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Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Agra is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India.
Airborne Military parachuting or gliding form of inserting personnel or supplies.
Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Francis Albert Augustus Charles Emmanuel; 26 August 1819 – 14 December 1861) was the husband and consort of Queen Victoria.
Aldershot is a town in the Rushmoor district of Hampshire, England.
The Allied occupation of Austria lasted from 1945 to 1955.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
The Andaman Islands form an archipelago in the Bay of Bengal between India, to the west, and Myanmar, to the north and east.
The Anglo-Spanish War of 1727–1729 was a limited war that took place between Great Britain and Spain during the late 1720s, and consisted of a failed British attempt to blockade Porto Bello and a failed Spanish attempt to capture Gibraltar.
The Anglo-Zulu War was fought in 1879 between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom.
The Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders (Princess Louise's) was a line infantry regiment of the British Army that existed from 1881 until amalgamation into the Royal Regiment of Scotland on 28 March 2006, from when it became a single battalion in the Royal Regiment of Scotland.
The Army Reserve is the active-duty volunteer reserve force and integrated element of the British Army.
Aylesbury is the county town of Buckinghamshire, England.
Baharampur (pronounced asˌ) is a city in the state of West Bengal, India,in Murshidabad district situated in the central part of the state.
Barbados is an island country in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, in the Caribbean region of North America.
Bath is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Somerset, England, known for its Roman-built baths.
The Battle for Caen (June to August 1944) is the name for the fighting between the British Second Army and German Panzergruppe West in the Second World War for control of the city of Caen and vicinity, during the Battle of Normandy.
A battle honour is an award of a right by a government or sovereign to a military unit to emblazon the name of a battle or operation on its flags ("colours"), uniforms or other accessories where ornamentation is possible.
The Battle of Albert (1–13 July 1916), comprised the first two weeks of Anglo-French offensive operations in the Battle of the Somme.
Battle of Albert (21–23 August 1918) was the third battle by that name fought during World War I, following the First Battle of Albert and the Second Battle of Albert, with each of the series of three being fought roughly two years apart.
The Battle of Almansa was one of the most decisive engagements of the War of the Spanish Succession fought on 25 April 1707.
The Battle of Armentières (also Battle of Lille) was fought by German and Franco-British forces in northern France in October 1914, during reciprocal attempts by the armies to envelop the northern flank of their opponent, which has been called the Race to the Sea.
The name Battle of Arras refers to a number of battles which took place near the town of Arras in Artois, France.
The Battle of Arras (also known as the Second Battle of Arras) was a British offensive on the Western Front during World War I. From 9 April to 16 May 1917, British troops attacked German defences near the French city of Arras on the Western Front.
The Battle of Épehy was a battle of the First World War fought on 18 September 1918, involving the British Fourth Army (under the command of General Henry Rawlinson) against German outpost positions in front of the Hindenburg Line.
The Battle of Broodseinde was fought on 4 October 1917 near Ypres in Belgium, at the east end of the Gheluvelt plateau, by the British Second and Fifth armies and the German 4th Army.
The Battle of Camaret was an amphibious landing at Camaret Bay on 18 June 1694 by the English and Dutch in an attempt to seize the French port of Brest and destroy part of the French fleet stationed there, as part of the Nine Years' War.
The Battle of Cambrai (Battle of Cambrai, 1917, First Battle of Cambrai and Schlacht von Cambrai) was a British attack followed by the biggest German counter-attack against the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) since 1914, in the First World War.
The Battle of Cambrai, 1918 (also known as the Second Battle of Cambrai) was a battle between troops of the British First, Third and Fourth Armies and German Empire forces during the Hundred Days Offensive of the First World War.
The Battle of Courtrai (also known as the Second Battle of Belgium (2ème Bataille de Belgique) and the Battle of Roulers (Bataille de Roulers)) was one of a series of offensives in northern France and southern Belgium that took place in late September and October 1918.
The Battle of Culloden (Blàr Chùil Lodair) was the final confrontation of the Jacobite rising of 1745.
The Battle of Delville Wood was a series of engagements in the 1916 Battle of the Somme in the First World War, between the armies of the German Empire and the British Empire.
The Battle of Dettingen (Schlacht bei Dettingen) took place on 27 June 1743 at Dettingen on the River Main, Germany, during the War of the Austrian Succession.
The Drocourt-Quéant Line (Wotan Stellung) was a set of mutually supporting defensive lines constructed by Germany between the French towns of Drocourt and Quéant during World War I. This defensive system was part of the northernmost section of the Hindenburg Line, a vast German defensive system that ran through northeastern France.
The Battle of Dunkeld (Scottish Gaelic: Blàr Dhùn Chaillinn) was fought between Jacobite clans supporting the deposed king James VII of Scotland and a government regiment of covenanters supporting William of Orange, King of Scotland, in the streets around Dunkeld Cathedral, Dunkeld, Scotland, on 21 August 1689 and formed part of the Jacobite rising of 1689, commonly called Dundee's rising in Scotland.
During the Jacobite rising of 1745, the Battle of Falkirk Muir (Scottish Gaelic: Blàr na h-Eaglaise Brice) on 17 January 1746 was the last noteworthy Jacobite success.
The Battle of Flers–Courcelette was fought during the Battle of the Somme in France, by the French Sixth Army and the British Fourth Army and Reserve Army, against the German 1st Army, during the First World War.
The Battle of Fontenoy, 11 May 1745,This article uses the Gregorian calendar (unless otherwise stated).
The Battle of Ghazni (or Ghuznee) took place in the city of Ghazni in central Afghanistan on July 23, 1839 during the First Anglo-Afghan War.
The Battle of Guillemont (3–6 September 1916) was an attack by the Fourth Army on the village of Guillemont.
The Battle of Havrincourt was a World War I battle fought on 12 September 1918, involving the British Third Army (under the command of General Sir Julian Byng) against German troops, including those of the 3rd and 10th Corps, in the town of Havrincourt, France.
The Battle of Jellalabad in 1842 was an Afghan siege of the isolated British outpost at Jellalabad (now Jalalabad) about east of Kabul.
The Battle of Jerusalem occurred during the British Empire's "Jerusalem Operations" against the Ottoman Empire, when fighting for the city developed from 17 November, continuing after the surrender until 30 December 1917, to secure the final objective of the Southern Palestine Offensive during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of World War I. Before Jerusalem could be secured, two battles were recognised by the British as being fought in the Judean Hills to the north and east of the Hebron–Junction Station line.
The Battle of Killiecrankie (Gaelic: Blàr Choille Chnagaidh), also referred to as the Battle of Rinrory by contemporaries, took place on 27 July 1689 during the First Jacobite Rising between a Jacobite force of Scots and Irish and those of the new Williamite government.
The Battle of La Gudina, Battle of Val Gudina, or Battle of Campo Maior (Spanish: Batalla de La Gudiña) (Portuguese: Batalha de Caia) was fought on 7 May 1709 near Arronches between the Spanish Bourbon army of Extremadura, under the Marquis de Bay, and the Portuguese and British, under the Huguenot Earl of Galway and the Marquis of Fronteira.
The Battle of Langemarck (16–18 August 1917) was the second Anglo-French general attack of the Third Battle of Ypres, during the First World War.
The Battle of Lauffeld, also known as Lafelt, Laffeld, Lawfeld, Lawfeldt, Maastricht or Val, took place on 2 July 1747, during the French invasion of the Netherlands.
The Battle of Le Cateau was fought on 26 August 1914, after the British and French retreated from the Battle of Mons and had set up defensive positions in a fighting withdrawal against the German advance at Le Cateau-Cambrésis.
The Battle of Le Transloy was the last offensive of the Fourth Army of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) in the 1916 Battle of the Somme in France, during the First World War.
The Battle of Loos was a battle that took place from 1915 in France on the Western Front, during the First World War.
The Battle of Mont Sorrel (Battle of Mount Sorrel, Battle of Hill 62) was a local operation in World War I by three divisions of the British Second Army and three divisions of the 4th Army in the Ypres Salient, near Ypres, Belgium, from 2 to 13 June 1916.
The Battle of Monte Cassino (also known as the Battle for Rome and the Battle for Cassino) was a costly series of four assaults by the Allies against the Winter Line in Italy held by Axis forces during the Italian Campaign of World War II.
The Battle of Morval, 25–28 September 1916, was an attack during the Battle of the Somme by the British Fourth Army on the villages of Morval, Gueudecourt and Lesbœufs held by the German 1st Army, which had been the final objectives of the Battle of Flers–Courcelette (15–22 September).
The Battle of Mughar Ridge, officially known by the British as the Action of El Mughar, took place on 13 November 1917 during the Pursuit phase of the Southern Palestine Offensive of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign in the First World War.
The Battle of Passchendaele (Flandernschlacht, Deuxième Bataille des Flandres), also known as the Third Battle of Ypres, was a campaign of the First World War, fought by the Allies against the German Empire.
The Battle of Poelcappelle was fought in Flanders, Belgium, on 9 October 1917 by the British and German armies, during the First World War and marked the end of the string of highly successful British attacks in late September and early October, during the Third Battle of Ypres.
The Battle of Polygon Wood took place during the second phase of the Third Battle of Ypres in World War I and was fought near Ypres in Belgium, in the area from the Menin road to Polygon Wood and thence north, to the area beyond St Julien.
The Battle of Rocoux (11 October 1746) was a French victory over an allied Austrian, British, Hanoveran and Dutch army in Rocourt (or Rocoux), outside Liège during War of the Austrian Succession.
The Battle of Sharqat (October 23–30, 1918) was fought between the British and the Ottoman Empire in the Mesopotamian Campaign in World War I, which became the last conflict in the between the belligerents before of the signing of the Armistice of Mudros.
The Battle of Soissons (also known as the Battle of the Soissonnais and of the Ourcq (Bataille du Soissonnais et de L'Ourcq) was a battle during World War I, waged from 18 to 22 July 1918, between the French (with American and British assistance) and German armies. Ferdinand Foch, the Allied Supreme Commander, launched the offensive on 18 July; 24 French divisions and 2 British and 2 U.S. divisions under French command, supported by approximately 478 tanks, sought to eliminate the salient that was aimed at Paris. The Allies suffered 107,000 casualties (95,000 French and 12,000 American), while the Germans suffered 168,000 casualties. The battle ended with the French recapturing most of the ground lost to the German Spring Offensive in May 1918. Adolf Hitler, the future Führer of Nazi Germany, earned and was awarded the Iron Cross First Class at Soissons on August 4th 1918.
The Battle of Spion Kop (Slag bij Spionkop.; Slag van Spioenkop) was fought about west-south-west of Ladysmith on the hilltop of Spioenkop(1) along the Tugela River, Natal in South Africa from 23–24 January 1900.
The Battle of the Ancre was fought by the Fifth Army (Lieutenant-General Hubert Gough), against the German 1st Army (General Fritz von Below).
The Battle of the Boyne (Cath na Bóinne) was a battle in 1690 between the forces of the deposed King James II of England, and those of Dutch Prince William of Orange who, with his wife Mary II (his cousin and James's daughter), had acceded to the Crowns of England and Scotland in 1688.
The Battle of the Bulge (16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945) was the last major German offensive campaign on the Western Front during World War II.
The Battle of Canal du Nord was part of a general Allied offensive against German positions on the Western Front during the Hundred Days Offensive of World War I. The battle took place in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region of France, along an incomplete portion of the Canal du Nord and on the outskirts of Cambrai between 27 September and 1 October 1918.
The Second Battle of the Sambre (4 November 1918) (which included the Second Battle of Guise (2ème Bataille de Guise) and the Battle of Thiérache (Bataille de Thiérache) was part of the final European Allied offensives of World War I.
The Battle of the Scarpe was a World War I battle that took place during the Hundred Days Offensive between 26 and 30 August 1918.
The Battle of the Selle (17–25 October 1918) was a battle between Allied forces and the German Army, fought during the Hundred Days Offensive of World War I.
The Battle of the Somme (Bataille de la Somme, Schlacht an der Somme), also known as the Somme Offensive, was a battle of the First World War fought by the armies of the British Empire and France against the German Empire.
The Battle of Vimy Ridge was part of the Battle of Arras, in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region of France, during the First World War.
Belfast (is the capital city of Northern Ireland, located on the banks of the River Lagan on the east coast of Ireland.
Bermuda is a British Overseas Territory in the North Atlantic Ocean.
Boer is the Dutch and Afrikaans noun for "farmer".
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
There have been two formations named British Army of the Rhine (BAOR).
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
Buckinghamshire, abbreviated Bucks, is a county in South East England which borders Greater London to the south east, Berkshire to the south, Oxfordshire to the west, Northamptonshire to the north, Bedfordshire to the north east and Hertfordshire to the east.
The Burma Campaign was a series of battles fought in the British colony of Burma, South-East Asian theatre of World War II, primarily between the forces of the British Empire and China, with support from the United States, against the invading forces of Imperial Japan, Thailand, and the Indian National Army.
The Burma Division was a static formation of the British Indian Army.
Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963) was a British novelist, poet, academic, medievalist, literary critic, essayist, lay theologian, broadcaster, lecturer, and Christian apologist.
Cachar is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India.
A cadre is the complement of commissioned officers and non-commissioned officers of a military unit responsible for training the rest of the unit.
A cap badge, also known as head badge or hat badge, is a badge worn on uniform headgear and distinguishes the wearer's nationality and/or organisation.
The Capture of Gibraltar by Anglo-Dutch forces of the Grand Alliance occurred between 1–3 August 1704 during the War of the Spanish Succession.
The Cardwell Reforms were a series of reforms of the British Army undertaken by Secretary of State for War Edward Cardwell between 1868 and 1874 with the support of Liberal prime minister William Ewart Gladstone.
Cassell & Co is a British book publishing house, founded in 1848 by John Cassell (1817–1865), which became in the 1890s an international publishing group company.
Chatham is one of the Medway towns located within the Medway unitary authority, in North Kent, in South East England.
The Childers Reforms of 1881 reorganised the infantry regiments of the British Army.
Color (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or purple.
The Commander-in-Chief of the Forces, later Commander-in-Chief, British Army, or just the Commander-in-Chief (C-in-C), was the professional head of the English Army from 1660 to 1707 (the English Army, founded in 1645, was succeeded in 1707 by the new British Army, incorporating existing Scottish regiments) and of the British Army from 1707 until 1904.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Danapur (also known as Dinapur Nizamat or Dinapur) is a satellite town of Patna in Bihar state of India.
Kaiserswerth is one of the oldest parts of the City of Düsseldorf.
Derry, officially Londonderry, is the second-largest city in Northern Ireland and the fourth-largest city on the island of Ireland.
Devonport, formerly named Plymouth Dock or just Dock, is a district of Plymouth in the English county of Devon, although it was, at one time, the more important settlement.
The Devonshire and Dorset Regiment, usually just known as the Devon and Dorsets, was an infantry regiment of the British Army formed in 1958 by the amalgamation of two county regiments, the Devonshire Regiment and the Dorset Regiment.
Dost Mohammad Khan (دوست محمد خان, December 23, 1793June 9, 1863) was the founder of the Barakzai dynasty and one of the prominent rulers of Afghanistan during the First Anglo-Afghan War.
Dragoons originally were a class of mounted infantry, who used horses for mobility but dismounted to fight on foot.
The Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry (DCLI) was a light infantry regiment of the British Army in existence from 1881 to 1959.
The Durham Light Infantry (DLI) was a light infantry regiment of the British Army in existence from 1881 to 1968.
The Kingdom of France in the early modern period, from the Renaissance (circa 1500–1550) to the Revolution (1789–1804), was a monarchy ruled by the House of Bourbon (a Capetian cadet branch).
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
The Eighth Army was a field army formation of the British Army during the Second World War, fighting in the North African and Italian campaigns.
The Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Kurfürstentum Braunschweig-Lüneburg) was an Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, located in northwestern Germany.
EOKA (ΕΟΚΑ) was a Greek Cypriot nationalist guerrilla organisation that fought a campaign for the end of British rule in Cyprus, for the island's self-determination and for eventual union with Greece.
A facing colour is a common tailoring technique for European military uniforms where the visible inside lining of a standard military jacket, coat or tunic is of a different colour to that of the garment itself.
The Far East is a geographical term in English that usually refers to East Asia (including Northeast Asia), the Russian Far East (part of North Asia), and Southeast Asia.
The Fifth Battle of Ypres, also called the Advance of Flanders and the Battle of the Peaks of Flanders (Bataille des Crêtes de Flandres) is an informal name used to identify a series of battles in northern France and southern Belgium from late September through October 1918.
The First Anglo-Afghan War (also known as Disaster in Afghanistan) was fought between British imperial India and the Emirate of Afghanistan from 1839 to 1842.
The First Army was a formation of the British Army that existed during the First and Second World Wars.
The First Battle of the Aisne (1re Bataille de l'Aisne) was the Allied follow-up offensive against the right wing of the German First Army (led by Alexander von Kluck) and the Second Army (led by Karl von Bülow) as they retreated after the First Battle of the Marne earlier in September 1914.
The Battle of the Marne (Première bataille de la Marne, also known as the Miracle of the Marne, Le Miracle de la Marne) was a World War I battle fought from It resulted in an Allied victory against the German armies in the west.
Flanders (Vlaanderen, Flandre, Flandern) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history.
The British Fourteenth Army was a multi-national force comprising units from Commonwealth countries during World War II.
The French Campaign in Egypt and Syria (1798–1801) was Napoleon Bonaparte's campaign in the Ottoman territories of Egypt and Syria, proclaimed to defend French trade interests, weaken Britain's access to British India, and to establish scientific enterprise in the region.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution.
Gale and Polden was a British printer and publisher.
The Gateway of India is an arch monument built during the 20th century in Bombay, India.
George Albert Cairns VC (12 December 1913 – 19 March 1944) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
The German Army (Heer) was the land forces component of the Wehrmacht, the regular German Armed Forces, from 1935 until it was demobilized and later dissolved in August 1946.
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.
The Gothic Line (Gotenstellung; Linea Gotica) was a German defensive line of the Italian Campaign of World War II.
The Great Retreat, also known as the Retreat from Mons, is the name given to the long withdrawal to the River Marne, in August and September 1914, by the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) and the French Fifth Army, Allied forces on the Western Front in World War I, after their defeat by the Imperial German armies at the Battle of Charleroi (21 August) and the Battle of Mons (23 August).
Τhe Greek Civil War (ο Eμφύλιος, o Emfýlios, "the Civil War") was fought in Greece from 1946 to 1949 between the Greek government army—backed by the United Kingdom and the United States—and the Democratic Army of Greece (DSE)—the military branch of the Greek Communist Party (KKE).
Guernsey is an island in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy.
The guinea was a coin of approximately one quarter ounce of gold that was minted in Great Britain between 1663 and 1814.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
The Haitian Revolution (Révolution haïtienne) was a successful anti-slavery and anti-colonial insurrection by self-liberated slaves against French colonial rule in Saint-Domingue, now the sovereign nation of Haiti.
The Haldane Reforms were a series of far-ranging reforms of the British Army made from 1906 to 1912, and named after the Secretary of State for War, Richard Burdon Haldane.
General Harry Pulteney (14 February 1686 – 26 October 1767) was an English soldier and Member of Parliament.
Field Marshal Henry Seymour Conway (1721 – 9 July 1795) was a British general and statesman.
Herat (هرات,Harât,Herât; هرات; Ἀλεξάνδρεια ἡ ἐν Ἀρίοις, Alexándreia hē en Aríois; Alexandria Ariorum) is the third-largest city of Afghanistan.
The Hindenburg Line (Siegfriedstellung or Siegfried Position) was a German defensive position of World War I, built during the winter of 1916–1917 on the Western Front, from Arras to Laffaux, near Soissons on the Aisne.
The historic counties of England are areas that were established for administration by the Normans, in many cases based on earlier kingdoms and shires created by the Anglo-Saxons and others.
The Home Service Battalions were a force of the British Army in both World War I and World War II, intended for home defence and other duties.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
The Hundred Days Offensive was the final period of the First World War, during which the Allies launched a series of offensives against the Central Powers on the Western Front from 8 August to 11 November 1918, beginning with the Battle of Amiens.
Huy (Hoei; Hu) is a municipality of Belgium.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
III Corps was an army corps of the British Army formed in both the First World War and the Second World War.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces.
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major uprising in India between 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
The Italian Campaign of World War II consisted of the Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war in Europe.
The Jacob Baronetcy of Bromley in the County of Middlesex was a title in the Baronetage of England.
The Jacobite rising of 1689 was the first of a series of risings to take place with the aim of restoring James II of England and VII of Scotland, the last Catholic monarch, and later his descendants of the House of Stuart to the crown of Great Britain, after they had been deposed by Parliament in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
The Jacobite rising of 1745 or 'The '45' (Bliadhna Theàrlaich, "The Year of Charles") is the name commonly used for the attempt by Charles Edward Stuart to regain the British throne for the House of Stuart.
Jalālābād, or Dzalalabad, formerly called Ādīnapūr as documented by the 7th-century Xuanzang, is a city in eastern Afghanistan.
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.
James Barry, 4th Earl of Barrymore (1667 – 5 January 1748) was an Irish soldier and Jacobite politician.
James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that James II died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style) may result from a miscalculation done by an author of anonymous "An Exact Account of the Sickness and Death of the Late King James II, as also of the Proceedings at St. Germains thereupon, 1701, in a letter from an English gentleman in France to his friend in London" (Somers Tracts, ed. 1809–1815, XI, pp. 339–342). The account reads: "And on Friday the 17th instant, about three in the afternoon, the king died, the day he always fasted in memory of our blessed Saviour's passion, the day he ever desired to die on, and the ninth hour, according to the Jewish account, when our Saviour was crucified." As 17 September 1701 New Style falls on a Saturday and the author insists that James died on Friday, "the day he ever desired to die on", an inevitable conclusion is that the author miscalculated the date, which later made it to various reference works. See "English Historical Documents 1660–1714", ed. by Andrew Browning (London and New York: Routledge, 2001), 136–138.) was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
Jellalabad Barracks was a military installation in Taunton.
Jersey (Jèrriais: Jèrri), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (Bailliage de Jersey; Jèrriais: Bailliage dé Jèrri), is a Crown dependency located near the coast of Normandy, France.
Field Marshal Allan Francis Harding, 1st Baron Harding of Petherton, (10 February 1896 – 20 January 1989), known as John Harding, was a senior British Army officer who fought in both the First World War and the Second World War, served in the Malayan Emergency, and later advised the British government on the response to the Mau Mau Uprising.
Brigadier-General John Middleton (27 September 1678 – 4 May 1739) was a British politician.
Lieutenant-General Sir John George des Reaux Swayne KCB CBE (3 July 1890 – 16 December 1964) was a senior British Army officer who became General Officer Commanding-in-Chief (GOC-in-C) of South-Eastern Command during World War II.
Colonel John Llewellyn Waddy OBE (born 17 June 1920) is a former officer of the British Army who served in World War II, Palestine and the Malayan Emergency before becoming director of the SAS.
Jungle warfare is a term used to cover the special techniques needed for military units to survive and fight in jungle terrain.
Kabul (کابل) is the capital of Afghanistan and its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country.
Kandahār or Qandahār (کندهار; قندهار; known in older literature as Candahar) is the second-largest city in Afghanistan, with a population of about 557,118.
Karnal (or the Rice Bowl of India) is a city located in National Capital Region and the headquarters of Karnal District in the Indian state of Haryana.
Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties.
Khaki (Canada and) is a color, a light shade of yellow-brown.
The King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry (KOYLI) was a light infantry regiment of the British Army.
The King's Regiment (Liverpool) was one of the oldest line infantry regiments of the British Army, having been formed in 1685 and numbered as the 8th (The King's) Regiment of Foot in 1751.
The King's Shropshire Light Infantry (KSLI) was a light infantry regiment of the British Army, formed in the Childers Reforms of 1881, but with antecedents dating back to 1755.
The Ava Kingdom (အင်းဝခေတ်) was the dominant kingdom that ruled upper Burma (Myanmar) from 1364 to 1555.
Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.
Lake Champlain (French: Lac Champlain) (Abenaki: Pitawbagok) (Mohawk: Kaniatarakwà:ronte) is a natural freshwater lake in North America mainly within the borders of the United States (in the states of Vermont and New York) but partially situated across the Canada–U.S. border, in the Canadian province of Quebec.
Liège (Lidje; Luik,; Lüttich) is a major Walloon city and municipality and the capital of the Belgian province of Liège. The city is situated in the valley of the Meuse, in the east of Belgium, not far from borders with the Netherlands (Maastricht is about to the north) and with Germany (Aachen is about north-east). At Liège, the Meuse meets the River Ourthe. The city is part of the sillon industriel, the former industrial backbone of Wallonia. It still is the principal economic and cultural centre of the region. The Liège municipality (i.e. the city proper) includes the former communes of Angleur, Bressoux, Chênée, Glain, Grivegnée, Jupille-sur-Meuse, Rocourt, and Wandre. In November 2012, Liège had 198,280 inhabitants. The metropolitan area, including the outer commuter zone, covers an area of 1,879 km2 (725 sq mi) and had a total population of 749,110 on 1 January 2008. Population of all municipalities in Belgium on 1 January 2008. Retrieved on 2008-10-19. Definitions of metropolitan areas in Belgium. The metropolitan area of Liège is divided into three levels. First, the central agglomeration (agglomeratie) with 480,513 inhabitants (2008-01-01). Adding the closest surroundings (banlieue) gives a total of 641,591. And, including the outer commuter zone (forensenwoonzone) the population is 810,983. Retrieved on 2008-10-19. This includes a total of 52 municipalities, among others, Herstal and Seraing. Liège ranks as the third most populous urban area in Belgium, after Brussels and Antwerp, and the fourth municipality after Antwerp, Ghent and Charleroi.
Lieutenant colonel (Lt Col), is a rank in the British Army and Royal Marines which is also used in many Commonwealth countries.
Light infantry is a designation applied to certain types of foot soldiers (infantry) throughout history, typically having lighter equipment or armament or a more mobile or fluid function than other types of infantry, such as heavy infantry or line infantry.
The Light Infantry Brigade was an administrative formation of the British Army from 1948 to 1968.
Limburg (Dutch and Limburgish: Limburg; Limbourg) is a province in Belgium.
This is a list of numbered Regiments of Foot of the British Army from the mid-18th century until 1881, when numbering was abandoned.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
This is a list of people who have served as Lord Lieutenant of Oxfordshire.
This is an incomplete list of people who have served as Lord Lieutenant of Warwickshire.
General Lord Mark Kerr (baptised 1 April 1676 – 2 February 1752) was a general in the British Army and Governor of Edinburgh Castle.
The Lord-Lieutenant is the British monarch's personal representative in each county of the United Kingdom.
The Malayan Emergency (Darurat Malaya) was a guerrilla war fought in pre- and post-independence Federation of Malaya, from 1948 until 1960.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Martinique is an insular region of France located in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea, with a land area of and a population of 385,551 inhabitants as of January 2013.
Megiddo is a battle honour awarded to units of the British Army, Royal Air Force and British Empire forces which successfully participated in the Battle of Megiddo in 1918 during the Palestine Campaign of the First World War.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
The Mesopotamian campaign was a campaign in the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I fought between the Allies represented by the British Empire, mostly troops from Britain, Australia and the British Indian, and the Central Powers, mostly of the Ottoman Empire.
The Militia of the United Kingdom were the military reserve forces of the United Kingdom after the Union in 1801 of the former Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland.
The First Mohmand Campaign was a British military campaign against the Mohmands from 1897 to 1898.
The Monmouth Rebellion, also known as The Revolt of the West or The West Country rebellion, was an attempt to overthrow James II, the Duke of York.
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
A mural crown (corona muralis) is a crown or headpiece representing city walls or towers.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
An-Nabi Samwil also al-Nabi Samuil (النبي صموئيل an-Nabi Samu'il, translit: "the prophet Samuel") is a Palestinian village of nearly 220 inhabitants in the West Bank, within the Jerusalem Governorate, located four kilometers north of Jerusalem.
The Nine Years' War (1688–97) – often called the War of the Grand Alliance or the War of the League of Augsburg – was a conflict between Louis XIV of France and a European coalition of Austria, the Holy Roman Empire, the Dutch Republic, Spain, England and Savoy.
The Normandy landings were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II.
The North West Europe campaign was the term used by the British Commonwealth armed forces for the campaigns in North West Europe, including its skies and adjoining waters during World War II.
The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) was a province of British India and subsequently of Pakistan.
Operation Bluecoat was an offensive in the Battle of Normandy, from 30 July until 7 August 1944, during the Second World War.
Operation Diadem, also referred to as the Fourth Battle of Monte Cassino or, in Canada, the Battle of the Liri Valley, was an offensive operation undertaken by the Allies of World War II (U.S. Fifth Army and British Eighth Army in May 1944, as part of the Italian Campaign of World War II. Diadem was supported by air attacks called Operation Strangle. The opposing force was the German 10th Army. The object of Diadem was to break the German defenses on the Gustav Line (the western half of the Winter Line) and open up the Liri Valley, the main route to Rome. General Sir Harold Alexander, Commander-in-Chief (C-in-C) of the Allied Armies in Italy (AAI), planned Diadem to coordinate roughly with the invasion of Normandy, so that German forces would be tied down in Italy, and could not be redeployed to France. Four corps were employed in the attack. From right to left these were Polish II Corps and British XIII Corps, of Eighth Army, and the Free French Corps (including Moroccan Goumiers) and U.S. II Corps, of Fifth Army. Fifth Army also controlled U.S. VI Corps in the Anzio beachhead, some 60 miles northwest. Diadem was launched at 23:00pm on 11 May 1944 by elements, composed of the British 4th Infantry Division and 8th Indian Infantry Division with supporting fire from the 1st Canadian Armoured Brigade. They made a successful strongly opposed night crossing of the Garigliano and Rapido rivers. This broke into the heart of the German defenses in the Liri valley against strong opposition and drew German theater reserves reducing pressure on the Anzio beachhead. The Free French Corps pushed through the mountains to the left on 14 May, supported by U.S. II Corps along the coast. On 17 May, Polish II Corps on the right attacked Monte Cassino. The German position collapsed, and the Germans fell back from the Gustav Line to the Hitler Line some 10 miles to their rear. On 23 May, the four corps attacked the Hitler Line. On the same day, the U.S. VI Corps attacked out of the Anzio beachhead. The Hitler Line was breached by 1st Canadian Infantry Division's 4th Princess Louise Dragoon Guards at Pontecorvo on 23 May. German Tenth Army was forced to retire northwestward. U.S. VI Corps, moving northeast from Anzio, was on the point of cutting the German line of retreat, when Lieutenant General Mark W. Clark, commander of the U.S. Fifth Army, inexplicably ordered them to turn northwest and advance on Rome instead. There is much speculation that he did this so that his Fifth Army would capture Rome ahead of the Eighth Army advancing up the Liri Valley. The German 10th Army thus avoided being surrounded. The Germans fought a series of delaying actions, retired to the Trasimene Line, and then to the Gothic Line (identified on German maps as the "Green" Line), north of the Arno River.
Operation Epsom, also known as the First Battle of the Odon, was a British Second World War offensive that took place between 26 and 30 June 1944, during the Battle of Normandy.
Operation Jupiter was an offensive by VIII Corps of the British Second Army on 10 July 1944 during the Battle of Normandy in the Second World War.
Operation Market Garden (17–25 September 1944) was an unsuccessful Allied military operation planned, and predominantly led, by the British.
Operation Michael was a major German military offensive during the First World War that began the Spring Offensive on 21 March 1918.
Operation Overlord was the codename for the Battle of Normandy, the Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied Western Europe during World War II.
Beginning on the night of March 23, 1945 the 21st Army Group under Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery launched Operation Plunder, as a part of a coordinated set of Rhine crossings.
Operation Tonga was the codename given to the airborne operation undertaken by the British 6th Airborne Division between 5 June and 7 June 1944 as a part of Operation Overlord and the D-Day landings during the Second World War.
Operation Varsity (24 March 1945) was a successful airborne forces operation launched by Allied troops that took place toward the end of World War II.
The Operations against the Mohmands, Bunerwals and Swatis were carried out by the Indian Army during World War I. The first operation began at the start of 1915, with a raid by the Mohmand tribe near the Shabkadr Fort in Peshawar.
The Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry was a light infantry regiment of the British Army that existed from 1881 until 1958, serving in the Second Boer War, World War I and World War II.
The Parachute Regiment, colloquially known as the Paras, is an elite airborne infantry regiment of the British Army.
Patrick Carlin VC (1832 – 11 May 1895), of Belfast, County Antrim, was an Irish recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
Plattsburgh is a city in and the seat of Clinton County, New York, United States.
Portsmouth is a port city in Hampshire, England, mainly on Portsea Island, south-west of London and south-east of Southampton.
Prince William, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, (William Henry; 25 November 1743 – 25 August 1805), was a grandson of King George II and a younger brother of King George III of the United Kingdom.
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
Reading is a large, historically important minster town in Berkshire, England, of which it is the county town.
A regiment is a military unit.
When the Second Boer War broke out on 11 October 1899, the Boers had a numeric superiority within Southern Africa.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
RNAS Charlton Horethorne (HMS Heron II) is a former Royal Naval Air Station in the hamlet of Sigwells in Somerset, England.
Major-General Sir Robert Henry Sale GCB (19 September 1782 – 21 December 1845) was a British Army officer who commanded the garrison of Jalalabad during the First Afghan War and was killed in action during the First Anglo-Sikh War.
Roermond (Remunj) is a city, a municipality, and a diocese in the southeastern part of the Netherlands.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The Royal Regiment of Artillery, commonly referred to as the Royal Artillery (RA) and colloquially known as "The Gunners", is the artillery arm of the British Army.
The Royal Gloucestershire, Berkshire and Wiltshire Regiment was a short-lived infantry regiment of the British Army.
The Royal Green Jackets (RGJ) was an infantry regiment of the British Army, one of two "large regiments" within the Light Division (the other being The Light Infantry).
The Hampshire Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, created as part of the Childers Reforms in 1881 by the amalgamation of the 37th (North Hampshire) Regiment of Foot and the 67th (South Hampshire) Regiment of Foot.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Saint Lawrence River (Fleuve Saint-Laurent; Tuscarora: Kahnawáʼkye; Mohawk: Kaniatarowanenneh, meaning "big waterway") is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America.
Saint-Domingue was a French colony on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola from 1659 to 1804.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
The Highlands (the Hielands; A’ Ghàidhealtachd, "the place of the Gaels") are a historic region of Scotland.
The Second Battle of Bapaume was a battle of the First World War that took place at Bapaume in France, from 21 August 1918 to 3 September 1918.
The Second Battle of Gaza was fought between 17 and 19 April 1917, following the defeat of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) at the First Battle of Gaza in March, during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the First World War.
The Second Battle of the Marne (Seconde Bataille de la Marne), or Battle of Reims (15 July – 6 August 1918) was the last major German offensive on the Western Front during the First World War.
The Second Battle of the Somme of 1918 was fought during the First World War on the Western Front from late August to early September, in the basin of the River Somme.
During World War I, the Second Battle of Ypres was fought from for control of the strategic Flemish town of Ypres in western Belgium after the First Battle of Ypres the previous autumn.
The Second Boer War (11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902) was fought between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa.
The Secretary at War was a political position in the English and later British government, with some responsibility over the administration and organization of the Army, but not over military policy.
Shuja Shah Durrani Khan (also known as Shāh Shujāʻ, Shah Shuja, Shoja Shah, Shuja al-Mulk) (4 November 1785 – 5 April 1842) was ruler of the Durrani Empire from 1803 to 1809.
A shako is a tall, cylindrical military cap, usually with a visor, and sometimes tapered at the top.
The Latin adverb sic ("thus", "just as"; in full: sic erat scriptum, "thus was it written") inserted after a quoted word or passage indicates that the quoted matter has been transcribed or translated exactly as found in the source text, complete with any erroneous or archaic spelling, surprising assertion, faulty reasoning, or other matter that might otherwise be taken as an error of transcription.
The Siege of Alexandria was fought between 17 August and 2 September 1801, during the French Revolutionary Wars, between French and British forces and was the last action of the Egyptian Campaign.
The Siege of Barcelona took place between 14 September and 19 October 1705 during the War of the Spanish Succession when a multinational Grand Alliance army led by Lord Peterborough, supporting the Habsburg pretender to the Spanish throne, captured the city of Barcelona from its Spanish Bourbonic defenders, most of whom then joined the Habsburg army.
The Siege of Cork took place during the Williamite war in Ireland in the year of 1690, shortly after the Battle of the Boyne when James II attempted to retake the English throne from King William III.
The Siege of Sevastopol (at the time called in English the Siege of Sebastopol) lasted from September 1854 until September 1855, during the Crimean War.
The Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I was fought between the British Empire and the Ottoman Empire, supported by the German Empire.
A slouch hat is a wide-brimmed felt or cloth hat most commonly worn as part of a military uniform, often, although not always, with a chinstrap.
The Somerset and Cornwall Light Infantry (SCLI) was a light infantry regiment of the British Army.
The Somerset Military Museum is part of the Museum of Somerset located in the 12th century great hall of Taunton Castle, in Taunton, Somerset.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
Southern Command was a Command of the British Army.
Spain's role in the independence of the United States was part of its dispute over colonial supremacy with the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Special Reserve was established on 1 April 1908 with the function of maintaining a reservoir of manpower for the British Army and training replacement drafts in times of war.
A sphinx (Σφίγξ, Boeotian: Φίξ, plural sphinxes or sphinges) is a mythical creature with the head of a human and the body of a lion.
A standing army, unlike a reserve army, is a permanent, often professional, army.
The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli War, also named the Tripartite Aggression (in the Arab world) and Operation Kadesh or Sinai War (in Israel),Also named: Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, Suez–Sinai war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Operation Musketeer (أزمة السويس /‎ العدوان الثلاثي, "Suez Crisis"/ "the Tripartite Aggression"; Crise du canal de Suez; מבצע קדש "Operation Kadesh", or מלחמת סיני, "Sinai War") was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France.
Taunton is a large regional town in Somerset, England.
Taunton Castle is a castle built to defend the town of Taunton, Somerset, England.
The Territorial Force was a part-time volunteer organisation, created in 1908 to help meet the military needs of the United Kingdom (UK) without resorting to conscription.
The Chronicles of Narnia is a series of seven fantasy novels by C. S. Lewis.
The Light Infantry was an infantry regiment of the British Army, part of the Light Division.
The Rifles is an infantry regiment of the British Army.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
Theophilus Hastings, 7th Earl of Huntingdon was a minor 17th century English politician who was one of the few to remain loyal to James II during and after the Glorious Revolution.
The Third Anglo-Afghan War (د افغان-انګرېز درېمه جګړه), also referred to as the Third Afghan War, began on 6 May 1919 when the Emirate of Afghanistan invaded British India and ended with an armistice on 8 August 1919.
The Third Anglo-Burmese War, also known as the Third Burma War, was a conflict that took place during 7–29 November 1885, with sporadic resistance and insurgency continuing into 1887.
The Siege of Gibraltar of 1727 (thirteenth siege of Gibraltar, second by Spain) saw Spanish forces besiege the British garrison of Gibraltar as part of the Anglo-Spanish War.
Thomas Henry Sage VC (8 December 1882 – 20 July 1945) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
Lieutenant General Sir Thomas D’Oyly Snow (5 May 1858 – 30 August 1940) was a British Army officer who fought on the Western Front in World War I. He played an important role in the war, leading 4th Division in the retreat of August 1914, and commanding VII Corps at the unsuccessful Gommecourt diversion on the first day on the Somme (1 July 1916) and at the Battle of Cambrai in November 1917.
Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount Sydney PC (24 February 1733 – 30 June 1800), was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1754 to 1783 when he was raised to the peerage as Baron Sydney.
Batman River The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼; دجلة Dijlah; ܕܹܩܠܵܬ.; Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ;, biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.
The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle of 1748, sometimes called the Treaty of Aachen, ended the War of the Austrian Succession following a congress assembled on 24 April 1748 at the Free Imperial City of Aachen, called Aix-la-Chapelle in French and then also in English, in the west of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Treaty of Amiens (French: la paix d'Amiens) temporarily ended hostilities between the French Republic and Great Britain during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Treaty or Peace of Ryswick, also known as The Peace of Rijswijk was a series of agreements signed in the Dutch city of Rijswijk between 20 September and 30 October 1697, ending the 1689-97 Nine Years War between France and the Grand Alliance of England, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire and the Dutch Republic.
Trench warfare is a type of land warfare using occupied fighting lines consisting largely of military trenches, in which troops are well-protected from the enemy's small arms fire and are substantially sheltered from artillery.
The Tunisian Campaign (also known as the Battle of Tunisia) was a series of battles that took place in Tunisia during the North African Campaign of the Second World War, between Axis and Allied forces.
The Province of Upper Canada (province du Haut-Canada) was a part of British Canada established in 1791 by the Kingdom of Great Britain, to govern the central third of the lands in British North America and to accommodate Loyalist refugees of the United States after the American Revolution.
Valenciennes (Dutch: Valencijn, Latin: Valentianae, Valincyinne) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
Venlo is a city and municipality in the southeastern Netherlands, near the German border.
Major-General Vivian Henry Bruce Majendie CB DSO (20 April 1886 – 13 January 1960) was a British Army officer and amateur cricketer for Somerset County Cricket Club.
The Volunteer Force was a citizen army of part-time rifle, artillery and engineer corps, created as a popular movement throughout the British Empire in 1859.
General Sir Walter Pipon Braithwaite, (11 November 1865 – 7 September 1945) was a British Army officer who held senior commands during the First World War.
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815.
The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700.
A warrant is generally an order that serves as a specific type of authorization, that is, a writ issued by a competent officer, usually a judge or magistrate, which permits an otherwise illegal act that would violate individual rights and affords the person executing the writ protection from damages if the act is performed.
Wazīr Akbar Khān (1816–1845; وزير اکبر خان), born Mohammad Akbar Khān (محمد اکبر خان) and also known as Amīr Akbar Khān (امير اکبر خان), was an Afghan prince, general, and finally emir for about three years until his death.
The West Indies or the Caribbean Basin is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean in the Caribbean that includes the island countries and surrounding waters of three major archipelagoes: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago.
The West Somerset Yeomanry was a Yeomanry regiment of the British Army.
The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War.
William III (Willem; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702), also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702.
William Knox-Leet VC CB (3 November 1833 in Dalkey, County Dublin – 29 June 1898), was an Irish recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
Field Marshal Sir William Maynard Gomm (10 November 1784 – 15 March 1875) was a British Army officer.
William Napier VC (20 August 1828 – 2 June 1908) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
Field Marshal William Joseph Slim, 1st Viscount Slim, (6 August 1891 – 14 December 1970), usually known as Bill Slim, was a British military commander and the 13th Governor-General of Australia.
The Wiltshire Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, formed in 1881 under the Childers Reforms by the amalgamation of the 62nd (Wiltshire) Regiment of Foot and the 99th Duke of Edinburgh's (Lanarkshire) Regiment of Foot.
Winchester is a city and the county town of Hampshire, England.
The Worcestershire Regiment was a line infantry regiment in the British Army, formed in 1881 under the Childers Reforms by the amalgamation of the 29th (Worcestershire) Regiment of Foot and the 36th (Herefordshire) Regiment of Foot.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Xhosa Wars (also known as the Cape Frontier Wars, or Africa's 100 Years War) were a series of nine wars or flare-ups (from 1779 to 1879) between the Xhosa tribes and European settlers in what is now the Eastern Cape in South Africa.
XII Corps was an army corps of the British Army that fought in the First and Second World Wars.
Yeomanry is a designation used by a number of units or sub-units of the British Army Reserve, descended from volunteer cavalry regiments.
The 129th Infantry Brigade was an infantry brigade of the British Army that served during both the First and Second World Wars.
The 135th Infantry Brigade was an infantry brigade of the Territorial Force, part of the British Army.
The 14th (Light) Division was an infantry division of the British Army, one of the Kitchener's Army divisions raised from volunteers by Lord Kitchener during the First World War.
The 14th Indian Division was formed during World War I, for service in the Mesopotamian Campaign.
The 14th Indian Infantry Brigade was an infantry brigade formation of the Indian Army during World War II.
The 17th Airborne Division was an airborne infantry division of the United States Army during World War II, commanded by Major General William M. Miley.
The 1st (Peshawar) Division was a Regular Division of the British Indian Army, formed as a result of the Kitchener reforms of the Indian Army in 1903.
The 1st Airborne Division was an airborne infantry division of the British Army during the Second World War.
The 20th (Light) Division was an infantry division of the British Army, part of Kitchener's Army, raised in the First World War.
A 21-gun salute is the most commonly recognized of the customary gun salutes that are performed by the firing of cannons or artillery as a military honor.
The 214th Infantry Brigade was an infantry brigade of the British Army raised during World War II that saw active service on the North West Europe.
The 21st Division was an infantry division of the British Army during World War I, raised in September 1914 by men volunteering for Lord Kitchener's New Armies.
The 28th Infantry Brigade was a British Army formation which served during the First World War, the Second World War, the Korean War, The Malayan Emergency and Indonesian Confrontation.
The 2nd Gibraltar Brigade was a British Army regular garrison brigade during the Second World War.
The 33rd Division was a New Army infantry division of the British Army formed in 1914 during the First World War as the 40th Division in the K5 Army group then renumbered in April 1915 as part of the new K4 Army Group.
The 34th Division was an infantry division of the British Army formed during the First World War in April 1915 as part Kitchener's Army, part of the K4 Army Group.
The 37th Division was an infantry division of the British Army, raised during World War I. The divisional symbol was a gold horseshoe, open end up.
The 3rd (Lahore) Division was an infantry division of the British Indian Army, first organised in 1852.
The 3rd Parachute Brigade was an airborne forces brigade raised by the British Army during the Second World War.
The 40th (the 2nd Somersetshire) Regiment of Foot was an infantry regiment of the British Army, raised in 1717 in Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia.
The 43rd (Wessex) Infantry Division was an infantry division of the British Army.
The 43rd Infantry Brigade, later 43 (Wessex) Brigade, was a brigade of the British Army.
The 45th Infantry Division was an infantry division of the Territorial Force, part of the British Army.
The 4th (Quetta) Division was an infantry division of the British Indian Army.
The 4th Infantry Division was a regular infantry division of the British Army with a very long history, seeing active service in the Peninsular War, the Crimean War, the First World War, and during the Second World War.
The 59th (2nd North Midland) Division was an infantry division of the British Army during World War I. It was formed in late 1914/early 1915 as a 2nd Line Territorial Force formation raised as a duplicate of the 46th (North Midland) Division.
The 5th Parachute Brigade was an airborne forces formation of brigade strength, raised by the British Army during the Second World War.
The 6th Airborne Division was an airborne infantry division of the British Army during the Second World War.
The 6th Airborne Division advance to the River Seine occurred in August 1944, in the later stages of the Battle of Normandy, following the German Army's defeat in the Falaise Pocket, during the Second World War.
The 74th (Yeomanry) Division was a Territorial Force infantry division formed in Palestine in early 1917 from three dismounted yeomanry brigades.
75th Division was an infantry division of the British Army in World War I. It was raised in the field by the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) in 1917 and it included British, Indian and South African troops.
The 7th (Light Infantry) Parachute Battalion was an airborne infantry battalion of the Parachute Regiment, formed by the British Army during the Second World War.
The 7th Indian Infantry Division was a war-formed infantry division, part of the Indian Army during World War II that saw service in the Burma Campaign.
13th (1st Somersetshire) (Prince Albert's Light Infantry) Regiment of Foot, 13th (1st Somersetshire) Regiment (Light Infantry), 13th (1st Somersetshire) Regiment of Foot, 13th (1st Somersetshire)(Prince Albert's Light Infantry) Regiment of Foot, 13th (1st Somersetshire, Prince Albert's Light Infantry) Regiment of Foot, 13th Foot, 13th Regiment of Foot, Prince Albert's (Somerset Light Infantry), Prince Albert's (Somersetshire Light Infantry), Prince Albert's Light Infantry, Prince Albert's Light Infantry (Somersetshire Regiment), Somerset Light Infantry (Prince Albert's), Somersetshire Light Infantry, The Prince Albert's (Somersetshire Light Infantry), The Somerset Light Infantry, The Somerset Light Infantry (Prince Albert's).