2009 with 47 countries being Muslim Majority countries.
The oribi (Ourebia ourebi) is a small antelope found in eastern, southern and western Africa.
Oromo (pron. or) is an Afroasiatic language spoken in the Horn of Africa.
Osman Yusuf Kenadid (Cusmaan Yuusuf Keenadiid; عثمان يوسف كينايديض), was a Somali poet, writer, teacher and ruler.
The Osmanya alphabet (Farta Cismaanya; Osmanya), also known as Far Soomaali ("Somali writing") and, in Arabic, as al-kitābah al-ʿuthmānīyah, is a writing script created to transcribe the Somali language.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Somalia: Somalia – country located in the Horn of Africa.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pakistan Army (پاک فوج Pak Fauj (IPA: pɑk fɒ~ɔd͡ʒ); Reporting name: PA) is the land-based force of the Pakistan Armed Forces.
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
The Arab Games (الألعاب العربية), also called the Pan Arab Games, are a regional multi-sport event held between nations from the Arab world.
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.
Pasta is a staple food of traditional Italian cuisine, with the first reference dating to 1154 in Sicily.
Pate (Paté) Island is located in the Indian Ocean close to the northern coast of Kenya, to which it belongs.
The peanut, also known as the groundnut or the goober and taxonomically classified as Arachis hypogaea, is a legume crop grown mainly for its edible seeds.
A pentatonic scale is a musical scale with five notes per octave, in contrast to the more familiar heptatonic scale that has seven notes per octave (such as the major scale and minor scale).
Ethiopia's population is highly diverse.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
Peter T. Leeson (born July 29, 1979) is the Duncan Black Professor of Economics and Law at George Mason University.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing and dispensing drugs.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
A pillow is a support of the body at rest for comfort, therapeutic, decoration or play.
Piracy off the coast of Somalia has been a threat to international shipping since the second phase of the Somali Civil War, around 2000, when foreign ships exploited the absence of an effective national coast guard by invading the fishing grounds and also dumping illegal waste that would further diminish the local catch.
Pitch is a perceptual property of sounds that allows their ordering on a frequency-related scale, or more commonly, pitch is the quality that makes it possible to judge sounds as "higher" and "lower" in the sense associated with musical melodies.
In geography, a plain is a flat, sweeping landmass that generally does not change much in elevation.
A plastic bag, polybag, or pouch is a type of container made of thin, flexible, plastic film, nonwoven fabric, or plastic textile.
In geology and physical geography a plateau (or; plural plateaus or plateaux),is also called a high plain or a tableland, it is an area of a highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain that is raised significantly above the surrounding area, often with one or more sides with steep slopes.
The Platycephalidae are a family of marine fish, most commonly referred to as flatheads.
Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.
A politburo or political bureau is the executive committee for communist parties.
Pork is the culinary name for meat from a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo.
The Potsdam Conference (Potsdamer Konferenz) was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm, in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from 17 July to 2 August 1945.
The President of Somalia (Madaxaweynaha Soomaaliya) is the head of state of Somalia.
Primary education and elementary education is typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool and before secondary education (The first two grades of primary school, Grades 1 and 2, are also part of early childhood education).
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.
The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.
Puntland (Puntlaand, أرض البنط), officially the Puntland State of Somalia (Dowladda Puntland ee Soomaaliya, بونتلاند دولة الصومال), is a region in northeastern Somalia.
The Puntland Maritime Police Force (PMPF) is a security force based in Puntland, an autonomous region in northeastern Somalia.
Puntland Post is online publication and weekly newspaper based in Garowe, the administrative capital of the autonomous Puntland region in northeastern Somalia.
The Puntland Security Force (PSF) consists of the armed forces of the autonomous Puntland region in northeastern Somalia.
Puntland State University is a university in Garowe, the administrative capital of the northeastern Puntland region of Somalia.
Puntland TV and Radio is the public broadcasting network of the autonomous Puntland region of Somalia.
A pyramid (from πυραμίς) is a structure whose outer surfaces are triangular and converge to a single point at the top, making the shape roughly a pyramid in the geometric sense.
"Qoloba Calankeed" (Arabic: الثناء على العلم; English: "Praise to the Flag") is the national anthem of the Federal Republic of Somalia.
In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
Radio Mogadishu (Radio Muqdisho, راديو مقديشو) is the federal government-run radio station of Somalia.
The Rahaweyn (Somali Maay: Reewing; traditional Raxaweyn, رحنوين) is a Somali clan, composed of two major sub-clans, the Digil and the Mirifle.
Ramadan (Arabic: رمضان) or Ramadhan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and the month in which the Quran was revealed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Range Resources Corporation is a petroleum and natural gas exploration and production company organized in Delaware and headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas.
The Raskamboni Movement (also known as the Raskamboni Front) is a paramilitary group active in southern Somalia.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
Reedbuck is a common name for African antelopes from the genus Redunca.
A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.
A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).
A remittance is a transfer of money by a foreign worker to an individual in their home country.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
A resistance movement is an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to withstand the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability.
The reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata), also known as the Somali giraffe, is a subspecies of giraffe native to the Horn of Africa.
Within the Marxist movement, the word revisionism is used to refer to various ideas, principles and theories that are based on a significant revision of fundamental Marxist premises.
A rhinoceros, commonly abbreviated to rhino, is one of any five extant species of odd-toed ungulates in the family Rhinocerotidae, as well as any of the numerous extinct species.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
Richard H. Shultz, Jr. (born 1947) is an American scholar of international security studies.
A road surface or pavement is the durable surface material laid down on an area intended to sustain vehicular or foot traffic, such as a road or walkway.
Robert Irwin Rotberg (born April 11, 1935) is an American who served as President of the World Peace Foundation (1993–2010).
In archaeology, rock art is human-made markings placed on natural stone; it is largely synonymous with parietal art.
The rock hyrax (Procavia capensis), also called rock badger, rock rabbit, and Cape hyrax, is commonly referred to in South African English as the dassie.
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Mogadiscio (Mogadiscen(sis)) is a diocese of the Roman Catholic Church located in the city of Mogadishu, Somalia.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Sa'ad ad-Din II (سعد الدين زنكي) (ruled circa 1400) was a Somali Sultan of the Ifat Sultanate.
The Sabaeans or Sabeans (اَلـسَّـبَـئِـيُّـون,; שבא; Musnad: 𐩪𐩨𐩱) were an ancient people speaking an Old South Arabian language who lived in the southern Arabian Peninsula.
Sabr ad-Din II (الصبر اد الدين) (died 1422 or 1423) was a Sultan of Adal and the oldest son of Sa'ad ad-Din II.
The Saho language (Tigrinya: ሳሆኛ) is an Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Eritrea, Sudan and Ethiopia.
Salaad Gabeyre Kediye (Salaad Gabeyre Kediye, 1933 – 3 July 1972), also known as Salah Gaveire Kedie, was a Somali senior military official and a revolutionary.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
Salvia officinalis (sage, also called garden sage, common sage, or culinary sage) is a perennial, evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers.
Sanaag (Sanaag, سناج) is an administrative region (gobol) in northeastern Somaliland.
The sandperches are a family, Pinguipedidae, of fishes in the percomorph order Trachniniformes.
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.
Sarapion (Σαράπιον, also spelled Serapion), was an ancient port city in present-day Somalia.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Scientific socialism is a term coined in 1840 by Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in his What is Property? to mean a society ruled by a scientific government, i.e. one whose sovereignity rests upon reason, rather than sheer will: Thus, in a given society, the authority of man over man is inversely proportional to the stage of intellectual development which that society has reached; and the probable duration of that authority can be calculated from the more or less general desire for a true government, — that is, for a scientific government.
The Scramble for Africa was the occupation, division, and colonization of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914.
Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education scale.
The secondary sector of the economy includes industries that produce a finished, usable product or are involved in construction.
Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential harm (or other unwanted coercive change) from external forces.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.
The serval (Leptailurus serval) is a wild cat native to Africa.
The sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population.
The Shafi‘i (شافعي, alternative spelling Shafei) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Sharif Sheikh Ahmed (Shariif Sheekh Axmed, شريف شيخ أحمد.; born 25 July 1964) is a Somali diplomat and politician.
The Shebelle River (Webi Shabeelle, نهر الشبيل, እደላ, Uebi Scebeli) begins in the highlands of Ethiopia, and then flows southeast into Somalia towards Mogadishu.
Sheikh Abdurahman Sh.
Shelekhov (p) is a town and the administrative center of Shelekhovsky District in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, located southwest of Irkutsk, the administrative center of the oblast.
Shire Jama Ahmed (Shire Jaamac Axmed, شيري جامع أحمد) was a Somali linguist notable for his contribution to the creation of the modern Latin script for transcribing the Somali language.
Mohamed Siad Barre (Maxamed Siyaad Barre; محمد سياد بري; October 6, 1919 – January 2, 1995) was a Somali politician who served as the President of the Somali Democratic Republic from 1969 to 1991.
Sidamo was a province in the southern part of Ethiopia, with its capital city at Irgalem, and after 1978 at Awasa.
Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, rhythm, and a variety of vocal techniques.
Slavery in Somalia existed as a part of the Arab slave trade.
Soap is the term for a salt of a fatty acid or for a variety of cleansing and lubricating products produced from such a substance.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
Socotra سُقُطْرَى Suqadara, also called Soqotra, located between the Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Sea, is the largest of four islands of the Socotra archipelago.
Somafone Telecommunications Service Company (operating as Somafone) is one of Somalia's leading telecommunications firms.
The Somali Air Force (SAF) (Ciidamada Cirka Soomaaliyeed), (القوات الجوية الصومالية), Al-Qūwāt al-Gawwīyä as-Ṣūmāl) is the air force of Somalia. The Somali Aeronautical Corps (SAC) was the name of the Somali Air Force during the pre-independence (1954–1960) period. After 1960, when Somalia gained independence, the name changed to the Somali Air Force. SAF principal organizer and the first Somalia pilot Ali Matan Hashi became the founder as well as the Chief of SAF. The SAF at one point had the strongest airstrike capability in the Horn of Africa. Following the outbreak of the civil war in the early 1990s, the air force disbanded. A reconstituted Somali Central Government later relaunched the SAF in the 2010s, with its headquarters being reopened in 2015.
Somali Airlines was the flag carrier of Somalia.
A number of writing systems have been used over the years to transcribe the Somali language.
The Somali National Armed Forces (SNAF) are the military forces of Somalia, officially known as the Federal Republic of Somalia.
The Bantu (also called Jareer, Gosha, and Mushunguli) are an ethnic minority group in Somalia who primarily reside in the southern part of the country, near the Juba and Shabelle rivers.
The Somali Chamber of Commerce and Industry (SCCI) is a trade organization headquartered in Mogadishu, Somalia.
The Somali Civil Aviation and Meteorology Authority (SCAMA) is the national civil aviation authority body of Somalia.
The Somali Civil War (Dagaalkii Sokeeye ee Soomaaliya, الحرب الأهلية الصومالية) is an ongoing civil war taking place in Somalia.
The 2009–present phase of the Somali Civil War is concentrated in southern Somalia.
A constitutional referendum was held in Somalia on 20 June 1961 to vote on the new constitution for the country created the previous year by the union of British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland.
The Somali Democratic Republic (Jamhuuriyadda Dimuqraadiya Soomaaliya, الجمهورية الديمقراطية الصومالية al-Jumhūrīyah ad-Dīmuqrāṭīyah aṣ-Ṣūmālīyah, Repubblica Democratica Somala) was the name that the Marxist–Leninist military dictatorship government of former President of Somalia Major General Mohamed Siad Barre gave to Somalia during its rule, after having seized power in a bloodless 1969 coup d'état.
The Somali diaspora refers to expatriate Somalis who reside in areas of the world that have traditionally not been inhabited by their ethnic group.
The Somali elephant shrew or Somali sengi (Elephantulus revoili) is a species of elephant shrew in the family Macroscelididae.
Somali Energy Company (SECO) is a private energy firm based in Mogadishu, Somalia.
The Somali First Division (Heerka Koowaad ee Soomaali, دوري الدرجة الأولى الصومالية) also known as Serie A, is the Somali professional league for men's football association.
The Somali golden mole (Calcochloris tytonis) is a golden mole endemic to Somalia.
Somali Retrieved on 21 September 2013 (Af-Soomaali) is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch.
The Somali lark (Mirafra somalica) is a species of lark in the family Alaudidae endemic to Somalia.
The Somali National Movement (Dhaq dhaqaaqa wadaniga soomaliyeed, الحركة الوطنية الصوماليه) was a 1980s–1990s Somali rebel group.
Somali National Television (SNTV) (Telefishinka Qaranka Soomaaliyeed) is the national television station of Somalia.
Somali National University (SNU) (Jaamacadda Ummadda Soomaaliyeed, الجامعة الوطنية الصومالية) is a national university in Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia.
The Somali Navy (Ciidamada Badda Soomaaliyeed, القوات البحرية الصومالية.) is the naval warfare service branch of the Somali Armed Forces.
The Somali Olympic Committee (Guddiga Olimbikada Soomaaliyeed) is the National Olympic Committee representing Somalia.
The Somali Patriotic Movement (SPM, Dhaqdhaqaaqa Wadaniga Soomaaliyeed, الحركة الوطنية الصومالية) is a political party and paramilitary organization in Somalia, and a key faction in the Somali Civil War.
The Somali pigeon or Somali stock dove (Columba oliviae) is a species of bird in the family Columbidae.
The Somali Police Force (SPF; Ciidanka Booliska Soomaaliya (CBS); قوة الشرطة الصومالية) is the national police force and the main civil law enforcement agency of Somalia.
The Somali Postal Service (Somali Post) is the national postal service of Somalia.
The Somali Republic (Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliyeed, Repubblica Somala, جمهورية الصومال) was the official name of Somalia after independence on July 1, 1960, following the unification of the Trust Territory of Somaliland (the former Italian Somaliland) and the State of Somaliland (the former British Somaliland).
The Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party (Xisbiga Hantiwadaagga Kacaanka Soomaaliyeed, XHKS; الحزب الاشتراكي الثوري الصومالي, al-Ḥizb al-ishtirākī al-thawrī al-ṣūmālī; Partito Socialista Rivoluzionario Somalo) was the ruling party of the Somali Democratic Republic from 1976 to 1991.
Somali Salvation Democratic Front (SSDF) (Jabhadda Diimuqraadiga Badbaadinta Soomaaliyeed), initially known as the Democratic Front for Salvation of Somalia, was a political and paramilitary umbrella organization in Somalia.
The Somali shilling (sign: Sh.So.; shilin; شلن; scellino; ISO 4217: SOS) is the official currency of Somalia.
Somali Telecom Group (STG) is a telecommunications company based in Somalia.
The Somali wild ass (Equus africanus somaliensis) is a subspecies of the African wild ass.
The Somalia Cup is the top knockout football tournament in Somalia.
Somalia national bandy team represents Somalia in the Bandy World Championship.
The Somalia national basketball team is the national basketball team of Somalia.
The Somalia national football team nicknamed ocean stars represents Somalia in men's international football.
The Somalia national Taekwondo team is the national taekwondo squad of Somalia.
The Somalia Petroleum Corporation (SPC), also known as the Somalia Petroleum Company, is a hydrocarbon exploration and production firm based in Mogadishu, Somalia.
The Somali Stock Exchange (SSE), officially known as the Somalia Stock Exchange Investment Corporation, is the national bourse of Somalia.
Somalia–South Korea relations are bilateral relations between Somalia and South Korea.
Somalia–Turkey relations are bilateral relations between Somalia and Turkey.
Somalia–United Arab Emirates relations are bilateral relations between Somalia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
Somalia–United Kingdom relations are bilateral relations between Somalia and the United Kingdom.
Somalia–United States relations (Xiriirka Maraykanka-Soomaaliya; علاقات صومالية أمريكية) are bilateral relations between the Federal Republic of Somalia and the United States of America.
Somalia–Yemen relations are bilateral relations between Somalia and Yemen.
Somaliland (Somaliland; صوماليلاند, rtl), officially the Republic of Somaliland (Jamhuuriyadda Somaliland, جمهورية صوماليلاند Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd), is a self-declared state internationally recognised as an autonomous region of Somalia.
The Somaliland National Armed Forces (Ciidanka Qaranka Jamhuuriyada Somaliland) are the military service of the Republic of Somaliland, a self-declared state that is internationally recognized as an autonomous region of Somalia.
The Somaliland Campaign, also called the Anglo-Somali War or the Dervish War, was a series of military expeditions that took place between 1900 and 1920 in the Horn of Africa, pitting the Dervishes led by Mohammed Abdullah Hassan (nicknamed the "Mad Mullah", although he "was neither mad nor a mullah") against the British.
The Fifth Expedition of the Somaliland campaign in 1920 was the final British expedition against the Dervish forces of Mohammed Abdullah Hassan (often called the "Mad Mullah" derogatorily by British), the Somali religious leader.
Somaliland National TV (SLNTV) is a Somali television channel.
The Somaliland University of Technology (SUTECH) (Jaamacadda Teknoolajiyadda Somaliland) is a tertiary academic institution in Hargeisa, Somaliland.
Somalis (Soomaali, صوماليون) are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa (Somali Peninsula).
A songwriter is a professional who is paid to write lyrics for singers and melodies for songs, typically for a popular music genre such as rock or country music.
Sool (Sool, سول) is an administrative region in Somalia.
Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae.
South Sudan, officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa.
The South West State of Somalia (Koonfur-Galbeed Soomaaliya), also known as the Interim South West Administration, is an autonomous region in southwestern Somalia.
Southeast Africa or Southeastern Africa is an African region that is intermediate between East Africa and Southern Africa.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
Sprint Corporation is an American telecommunications company that provides wireless services and is an internet service provider.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is a business enterprise where the state has significant control through full, majority, or significant minority ownership.
Somalia is a federal republic consisting of six states divided into eighteen administrative regions (gobollada, singular gobol), which in turn are subdivided into districts.
A steleAnglicized plural steles; Greek plural stelai, from Greek στήλη, stēlē.
A stock exchange, securities exchange or bourse, is a facility where stock brokers and traders can buy and sell securities, such as shares of stock and bonds and other financial instruments.
The craft of stonemasonry (or stonecraft) involves creating buildings, structures, and sculpture using stone from the earth, and is one of the oldest trades in human history.
The Strait of Hormuz (تنگه هرمز Tangeye Hormoz) is a strait between the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.
Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
The Sultanate of Hobyo (Saldanadda Hobyo, سلطنة هوبيو), also known as the Sultanate of Obbia,New International Encyclopedia, Volume 21, (Dodd, Mead: 1916), p.283.
The Sultanate of Mogadishu (Saldanadda Muqdisho, سلطنة مقديشو) (fl. 10th-16th centuries), also known as the Kingdom of Magadazo, was a medieval Somali trading empire centered in southern Somalia.
The Sultanate of the Geledi (Saldanadda Geledi, سلطنة غلدي) was a Somali kingdom that ruled parts of the Horn of Africa during the late-17th century and 19th century.
A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC) (Gollaha Sare ee Kacaanka, المجلس الثوري الأعلى) was the governmental body that ruled Somalia from 1969 to 1976.
Surat is a city in the Indian state of Gujarat.
Swahili, also known as Kiswahili (translation: coast language), is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people.
The Swahili people (or Waswahili) are an ethnic and cultural group inhabiting East Africa.
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
Taekwondo (from Korean 태권도, 跆拳道) is a Korean martial art, characterised by its emphasis on head-height kicks, jumping and spinning kicks, and fast kicking techniques.
Tarawih (تراويح) refers to extra prayers performed by Sunni Muslims at night in the Islamic month of Ramadan.
A tariqa (or tariqah; طريقة) is a school or order of Sufism, or specifically a concept for the mystical teaching and spiritual practices of such an order with the aim of seeking Haqiqa, which translates as "ultimate truth".
Teacher education or teacher training refers to the policies, procedures, and provision designed to equip (prospective) teachers with the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and skills they require to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom, school, and wider community.
Telcom is a telecommunications network operator in Somalia.
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
Telenor ASA is a Norwegian multinational telecommunications company headquartered at Fornebu in Bærum, close to Oslo.
To call in Somalia, the following format is used.
A temple (from the Latin word templum) is a structure reserved for religious or spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice.
Territorial waters or a territorial sea, as defined by the 2013 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, is a belt of coastal waters extending at most from the baseline (usually the mean low-water mark) of a coastal state.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The New York Times International Edition is an English-language newspaper printed at 38 sites throughout the world and sold in more than 160 countries and territories.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Togdheer (Togdheer, تُوجدَير) is an administrative region (gobol) in central Somaliland.
A tomb (from τύμβος tumbos) is a repository for the remains of the dead.
Tongeren (Tongres, Tongern) is a city and municipality located in the Belgian province of Limburg, in the southeastern corner of the Flemish region of Belgium.
Tonguefishes are flatfishes in the family Cynoglossidae.
The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.
A tower is a tall structure, taller than it is wide, often by a significant margin.
The Trans-National Industrial Electricity and Gas Company is an energy conglomerate based in Mogadishu, Somalia.
The Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic (TFC) was the principle organizing document of Somalia.
The Transitional Federal Government (TFG) (Dowladda Federaalka Kumeelgaarka, الحكومة الاتحادية الانتقالية) was the internationally recognized government of the Republic of Somalia until 20 August 2012, when its tenure officially ended and the Federal Government of Somalia was inaugurated.
The Transitional Federal Institutions of Somalia are the key government foundations created in October–November 2004 at a conference held in Nairobi, Kenya.
The Transitional Federal Parliament of the Somali Republic (TFP) (Golaha Shacabka Federaalka Kumeelgaarka ee Jamhuuriyada Soomaaliya; often Baarlamaanka Federaalka Soomaaliya) was the national parliament of Somalia from 2004 until 2012.
The Transitional National Government (TNG) was the internationally recognized central government of Somalia from 2000 to 2004.
Transparency International e.V. (TI) is an international non-governmental organization which is based in Berlin, Germany, and was founded in 1993.
The Trust Territory of Somaliland (officially, the "Trust Territory of Somaliland under Italian administration") was a United Nations Trust Territory situated in present-day northeastern, central and southern Somalia.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves.
Turkish Airlines (Turkish: Türk Hava Yolları) is the national flag carrier airline of Turkey.
The Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXVII, alternatively 27th Dynasty or Dynasty 27), also known as the First Egyptian Satrapy was effectively a province (satrapy) of the Achaemenid Persian Empire between 525 BC to 404 BC.
The Unified Task Force (UNITAF) was a US-led, United Nations-sanctioned multinational force, which operated in Somalia between 5 December 1992 – 4 May 1993.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United Arab Emirates dirham (درهم, sign: د.إ; code: AED), also known as simply the Emirati dirham, is the currency of the United Arab Emirates.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) was established in 1964 as a permanent intergovernmental body.
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency of United Nations and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.
UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations programme with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.
United Nations Operation in Somalia I (UNOSOM I) was the first part of a United Nations (UN) sponsored effort to provide, facilitate, and secure humanitarian relief in Somalia, as well as to monitor the first UN-brokered ceasefire of the Somali Civil War conflict in the early 1990s.
United Nations Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II) was the second phase of the United Nations intervention in Somalia, from March 1993 until March 1995.
Peacekeeping by the United Nations is a role held by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations as "a unique and dynamic instrument developed by the organization as a way to help countries torn by conflict to create the conditions for lasting peace." It is distinguished from peacebuilding, peacemaking, and peace enforcement although the United Nations does acknowledge that all activities are "mutually reinforcing" and that overlap between them is frequent in practice.
The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), formerly the United Nations Fund for Population Activities, is a UN organization.
United Nations Security Council resolution 733, adopted unanimously on 23 January 1992, after expressing its alarm at the situation in Somalia regarding the heavy loss of life, destruction to property and threat to regional stability, the Council, acting under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, decided to place a "general and complete" arms embargo on the country for the purposes of establishing peace and stability.
United Nations Security Council resolution 746, adopted unanimously on 17 March 1992, after reaffirming Resolution 733 (1992), noting a ceasefire agreement in Mogadishu and a report by the Secretary-General, the Council urged the continuation of the United Nations humanitarian work in Somalia and strongly supported the Secretary-General's decision to dispatch a technical team there.
United Nations Security Council resolution 794, adopted unanimously on 3 December 1992, after reaffirming resolutions 733 (1992), 746 (1992), 751 (1992), 767 (1992) and 775 (1992), the Council " grave alarm" regarding the situation in Somalia and authorised the creation of the Unified Task Force (UNITAF) to create a "secure environment for humanitarian relief operations in Somalia" in order to provide "essential for the survival of the civilian population".
The United Somali Congress (USC) was one of the major rebel organizations in Somalia.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
Universal Television is a Somali television channel.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
University of Gedo (Jaamacada Gedo جامعة جدو) is a public university in the city of Bardera situated in the Gedo region of Somalia.
The University of Hargeisa (UOH) is a public university located in Hargeisa, the capital of Somaliland.
The University of Michigan Press is part of Michigan Publishing at the University of Michigan Library.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
Uthman bin Ali Zayla'i (عثمان بن علي الزيلعي) (d. 1342) was a 14th-century Somali theologian and jurist from Zeila.
Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira (c. 1460s – 24 December 1524), was a Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea.
Veneto (or,; Vèneto) is one of the 20 regions of Italy.
Villa Somalia (Madaxtooyada Soomaaliya, فيلا الصومال) is a building in Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia.
Vocational education is education that prepares people to work in various jobs, such as a trade, a craft, or as a technician.
Wadaad writing, also known as wadaad Arabic, is the traditional Somali adaptation of written Arabic, as well as the Arabic script as historically used to transcribe the Somali language.
A war of aggression, sometimes also war of conquest, is a military conflict waged without the justification of self-defense, usually for territorial gain and subjugation.
Wargaade Wall is an ancient stone construction in Wargaade, Somalia.
The Warsangali (Qabiilka Warsangeli; قبيلة أوسنجلي.), (also Moorasaante/Awrkii Cirka, Warsengeli, Warsingeli, Oor Singally) is a Somali clan, part of the Harti confederation of Darod sub-clans.
The Warsangali Sultanate (Saldanadda Warsangeli, سلطنة الورسنجلي) was a Somali Sultanate ruling house centered in northeastern of Somalia.
The Warsangli linnet (Linaria johannis) is a species of finch in the Fringillidae family.
A Waste broker is someone within the waste industry who acts as middle man between other waste industry parties.
West Bardera Maternity Unit, is a hospital in Bardera, Somalia.
Wire transfer, bank transfer or credit transfer is a method of electronic funds transfer from one person or entity to another.
Wituland (also Witu, Vitu, Witu Protectorate or Swahililand) was a territory of approximately in East Africa centered on the town of Witu just inland from Indian Ocean port of Lamu north of the mouth of the Tana River in what is now Kenya.
Woqooyi Galbeed (Woqooyi Galbeed, وقويي جالبيد), also known as Maroodi Jeex, is an administrative region (gobol) located in northwestern Somaliland.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU) was established in 1945 to replace the International Federation of Trade Unions.
The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 191 Member States and Territories.
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.
Xeer (pronounced /ħeːr/) is the traditional legal system of Somalia, and one of the three systems from which formal Somali law draws its inspiration, the others being civil law and Islamic law.
Ahmad ibn Abu Ya'qub ibn Ja'far ibn Wahb Ibn Wadih al-Ya'qubi (died 897/8), known as Ahmad al-Ya'qubi, or Ya'qubi (اليعقوبي), was a Muslim geographer and perhaps the first historian of world culture in the Abbasid Caliphate.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Yusuf Mahamud Ibrahim (Yuusuf Maxamuud Ibrahiim, يوسف محمود ابراهيم) was a Somali ruler.
A zaouia or zawiya (زاوية zāwiyah; "assembly" "group" or "circle", also spelled zawiyah, zawiyya, zaouiya, zaouïa and zwaya) is an Islamic religious school or monastery.
Zeila (Saylac, زيلع), also known as Zaila or Zeyla, is a port city in the northwestern Awdal region of Somaliland.
The Sa'ad ad-Din Islands (Jasiirada Sacadadiin, جزر سعد الدين), also Romanized as Sa'ad-ed-din and known as the Zeila Archipelago, are group of islands off the northern coast of Somalia.
.so is the internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Somalia.
The 12th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 12 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
On 14 October 2017, a massive blast caused by a truck bombing in Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia, killed at least 587 people and injured 316.
The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake occurred at 00:58:53 UTC on 26 December with the epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia.
The 2014 Bandy World Championship was held between 26 January and 2 February 2014, in Irkutsk and Shelekhov, Russia.
The 2nd parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 2 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The meridian 41° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Asia, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The meridian 52° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
As-Sumal, Environment of Somalia, Federal Republic of Somalia, ISO 3166-1:SO, Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya, Jumhūrīyat aṣ-Ṣūmāl al-Fidirālīyah, Natural resources in Somalia, Somaila, Somali Independence, Somali National Salvation Committee, Somalia, Africa, Somaliya, Somolia, Soomaaliya, The Independent Somali State, الصومال.