680 relations: Aar Maanta, Abadir Umar ar-Rida, Abaya, Abd al Aziz al-Amawi, Abd al-Rahman al-Jabarti, Abdallah al-Qutbi, Abdi Kusow, Abdi Sinimo, Abdillahi Suldaan Mohammed Timacade, Abdirahim Hussein Mohamed, Abdirahman bin Isma'il al-Jabarti, Abdirahman Jama Barre, Abdirashid Ali Shermarke, Abdirashid Duale, Abdirizak Haji Hussein, Abdisalam Aato, Abdullahi Ahmed Irro, Abdullahi Issa, Abdullahi Qarshe, Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, Abdulqawi Yusuf, Abdusalam H. Omer, Abgaal, Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib, Abyssinian–Adal war, Academy, Adal Sultanate, Adale, Adan Mohammed, Aden Abdullah Osman Daar, Afar language, Afar people, Africa, African Union, Afroasiatic languages, Agaw people, Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi, Ahmed Hussen, Ahmed Ismail Samatar, Ahmed Yusuf (Gobroon), Airline, Airplane, Ajuran (clan), Ajuran Sultanate, Al Jazeera English, Al-Omari, Al-Zayla`i, Algeria, Ali al-Jabarti, Ali Feiruz, ..., Ali Jimale Ahmed, Ali Matan Hashi, Ali Said Faqi, Ali Said Hassan, Allies of World War II, Ames, Iowa, Amharas, Amina Moghe Hersi, Amina Mohamed, Ancient Egypt, Ancient history, Anthropology, Aqeel ibn Abi Talib, Aqueduct (water supply), Arab League, Arab world, Arabian Peninsula, Arabic, Arabic alphabet, Arabic script, Arabs, Archaeological site, Archaeology, Architecture, Association football, Astrology, Astronomer, Atheism, Atlanta, Autosome, Ayaan Hirsi Ali, Ayub Daud, Babylon, Balwo, Banaadir, Bangle, Barawa, Barbara (region), Barclays, Bard, Bashir Yussuf, Basketball, Basketball at the Pan Arab Games, Basmati, BBC, Beja people, Benadiri people, Bengal, Berbera, Berbers, Berlin Conference, Betty Trask Award, Birmingham, Blood money (restitution), Borama alphabet, Bosaso, Bowl, Brigadier general, Bristol, British Empire, British Somaliland, Buraan, Buur Heybe, Cairn, Cairo, Calgary, Cambyses II, Canada, Canadian Somali Congress, Canadians, Cape Guardafui, Cardamom, Cardiff, Castle, Caucasian race, Cave painting, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Cedar-Riverside, Minneapolis, Cemetery, Central Asia, Central Intelligence Agency, Chartered company, Chief executive officer, Chiffon (fabric), China, Cinnamon, Cistern, Citadel, City Council of Helsinki, City Pages, Civil engineering, Clan, Classical antiquity, Clove, Coffee, Coffeehouse, Columbus, Ohio, Column, Comb, Commander, Constitution, Contemporary architecture, Continental Europe, Coral, Corn starch, Coup d'état, Courtyard, Culture of Somalia, Cumin, Cushitic languages, Custom (law), Dabqaad, Dahabshiil, Damo, Somalia, Darod, Daud Abdulle Hirsi, Degoodi, Deira, Dubai, Demographics of Somalia, Denmark, Denver, Dervish state, Design, Detective, Dhambalin, Diplomat, Dir (clan), Dire Dawa, Diriye Osman, Division of labour, Diya (Islam), Djibouti, DMI Trust, Documentary film, Dolmen, Donald N. Levine, Dowry, Dry stone, Dubai, Dur-Dur Band, East, East Africa, Eastleigh, Nairobi, Edmonton, Egypt, Egyptians, Eid al-Fitr, Electoral fraud, Emir, Emperor of Ethiopia, Enclosure (archaeology), Epigraphy, Essina, Ethiopia, Ethiopian Empire, Ethnic flag, Ethnic group, Ethnogenesis, Ethnonym, Etymology, Exogamy, Expatriate, Eye liner, F.C. Crotone, Faisal Hawar, Faisal Jeylani Aweys, Family law, Farah Mohamed Jama Awl, Fashion (magazine), Federal Parliament of Somalia, Female genital mutilation, Feminism, Festival, Fez, FIBA Africa Championship 1981, Finland, Finnish Centre Youth, Fiqh, Flag of Somalia, Flinders Petrie, Folklore, Fortification, France, Frankincense, French campaign in Egypt and Syria, French Somaliland, French Somaliland constitutional referendum, 1958, Fusion cuisine, Gaalje'el, Gardhere, Garhajis, Garre, George Wynn Brereton Huntingford, German Empire, Germans, Germany, Ghee, Gold, Gold medal, Great Mosque of Mecca, Greater Somalia, Greco-Roman world, Green Bay, Wisconsin, Green League, Gulf of Aden, Hadhramaut, Hadith, Hadrawi, Hafun, Haji Bashir Ismail Yusuf, Haji Sudi, Halal, Halima Ahmed, Halva, Hamilton, Ontario, Hamites, Hanafi, Hanan Ibrahim, Haplogroup, Haplogroup E-M215 (Y-DNA), Haplogroup M (mtDNA), Haplogroup T-M184, Harar, Harari people, Hargeisa, Harla people, Hasan Adan Samatar, Hasna Doreh, Hassan Abdillahi, Hassan al-Jabarti, Hassan Gouled Aptidon, Hatshepsut, Haud, Hawadle, Hawala, Hawiye, Hawo Tako, Headscarf, Henna, Heptatonic scale, Herodotus, Hibaaq Osman, Hirsi Bulhan Farah, Historical fiction, Historiography, History of Islam, History of Somalia, Hodan Ahmed, Hodan Nalayeh, Horn of Africa, Hotel, Houston, Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, Hussein Sheikh Ahmed Kaddare, Hydraulic engineering, Hymn, Idil Ibrahim, Imam, Iman (model), Incense, Independence Day (Somalia), India, Indonesia, Industry, Injera, Inner City Press, International, International Court of Justice, International law, International trade, Internet café, Iowa State University, Iran, IRIN, Isaaq, Islam, Islam in Somalia, Islamic architecture, Islamic banking and finance, Islamic literature, Istunka, Italian Somaliland, Jama Ali Korshel, James Currey, James Hayes Sadler, Jawahir Ahmed, Jellabiya, Jilbāb, Jonis Bascir, Jurist, Juventus F.C., K'naan, K-1, Kaddare alphabet, Kampala, Kenya, Khadija Qalanjo, Khartoum, Kingdom of Aksum, Kinship, Kohl (cosmetics), Laas Geel, Lamu, Land of Punt, Las Anod, Latin alphabet, Lawyer, Leeds, Leicester, Leila Abukar, Leiria, Levant, Lewiston, Maine, Libya, Lighthouse, Limestone, Linguistics, List of monarchs of Persia, List of Presidents of Somalia, List of Prime Ministers of Somalia, Literacy, Liverpool, Loanword, London, Lyricist, Maay Maay, Macalester College, Macrobians, Madhiban, Madrasa, Maghreb, Maghrebi Arabic, Magool, Mahmoud Harbi, Majeerteen Sultanate, Major general, Major scale, Malao, Mamluk, Manchester, Margaret Laurence, Maritime history of Somalia, Martial arts, Maryam Mursal, Masonry, Mataano, Mathematician, Mattawan, Michigan, Mausoleum, Maxamed Daahir Afrax, Mecca, Medina, Mediterranean Sea, Megalith, Menelik II, Menhir, Merca, Meshwesh, Middle Ages, Middle East, Mihrab, Minneapolis, Minneapolis–Saint Paul, Minnesota, Mitochondrial DNA, Mo Farah, Mogadishu, Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed, Mohamed Deq Abdulle, Mohamed Diriye Abdullahi, Mohamed Haji Mukhtar, Mohamed Jama, Mohamed Mooge Liibaan, Mohammed Abdullah Hassan, Mohammed Awale Liban, Mohamoud Ali Shire, Mohamud Siad Togane, Montreal, Monument, Mosque, Mosylon, Muay Thai, Mudbrick, Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal, Multinational corporation, Musa Haji Ismail Galal, Musketeer, Muslim, Muslim world, Musse Olol, Mustafa Mohamed, Mycenaean Greece, Myrrh, Nadifa Mohamed, Nashville, Tennessee, Nathif Jama Adam, Near East, Necklace, Negro, Netherlands, Nikon (Somalia), Nordic Cross Country Championships, North America, North Eastern Province (Kenya), Norway, Nur Ahmed Aman, Nur ibn Mujahid, Nuruddin Farah, Nutmeg, Oceania, Octave, Ogaden, Olympic Games, Oman, Omar A. Ali, Omar Osman Rabe, Opone, Order of the British Empire, Organisation of African Unity, Oromo people, Osman Haji, Osman Mahamuud, Osman Yusuf Kenadid, Osmanya alphabet, Ottawa, Ottoman Empire, Oud, Paleolithic, Pan Arab Games, Parthia, Pastoralism, Patrilineality, Patron saint, Peanut, Pentatonic scale, People of Ethiopia, Peremptory norm, Pharaoh, Philanthropy, Philosopher, Philosophy, Phoenicia, Phoneme, Pitch (music), Poet laureate, Polemic, Police officer, Poly Styrene, Polycentric law, Port, Portland, Maine, Portland, Oregon, Portugal, Potsdam Conference, Pottery, President of Somalia, Professional, Protectorate, Pyramid, Qadiriyya, Qasida, Queen regnant, Quran, Quraysh, Rageh Omaar, Rahanweyn, Ramadan, Ramadan (calendar month), Real estate, Real World Records, Red Sea, Referendum, Reformism, Resistance movement, Restaurant, Rice, Rock art, Sa'id of Mogadishu, Saado Ali Warsame, Sabaeans, Saho language, Saho people, Sahure, Said Salah Ahmed, Said Sheikh Samatar, Saint Paul, Minnesota, Salaad Gabeyre Kediye, Salvia officinalis, Samaale, Sarapion, Sarong, Savannah State University, Scramble for Africa, Seattle, Shadya Yasin, Shafi‘i, Shahi haleeb, Sharjah Islamic Bank, Shawl, Shax (board game), Shaykh Sufi, Sheffield, Sheikh Abdurahman Sh. Nur, Sheikh Mukhtar Mohamed Hussein, Shewa, Shire Jama Ahmed, Siad Barre, Silk, Sinai Peninsula, Slip (clothing), Sociology, Sofia Samatar, Solomonic dynasty, Somali alphabets, Somali architecture, Somali Armed Forces, Somali Bantus, Somali Canadians, Somali Civil War, Somali cuisine, Somali Democratic Republic, Somali diaspora, Somali Film Agency, Somali First Division, Somali language, Somali Latin alphabet, Somali nationalism, Somali Republic, Somali studies, Somali Youth League, Somalia, Somalia Cup, Somalia national basketball team, Somalia national football team, Somalian literature, Somaliland, Somaliland Campaign, Somalis, Somalis in the United Kingdom, Somaliwood, South Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Spice, Spoon, State of Somaliland, Steeplechase (athletics), Stele, Stone Age, Stone circle, Stone tool, Stonemasonry, Sudan, Suez Canal, Sufism, Sulekha Ali, Sultan, Sultanate of Hobyo, Sultanate of Ifat, Sultanate of the Geledi, Sultanate of Zanzibar, Sunni Islam, Supermodel, Supreme Revolutionary Council (Somalia), Sweden, Taekwondo, Taffeta, Taleh, Tarawih, Tayo (political party), Tea, Temple, The World Factbook, Theology, Tigrayans, Tigre people, Tomal, Tomb, Tongeren, Toronto, Tower, Toxicology, Trust Territory of Somaliland, Tumulus, Turban, Turkish people, Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt, Twin cities, Uganda, United Kingdom, United States, Uthman bin Ali Zayla'i, Uways al-Barawi, Vancouver, Video, Video rental shop, Vincenzo Filonardi, Voile, Waaberi, Waayaha Cusub, Wadaad writing, Walashma dynasty, Wargaade Wall, Waris Dirie, Warsangali Sultanate, West, West Africa, Western Asia, Western Cape, Western Europe, William Shakespeare, Winnipeg, Witness, Wood carving, Woodworking, World Fantasy Award, World War II, Writing system, X-Ray Spex, Xeer, Y chromosome, Yasmin Warsame, Yemen, Yibir, Yusuf Ali Kenadid, Yusuf bin Ahmad al-Kawneyn, Yusuf Hassan Abdi, Zahra Abdulla, Zeila, 4th millennium BC. Expand index (630 more) » « Shrink index
Hassan-Nour Sayid (Xasan-Nuur Sayid, known by his stage name Aar Maanta) is a Somali-British singer-songwriter, actor, composer, instrumentalist and music producer.
Sheikh Abadir Umar ar-Rida al Harari (Harari: ኣው ኣባዲር, Abaadir Umar Ar-Rida, الفقيه عمر الرضا أبادر البكري الصديقي التيمي القرشي الهرري), also known as Fiqi Umar and Abadir Musa Warwaje'le, was a Arab Muslim cleric patron saint of the city of Harar in modern-day eastern Ethiopia.
The abaya "cloak" (colloquially and more commonly, عباية, especially in Literary Arabic: عباءة; plural عبايات, عباءات), sometimes also called an aba, is a simple, loose over-garment, essentially a robe-like dress, worn by some women in parts of the Muslim world including in North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.
‘Abd al-‘Azīz al-Amawī (عبد العزيز الأموي; 1838–1896) was a scholar following the Shāfi‘ī school of jurisprudence and the Ash'arite school of theology, and was a Sufi shaykh of the Qādiryya Sufi order, of which he established his own branch.
Abd al-Rahman al-Jabarti (1753–1825) (عبد الرحمن الجبرتي), full name: Abd al-Rahman bin Hasan bin Burhan al-Din al-Jabarti (عبد الرحمن بن حسن بن برهان الدين الجبرتي), often simply known as Al-Jabarti, was an Egyptian scholar and chronicler who spent most of his life in Cairo.
Abdallah ibn Mu'allim Yusuf al-Qutbi (عبد الله يوسف قطبي) (c. 1879 - 1952) was a Somali polemicist, theologian and philosopher who lived in Qulunqul (Kolonkol), Somalia.
Abdi Mohamed Kusow (Cabdi Maxamed Kuusoow, عبدي محمد كوسو) is a Somali scholar and writer.
Abdi Sinimo (Cabdi Siniimoo, سنيمو) (born 1920, died 1967) was a Somali singer, songwriter, poet and musical innovator.
Abdillahi Suldaan Mohammed 'Timacadde' (Cabdillaahii Suuldaan Maxamed, عبد الله سلطان محمد) was a Somali poet.
Abdirahim Hussein Mohamed (Cabdiraxiim Xuseen Maxamed, عبد الرحيم حسين محمد) (born 21 October 1978 in Somalia) is a Somalian-born Finnish media personality and a politician.
Abdirahman bin Isma'il al-Jabarti,(Arabic:عبدالرحمن بن اسماعيل الجبرتي) also known as Darod,(Arabic:دارود) Dawud or Da'ud, is the common ancestor of the Somali and Omani Darod clan.
Abdirahman Jama Barre (Cabdiraxmaan Jaamac Barre, عبد الرحمن جامع بري) (1937 – 15 August 2017 - 2017) was a Somali politician.
Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke (Cabdirashiid Cali Sharmaarke, عبد الرشيد علي شارماركي) (June 8, 1919 – October 15, 1969) was Prime Minister of Somalia from July 12, 1960, to June 14, 1964, and President of Somalia from June 10, 1967, until his assassination on October 15, 1969.
Abdirashid Duale (Cabdirashiid Ducale, عبد الرشيد دعاله) is a British-Somali entrepreneur and the CEO of Dahabshiil, an international funds transfer company.
Abdirizak Haji Hussein (Cabdirisaaq Xaaji Xuseen; عبد الرازق حاجي حسين‎; 24 December 192431 January 2014) was a Somali diplomat and politician.
Abdisalam Aato (Cabdisalaan Caato; عبد السلام عاتو) (born 1970) is a Somali-American film director, producer, entrepreneur and media consultant.
Abdullahi Ahmed Irro (Cabdullaahi Axmed Cirro, عبد الله أحمد إرو), also known as Abdullahi Ahmad Yousef Irro,ARR: Arab report and record, (Economic Features, ltd.: 1978), p.602.
Abdullahi Issa Mohamud (Cabdullaahi Ciise Maxamuud, عبد الله عيسى محمد (November 11, 1922 – March 11, 1988) was a Somali politician. He was the 1st Prime Minister of Somalia during the trusteeship period, serving from February 29, 1956, to July 1, 1960.
Abdullahi Qarshe (Cabdilaahi Qarshe, عبدالله قارشي) (1924–1994) was a Somali musician, poet and playwright known as the "Father of Somali music".
Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed (Cabdullaahi Yuusuf Axmed, عبدالله يوسف أحمد‎; 15 December 1934 – 23 March 2012) was a Somali politician and former Colonel in the Somali National Army.
Abdulqawi Ahmed Yusuf (Abdulqaawi Ahmed Yuusuf) is a prominent Somali international lawyer and judge on the International Court of Justice.
Abdisalam Omer (Cabdisalaan Omeer; عبد السلام عمر), also known as Abdisalan Hadliye Omar, is a Somali economist and politician.
Abgaal (Somali: Abgaal, Arabic: أبغال) is a noble Somali clan, and part of the minor clan.
Abū Ṭālib ibn ‘Abd al-Muṭṭalib (ابو طالب بن عبد المطلب), was the leader of Banu Hashim, a clan of the Qurayshi tribe of Mecca in the Hijaz, Arabian Peninsula.
The Abyssinian–Adal war was a military conflict between the Ethiopian Empire and the Adal Sultanate that took place from 1529 until 1543.
An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership.
The Adal Sultanate, or Kingdom of Adal (alt. spelling Adel Sultanate), was a Muslim Sultanate located in the Horn of Africa. It was founded by Sabr ad-Din II after the fall of the Sultanate of Ifat. The kingdom flourished from around 1415 to 1577. The sultanate and state were established by the local inhabitants of Harar. At its height, the polity controlled most of the territory in the Horn region immediately east of the Ethiopian Empire (Abyssinia). The Adal Empire maintained a robust commercial and political relationship with the Ottoman Empire.
Adale (Cadale; Adalei or Itala), also known as Cadaley, is a coastal town in the southern Middle Shabelle (Shabeellaha Dhexe) region of Somalia.
Adan Abdulla Mohammed (Aadan Maxamed, عدن محمد) is a prominent Kenyan Somali banker and entrepreneur.
Aden Abdulle Osman Daar (Aadan Cabdulle Cismaan Daar, آدم عبد الله عثمان دار.) (December 9, 1908 – June 8, 2007), popularly known as Aden Adde, was a Somali politician.
The Afar language (Qafaraf) (also known as ’Afar Af, Afaraf, Qafar af) is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch.
The Afar (Qafár), also known as the Danakil, Adali and Odali, are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent, extending slightly into Asia via the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt.
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.
The Agaw (አገው Agäw, modern Agew) are an ethnic group inhabiting Ethiopia and neighboring Eritrea.
Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi (Axmad Ibraahim al-Gaasi, Harari: አሕመድ ኢቢን ኢብራሂም አል ጋዚ, "Acmad Ibni Ibrahim Al-Gaazi" Afar, أحمد بن إبراهيم الغازي) "the Conqueror" (c. 1506 – February 21, 1543) was an Imam and General of the Adal Sultanate who fought against the Abyssinian empire and defeated several Abysinian Emperors.
Ahmed Hussen (Axmed Xuseen; أحمد حسين; born 1976) is Minister of Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship for the Government of Canada.
Ahmed Ismail Samatar (Axmed Ismaciil Samatar, أحمد إسماعيل سمتر) is a prominent Somali writer, professor and former dean of the Institute for Global Citizenship at Macalester College.
Ahmed Yusuf (Axmed Yuusuf, أحمد يوسف) was a Somali ruler.
An airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight.
An airplane or aeroplane (informally plane) is a powered, fixed-wing aircraft that is propelled forward by thrust from a jet engine, propeller or rocket engine.
The Ajuran (Arabic: أجران) is a Somali clan.
The Ajuran Sultanate (Dawladdii Ajuuraan, الدولة الأجورانيون), also spelled Ajuuraan Sultanate, and often simply as Ajuran, was a Somali empire in the medieval times that dominated the Indian Ocean trade.
Al Jazeera English (AJE) is an international state-funded 24-hour English-language news and current affairs TV channel owned and operated by Al Jazeera Media Network, headquartered in Doha, Qatar.
The al-Omari (also spelt al-Umari or el-Umari) (العمري) is a family that claims descent from Umar, the second caliph, or leader, of the Islamic empire.
Al-Zayla`i (`Abd Al-Rahman bin Ahmad al-Zayla`i عبد الرحمن بن أحمد الزيلعي) (1820–1882) was a Somali scholar who played a crucial role in the spread of the Qadiriyyah movement in Somalia and East Africa.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Ali al-Jabarti (علي الجبرتي) (d. 1492) was a 15th-century Somali scholar and politician in the Mamluk Empire.
Ali Abdi Feiruz, known as Ali Feiruz, (Cali Fayruus, was a prominent Somali musician.
Ali Jimale Ahmed (Cali Jimaale Axmed, علي جيمال أحمد) is a Somali poet, essayist, scholar, and short story writer.
Ali Matan Hashi (1927–1978; Cali Mataan Xashi, علي ماتان حاشي), also known as Ali Matan, was a Somali senior military official and politician.
Ali Said Faqi (Cali Saiid Fakhi, علي سعيد فقي) is a Somali scientist specializing in toxicology and a diplomat.
Ali Said Hassan (Cali Saciid Xasan, علي سعيد حسن) (born 1950) is a Somali film producer, director, former photojournalist and archive collector.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Ames is a city located in the central part of Story County, Iowa, United States.
Amharas (አማራ, Āmara; አምሐራ, ʾÄməḥära), also known as Abyssinians, are an ethnic group traditionally inhabiting the northern and central highlands of Ethiopia, particularly the Amhara Region.
Amina Hersi Moghe (Aamina Xirsi Mooge, أمينة موجي هرسي) (born 1964) is a Kenyan entrepreneur.
Amina Chawahir Mohamed Jibril (Aamina Maxamed Jibriil; امينة محمد جبريل) (born 5 October 1961) is a Kenyan lawyer, diplomat and politician.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
Aqeel ibn Abi Talib (عقيل بن أبي طالب) was a companion and first cousin of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
An aqueduct is a watercourse constructed to convey water.
The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.
The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.
The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
An archaeological site is a place (or group of physical sites) in which evidence of past activity is preserved (either prehistoric or historic or contemporary), and which has been, or may be, investigated using the discipline of archaeology and represents a part of the archaeological record.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.
An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who concentrates their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Atlanta is the capital city and most populous municipality of the state of Georgia in the United States.
An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (a sex chromosome).
Ayaan Hirsi Ali (born Ayaan Hirsi Magan, 13 November 1969) is a Somali-born Dutch-American activist, feminist, author, scholar and former politician.
Ayub Daud (Ayuub Daaud, ايوب داؤود) (born 24 February 1990 in Mogadishu) is a Somali international footballer who plays for Budapest Honvéd FC and the Somalia national team as a forward or attacking midfielder.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
Balwo is a style of music and poetry practiced in Somalia as well as Djibouti.
Benaadir (Banaadir, بنادر) is an administrative region (gobol) in southeastern Somalia.
Bangles are rigid bracelets, usually from metal, wood, glass or plastic.
Barawa (Baraawe, مدينة ﺑﺮﺍﻭة Madīna Barāwa), also known as Barawe and Brava, is a port town in the southwestern Lower Shebelle region of Somalia.
Barbara, also referred to as Barbaria, referred to an ancient region in littoral Horn of Africa.
Barclays plc is a British multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in London.
In medieval Gaelic and British culture, a bard was a professional story teller, verse-maker and music composer, employed by a patron (such as a monarch or noble), to commemorate one or more of the patron's ancestors and to praise the patron's own activities.
Sheikh Bashir Yussuf (Sheekh Bashiir Yuusuf, الشيخ يوسف بشير, born c. 1905 in Taleh, northern Somalia) was a Somali religious leader.
Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
Basketball has been an Pan Arab Games event since the first edition in 1953 in Alexandria, Egypt.
Basmati (pronounced in South Asia) is a variety of long, slender-grained aromatic rice which is traditionally from the Indian subcontinent.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
The Beja people (Beja: Oobja; البجا) are an ethnic group inhabiting Sudan, as well as parts of Eritrea and Egypt.
The Benadiri people (Reer Benaadir, بناديري), also known as Reer Xamar (pronounced "Hamar") or "people of Xamar",Abbink, p.18.
Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.
Berbera (Barbara, بربرة) is a city in the northwestern Woqooyi Galbeed region of Somaliland.
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
The Berlin Conference of 1884–85, also known as the Congo Conference (Kongokonferenz) or West Africa Conference (Westafrika-Konferenz), regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power.
The Betty Trask Prize and Awards are for first novels written by authors under the age of 35, who reside in a current or former Commonwealth nation.
Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,101,360, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Blood money, also called bloodwit, is money or some sort of compensation paid by an offender (usually a murderer) or his/her family group to the family or kin group of the victim.
The Borama alphabet (Borama) or more generally known as the Gadabuursi script, is a writing script for the Somali language.
Bosaso (Boosaaso, بوساسو) is a city in the northeastern Bari province (gobol) of Somalia.
A bowl is a round, open-top container used in many cultures to serve hot and cold food.
Brigadier general (Brig. Gen.) is a senior rank in the armed forces.
Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 456,000.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
British Somaliland, officially the British Somaliland Protectorate (Dhulka Maxmiyada Soomaalida ee Biritishka, translit) was a British protectorate in present-day northwestern Somalia.
Buraan, also known as Hiil Buran, Baran and Borrān, is a town in the eastern Sanaag region of Maakhir.
Buur Heybe ("the mountain of the clay sand") is a small village in the southern Bay province of Somalia.
A cairn is a human-made pile (or stack) of stones.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Calgary is a city in the Canadian province of Alberta.
Cambyses II (𐎣𐎲𐎢𐎪𐎡𐎹 Kambūjiya כנבוזי Kanbūzī; Καμβύσης Kambúsēs; Latin Cambyses; Medieval Hebrew, Kambisha) (d. 522 BC) son of Cyrus the Great (r. 559–530 BC), was emperor of the Achaemenid Empire.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Canadian Somali Congress (CSC) is a Somali community organization based in Toronto, Ontario.
Canadians (Canadiens / Canadiennes) are people identified with the country of Canada.
Cape Guardafui (Gees Gardafuul), also known historically as Aromata promontorium, is a headland in the autonomous Puntland region in Somalia.
Cardamom, sometimes cardamon or cardamum, is a spice made from the seeds of several plants in the genera Elettaria and Amomum in the family Zingiberaceae.
Cardiff (Caerdydd) is the capital of, and largest city in, Wales, and the eleventh-largest city in the United Kingdom.
A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders.
The Caucasian race (also Caucasoid or Europid) is a grouping of human beings historically regarded as a biological taxon, which, depending on which of the historical race classifications used, have usually included some or all of the ancient and modern populations of Europe, the Caucasus, Asia Minor, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Western Asia, Central Asia and South Asia.
Cave paintings, also known as parietal art, are painted drawings on cave walls or ceilings, mainly of prehistoric origin, beginning roughly 40,000 years ago (around 38,000 BCE) in Eurasia.
Cedar Rapids is the second-largest city in Iowa and is the county seat of Linn County.
Cedar-Riverside, also referred to as the West Bank, or simply Riverside, is a neighborhood within Minneapolis, Minnesota.
A cemetery or graveyard is a place where the remains of dead people are buried or otherwise interred.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
A chartered company is an association formed by investors or shareholders for the purpose of trade, exploration, and colonization.
Chief executive officer (CEO) is the position of the most senior corporate officer, executive, administrator, or other leader in charge of managing an organization especially an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution.
Chiffon ((French cloth, or rag; Arabic شف transparent, diaphanous, translucent fabric, or gauze; (عن s.th.) to shimmer through, reveal) is a lightweight, balanced plain-woven sheer fabric, or gauze, woven of alternate S- and Z-twist crepe (high-twist) yarns.Kadolph, Sara J., ed.: Textiles, 10th edition, Pearson/Prentice-Hall, 2007,, p. 230. The twist in the crepe yarns puckers the fabric slightly in both directions after weaving, giving it some stretch and a slightly rough feel. Early chiffon was made purely from silk. In 1938, however, a nylon version of chiffon was invented, and in 1958 polyester chiffon was invented and became immensely popular due to its resilience and low cost. Under a magnifying glass chiffon resembles a fine net or mesh which gives it some transparency. Chiffon is most commonly used in evening wear, especially as an overlay, for giving an elegant and floating appearance to the gown. It is also a popular fabric used in blouses, ribbons, scarves and lingerie. Like other crêpe fabrics, chiffon can be difficult to work with because of its light and slippery texture. Due to this delicate nature, chiffon must be hand washed very gently. Since chiffon is a light-weight fabric that frays very easily, bound or French seams must be used to stop the fabric from fraying. Chiffon is smoother and more lustrous than the similar fabric georgette. In African countries, such as Eritrea and Ethiopia, traditional ankle-length gowns are often made of chiffon which comes in many different designs and colors.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum.
A cistern (Middle English cisterne, from Latin cisterna, from cista, "box", from Greek κίστη, "basket") is a waterproof receptacle for holding liquids, usually water.
A citadel is the core fortified area of a town or city.
The City Council of Helsinki is the main decision-making organ in the local politics of Helsinki, Finland.
City Pages is an alternative newspaper serving the Minneapolis–St. Paul metropolitan area.
Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works such as roads, bridges, canals, dams, airports, sewerage systems, pipelines, and railways.
A clan is a group of people united by actual or perceived kinship and descent.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Cloves are the aromatic flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae, Syzygium aromaticum.
Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.
A coffeehouse, coffee shop or café (sometimes spelt cafe) is an establishment which primarily serves hot coffee, related coffee beverages (café latte, cappuccino, espresso), tea, and other hot beverages.
Columbus is the state capital and the most populous city in Ohio.
A column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below.
A comb is a toothed device used for styling, cleaning and managing hair and scalp.
Commander is a common naval and air force officer rank.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
Contemporary architecture is the architecture of the 21st century.
Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.
Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.
Corn starch, cornstarch, cornflour or maize starch or maize is the starch derived from the corn (maize) grain.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
A courtyard or court is a circumscribed area, often surrounded by a building or complex, that is open to the sky.
The culture of Somalia is an amalgamation of traditions in that were developed independently and through interaction with neighboring and far away civilizations, including other parts of Africa, Northeast Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and Southeast Asia.
Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native to a territory including Middle East and stretching east to India.
The Cushitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
Custom in law is the established pattern of behavior that can be objectively verified within a particular social setting.
The dabqaad (Somali for "fire raiser"), also known as unsi or girgire, is an incense burner, or censer.
Dahabshiil (Dahabshiil, دهب شيل) is an international funds transfer company headquartered in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
Damo (Daamo) is an ancient town in northeastern Somalia.
The Darod (Daarood, دارود) is a Somali clan.
General Daud Abdulle Hirsi (Daa'uud Cabdulle Xirsi, داود عبد الله حرسي) (b. 1925-1965) was a Somali national and military hero.
The Degoodi or Degodia (Degoodi or Degoodiya, دغودي) is a Somali clan.
Deira (In Arabic: ديرة) is an area in the city of Dubai, United Arab Emirates bordered by the Persian Gulf, Sharjah and Dubai Creek.
The demographics of Somalia encompass the demographic features of Somalia's inhabitants, including ethnicity, languages, population density, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Denver, officially the City and County of Denver, is the capital and most populous municipality of the U.S. state of Colorado.
The Dervish state (Dawlada Daraawiish, دولة الدراويش Dawlat ad-Darāwīsh) was an early 20th-century Somali Muslim kingdom.
Design is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object, system or measurable human interaction (as in architectural blueprints, engineering drawings, business processes, circuit diagrams, and sewing patterns).
A detective is an investigator, usually a member of a law enforcement agency.
Dhambalin ("half, vertically cut mountain") is an archaeological site in the northwestern Togdheer province of Somaliland.
A diplomat is a person appointed by a state to conduct diplomacy with one or more other states or international organizations.
The Dir (Dir, Dirweyn, Direed or Beesha Direed, در, قبيلة در, بنو در, قبيلة أبوكار, بنو أبوكار., Abukar) is a major Somali clan. Its members inhabit northwestern Somalia, Ethiopia (Somali, Oromia and Afar regions), and northeastern Kenya (North Eastern Province).Ozzonia (2010), page 7. The Quranyo section of the Garre claim descent from Dirr, who are born of the Irrir Samal.
Dire Dawa (ድሬ ዳዋ, Dirre Dhawaa, lit. "Place of Remedy", Dir Dhabe, meaning "where Dir hit his spear into the ground", ديري داوا) is one of two chartered cities (astedader akabibi) in Ethiopia (the other being the capital, Addis Ababa).
Diriye Osman (Diriyeh Cismaan, ديري عثمان) (born in 1983) is a Somali-British short story writer, essayist, critic and visual artist.
The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any system so that participants may specialize.
Diya (دية; plural diyāt, ديات) in Islamic law, is the financial compensation paid to the victim or heirs of a victim in the cases of murder, bodily harm or property damage.
Djibouti (جيبوتي, Djibouti, Jabuuti, Gabuuti), officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Dar al-Maal al-Islami Trust (دار المال الإسلامي) ("The House of Islamic Money"), founded in Switzerland in 1981, is a leading Islamic financial institution with affiliates on four continents and assets under management of over $3.6 billion USD, operating in accordance with Zakat principles of Islamic banking.
A documentary film is a nonfictional motion picture intended to document some aspect of reality, primarily for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a historical record.
A dolmen is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb, usually consisting of two or more vertical megaliths supporting a large flat horizontal capstone or "table".
Donald Nathan Levine (June 16, 1931 – April 4, 2015) was an American sociologist, educator, social theorist and writer.
A dowry is a transfer of parental property, gifts or money at the marriage of a daughter.
Dry stone, sometimes called drystack or, in Scotland, drystane, is a building method by which structures are constructed from stones without any mortar to bind them together.
Dubai (دبي) is the largest and most populous city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
Dur-Dur Band was a musical group from Mogadishu, Somalia.
East is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass.
East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography.
Eastleigh is a suburb of Nairobi, Kenya.
Edmonton (Cree: Amiskwaciy Waskahikan; Blackfoot: Omahkoyis) is the capital city of the Canadian province of Alberta.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Egyptians (مَصريين;; مِصريّون; Ni/rem/en/kīmi) are an ethnic group native to Egypt and the citizens of that country sharing a common culture and a common dialect known as Egyptian Arabic.
Eid al-Fitr (عيد الفطر) is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting (sawm).
Electoral fraud, election manipulation, or vote rigging is illegal interference with the process of an election, whether by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate, depressing the vote share of the rival candidates, or both.
An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.
The Emperor of Ethiopia (ንጉሠ ነገሥት, nəgusä nägäst, "King of Kings") was the hereditary ruler of the Ethiopian Empire, until the abolition of the monarchy in 1975.
In archaeology, an enclosure is one of the most common types of archaeological site.
Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφή, "inscription") is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.
Essina (Εσσίναn) was an ancient emporium located on the southeastern coast of Somalia in the Horn of Africa.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
The Ethiopian Empire (የኢትዮጵያ ንጉሠ ነገሥት መንግሥተ), also known as Abyssinia (derived from the Arabic al-Habash), was a kingdom that spanned a geographical area in the current state of Ethiopia.
An ethnic flag is a flag that symbolizes a certain ethnic group.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Ethnogenesis (from Greek ethnos ἔθνος, "group of people, nation", and genesis γένεσις, "beginning, coming into being"; plural ethnogeneses) is "the formation and development of an ethnic group." This can originate through a process of self-identification as well as come about as the result of outside identification.
An ethnonym (from the ἔθνος, éthnos, "nation" and ὄνομα, ónoma, "name") is a name applied to a given ethnic group.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
Exogamy is a social arrangement where marriage is allowed only outside a social group.
An expatriate (often shortened to expat) is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country other than their native country.
Eye liner or eyeliner is a cosmetic used to define the eyes.
F.C. Crotone S.r.l is an Italian football club based in Crotone, Calabria.
Faisal Ahmed Yusuf "Hawar" (Faisal Xawaar, فيصل هوار) (born 1963) is a Somali Entrepreneur.
Faisal Jeylani Aweys (Faysal Jaylaani Caweeys, فيصل جيلاني عويس) is a Somali taekwondo practitioner.
Family law (also called matrimonial law or the law of domestic relations) is an area of the law that deals with family matters and domestic relations.
Farah Mohamed Jama Awl (Faarax Maxamed Jaamac Cawl, فارح محمد جامع عول; 1937–1991), usually credited as Faarax M.J. Cawl, was a Somali writer.
Fashion is a Canadian fashion magazine published by St.
The Federal Parliament of Somalia (Golaha Shacabka Soomaaliya; often Baarlamaanka Federaalka Soomaaliya; البرلمان الاتحادي في الصومال; Il parlamento federale della Somalia) is the national parliament of Somalia.
Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia.
Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.
A festival is an event ordinarily celebrated by a community and centering on some characteristic aspect of that community and its religion or cultures.
The fez (more correctly ṭarbūsh from the Persian sarpūsh) is a felt headdress in the shape of a short cylindrical peakless hat, usually red, and sometimes with a tassel attached to the top.
The FIBA Africa Championship 1981 was hosted by Somalia from December 15 to December 23, 1981.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
Finnish Centre Youth Keskustanuoret is the biggest political youth organisation in Finland with 17 000 members.
Fiqh (فقه) is Islamic jurisprudence.
The Flag of Somalia (Calanka Soomaaliyaa, علم الصومال), also known as the Somali Flag, is the official flag of the Federal Republic of Somalia.
Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie, FRS, FBA (3 June 1853 – 28 July 1942), commonly known as Flinders Petrie, was an English Egyptologist and a pioneer of systematic methodology in archaeology and preservation of artifacts.
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frankincense (also known as olibanum, לבונה, Arabic) is an aromatic resin used in incense and perfumes, obtained from trees of the genus Boswellia in the family Burseraceae, particularly Boswellia sacra (syn: B. bhaw-dajiana), B. carterii33, B. frereana, B. serrata (B. thurifera, Indian frankincense), and B. papyrifera.
The French Campaign in Egypt and Syria (1798–1801) was Napoleon Bonaparte's campaign in the Ottoman territories of Egypt and Syria, proclaimed to defend French trade interests, weaken Britain's access to British India, and to establish scientific enterprise in the region.
French Somaliland (Côte française des Somalis, lit. "French Coast of the Somalis"; Dhulka Soomaaliyeed ee Faransiiska) was a French colony in the Horn of Africa.
A referendum on the new constitution of France was held in French Somaliland on 28 September 1958 as part of a wider referendum held across the French Union.
Fusion cuisine is cuisine that combines elements of different culinary traditions.
The Gaalje'el (Gaaljecel, الجعل) is a Somali clan.
Gardhere or Gardere or Garder (Somali: Gardheere, Arabic: جرذير) also more commonly known as Gardhere Samale (Somali: Gardheere Samaale) is a large Somali clan that inhabits vast territories in Kenya, Southern Ethiopia and Southern Somalia.
The Garhajis (Garxajis, غرحجس, Ismail (Garhajis) Shiekh Isaaq ibn Ahmad al-Hashimi) are a Somali clan and the largest sub-clan of the Isaaq.
The Garre are a Somali pastoralist clan genealogically belonging to the Samaale, with the Quranyow section of the Garre originally belonging to the Dir clan family.
George Wynn Brereton Huntingford (19 November 1901 – 19 February 1978) was an English linguist, anthropologist and historian.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Ghee is a class of clarified butter that originated from the Indian subcontinent.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
A gold medal is a medal awarded for highest achievement in a non-military field.
The Great Mosque of Mecca, also called Al-Haram Mosque (al-Masjid al-Ḥarām, "the Forbidden Mosque" or "the Sacred Mosque") or Grand Mosque of Makkah, is the largest mosque in the world, and surrounds the Islamic Qiblah (قِـبْـلَـة, Direction of Prayer), that is the Kaaba in the Hejazi city of Mecca (مَـكَّـة, Makkah), Saudi Arabia.
Greater Somalia (Soomaaliweyn, الصومال الكبير) comprises the regions in or near the Horn of Africa in which ethnic Somalis live and have historically inhabited.
The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is also better known as the Classical Civilisation. In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions, ideas and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant. This process was aided by the universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and of Latin as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy, especially in the Western Mediterranean. Though the Greek and the Latin never became the native idioms of the rural peasants who composed the great majority of the empire's population, they were the languages of the urbanites and cosmopolitan elites, and the lingua franca, even if only as corrupt or multifarious dialects to those who lived within the large territories and populations outside the Macedonian settlements and the Roman colonies. All Roman citizens of note and accomplishment regardless of their ethnic extractions, spoke and wrote in Greek and/or Latin, such as the Roman jurist and Imperial chancellor Ulpian who was of Phoenician origin, the mathematician and geographer Claudius Ptolemy who was of Greco-Egyptian origin and the famous post-Constantinian thinkers John Chrysostom and Augustine who were of Syrian and Berber origins, respectively, and the historian Josephus Flavius who was of Jewish origin and spoke and wrote in Greek.
Green Bay is a city in and the county seat of Brown County in the U.S. state of Wisconsin, at the head of Green Bay, a sub-basin of Lake Michigan, at the mouth of the Fox River.
The Green League (VIHR, Vihreä liitto, Gröna förbundet), shortened to the Greens, is a green political party in Finland.
The Gulf of Aden, also known as the Gulf of Berbera, (خليج عدن,, Gacanka Berbera) is a gulf amidst Yemen to the north, the Arabian Sea and Guardafui Channel to the east, Somalia to the south, and Djibouti to the west.
Hadramaut, Hadhramaut, Hadramout, Hadramawt or Ḥaḍramūt (حضرموت Ḥaḍramawt; Musnad: 𐩢𐩳𐩧𐩣𐩩) is a region on the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Hadrawi (born Mohamed Ibrahim Warsame in 1943) (Maxamed Ibraahim Warsame (Hadraawi), محمد ابراهيم وارسام هدراوى) is a prominent Somali poet and songwriter.
Hafun (Xaafuun; حافون) is a town in the northeastern Bari province of Somalia.
Haji Bashir Ismail Yusuf (Xaaji Bashiir Ismaaciil Yuusuf, حاجي بشير اسماعيل يوسف) (b. 1912 in Hobyo, Somalia – d. 1984 in Cairo, Egypt), also spelled Hagi Bashir Ismail Yousuf, was a Somali politician.
Ahmed Warsama "Haji Sudi" / Xaaji Suudi Shabeel (1857–1920) is one of the founders of the Somali Dervish movement.
Halal (حلال, "permissible"), also spelled hallal or halaal, refers to what is permissible or lawful in traditional Islamic law.
Halima Ahmed (Xaliima Axmed) is a Somali political activist.
Halva (halawa, alva, haleweh, halava, helava, helva, halwa, halua, aluva, chalva, chałwa) is any of various dense, sweet confections served across the Middle East, South Asia, Central Asia, West Asia, the Caucasus, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, the Balkans, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Malta and the Jewish diaspora.
Hamilton is a port city in the Canadian province of Ontario.
Hamites (from the biblical Ham) is a historical term in ethnology and linguistics for a division of the Caucasian race and the group of related languages these populations spoke.
The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).
Hanan Ibrahim MBE (Xanan Ibraahiim, حنان ابراهيم) is a Somali social activist.
A haplotype is a group of genes in an organism that are inherited together from a single parent, and a haplogroup (haploid from the ἁπλούς, haploûs, "onefold, simple" and group) is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor with a single-nucleotide polymorphism mutation.
E-M215, also known as E1b1b and formerly E3b, is a major human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup M is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.
Haplogroup T-M184, also known as Haplogroup T is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Harar (Harari: ሐረር), and known to its inhabitants as Gēy (Harari: ጌይ), is a walled city in eastern Ethiopia.
The Harari people (هراري, Harari: ሐረሪ), also called Geyusu (Harari: ጌይኡሱእ) ("People of the City"), are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa.
Hargeisa (Hargeysa, هرجيسا) is a city situated in the Woqooyi Galbeed region of the self-declared but internationally unrecognised Republic of Somaliland in the Horn of Africa.
The Harla, also known as Harla Koombe, Harala and Arla, were an ethnic group that inhabited Ethiopia and Somalia.
Hasan Adan Samatar (Xasan Aadan Samatar, حسن اذن ساماتار) (b. May 23, 1953 in Diinsoor, Somalia) is a prominent Somali singer, guitarist and theatrical performer.
Hasna Doreh (Xasna Dooreeh, حسناء دوريه) was an early 20th-century Somali female commander of the Dervish State, a state which frequently engaged in battles against the imperial powers during the Somaliland campaign.
Hassan Abdillahi "Karate" (Xasan Cabdullaahi, حسن عبد الله) is a Somali journalist and social activist.
Hassan al-Jabarti (حسن الجبرتي) (d. 1774) was a Somali mathematician, theologian, astronomer and philosopher who lived in Cairo, Egypt during the 18th century.
Hassan Gouled Aptidon (Xasan Guuleed Abtidoon. حسن جوليد أبتيدون) (October 15, 1916 – November 21, 2006) was the first President of Djibouti from 1977 to 1999.
Hatshepsut (also Hatchepsut; Egyptian: ḥꜣt-šps.wt "Foremost of Noble Ladies"; 1507–1458 BCE) was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt.
Haud (or Hawd; Amharic: ሓውድ) is a region of thorn-bush and grasslands in the Horn of Africa.
The Hawadle or Hawaadle (Xawaadle, حوادله) is a Somali clan.
Hawala or hewala (حِوالة, meaning transfer or sometimes trust), also known as hundi or—in Somali, xawala or xawilaad—is a popular and informal value transfer system based not on the movement of cash, or on telegraph or computer network wire transfers between banks, but instead on the performance and honour of a huge network of money brokers (known as "hawaladars").
The Hawiye (Hawiye, بنو هوية) is a Somali clan.
Xawa Cusman also known as Xawa Taako حواء عثمان تاكو)(1930s - 1948) was a prominent early 20th century Somali nationalist.
Headscarves or head scarves are scarves covering most or all of the top of a person's, usually women, hair and her head, leaving the face uncovered.
Henna (حِنَّاء) is a dye prepared from the plant Lawsonia inermis, also known as hina, the henna tree, the mignonette tree, and the Egyptian privet, the sole species of the genus Lawsonia.
A heptatonic scale is a musical scale that has seven pitches per octave.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
Hibaaq Osman (Xibaaq Cismaan, هيباق عثمان) is a Somali global political strategist.
Hirsi Bulhan Farah is a Somali politician, a former political prisoner, interim chairman of the Somali parliament, an activist, an entrepreneur and a greatly respected and knowledgeable elder.
Historical fiction is a literary genre in which the plot takes place in a setting located in the past.
Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject.
The history of Islam concerns the political, social,economic and cultural developments of the Islamic civilization.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; الصومال), officially the Federal Republic of Somalia (Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya, جمهورية الصومال الفدرالية) and formerly known as the Somali Democratic Republic, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Hodan Ahmed (Hodan Axmed; هودان أحمد) is a Somali political activist.
Hodan Nalayeh (Hodan Naalaye; هودان نالايآه; born 1976) is a Somali media executive, marketing consultant, social activist and entrepreneur.
The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.
A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging on a short-term basis.
Houston is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 2.312 million within a land area of.
In human genetics, a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by mutations in the non-recombining portions of DNA from the Y-chromosome (called Y-DNA).
Hussein Sheikh Ahmed Kaddare (Xuseen Sheekh Axmed Kaddare, February 1, 2015) was a Somali inventor.
Hydraulic engineering as a sub-discipline of civil engineering is concerned with the flow and conveyance of fluids, principally water and sewage.
A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification.
Idil Ibrahim (Idil Ibraahiim; إيديل إبراهيم) is a Somali–American film director, producer, actress, writer and entrepreneur.
Imam (إمام; plural: أئمة) is an Islamic leadership position.
Zara Mohamed Abdulmajid (Zara Maxamed Cabdulmajiid, ايمان محمد عبد المجيد; born 25 July 1955), mononymously known as Iman ("faith" in Arabic), is a Somali-American fashion model, actress and entrepreneur.
Incense is aromatic biotic material which releases fragrant smoke when burned.
The Independence Day of Somalia is a national holiday observed annually in Somalia on July 1.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.
Injera (Amharic: ənǧära እንጀራ; sometimes transliterated as enjera; or "taita"; Tigrinya: ጣይታ; Somali: Canjeero) is a sourdough-risen flatbread with a slightly spongy texture.
Inner City Press is a public interest organization founded by Matthew Lee, who serves as Executive Director.
International mostly means something (a company, language, or organization) involving more than a single country.
The International Court of Justice (abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN).
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.
An Internet café, also known as a cybercafé, is a place which provides Internet access to the public, usually for a fee.
Iowa State University of Science and Technology, generally referred to as Iowa State, is a public flagship land-grant and space-grant research university located in Ames, Iowa, United States.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
IRIN (formerly Integrated Regional Information Networks) is a news agency focusing on humanitarian stories in regions that are often forgotten, under-reported, misunderstood or ignored.
The Isaaq (also Isaq, Ishaak, Isaac) (Reer Sheekh Isaxaaq, إسحاق) is a Somali clan.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Nearly all people in Somalia are Sunni Muslims.
Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the early history of Islam to the present day.
Islamic banking or Islamic finance (مصرفية إسلامية) or sharia-compliant finance is banking or financing activity that complies with sharia (Islamic law) and its practical application through the development of Islamic economics.
Islamic literature is literature written with an Islamic perspective, in any language.
Istunka, also known as Dabshid, is a festival held annually in Afgooye, Somalia on the Somali new year.
Italian Somaliland (Somalia italiana, الصومال الإيطالي Al-Sumal Al-Italiy, Dhulka Talyaaniga ee Soomaaliya), also known as Italian Somalia, was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy in present-day northeastern, central and southern Somalia.
Jama Ali Korshel (Cali Qoorsheel Jaamac, جامع علي قورشيل) was a Somali army Major General and former Head of the Somali Police Force.
James Currey is an academic publisher specialising on Africa.
Colonel Sir James Hayes Sadler (21 May 1827 – 9 January 1910) was a British diplomat and civil servant.
Jawahir Ahmed (Jawaahir Axmed; جواهر احمد) is a Somali-American model.
The jellabiya or "galabeya" (جلابية / ALA-LC: or; "jelebeeya" in Ethiopia; "jehllubeeya" in Eritrea) is a traditional Egyptian garment native to the Nile Valley.
The term jilbāb or jilbaab (جِلْبَاب) refers to any long and loose-fit coat or outer garment worn by some Muslim women.
Jonis Bascir, also known as Jonis Bashir, is a Somali-Italian actor and musician.
A jurist (from medieval Latin) is someone who researches and studies jurisprudence (theory of law).
Juventus Football Club S.p.A. (from iuventūs, "youth"), colloquially known as Juve, is a professional Italian football club in Turin, Piedmont.
Keinan Abdi Warsame better known by his stage name K'naan, is a Somali Canadian poet, rapper, singer, songwriter, and instrumentalist.
K-1 began in 1993 and is a kickboxing platform and martial arts brand well-known worldwide mainly for its heavyweight division fights.
The Kaddare alphabet is a writing script created to transcribe Somali, an Afro-Asiatic language.
Kampala is the capital and largest city of Uganda.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
Khadija Qalanjo (Khadiija Qalanjo, خديجة قالانجو) is a popular Somali singer and folklore dancer in the 1970s and 1980s.
Khartoum is the capital and largest city of Sudan.
The Kingdom of Aksum (also known as the Kingdom of Axum, or the Aksumite Empire) was an ancient kingdom in what is now northern Ethiopia and Eritrea.
In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated.
Kohl (كُحْل) is an ancient eye cosmetic, traditionally made by grinding stibnite (Sb2S3) for similar purposes to charcoal used in mascara.
Laas Geel (Laas Geel), also spelled Laas Gaal, are cave formations on the rural outskirts of Hargeisa, Somalia (situated in the Woqooyi Galbeed region of the self-declared but internationally unrecognised Republic of Somaliland).
Lamu or Lamu Town is a small town on Lamu Island, which in turn is a part of the Lamu Archipelago in Kenya.
The Land of Punt, also called Pwenet or Pwene by the ancient Egyptians, was an ancient kingdom.
Las Anod (Laascaanood; لاس عانود) is the administrative capital of the Sool region of Somaliland.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney, attorney at law, barrister, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, counsel, counselor, counsellor, counselor at law, or solicitor, but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary.
Leeds is a city in the metropolitan borough of Leeds, in the county of West Yorkshire, England.
Leicester ("Lester") is a city and unitary authority area in the East Midlands of England, and the county town of Leicestershire.
Leila Abukar (Leyla Abukar, ليلى أبو بكر) is a Somali-Australian political activist.
Leiria (ɸlāryo) is a city and a municipality in the Centro Region of Portugal.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Lewiston (officially the City of Lewiston, Maine) is the second largest city in Maine and the most central city in Androscoggin County.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
A lighthouse is a tower, building, or other type of structure designed to emit light from a system of lamps and lenses and to serve as a navigational aid for maritime pilots at sea or on inland waterways.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
This article lists the monarchs of Persia, who ruled over the area of modern-day Iran from the establishment of the Achaemenid dynasty by Achaemenes around 705 BCE until the deposition of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1979.
This is a list of Presidents of Somalia.
This is a list of Prime Ministers of Somalia.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
A lyricist or lyrist is a person who writes lyrics—words for songs—as opposed to a composer, who writes the song's melody.
Maay Maay (also known as Af-Maay, Af-Maymay, Rahanween, Rahanweyn or simply Maay, and sometimes spelled Mai Mai) is a dialect of the Somali language of the Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic family.
Macalester College is a private, coeducational liberal arts college located in Saint Paul, Minnesota, United States.
The Macrobians (Μακροβίοι), meaning long-lived, were an ancient tribal Kingdom of Aethiopia positioned in the farthest land towards the western sunset south of ancient Libya (Africa).
The Madhiban (Madhibaan), also known as Mitjan, or Gaboye,, UNHCR, IRB Canada (2014) are an artisanal caste among Somali people.
Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.
The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.
Maghrebi Arabic (Western Arabic; as opposed to Eastern Arabic or Mashriqi Arabic) is an Arabic dialect continuum spoken in the Maghreb region, in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Western Sahara, and Mauritania.
Magool (Magool, مغول) (May 2, 1948 – March 19, 2004), born Halima Khaliif Omar, was a Somali singer.
Mahmoud Harbi Farah (محمود الحربي) (1921 – October 1960) was a Somali politician.
The Majeerteen Sultanate (Suldanadda Majeerteen, سلطنة مجرتين), also known as Majeerteenia and Migiurtinia, was a Somali kingdom centered in the Horn of Africa.
Major general (abbreviated MG, Maj. Gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries.
The major scale (or Ionian scale) is one of the most commonly used musical scales, especially in Western music.
Malao was an ancient Somali port city in present-day Somalia.
Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.
Jean Margaret Laurence, CC (née Wemyss) (18 July 1926 – 5 January 1987) was a Canadian novelist and short story writer, and is one of the major figures in Canadian literature.
Maritime history of Somalia refers to the seafaring tradition of the Somali people.
Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practices, which are practiced for a number of reasons: as self-defense, military and law enforcement applications, mental and spiritual development; as well as entertainment and the preservation of a nation's intangible cultural heritage.
Maryam Mursal (Maryaam Muursaal, مريم مرسل) (born January 1, 1950) is a Somali composer and vocalist.
Masonry is the building of structures from individual units, which are often laid in and bound together by mortar; the term masonry can also refer to the units themselves.
Mataano is a women's fashion line.
A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems.
Mattawan is a village in Antwerp Township, Van Buren County of the U.S. state of Michigan.
A mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or people.
Maxamed Daahir Afrax (Maxamed Daahir Afraax, محمد طاهر أفرح) Ph.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
Medina (المدينة المنورة,, "the radiant city"; or المدينة,, "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones.
Emperor Menelik II GCB, GCMG (ዳግማዊ ምኒልክ), baptised as Sahle Maryam (17 August 1844 – 12 December 1913), was Negus of Shewa (1866–89), then Emperor of Ethiopia from 1889 to his death in 1913.
A menhir (from Brittonic languages: maen or men, "stone" and hir or hîr, "long"), standing stone, orthostat, lith or masseba/matseva is a large manmade upright stone.
Merca (Marka, مركة) is an ancient port city in the southern Lower Shebelle province of Somalia.
The Meshwesh (often abbreviated in ancient Egyptian as Ma) were an ancient Libyan tribe of Berber origin from beyond Cyrenaica.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Mihrab (محراب, pl. محاريب) is a semicircular niche in the wall of a mosque that indicates the qibla; that is, the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca and hence the direction that Muslims should face when praying.
Minneapolis is the county seat of Hennepin County, and the larger of the Twin Cities, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States.
Minneapolis–Saint Paul is a major metropolitan area built around the Mississippi, Minnesota and St. Croix rivers in east central Minnesota.
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Sir Mohamed Muktar Jama "Mo" Farah, (Maxamed Mukhtaar Jaamac Faarax; born 23 March 1983) is the United Kingdom's most successful distance runner.
Mogadishu (Muqdisho), known locally as Xamar or Hamar, is the capital and most populous city of Somalia.
Mohamed Abdullahi "Farmajo" Mohamed (Maxamed Cabdulaahi Maxamed Farmaajo, محمد عبد الله محمد; born 11 March 1962) is a Somali diplomat and politician who is the 9th and current President of Somalia.
Mohamed Deq Abdulle (Maxamed Deeq Cabdulle, محمد دق عبد الله) is a Somali taekwondo practitioner.
Mohamed Diriye Abdullahi (Maxamed Diriye Abdullahi, محمد ديري عبد الله) is a Somali-Canadian scholar, linguist, writer, translator and professor.
Mohamed Haji Mukhtar (Maxamed Xaaji Mukhtaar, محمد حاج مختار) (born 1947) is a Somali scholar and writer currently in the United States.
Mohamed Jama (Maxamed Jaamac, محمد جامع) is a Somali kickboxer.
Mohammed Mooge Liibaan (Maxamed Mooge Liibaan, محمد الموجي لبنان) (d. June 1984) was a prominent Somali instrumentalist and vocalist.
Mohammed Abdullah Hassan (April 7, 1856 – December 21, 1920) was a Somali religious and patriotic leader.
Hagi Mohammed Awale Liban (Maxamed Cawaale Liibaan, محمد عوالة ليبان) was a Somali scholar.
Mohamoud Ali Shire (Maxamuud Cali Shiire, محمود علي شري, Mahmoud bin Ali Shirreh Maxmud bin Cali Shire) was a Somali elder of the Warsangali clan.
Mohamud Siad Togane (Maxamed Siyaad Toogane, محمد سياد توغن), born July 1, 1947, is a Somali-Canadian poet and peace activist.
Montreal (officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada.
A monument is a type of—usually three-dimensional—structure that was explicitly created to commemorate a person or event, or which has become relevant to a social group as a part of their remembrance of historic times or cultural heritage, due to its artistic, historical, political, technical or architectural importance.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
Mosylon (Μοσυλλόν), also known as Mosullon, was an ancient Somali trading center on or near the site that later became the city of Bosaso.
Muay Thai (มวยไทย) or Thai boxing is a combat sport of Thailand that uses stand-up striking along with various clinching techniques.
A mudbrick or mud-brick is a brick, made of a mixture of loam, mud, sand and water mixed with a binding material such as rice husks or straw.
Mohamed Haji Ibrahim Egal (Maxamed Xaaji Ibraahim Cigaal, محمد الحاج ابراهيم ايغال) (August 15, 1928 – May 3, 2002) was a Somali politician.
A multinational corporation (MNC) or worldwide enterprise is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country.
Musa Haji Ismail Galal (Muuse Xaaji Ismaaciil Galaal, موسى الحاج اسماعيل جلال) (1917–1980) was a Somali writer, scholar, linguist, historian and polymath.
A musketeer (mousquetaire) was a type of soldier equipped with a musket.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
Musse Olol (Muuse Olool, موسى العالول), also known as Muse A. Olol Diinle, is an engineer and social activist.
Mustafa Hassan Mohamed (Mustafa Xasan Maxamed, مصطفى حسن محمد) (born 1 March 1979) is a Somali-Swedish long-distance runner who mainly competes in the 3000 meter steeplechase.
Mycenaean Greece (or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece, spanning the period from approximately 1600–1100 BC.
Myrrh (from Aramaic, but see § Etymology) is a natural gum or resin extracted from a number of small, thorny tree species of the genus Commiphora.
Nadifa Mohamed (Nadiifa Maxamed, نظيفة محمد) (born 1981 in Hargeisa, Somalia) is a Somali-British novelist.
Nashville is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Tennessee and the seat of Davidson County.
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
A necklace is an article of jewelry that is worn around the neck.
Negro (plural Negroes) is an archaic term traditionally used to denote persons considered to be of Negroid heritage.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Nikon (alternatively spelled Nicon; Νίκων in Ancient Greek) was an ancient coastal emporium in the Horn of Africa.
The Nordic Cross Country Championships is an annual international cross country running competition that is contested between the Nordic countries.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
The North Eastern Province (Gobolka Woqooyi Bari) is one of the former Provinces in Kenya.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Sultan Nur Ahmed Aman (1841–1907), was the tribal chief of the Habar Yoonis clan from 1880–1899.
Nur ibn Mujahid ibn ‘Ali ibn ‘Abdullah al Dhuhi Suha (Harari አሚር ኑር, Somali: Nuur ibn Mujaahid, Arabic: نور بن مجاهد السمروني) (literally, "Light"; died 1567).
Nuruddin Farah (Nuuradiin Faarax, نورالدين فارح) (born 24 November 1945) is a Somali novelist.
Nutmeg is the seed or ground spice of several species of the genus Myristica.
Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.
In music, an octave (octavus: eighth) or perfect octave is the interval between one musical pitch and another with half or double its frequency.
Ogaden (pronounced and often spelled Ogadēn; Ogaadeen) is the unofficial name of the Somali Region, the territory comprising the eastern portion of Ethiopia.
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.
Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.
Omar Abdi Ali (Cumar Cabdi Cali, عمر عبدي علي) is a Somali entrepreneur, accountant, financial consultant, philanthropist, and a leading specialist on Islamic finance.
Omar Osman Rabe (Arabic: عسمان عمررابي) (1946 – 2013) was a Somali scholar, write, politician and Pan-Somalist of the former Cote Francaise des Somalis or French Somaliland and the Republic of Djibouti.
Opone (Οπώνη) was an ancient Somali city situated in the Horn of Africa.
The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, and public service outside the Civil service.
The Organisation of African Unity (OAU; Organisation de l'unité africaine (OUA)) was established on 25 May 1963 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia with 32 signatory governments.
The Oromo people (Oromoo; ኦሮሞ, ’Oromo) are an ethnic group inhabiting Ethiopia and parts of Kenya and Somalia.
Osman Haji Mohamed (Cusmaan Xaaji Maxamed, عثمان حاجي محمد) (b. 1920 – d. July 28, 1975), also known as Osman Baketti, was a Somali politician.
Osman Mahamuud (Cismaan Maxamuud, عثمان محمود), also known as `Uthman III ibn Mahmud, was a Somali king.
Osman Yusuf Kenadid (Cusmaan Yuusuf Keenadiid; عثمان يوسف كينايديض), was a Somali poet, writer, teacher and ruler.
The Osmanya alphabet (Farta Cismaanya; Osmanya), also known as Far Soomaali ("Somali writing") and, in Arabic, as al-kitābah al-ʿuthmānīyah, is a writing script created to transcribe the Somali language.
Ottawa is the capital city of Canada.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The oud (عود) is a short-neck lute-type, pear-shaped stringed instrument (a chordophone in the Hornbostel-Sachs classification of instruments) with 11 or 13 strings grouped in 5 or 6 courses, commonly used in Egyptian, Syrian, Palestinian, Lebanese, Iraqi, Arabian, Jewish, Persian, Greek, Armenian, Turkish, Azerbaijani, North African (Chaabi, Classical, and Spanish Andalusian), Somali, and various other forms of Middle Eastern and North African music.
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
The Arab Games (الألعاب العربية), also called the Pan Arab Games, are a regional multi-sport event held between nations from the Arab world.
Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.
Pastoralism is the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock.
Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship system in which an individual's family membership derives from and is recorded through his or her father's lineage.
A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism, Eastern Orthodoxy, or particular branches of Islam, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person.
The peanut, also known as the groundnut or the goober and taxonomically classified as Arachis hypogaea, is a legume crop grown mainly for its edible seeds.
A pentatonic scale is a musical scale with five notes per octave, in contrast to the more familiar heptatonic scale that has seven notes per octave (such as the major scale and minor scale).
Ethiopia's population is highly diverse.
A peremptory norm (also called jus cogens or ius cogens; Latin for "compelling law") is a fundamental principle of international law that is accepted by the international community of states as a norm from which no derogation is permitted.
Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.
Philanthropy means the love of humanity.
A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Pitch is a perceptual property of sounds that allows their ordering on a frequency-related scale, or more commonly, pitch is the quality that makes it possible to judge sounds as "higher" and "lower" in the sense associated with musical melodies.
A poet laureate (plural: poets laureate) is a poet officially appointed by a government or conferring institution, typically expected to compose poems for special events and occasions.
A polemic is contentious rhetoric that is intended to support a specific position by aggressive claims and undermining of the opposing position.
A police officer, also known as an officer, policeman, policewoman, cop, police agent, or a police employee is a warranted law employee of a police force.
Marianne Joan Elliott-Said (3 July 1957 – 25 April 2011),, Digital Spy, 26 April 2011 known by the stage name Poly Styrene, was a British musician, singer-songwriter, and frontwoman for the punk rock band X-Ray Spex.
Polycentric law is a legal structure in which providers of legal systems compete or overlap in a given jurisdiction, as opposed to monopolistic statutory law according to which there is a sole provider of law for each jurisdiction.
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo.
Portland is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Maine, with a population of 67,067 as of 2017.
Portland is the largest city in the U.S. state of Oregon and the seat of Multnomah County.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
The Potsdam Conference (Potsdamer Konferenz) was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm, in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from 17 July to 2 August 1945.
Pottery is the ceramic material which makes up pottery wares, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.
The President of Somalia (Madaxaweynaha Soomaaliya) is the head of state of Somalia.
A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns their living from a specified professional activity.
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.
A pyramid (from πυραμίς) is a structure whose outer surfaces are triangular and converge to a single point at the top, making the shape roughly a pyramid in the geometric sense.
The Qadiriyya (القادريه, قادریه, also transliterated Qadri, Qadriya, Kadri, Elkadri, Elkadry, Aladray, Alkadrie, Adray, Kadray, Qadiri,"Quadri" or Qadri) are members of the Qadiri tariqa (Sufi order).
The qaṣīdaᵗ (also spelled qaṣīdah; is originally an Arabic word Arabic: قصيدة, plural qaṣā'id, قــصــائـد; that was passed to some other languages such as Persian: قصیده or چكامه, chakameh, in Turkish: kaside) is an ancient Arabic word and form of writing poetry, often translated as ode, passed to other cultures after the Arab Muslim expansion.
A queen regnant (plural: queens regnant) is a female monarch, equivalent in rank to a king, who reigns in her own right, in contrast to a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king, or a queen regent, who is the guardian of a child monarch and reigns temporarily in the child's stead.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
The Quraysh (قريش) were a mercantile Arab tribe that historically inhabited and controlled Mecca and its Ka'aba.
Rageh Omaar (Raage Oomaar; راجح عمر; born 19 July 1967) is a Somali-born British journalist and writer.
The Rahaweyn (Somali Maay: Reewing; traditional Raxaweyn, رحنوين) is a Somali clan, composed of two major sub-clans, the Digil and the Mirifle.
Ramadan (رمضان,;In Arabic phonology, it can be, depending on the region. also known as Ramazan, romanized as Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (Sawm) to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief.
Ramadan (Arabic: رمضان) or Ramadhan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and the month in which the Quran was revealed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Real estate is "property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an item of real property, (more generally) buildings or housing in general.
Real World Records is a British record label started in 1989 by Peter Gabriel to record and produce world music, as well as his own releases.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.
Reformism is a political doctrine advocating the reform of an existing system or institution instead of its abolition and replacement.
A resistance movement is an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to withstand the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability.
A restaurant, or an eatery, is a business which prepares and serves food and drinks to customers in exchange for money.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
In archaeology, rock art is human-made markings placed on natural stone; it is largely synonymous with parietal art.
Sa'id of Mogadishu (Saciid min Muqdisho, rtl Sa'iid min maqadīshū) was a 14th-century Somali scholar and traveler.
Saado Ali Warsame (Saado Cali Warsame, سادو علي ورسمه) (b. 1950–d. 23 July 2014) was a Somali-American singer-songwriter and politician.
The Sabaeans or Sabeans (اَلـسَّـبَـئِـيُّـون,; שבא; Musnad: 𐩪𐩨𐩱) were an ancient people speaking an Old South Arabian language who lived in the southern Arabian Peninsula.
The Saho language (Tigrinya: ሳሆኛ) is an Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Eritrea, Sudan and Ethiopia.
The Saho sometimes called Soho, are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa.
Sahure (meaning "He who is close to Re", also known in Greek as Sephrês, Σϵϕρής) was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh, the second ruler of the Fifth Dynasty, who reigned for about 12 years in the early 25th century BC.
Said Salah Ahmed (Saciid Saalax Axmed, سعيد صالح أحمد) is a Somali playwright, poet, educator and filmmaker.
Said Sheikh Samatar (Saciid Sheekh Samatar, سعيد الشيخ سمتر‎; 1943–24 February 2015) was a prominent Somali scholar and writer.
Saint Paul (abbreviated St. Paul) is the capital and second-most populous city of the U.S. state of Minnesota.
Salaad Gabeyre Kediye (Salaad Gabeyre Kediye, 1933 – 3 July 1972), also known as Salah Gaveire Kedie, was a Somali senior military official and a revolutionary.
Salvia officinalis (sage, also called garden sage, common sage, or culinary sage) is a perennial, evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers.
Samaale (var. Samali or Samale Samaale, Beesha Samaale, Cusmaan, Beesha Cusmaan, بنو سأملي,بنو عثمان.), is the oldest common forefather of several major Somali clans and their respective sub-clans.
Sarapion (Σαράπιον, also spelled Serapion), was an ancient port city in present-day Somalia.
A sarong or sarung (Malay:, formal Indonesian:, colloquial Indonesian:, Tamil: சரம், Arabic: صارون, Sinhalese: සරම; meaning "sheath" in Indonesian and Malay) is a large tube or length of fabric, often wrapped around the waist, worn in South Asia, Southeast Asia, the Arabian Peninsula, East Africa, and on many Pacific islands.
Savannah State University is a four-year, state-supported, historically black university (HBCU) located in Savannah, Georgia, United States.
The Scramble for Africa was the occupation, division, and colonization of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914.
Seattle is a seaport city on the west coast of the United States.
Shadya Yasin (Shaadiyya Yaasiin; شادية ياسين) is a Somali social activist, poet and teacher.
The Shafi‘i (شافعي, alternative spelling Shafei) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam.
Shahi haleeb, shai haleeb, shai Adeni, or shai mulaban, is a Yemeni milk tea.
Sharjah Islamic Bank, formerly known as the National Bank of Sharjah, is a publicly listed Islamic bank headquartered in the emirate of Sharjah in the United Arab Emirates.
A shawl (from lang-Urdu شال shāl, which may be from दुशाला duśālā, ultimately from Sanskrit: शाटी śāṭī) is a simple item of clothing, loosely worn over the shoulders, upper body and arms, and sometimes also over the head.
Shax (pronounced /shah/), also known as jar, djelga or mororova in some areas, is a board game played in the Horn of Africa, particularly in Somalia.
Abd Al-Rahman bin Abdallah al Shashi (عبد الرحمن بن عبد الله الشاشي) (b. 1829 - 1904), popularly known as Shaykh Sufi, was a 19th-century Somali scholar, poet, reformist and astrologist.
Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England.
Sheikh Abdurahman Sh.
Sheikh Mukhtar Mohamed Hussein (Sheekh Mukhtaar Maxamed Xuseen, الشيخ محمد حسين مختار‎; 1912 – June 12, 2012) was the speaker of the Somali parliament, and briefly an interim President of Somalia in 1969.
Shewa (ሸዋ, Šawā; Šewā), formerly romanized as Shoa (Scioà in Italian), is a historical region of Ethiopia, formerly an autonomous kingdom within the Ethiopian Empire.
Shire Jama Ahmed (Shire Jaamac Axmed, شيري جامع أحمد) was a Somali linguist notable for his contribution to the creation of the modern Latin script for transcribing the Somali language.
Mohamed Siad Barre (Maxamed Siyaad Barre; محمد سياد بري; October 6, 1919 – January 2, 1995) was a Somali politician who served as the President of the Somali Democratic Republic from 1969 to 1991.
Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles.
The Sinai Peninsula or simply Sinai (now usually) is a peninsula in Egypt, and the only part of the country located in Asia.
A slip is a woman's undergarment worn beneath a dress or skirt.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
Sofia Samatar (born October 24, 1971) is a Somali-American educator, poet and writer.
The Solomonic dynasty, also known as the House of Solomon, is the former ruling Imperial House of the Ethiopian Empire.
A number of writing systems have been used over the years to transcribe the Somali language.
Somali architecture is the engineering and designing of multiple different construction types such as stone cities, castles, citadels, fortresses, mosques, temples, aqueducts, lighthouses, towers and tombs during the ancient, medieval and early modern periods in Somalia and other regions inhabited by Somalis, as well as the fusion of Somalo-Islamic architecture with Western designs in contemporary times.
The Somali National Armed Forces (SNAF) are the military forces of Somalia, officially known as the Federal Republic of Somalia.
The Bantu (also called Jareer, Gosha, and Mushunguli) are an ethnic minority group in Somalia who primarily reside in the southern part of the country, near the Juba and Shabelle rivers.
Somali Canadians are residents and citizens of Canada of Somali ancestry.
The Somali Civil War (Dagaalkii Sokeeye ee Soomaaliya, الحرب الأهلية الصومالية) is an ongoing civil war taking place in Somalia.
Somali cuisine varies from region to region and is a fusion of different Somali culinary traditions, with some East African, Arab, Turkish and Italian influences.
The Somali Democratic Republic (Jamhuuriyadda Dimuqraadiya Soomaaliya, الجمهورية الديمقراطية الصومالية al-Jumhūrīyah ad-Dīmuqrāṭīyah aṣ-Ṣūmālīyah, Repubblica Democratica Somala) was the name that the Marxist–Leninist military dictatorship government of former President of Somalia Major General Mohamed Siad Barre gave to Somalia during its rule, after having seized power in a bloodless 1969 coup d'état.
The Somali diaspora refers to expatriate Somalis who reside in areas of the world that have traditionally not been inhabited by their ethnic group.
The Somali Film Agency (SFA) was a film regulatory body based in Mogadishu, Somalia.
The Somali First Division (Heerka Koowaad ee Soomaali, دوري الدرجة الأولى الصومالية) also known as Serie A, is the Somali professional league for men's football association.
Somali Retrieved on 21 September 2013 (Af-Soomaali) is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch.
The Somali Latin alphabet is an official writing script in the Federal Republic of Somalia and its constituent Federal Member States.
Somali nationalism (Somali:Soomaalinimo) is centered on the notion that the Somali people share a common language, religion, culture and ethnicity, and as such constitute a nation unto themselves.
The Somali Republic (Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliyeed, Repubblica Somala, جمهورية الصومال) was the official name of Somalia after independence on July 1, 1960, following the unification of the Trust Territory of Somaliland (the former Italian Somaliland) and the State of Somaliland (the former British Somaliland).
Somali studies is the scholarly term for research concerning Somalis and Greater Somalia.
The Somali Youth League (SYL) (Ururka Dhalinyarada Soomaaliyeed, عصبة الشبيبة الصومالية), initially known as the Somali Youth Club (SYC), was the first political party in Somalia.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
The Somalia Cup is the top knockout football tournament in Somalia.
The Somalia national basketball team is the national basketball team of Somalia.
The Somalia national football team nicknamed ocean stars represents Somalia in men's international football.
Somali literature refers to the literary tradition of Somalia.
Somaliland (Somaliland; صوماليلاند, rtl), officially the Republic of Somaliland (Jamhuuriyadda Somaliland, جمهورية صوماليلاند Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd), is a self-declared state internationally recognised as an autonomous region of Somalia.
The Somaliland Campaign, also called the Anglo-Somali War or the Dervish War, was a series of military expeditions that took place between 1900 and 1920 in the Horn of Africa, pitting the Dervishes led by Mohammed Abdullah Hassan (nicknamed the "Mad Mullah", although he "was neither mad nor a mullah") against the British.
Somalis (Soomaali, صوماليون) are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa (Somali Peninsula).
Somalis in the United Kingdom include British citizens and residents born in, or with ancestors from, Somalia.
Somaliwood is an informal name for the Somali film industry that has developed in Columbus, Ohio, where a large Somali diaspora exists.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
A spice is a seed, fruit, root, bark, or other plant substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food.
A spoon is a utensil consisting of a small shallow bowl (also known as a head), oval or round, at the end of a handle.
The State of Somaliland was a short-lived independent state in the territory of present-day northwestern Somalia, which is also known as the self-declared Republic of Somaliland.
The steeplechase is an obstacle race in athletics, which derives its name from the steeplechase in horse racing.
A steleAnglicized plural steles; Greek plural stelai, from Greek στήλη, stēlē.
The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.
A stone circle is an alignment of standing stones arranged in a circle.
A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made either partially or entirely out of stone.
The craft of stonemasonry (or stonecraft) involves creating buildings, structures, and sculpture using stone from the earth, and is one of the oldest trades in human history.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Sulekha Ali (Suleekha Cali, زليخة علي) is a Somali-Canadian musician.
Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
The Sultanate of Hobyo (Saldanadda Hobyo, سلطنة هوبيو), also known as the Sultanate of Obbia,New International Encyclopedia, Volume 21, (Dodd, Mead: 1916), p.283.
The Sultanate of Ifat was a medieval Muslim state in the eastern regions of the Horn of Africa between the late 13th century and early 15th century.
The Sultanate of the Geledi (Saldanadda Geledi, سلطنة غلدي) was a Somali kingdom that ruled parts of the Horn of Africa during the late-17th century and 19th century.
The Sultanate of Zanzibar (Usultani wa Zanzibar, translit), also known as the Zanzibar Sultanate, comprised the territories over which the Sultan of Zanzibar is the sovereign.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
A supermodel (also spelled super-model and super model) is a highly paid fashion model who usually has a worldwide reputation and often a background in haute couture and commercial modeling.
The Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC) (Gollaha Sare ee Kacaanka, المجلس الثوري الأعلى) was the governmental body that ruled Somalia from 1969 to 1976.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Taekwondo (from Korean 태권도, 跆拳道) is a Korean martial art, characterised by its emphasis on head-height kicks, jumping and spinning kicks, and fast kicking techniques.
Taffeta (archaically spelled taffety) is a crisp, smooth, plain woven fabric made from silk or cuprammonium rayons.
Taleh (Taleex, تلأ ح) is a historical town in the eastern Sool region of Somaliland.
Tarawih (تراويح) refers to extra prayers performed by Sunni Muslims at night in the Islamic month of Ramadan.
The Tayo Political Party (TPP) (Xisbiga Siyaasadda ee Tayo), abbreviated Tayo, is the ruling political party in Somalia.
Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub (bush) native to Asia.
A temple (from the Latin word templum) is a structure reserved for religious or spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
Tigrayans (ተጋሩ) also called Agazian, are an ethnolinguistic group primarily inhabiting the Eritrean highlands and the northern Tigray region of Ethiopia.
The Tigre people are an ethnic group inhabiting Eritrea.
The Tomal, also known as Tumal or Tumaal, are an artisanal caste among Somali people.
A tomb (from τύμβος tumbos) is a repository for the remains of the dead.
Tongeren (Tongres, Tongern) is a city and municipality located in the Belgian province of Limburg, in the southeastern corner of the Flemish region of Belgium.
Toronto is the capital city of the province of Ontario and the largest city in Canada by population, with 2,731,571 residents in 2016.
A tower is a tall structure, taller than it is wide, often by a significant margin.
Toxicology is a discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants.
The Trust Territory of Somaliland (officially, the "Trust Territory of Somaliland under Italian administration") was a United Nations Trust Territory situated in present-day northeastern, central and southern Somalia.
A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves.
A turban (from Persian دولبند, dulband; via Middle French turbant) is a type of headwear based on cloth winding.
Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.
The Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXVII, alternatively 27th Dynasty or Dynasty 27), also known as the First Egyptian Satrapy was effectively a province (satrapy) of the Achaemenid Persian Empire between 525 BC to 404 BC.
Twin cities are a special case of two cities or urban centres that are founded in close geographic proximity and then grow into each other over time, losing most of their mutual buffer zone.
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Uthman bin Ali Zayla'i (عثمان بن علي الزيلعي) (d. 1342) was a 14th-century Somali theologian and jurist from Zeila.
Sheikh Uways Al-Barawi (أُوَيس البَراوي) (b. 1847–1909) was a Somali scholar credited with reviving Islam in 19th century East Africa.
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia.
Video is an electronic medium for the recording, copying, playback, broadcasting, and display of moving visual media.
A video rental shop/store is a physical retail business that rents home videos such as movies, prerecorded TV shows, video game discs and other content.
Vincenzo Filonardi (Roma, 23 June 1853 – Roma, 17 May 1916) was an Italian politician and soldier of the Regio Esercito, who was the first governor of Italian Somalia.
Voile is a soft, sheer fabric, usually made of 100% cotton or cotton blended with linen or polyester.
Waaberi (Waaberi, was a Somali musical supergroup.
Waayaha Cusub ("The New Era") is a Somali musical collective.
Wadaad writing, also known as wadaad Arabic, is the traditional Somali adaptation of written Arabic, as well as the Arabic script as historically used to transcribe the Somali language.
The Walashma dynasty was a medieval Muslim dynasty of the Horn of Africa.
Wargaade Wall is an ancient stone construction in Wargaade, Somalia.
Waris Dirie (Waris Diiriye) (born 1965) is a Somali model, author, actress and social activist.
The Warsangali Sultanate (Saldanadda Warsangeli, سلطنة الورسنجلي) was a Somali Sultanate ruling house centered in northeastern of Somalia.
West is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
The Western Cape (Wes-Kaap, Ntshona Koloni) is a province of South Africa, situated on the south-western coast of the country.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
Winnipeg is the capital and largest city of the province of Manitoba in Canada.
A witness is someone who has, who claims to have, or is thought, by someone with authority to compel testimony, to have knowledge relevant to an event or other matter of interest.
Wood carving is a form of woodworking by means of a cutting tool (knife) in one hand or a chisel by two hands or with one hand on a chisel and one hand on a mallet, resulting in a wooden figure or figurine, or in the sculptural ornamentation of a wooden object.
Woodworking is the activity or skill of making items from wood, and includes cabinet making (cabinetry and furniture), wood carving, joinery, carpentry, and woodturning.
The World Fantasy Awards are a set of awards given each year for the best fantasy fiction published during the previous calendar year.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.
X-Ray Spex were an English punk band from London that formed in 1976.
Xeer (pronounced /ħeːr/) is the traditional legal system of Somalia, and one of the three systems from which formal Somali law draws its inspiration, the others being civil law and Islamic law.
The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals.
Yasmin Abshir Warsame (Yasmiin Abshir Warsame, ياسمين ابشير ارسام; born May 5, 1976) is a Canadian model and activist of Somali origin.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Yibir, also referred to as Yibbir, Yebir or Yahhar, are a caste within Somali people.
Yusuf Ali Kenadid (Yuusuf Cali Keenadiid) was a Somali Sultan.
Yusuf bin Ahmad al-Kawneyn (يوسف بن أحمد الكونين) (b. 12th century), popularly known as Aw Barkhadle ("Blessed Father"),Abdullahi, p.13 Yusuf Al Kownayn, Yusuf Al Bagdhadi, and Shaykh Abu Barakat al Barbari ("Blessed Father of Somalia), was a Somali Muslim scholar and traveler.
Yusuf Hassan Abdi (Yuusuf Xasan Cabdi, يوسف حسن عبدي) (tabs born March 9, 1953) is a Kenyan Somali politician, diplomat, social activist and former journalist.
Zahra Abdulla (Sahra Cabdulla, زهراء عبد الله) (born 1966 in Somalia) is a Somali-born Finnish politician.
Zeila (Saylac, زيلع), also known as Zaila or Zeyla, is a port city in the northwestern Awdal region of Somaliland.
The 4th millennium BC spanned the years 4000 through 3001 BC.
Amal Farah, Anglo-Somali, British Somali, Ethnic Somalis, Etymology of Somalia, Fahma Mohamed, People of Somalia, Somali (ethnicity), Somali (people), Somali Jamaican, Somali People, Somali clan, Somali people, Somali society, Ugaaso A. Boocow, Ugaaso Abukar, Ugaaso Abukar Boocow, Ugaaso Boocow.