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Sonora

Index Sonora

Sonora, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Sonora (Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora), is one of 31 states that, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 federal entities of United Mexican States. [1]

366 relations: Abelardo L. Rodríguez, Abrigael Bohórquez, Accordion, Aconchi, Administrative divisions of Mexico, Adolfo de la Huerta, Aeroméxico, Agave, Agave angustifolia, Agave fourcroydes, Agave lechuguilla, Agribusiness, Agua Prieta, Alfalfa, Alfonso Ortiz Tirado, Algonquin language, Altar, Sonora, Alto Golfo de California Biosphere Reserve, Angus cattle, Apache, Aquifer, Area codes in Mexico by code (600-699), Arivechi, Arizona, Arizpe, Armando Zamora, Arroyo (creek), Arturo Márquez, Atil, Sonora, Álamos, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Álvaro Obregón, Álvaro Obregón Dam, Ímuris, Bacerac, Bacoachi, Bahía Kino, Baja California, Baja California Peninsula, Banámichi, Banda music, Barium sulfate, Basket weaving, Baviácora, Bavispe, Bácum, Beaver, Benito Juárez Municipality, Sonora, Benjamín G. Hill, Billfish, ..., Bismuth, Brisket, Brown booby, Burrito, Buzzard, Caborca, Cactus, Cajeme, California sea lion, Cananea, Cananea strike, Capital city, Carlos Prieto (cellist), Carlos Samuel Moreno Terán, Carne seca, Casas Grandes, Cáhita, César Gándara, Cócorit, Celestine (mineral), Central America, Chamber of Deputies (Mexico), Chameleon, Chickpea, Chihuahua (state), Chihuahuan Desert, Chili pepper, China, Chinese immigration to Mexico, Chorizo, Cigar, Ciudad Obregón, Claudia Pavlovich Arellano, Clovis culture, Coahuila, Cocopah, Colorado River, Comber (fish), Concepción River, Corrido, Cougar, Country, Coyote, Cucurpe, Cumpas, Day of the Dead, Daylight saving time, Desert tortoise, Desertification, Deserts and xeric shrublands, Dollar coin (United States), Douglas, Arizona, Dune, Durango, Ejido, El Desemboque, El Fin del Mundo, El Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar Biosphere Reserve, Enrique Torres Delgado, Ernesto de Lucas Hopkins, Estado de Occidente, Estuary, Etchojoa, Europe, Eusebio Kino, Evangelicalism, Eve Gil, Fernando de la Mora (tenor), Fernando Valenzuela, Flounder, Francis of Assisi, Francisco de Ibarra, Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, Fronteras, Gadsden Purchase, Gaston de Raousset-Boulbon, Gerardo Cornejo Murrieta, Germany, Gila monster, Gila River, Gomphothere, Gran Desierto de Altar, Granados, Sonora, Graphite, Great Depression, Gross domestic product, Grouper, Grupo México, Guadalajara, Guano, Guarijio, Guasave, Guaymas, Guazuma ulmifolia, Guillermo Padrés Elías, Gulf of California, Gulf of Mexico, Hacienda, Halophile, Héctor Martínez Arteche, Hereford cattle, Hermosillo, Hohokam, Holstein Friesian cattle, Holy Week, Holy Week in Mexico, Huachinera, Huatabampo, Huásabas, Huépac, Human Development Index, Idaho, Ignacio Mondaca Romero, Institutional Revolutionary Party, Interjet, Italy, Iván Figueroa, Jaguar, James L. Haley, Jesús Alberto Cano Vélez, José de Urrea, Julio César Chávez, Kayaking, Köppen climate classification, Kickapoo people, Least tern, Lebanon, Lent, List of cities in Mexico, List of current state governors in Mexico, List of Mexican states by area, List of Mexican states by Human Development Index, List of Mexican states by population, List of Mexican states by population density, List of states of Mexico, Louis Vuitton, Lutjanidae, Machaca, Magdalena de Kino, Mangrove, Manta ray, Manuel Ignacio Acosta Gutiérrez, Manuel Romo Rodríguez, Maquiladora, María Dolores del Río, María Félix, Marcos Pérez Esquer, Mario Moreno Zazueta, Marlin, Matachines, Maximilian I of Mexico, Mayo people, Mayo River (Mexico), Mazurka, Mátape River, Mesoamerica, Mesoamerican ballcourt, Mesquite, Mexican Federal Highway 15, Mexican ironwood carvings, Mexican peso, Mexican Plateau, Mexican Revolution, Mexican War of Independence, Mexican–American War, Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico–United States border, Mezcal, Michoacán, Middle East, Miguel de la Madrid, Moctezuma, Sonora, Mole (animal), Molybdenum, Monsoon, Montana, Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education, Moody's Investors Service, Mother Nature, Mountain Time Zone, Mule deer, Municipalities of Mexico, Municipalities of Sonora, Myotis vivesi, Naco, Sonora, Nacozari de García, National Action Party (Mexico), Navojoa, Nácori Chico, Nevada, New Mexico, New Spain, Nogales, Sonora, Norteño (music), North American Free Trade Agreement, North American jaguar, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Ochre, Olneya, Opata, Opata language, Oquitoa, Our Lady of the Rosary, Panela, Pedalo, Pedro Vega Granillo, Pelican, Petroglyph, Pickup truck, Pima people, Pimería Alta, Pinniped, Pitiquito, Plan of Agua Prieta, Pliocene, Plutarco Elías Calles, Plutarco Elías Calles Municipality, Polka, Porfirio Díaz, Portulaca oleracea, Postal codes in Mexico, Pre-Columbian era, Presidio, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Puebla, Pueblo Mágico, Puerto Libertad, Sonora, Puerto Peñasco, Punta Chueca, Quail, Quiriego, Radio Sonora, Rarámuri, Rattlesnake, Reform War, Roadrunner, Rodolfo Campodónico, Russia, San Carlos Nuevo Guaymas, San Dieguito Complex, San Felipe de Jesús, San Ignacio Río Muerto, San Javier, Sonora, San Luis Río Colorado, San Miguel de Horcasitas, San Pedro River (Arizona), Sardine, Sáric, Scalping, Scuba diving, Sea lion, Seafood, Seahorse, Second French intervention in Mexico, Senate of the Republic (Mexico), September 11 attacks, Seri language, Seri people, Seriola dorsalis, Shamanism, Sierra Madre Occidental, Sinaloa, Sinophobia, Skirt steak, Society of Jesus, Sonora Institute of Technology, Sonora River, Sonoran Desert, Sonoyta, Sorghum, Southwestern United States, Sovereign state, Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, Spanish missions in the Sonoran Desert, Sponge, Sylvia Aguilar Zéleny, Syria, Tamale, Tattoo, Telephone numbering plan, Tequila, Territorial evolution of Mexico, Tesgüino, Tiburón Island, Tohono O'odham, Tortilla, Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Tubutama, Tucson, Arizona, United States Border Patrol, Universidad de Sonora, Ures, USS Cyane (1837), Utah, Vícam, Venustiano Carranza, Vicente Fox, Viceroy, Villa Hidalgo, Sonora, VivaAerobús, Volaris, Volleyball, Waltz, William Walker (filibuster), Wollastonite, World War II, Yaqui, Yaqui music, Yaqui River, Yécora, Sonora, Yucatán Peninsula, Zinc, 1000 (number), 1824 Constitution of Mexico. Expand index (316 more) »

Abelardo L. Rodríguez

Abelardo Rodríguez Luján, commonly known as Abelardo L. Rodríguez (May 12, 1889 – February 13, 1967) was the interim president of Mexico from 1932–1934.

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Abrigael Bohórquez

Abrigael Bohórquez was a poet and playwright born in Caborca, Sonora, Mexico in 1936, many of which are social criticisms.

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Accordion

Accordions (from 19th-century German Akkordeon, from Akkord—"musical chord, concord of sounds") are a family of box-shaped musical instruments of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone type, colloquially referred to as a squeezebox.

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Aconchi

Aconchi is a small city in Aconchi Municipality that surrounds it, located in the center of the Mexican state of Sonora.

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Administrative divisions of Mexico

The United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic composed of 31 states and the capital, Mexico City, an autonomous entity on par with the states.

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Adolfo de la Huerta

Felipe Adolfo de la Huerta Marcor (May 26, 1881 – July 9, 1955), known as Adolfo de la Huerta, was a Mexican politician and 38th President of Mexico from June 1 to November 30, 1920, following the overthrow of Mexican president Venustiano Carranza.

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Aeroméxico

Aerovías de México, S.A. de C.V. operating as Aeroméxico (stylized as AEROMEXICO), is the flag carrier airline of Mexico based in Mexico City.

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Agave

Agave is a genus of monocots native to the hot and arid regions of Mexico and the Southwestern United States.

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Agave angustifolia

Agave angustifolia (Caribbean agave) is a plant which is native to Mexico and Central America.

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Agave fourcroydes

Henequen (Agave fourcroydes Lem.) is an agave, a plant species native to southern Mexico and Guatemala.

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Agave lechuguilla

Agave lechuguilla (common name in Chihuahua: lechuguilla, meaning "big lettuce") is an Agave species found only in the Chihuahuan Desert, where it is an indicator species.

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Agribusiness

Agribusiness is the business of agricultural production.

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Agua Prieta

Agua Prieta (English: Dark Water, Opata: Bachicuy) is a town in Agua Prieta Municipality in the northeastern corner of the Mexican state of Sonora.

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Alfalfa

Alfalfa, Medicago sativa also called lucerne, is a perennial flowering plant in the pea family Fabaceae cultivated as an important forage crop in many countries around the world.

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Alfonso Ortiz Tirado

Alfonso Ortiz Tirado was an opera singer and medical doctor born in Álamos, Sonora, Mexico.

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Algonquin language

Algonquin (also spelled Algonkin; in Algonquin: Anicinàbemowin or Anishinàbemiwin) is either a distinct Algonquian language closely related to the Ojibwe language or a particularly divergent Ojibwe dialect.

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Altar, Sonora

Altar (O'odham: Wawuk) is small city and municipal seat of Altar Municipality in the Mexican state of Sonora.

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Alto Golfo de California Biosphere Reserve

Alto Golfo de California Biosphere Reserve is a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve located in the state of Sonora in extreme northwestern Mexico.

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Angus cattle

The Aberdeen Angus, sometimes simply Angus, is a Scottish breed of small beef cattle.

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Apache

The Apache are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Salinero, Plains and Western Apache.

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Aquifer

An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt).

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Area codes in Mexico by code (600-699)

The range of area codes 600-699 is reserved for Baja California, Baja California Sur, Chihuahua, Durango, Sinaloa and Sonora.

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Arivechi

Arivechi is a town in Arivechi Municipality in the Mexican state of Sonora.

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Arizona

Arizona (Hoozdo Hahoodzo; Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state in the southwestern region of the United States.

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Arizpe

Arizpe (or Arispe) is a small town in Arizpe Municipality in the north of the Mexican state of Sonora.

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Armando Zamora

Armando Zamora (born 1958, in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico) is a journalist, writer and musician.

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Arroyo (creek)

An arroyo ("brook"), also called a wash, is a dry creek, stream bed or gulch that temporarily or seasonally fills and flows after sufficient rain.

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Arturo Márquez

Arturo Márquez (born 20 December 1950) is a Mexican composer of orchestral music who uses musical forms and styles of his native Mexico and incorporates them into his compositions.

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Atil, Sonora

Atil (also Átil) is a small town in Atil Municipality in the northwest of the Mexican state of Sonora.

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Álamos

Álamos (Spanish is a town in Álamos Municipality in the Mexican state of Sonora, in northwestern Mexico.

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Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca

Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca (Jerez de la Frontera, 1488/1490/1492"Cabeza de Vaca, Alvar Núñez (1492?-1559?)." American Eras. Vol. 1: Early American Civilizations and Exploration to 1600. Detroit: Gale, 1997. 50-51. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 10 Dec. 2014.Seville, 1557/1558/1559/1560"Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2014. Web. 08 Dec. 2014.) was a Spanish explorer of the New World, and one of four survivors of the 1527 Narváez expedition.

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Álvaro Obregón

Álvaro Obregón Salido (February 19, 1880 – July 17, 1928) was a general in the Mexican Revolution, who became President of Mexico from 1920 to 1924.

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Álvaro Obregón Dam

The Álvaro Obregón Dam (also known as the Oviáchic Dam) is an embankment dam on the Yaqui River north of Ciudad Obregón, in Sonora, Mexico.

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Ímuris

Imuris is the municipal seat of Imuris Municipality in the north of the Mexican state of Sonora.

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Bacerac

Bacerac is a town in Bacerac Municipality in the Mexican state of Sonora.

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Bacoachi

Bacoachi is a small town in Bacoachi Municipality in the north of the Mexican state of Sonora.

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Bahía Kino

Bahía de Kino is a town in the Mexican state of Sonora, Hermosillo (municipality), on the Sea of Cortez (Gulf of California); it was named after Eusebio Kino.

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Baja California

Baja CaliforniaSometimes informally referred to as Baja California Norte (North Lower California) to distinguish it from both the Baja California Peninsula, of which it forms the northern half, and Baja California Sur, the adjacent state that covers the southern half of the peninsula.

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Baja California Peninsula

The Baja California Peninsula (Lower California Peninsula, Península de Baja California) is a peninsula in Northwestern Mexico.

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Banámichi

Banámichi (Opata: Banamitzi) is a small town in Banámichi Municipality in the north of the Mexican state of Sonora.

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Banda music

Banda is a term to designate a style of Mexican music and the musical ensemble in which wind instruments, mostly of brass and percussion, are performed.

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Barium sulfate

Barium sulfate (or sulphate) is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula BaSO4.

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Basket weaving

Basket weaving (also basketry or basket making) is the process of weaving or sewing pliable materials into two- or threedimensional artefacts, such as mats or containers.

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Baviácora

Baviácora is a small town and the municipal seat of the surrounding municipality of the Mexican state of Sonora.

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Bavispe

Bavispe is a small town and a municipality in the northeast part of the Mexican state of Sonora.

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Bácum

Bácum is a small city and the county seat of Bácum Municipality, located in the south of the Mexican state of Sonora at.

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Beaver

The beaver (genus Castor) is a large, primarily nocturnal, semiaquatic rodent.

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Benito Juárez Municipality, Sonora

Benito Juárez is one of the 72 municipalities (municipios) of the Mexican state of Sonora.

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Benjamín G. Hill

Gen.

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Billfish

The term billfish refers to a group of predatory fish characterised by prominent bills, or rostra, and by their large size; some are longer than 4 m (13 ft).

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Bismuth

Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.

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Brisket

Brisket is a cut of meat from the breast or lower chest of beef or veal.

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Brown booby

The brown booby (Sula leucogaster) is a large seabird of the booby family, Sulidae.

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Burrito

A burrito is a dish in Mexican and Tex-Mex cuisine that consists of a flour tortilla with various other ingredients.

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Buzzard

Buzzard is the common name of several species of bird of prey.

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Caborca

Caborca (Kawulk) is the municipal seat of Caborca Municipality in Sonora.

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Cactus

A cactus (plural: cacti, cactuses, or cactus) is a member of the plant family Cactaceae,Although the spellings of botanical families have been largely standardized, there is little agreement among botanists as to how these names are to be pronounced.

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Cajeme

Cajeme is one of the municipalities of the northwestern state of Sonora, Mexico.

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California sea lion

The California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) is a coastal eared seal native to western North America.

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Cananea

Cananea (from the Apache term for "horse meat") is a city in the northern Mexican state of Sonora, Northwestern Mexico.

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Cananea strike

The Cananea strike, also known as the Cananea riot, or the Cananea massacre, took place in the Mexican mining town of Cananea, Sonora, in June 1906.

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Capital city

A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.

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Carlos Prieto (cellist)

Carlos Prieto (born 1937) is a Mexican cellist and writer.

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Carlos Samuel Moreno Terán

Carlos Samuel Moreno Terán (born 4 November 1962) is a Mexican politician from the Ecologist Green Party of Mexico.

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Carne seca

Carne seca ("dried meat" in Spanish) is a type of dried beef used in Mexican cuisine.

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Casas Grandes

Casas Grandes (Spanish for Great Houses; also known as Paquimé) is a prehistoric archaeological site in the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua.

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Cáhita

Cáhita is a group of Indigenous peoples of Mexico, which includes the Yaqui and Mayo people.

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César Gándara

César Gándara is a short story writer and novelist born in Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico in 1971.

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Cócorit

Cócorit is a town located in the municipality of Cajeme in the southern part of the Mexican state of Sonora.

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Celestine (mineral)

Celestine or celestite is a mineral consisting of strontium sulfate (SrSO4).

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Central America

Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.

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Chamber of Deputies (Mexico)

The Chamber of Deputies (Spanish: Cámara de Diputados) is the lower house of the Congress of the Union, the bicameral legislature of Mexico.

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Chameleon

Chameleons or chamaeleons (family Chamaeleonidae) are a distinctive and highly specialized clade of Old World lizards with 202 species described as of June 2015.

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Chickpea

The chickpea or chick pea (Cicer arietinum) is a legume of the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae.

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Chihuahua (state)

Chihuahua, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Chihuahua (Estado Libre y Soberano de Chihuahua), is one of the 32 states of Mexico.

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Chihuahuan Desert

The Chihuahuan Desert is a desert and ecoregion designation covering parts of Mexico and the United States.

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Chili pepper

The chili pepper (also chile pepper, chilli pepper, or simply chilli) from Nahuatl chīlli) is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. They are widely used in many cuisines to add spiciness to dishes. The substances that give chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and related compounds known as capsaicinoids. Chili peppers originated in Mexico. After the Columbian Exchange, many cultivars of chili pepper spread across the world, used for both food and traditional medicine. Worldwide in 2014, 32.3 million tonnes of green chili peppers and 3.8 million tonnes of dried chili peppers were produced. China is the world's largest producer of green chillies, providing half of the global total.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chinese immigration to Mexico

Chinese immigration to Mexico began during the colonial era and has continued to the present day.

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Chorizo

Chorizo (or, from Spanish; or) or Chouriço (from Portuguese) is a type of pork sausage.

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Cigar

A cigar is a rolled bundle of dried and fermented tobacco leaves made to be smoked.

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Ciudad Obregón

Ciudad Obregón is the second largest city in the northern Mexican state of Sonora and named for Sonoran revolutionary general and president of Mexico, Álvaro Obregón.

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Claudia Pavlovich Arellano

Claudia Artemiza Pavlovich Arellano (born 17 June 1969) is a Mexican politician and lawyer affiliated with the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI).

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Clovis culture

The Clovis culture is a prehistoric Paleo-Indian culture, named for distinct stone tools found in close association with Pleistocene fauna at Blackwater Locality No. 1 near Clovis, New Mexico, in the 1920s and 1930s.

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Coahuila

Coahuila, formally Coahuila de Zaragoza, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Coahuila de Zaragoza (Estado Libre y Soberano de Coahuila de Zaragoza), is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.

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Cocopah

The Cocopah, also Cocopá (in Cocopa: Kwapa or Kwii Capáy - "Cloud People" referring to the fog along the Colorado River), are Native Americans who live in Baja California and Sonora, Mexico, and in Arizona in the United States.

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Colorado River

The Colorado River is one of the principal rivers of the Southwestern United States and northern Mexico (the other being the Rio Grande).

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Comber (fish)

The comber (Serranus cabrilla) is a species of fish in the family Serranidae.

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Concepción River

The Concepción River is a river of Mexico.

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Corrido

The corrido is a popular narrative song and poetry that form a ballad.

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Cougar

The cougar (Puma concolor), also commonly known as the mountain lion, puma, panther, or catamount, is a large felid of the subfamily Felinae native to the Americas.

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Country

A country is a region that is identified as a distinct national entity in political geography.

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Coyote

The coyote (Canis latrans); from Nahuatl) is a canine native to North America. It is smaller than its close relative, the gray wolf, and slightly smaller than the closely related eastern wolf and red wolf. It fills much of the same ecological niche as the golden jackal does in Eurasia, though it is larger and more predatory, and is sometimes called the American jackal by zoologists. The coyote is listed as least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature due to its wide distribution and abundance throughout North America, southwards through Mexico, and into Central America. The species is versatile, able to adapt to and expand into environments modified by humans. It is enlarging its range, with coyotes moving into urban areas in the Eastern U.S., and was sighted in eastern Panama (across the Panama Canal from their home range) for the first time in 2013., 19 coyote subspecies are recognized. The average male weighs and the average female. Their fur color is predominantly light gray and red or fulvous interspersed with black and white, though it varies somewhat with geography. It is highly flexible in social organization, living either in a family unit or in loosely knit packs of unrelated individuals. It has a varied diet consisting primarily of animal meat, including deer, rabbits, hares, rodents, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and invertebrates, though it may also eat fruits and vegetables on occasion. Its characteristic vocalization is a howl made by solitary individuals. Humans are the coyote's greatest threat, followed by cougars and gray wolves. In spite of this, coyotes sometimes mate with gray, eastern, or red wolves, producing "coywolf" hybrids. In the northeastern United States and eastern Canada, the eastern coyote (a larger subspecies, though still smaller than wolves) is the result of various historical and recent matings with various types of wolves. Genetic studies show that most North American wolves contain some level of coyote DNA. The coyote is a prominent character in Native American folklore, mainly in the Southwestern United States and Mexico, usually depicted as a trickster that alternately assumes the form of an actual coyote or a man. As with other trickster figures, the coyote uses deception and humor to rebel against social conventions. The animal was especially respected in Mesoamerican cosmology as a symbol of military might. After the European colonization of the Americas, it was reviled in Anglo-American culture as a cowardly and untrustworthy animal. Unlike wolves (gray, eastern, or red), which have undergone an improvement of their public image, attitudes towards the coyote remain largely negative.

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Cucurpe

Cucurpe is the municipal seat of Cucurpe Municipality in the Mexican state of Sonora.

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Cumpas

Cumpas is the municipal seat of Cumpas Municipality of the Mexican state of Sonora.

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Day of the Dead

The Day of the Dead (Día de Muertos) is a Mexican holiday celebrated throughout Mexico, in particular the Central and South regions, and by people of Mexican ancestry living in other places, especially the United States.

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Daylight saving time

Daylight saving time (abbreviated DST), sometimes referred to as daylight savings time in U.S., Canadian, and Australian speech, and known as summer time in some countries, is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times.

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Desert tortoise

The desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii and Gopherus morafkai) are two species of tortoise native to the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico and the Sinaloan thornscrub of northwestern Mexico.

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Desertification

Desertification is a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry area of land becomes increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife.

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Deserts and xeric shrublands

Deserts and xeric shrublands are a biome characterized by receiving only a small amount of moisture, usually defined as less than 250 mm of annual precipitation.

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Dollar coin (United States)

The dollar coin is a United States coin worth one United States dollar.

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Douglas, Arizona

Douglas is a city in Cochise County, Arizona, United States that lies in the north-west to south-east running San Bernardino Valley within which runs the Rio San Bernardino.

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Dune

In physical geography, a dune is a hill of loose sand built by aeolian processes (wind) or the flow of water.

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Durango

Durango, officially Free and Sovereign State of Durango (Estado Libre y Soberano de Durango) (Tepehuan: Korian) (Nahuatl: Tepēhuahcān), is a Mexican state.

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Ejido

In Mexican system of government, an ejido (from Latin exitum) is an area of communal land used for agriculture, on which community members individually farm designated parcels and collectively maintain communal holdings.

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El Desemboque

El Desemboque (Seri: Haxöl Iihom) is a town located 376 km from Hermosillo on the shore of Gulf of California in the Mexican state of Sonora; coordinates N 29° 30' 13", W 112° 23' 43".

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El Fin del Mundo

El Fin del Mundo (Spanish: 'End of the World') is an ancient Pleistocene site in northwestern Sonora, Mexico.

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El Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar Biosphere Reserve

El Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar Biosphere Reserve (Reserva de la Biosfera El Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar), is a biosphere reserve and UNESCO World Heritage Site managed by the Federal government of Mexico, specifically by Secretariat of the Environment and Natural Resources, in collaboration with state government of Sonora and the Tohono O'odham.

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Enrique Torres Delgado

Enrique Torres Delgado (born 6 February 1959) is a Mexican politician from the National Action Party.

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Ernesto de Lucas Hopkins

Ernesto "El Pato" de Lucas Hopkins (born 5 September 1976) is a Mexican politician.

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Estado de Occidente

Estado de Occidente (also known as Sonora y Sinaloa) was a Mexican state established in 1824.

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Estuary

An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.

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Etchojoa

Etchojoa is the seat of Etchojoa Municipality.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Eusebio Kino

Eusebio Francisco Kino (Eusebio Francesco Chini, Eusebio Francisco Kino; 10 August 1645 – 15 March 1711) was an Italian Jesuit, missionary, geographer, explorer, cartographer and astronomer.

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Evangelicalism

Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.

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Eve Gil

Eve Gil (born 1968) is a Mexican writer and journalist from Hermosillo, Sonora.

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Fernando de la Mora (tenor)

Fernando de la Mora (born 1958) is a Mexican operatic tenor.

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Fernando Valenzuela

Fernando Valenzuela Anguamea (born November 1, 1960) is a Mexican former Major League Baseball (MLB) pitcher who played seventeen seasons, from 1980 to 1997, for six teams, primarily the Los Angeles Dodgers.

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Flounder

Flounders are a group of flatfish species.

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Francis of Assisi

Saint Francis of Assisi (San Francesco d'Assisi), born Giovanni di Pietro di Bernardone, informally named as Francesco (1181/11823 October 1226), was an Italian Catholic friar, deacon and preacher.

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Francisco de Ibarra

Francisco de Ibarra (1539 –June 3, 1575) was a Basque explorer, founder of the city of Durango, and governor of the Spanish province of Nueva Vizcaya, in present-day Durango and Chihuahua.

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Francisco Vázquez de Coronado

Francisco Vázquez de Coronado y Luján (1510 – 22 September 1554) was a Spanish conquistador and explorer who led a large expedition from Mexico to present-day Kansas through parts of the southwestern United States between 1540 and 1542.

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Fronteras

Fronteras is the seat of Fronteras Municipality in the northeastern part of the Mexican state of Sonora.

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Gadsden Purchase

The Gadsden Purchase (known in Mexico as Venta de La Mesilla, "Sale of La Mesilla") is a region of present-day southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico that the United States purchased via a treaty signed on December 30, 1853, by James Gadsden, U.S. ambassador to Mexico at that time.

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Gaston de Raousset-Boulbon

Charles Rene Gaston Gustave de Raousset-Boulbon (May 5, 1817 - August 13, 1854) was a French adventurer, filibuster and entrepreneur and, by some accounts a pirate, and a theoretician of colonialism.

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Gerardo Cornejo Murrieta

Gerardo Cornejo Murrieta (1937–2014) was a writer born in a community called Tarachi in the municipality of Arivechi, Sonora, Mexico in 1937.

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Gila monster

The Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) is a species of venomous lizard native to the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexican state of Sonora.

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Gila River

The Gila River (O'odham Pima: Keli Akimel or simply Akimel, Quechan: Haa Siʼil) is a tributary of the Colorado River flowing through New Mexico and Arizona in the United States.

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Gomphothere

Gomphotheres are any members of the diverse, extinct taxonomic family Gomphotheriidae.

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Gran Desierto de Altar

The Gran Desierto de Altar is one of the major sub-ecoregions of the Sonoran Desert, located in the State of Sonora, Northwest Mexico.

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Granados, Sonora

Granados is the municipal seat of Granados Municipality in the northeast of the Mexican state of Sonora.

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Graphite

Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.

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Great Depression

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.

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Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.

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Grouper

Groupers are fish of any of a number of genera in the subfamily Epinephelinae of the family Serranidae, in the order Perciformes.

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Grupo México

Grupo México is the largest mining corporation in Mexico and the third largest copper producer in the world through ASARCO.

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Guadalajara

Guadalajara is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Jalisco, and the seat of the municipality of Guadalajara.

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Guano

Guano (from Quechua wanu via Spanish) is the accumulated excrement of seabirds and bats.

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Guarijio

The Guarijío are an indigenous people of Mexico.

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Guasave

Guasave is a city which is the seat of the homonymous municipality in the Mexican state of Sinaloa.

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Guaymas

Guaymas is a city in Guaymas Municipality, in the southwest part of the state of Sonora, in northwestern Mexico.

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Guazuma ulmifolia

Guazuma ulmifolia, commonly known as West Indian elm or bay cedar, is a medium-sized tree normally found in pastures and disturbed forests.

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Guillermo Padrés Elías

Guillermo Padrés Elías (born June 29, 1969 in Arizpe, Mexico but raised in Cananea, Mexico) is a Mexican politician and a member of the Partido Acción Nacional ("National Action Party", PAN).

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Gulf of California

The Gulf of California (also known as the Sea of Cortez, Sea of Cortés or Vermilion Sea; locally known in the Spanish language as Mar de Cortés or Mar Bermejo or Golfo de California) is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean that separates the Baja California Peninsula from the Mexican mainland.

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Gulf of Mexico

The Gulf of Mexico (Golfo de México) is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent.

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Hacienda

An hacienda (or; or), in the colonies of the Spanish Empire, is an estate, similar in form to a Roman villa.

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Halophile

Halophiles are organisms that thrive in high salt concentrations.

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Héctor Martínez Arteche

Héctor Martínez Arteche was a painter and muralist who was born in Mexico City in 1934, but has spent most of his life in the state of Sonora.

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Hereford cattle

The Hereford (pronounced hair-uh-furd in the UK and hur-furd or hur-uh-ford in the US) is a British breed of beef cattle that originated in the county of Herefordshire, in the West Midlands of England.

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Hermosillo

Hermosillo, formerly called Pitic (as Santísima Trinidad del Pitic and Presidio del Pitic), is a city located centrally in the northwestern Mexican state of Sonora.

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Hohokam

The Hohokam were an ancient Native American culture centered in the present US state of Arizona.

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Holstein Friesian cattle

Holstein Friesians (often shortened to Holsteins in North America, while the term Friesians is often used in the UK) are a breed of dairy cattle originating from the Dutch provinces of North Holland and Friesland, and Schleswig-Holstein in Northern Germany and Jutland.

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Holy Week

Holy Week (Latin: Hebdomas Sancta or Hebdomas Maior, "Greater Week"; Greek: Ἁγία καὶ Μεγάλη Ἑβδομάς, Hagia kai Megale Hebdomas, "Holy and Great Week") in Christianity is the week just before Easter.

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Holy Week in Mexico

Holy Week in Mexico is an important religious observance as well as important vacation period.

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Huachinera

Huachinera is the municipal seat of Huachinera Municipality in the northeast of the Mexican state of Sonora.

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Huatabampo

Huatabampo is a city in Huatabampo Municipality in the state of Sonora, in northwestern Mexico.

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Huásabas

Huásabas is the municipal seat of Huásabas Municipality in the northeast of the Mexican state of Sonora.

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Huépac

Huepac is the seat of a Huépac Municipality in the center of the Mexican state of Sonora.

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Human Development Index

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.

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Idaho

Idaho is a state in the northwestern region of the United States.

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Ignacio Mondaca Romero

Ignacio Mondaca Romero (born 1956) is a Mexican writer who has written a large number of articles, essays, literary criticism and books.

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Institutional Revolutionary Party

The Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional, PRI) is a Mexican political party founded in 1929 that held power uninterruptedly in the country for 71 years from 1929 to 2000, first as the National Revolutionary Party (Partido Nacional Revolucionario, PNR), then as the Party of the Mexican Revolution (Partido de la Revolución Mexicana, PRM), and finally renaming itself as the Institutional Revolutionary Party in 1946.

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Interjet

Interjet (official legal name ABC Aerolíneas, S.A. de C.V.), is a Mexican airline headquartered in Mexico City, Mexico’s third largest airline after Aeroméxico and Volaris.

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Italy

Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Iván Figueroa

Iván Figueroa is a poet and novelist from Sahuaripa, Sonora, Mexico, born in 1974.

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Jaguar

The jaguar (Panthera onca) is a wild cat species and the only extant member of the genus Panthera native to the Americas.

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James L. Haley

James L. Haley is an American author who has written numerous books on Texas and Western history, as well as several fiction novels.

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Jesús Alberto Cano Vélez

Jesús Alberto Cano Vélez (born 7 August 1950) is a Mexican economist and politician from the Institutional Revolutionary Party.

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José de Urrea

José de Urrea (March 19, 1797 – August 1, 1849) was a Mexican general.

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Julio César Chávez

Julio César Chávez González (born July 12, 1962), also known as Julio César Chávez Sr., is a Mexican former professional boxer who competed from 1980 to 2005.

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Kayaking

Kayaking is the use of a kayak for moving across water.

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Köppen climate classification

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.

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Kickapoo people

The Kickapoo people (Kickapoo: Kiikaapoa or Kiikaapoi) are an Algonquian-speaking Native American and Indigenous Mexican tribe.

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Least tern

The least tern (Sternula antillarum) is a species of tern that breeds in North America and locally in northern South America.

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Lebanon

Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.

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Lent

Lent (Latin: Quadragesima: Fortieth) is a solemn religious observance in the Christian liturgical calendar that begins on Ash Wednesday and ends approximately six weeks later, before Easter Sunday.

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List of cities in Mexico

See also metropolitan areas of Mexico. This article contains lists of most populous cities as well as municipalities of Mexico.

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List of current state governors in Mexico

The United Mexican States, commonly known as Mexico, is a federation comprising thirty-two States.

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List of Mexican states by area

The following table lists Mexico's 31 federated states and Mexico City (officially not a state), ranked by surface area.

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List of Mexican states by Human Development Index

The following table presents a listing of Mexico's 31 federal states (and its Federal District, officially not a state), ranked in order of their Human Development Index, as reported by the United Nations in 2015 with data from 2008-2015.

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List of Mexican states by population

The following table is a list of the 31 federal states and the Federal District of Mexico, ranked in order of their total population based on data from a 2015 Intercensal Survey, as well as the censuses of 2010 and 2000.

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List of Mexican states by population density

This is a list of Mexican States by population density.

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List of states of Mexico

The states of Mexico are first-level administrative territorial entities of the country of Mexico, which officially is named United Mexican States.

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Louis Vuitton

Louis Vuitton Malletier, commonly referred to as Louis Vuitton, or shortened to LV, is a French fashion house and luxury retail company founded in 1854 by Louis Vuitton.

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Lutjanidae

Snappers are a family of perciform fish, Lutjanidae, mainly marine, but with some members inhabiting estuaries, feeding in fresh water.

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Machaca

Machaca is a traditionally dried meat, usually spiced beef or pork, which is rehydrated and then used in popular local cuisine in Northern Mexico and the Southwestern United States.

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Magdalena de Kino

Magdalena de Kino is a city, part of the surrounding municipality of the same name, located in the Mexican state of Sonora covering approximately 560 square miles (1,460 square kilometers).

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Mangrove

A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water.

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Manta ray

Manta rays are large rays belonging to the genus Manta.

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Manuel Ignacio Acosta Gutiérrez

Manuel Ignacio Acosta Gutiérrez (born 4 February 1977) is a Mexican politician from the Institutional Revolutionary Party.

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Manuel Romo Rodríguez

Manuel Romo Rodríguez was a painter from Estación Torres, Sonora, Mexico, who was born in 1920.

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Maquiladora

In Mexico, a maquiladora or maquila is a manufacturing operation, where factories import certain material and equipment on a duty-free and tariff-free basis for assembly, processing, or manufacturing and then export the assembled, processed and/or manufactured products, sometimes back to the raw materials' country of origin.

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María Dolores del Río

María Dolores del Río Sánchez (born 10 October 1960) is a Mexican politician.

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María Félix

María de los Ángeles Félix Güereña ((8 April 1914 – 8 April 2002) was a Mexican film actress and singer. Along with Pedro Armendáriz and Dolores del Río, she was one of the most successful figures of Latin American cinema in the 1940s and 1950s. She was known as La Doña, a name derived from her character in the film Doña Bárbara (1943), and María Bonita, thanks to the anthem composed exclusively for her, as a wedding gift by her second husband, the Mexican composer Agustín Lara. She completed a film career that included 47 films made in Mexico, Spain, France, Italy and Argentina.

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Marcos Pérez Esquer

Marcos Pérez Esquer (born 25 July 1970) is a Mexican politician from the National Action Party.

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Mario Moreno Zazueta

Mario Moreno Zazueta is a painter, etcher and art professor born in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico in 1942.

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Marlin

A marlin is a fish from the family Istiophoridae, which includes about 10 species.

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Matachines

Matachines (Spanish matachín, a sword dancer in a fantastic costume; also called bouffon; pl. matachini) are a society of North and South American-Indian dancers who perform ritual dances.

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Maximilian I of Mexico

Maximilian I (Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph; 6 July 1832 – 19 June 1867) was the only monarch of the Second Mexican Empire.

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Mayo people

The Mayo or Yoreme are an indigenous group in Mexico, living in the states of southern Sonora, northern Sinaloa and small settlements in Durango.

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Mayo River (Mexico)

The Mayo River is located in the Mexican state of Sonora.

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Mazurka

The mazurka (in Polish mazurek, plural mazurki) is a Polish folk dance in triple meter, usually at a lively tempo, and with "strong accents unsystematically placed on the second or third beat".

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Mátape River

The Mátape River is a river of Mexico.

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Mesoamerica

Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.

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Mesoamerican ballcourt

A Mesoamerican ballcourt is a large masonry structure of a type used in Mesoamerica for over 2,700 years to play the Mesoamerican ballgame, particularly the hip-ball version of the ballgame.

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Mesquite

Mesquite is a common name for several plants in the genus Prosopis, which contains over 40 species of small leguminous trees.

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Mexican Federal Highway 15

Federal Highway 15 (Carretera Federal 15, Fed. 15) is Mexico 15 International Highway or Mexico-Nogales Highway, is a primary north-south highway, and is a free part of the federal highways corridors (los corredores carreteros federales) of Mexico.

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Mexican ironwood carvings

Mexican ironwood carvings is a handcraft that began with the Seri indigenous people of the state of Sonora.

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Mexican peso

The Mexican peso (sign: $; code: MXN) is the currency of Mexico.

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Mexican Plateau

The Central Mexican Plateau, also known as the Mexican Altiplano (Spanish: Altiplanicie Mexicana), is a large arid-to-semiarid plateau that occupies much of northern and central Mexico.

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Mexican Revolution

The Mexican Revolution (Revolución Mexicana) was a major armed struggle,, that radically transformed Mexican culture and government.

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Mexican War of Independence

The Mexican War of Independence (Guerra de Independencia de México) was an armed conflict, and the culmination of a political and social process which ended the rule of Spain in 1821 in the territory of New Spain.

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Mexican–American War

The Mexican–American War, also known as the Mexican War in the United States and in Mexico as the American intervention in Mexico, was an armed conflict between the United States of America and the United Mexican States (Mexico) from 1846 to 1848.

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Mexico

Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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Mexico City

Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.

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Mexico–United States border

The Mexico–United States border is an international border separating Mexico and the United States, extending from the Pacific Ocean to the west and Gulf of Mexico to the east.

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Mezcal

Mezcal (or mescal) is a distilled alcoholic beverage made from any type of agave.

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Michoacán

Michoacán, formally Michoacán de Ocampo, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Michoacán de Ocampo (Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de Michoacán de Ocampo), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Miguel de la Madrid

Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado (December 12, 1934 – April 1, 2012) was a Mexican politician affiliated with the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) who served as the 52nd President of Mexico from 1982 to 1988.

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Moctezuma, Sonora

Moctezuma is a ''municipio'' (municipality) of the Mexican state of Sonora, located in the state's central region.

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Mole (animal)

Moles are small mammals adapted to a subterranean lifestyle (i.e., fossorial).

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Molybdenum

Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.

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Monsoon

Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.

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Montana

Montana is a state in the Northwestern United States.

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Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education

Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM) (in Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education), also known as Tecnológico de Monterrey or simply as Tec, is a private, nonsectarian and coeducational multi-campus university based in Monterrey, Mexico.

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Moody's Investors Service

Moody's Investors Service, often referred to as Moody's, is the bond credit rating business of Moody's Corporation, representing the company's traditional line of business and its historical name.

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Mother Nature

Mother Nature (sometimes known as Mother Earth or the Earth-Mother) is a common personification of nature that focuses on the life-giving and nurturing aspects of nature by embodying it, in the form of the mother.

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Mountain Time Zone

The Mountain Time Zone of North America keeps time by subtracting seven hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) when standard time is in effect, and by subtracting six hours during daylight saving time (UTC−6).

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Mule deer

The mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) is a deer indigenous to western North America; it is named for its ears, which are large like those of the mule.

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Municipalities of Mexico

Municipalities (municipios in Spanish) are the second-level administrative divisions of Mexico, where the first-level administrative division is the state (Spanish: estado).

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Municipalities of Sonora

The Mexican state of Sonora is divided into 72 municipalities.

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Myotis vivesi

Myotis vivesi, the fish-eating bat or fish-eating myotis, is a species of bat that lives around the Gulf of California, and feeds on fish and crustaceans.

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Naco, Sonora

Naco is a Mexican town in Naco Municipality located in the northeast part of Sonora state on the border with the United States.

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Nacozari de García

Nacozari de García is a small mining town surrounded by Nacozari de García Municipality in the northeast of the Mexican state of Sonora.

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National Action Party (Mexico)

The National Action Party (Partido Acción Nacional, PAN), founded in 1939, is one of the three main political parties in Mexico.

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Navojoa

Navojoa is the fifth-largest city in the northern Mexican state of Sonora and is situated in the southern part of the state.

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Nácori Chico

Nácori Chico is a small town in Nácori Chico Municipality in the east of the Mexican state of Sonora.

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Nevada

Nevada (see pronunciations) is a state in the Western, Mountain West, and Southwestern regions of the United States of America.

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New Mexico

New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.

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New Spain

The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de la Nueva España) was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

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Nogales, Sonora

Heroica Nogales, more commonly known as Nogales, is a city and the county seat of the Municipality of Nogales.

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Norteño (music)

Norteño (northern), also called música norteña, is a genre of Mexican music related to polka and corridos.

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North American Free Trade Agreement

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA; Spanish: Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte, TLCAN; French: Accord de libre-échange nord-américain, ALÉNA) is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America.

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North American jaguar

The North American jaguar is a population of the jaguar (Panthera onca) in North America.

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Nuevo León

Nuevo León, or New Leon, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Nuevo León (Estado Libre y Soberano de Nuevo León), is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.

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Oaxaca

Oaxaca (from Huāxyacac), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca (Estado Libre y Soberano de Oaxaca), is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, make up the 32 federative entities of Mexico.

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Ochre

Ochre (British English) (from Greek: ὤχρα, from ὠχρός, ōkhrós, pale) or ocher (American English) is a natural clay earth pigment which is a mixture of ferric oxide and varying amounts of clay and sand.

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Olneya

Olneya tesota is a perennial flowering tree of the Fabaceae family, legumes (peas, beans, etc.), which is commonly known as ironwood or desert ironwood.

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Opata

The Opata are three indigenous people of Mexico.

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Opata language

Ópata (also Teguima, Eudeve, Heve, Dohema) is either of two closely related Uto-Aztecan languages, Teguima and Eudeve, spoken by the Opata people of northern central Sonora in Mexico.

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Oquitoa

Oquitoa is a small town surrounded by Oquitoa Municipality in the northwest of the Mexican state of Sonora.

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Our Lady of the Rosary

Our Lady of the Rosary, also known as Our Lady of the Holy Rosary, is a title of the Blessed Virgin Mary in relation to the Rosary.

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Panela

Panela or rapadura) is unrefined whole cane sugar, typical of Mexico, Central, and of Latin America in general, which is a solid form of sucrose derived from the boiling and evaporation of sugarcane juice. Panela is known by other names in Latin America, such as chancaca in Peru, piloncillo in Mexico (where "panela" refers to a type of cheese, queso panela). The name piloncillo means little loaf, because of the traditional shape in which this smoky, caramelly and earthy sugar is produced. It has far more flavor than brown sugar, which is generally just white sugar with a small amount of molasses added back to it. Just like brown sugar, there are two varieties of piloncillo; one is lighter (blanco) and one darker (oscuro). Unrefined, it is commonly used in Mexico, where it has been around for at least 500 years. Made from crushed sugar cane, the juice is collected, boiled and poured into molds, where it hardens into blocks. Panela is also known as rapadura in Portuguese. In Australia the locals have aptly named it "Uluru Dust" due to its brown colour, dusty texture and dirt-like taste. Elsewhere in the world, the word jaggery describes a similar foodstuff. Both of them are considered non-centrifugal cane sugars. Panela is sold in many forms, including liquid, granulated, and solid blocks, and is used in the canning of foods as well as in confectionery, soft drinks, baking, and vinegar- and wine-making.

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Pedalo

A pedalo (British English) or paddle boat (U.S., Canadian, and Australian English) is a small human-powered watercraft propelled by the action of pedals turning a paddle wheel.

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Pedro Vega Granillo

Pedro Vega Granillo is a pianist born in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico in 1959.

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Pelican

Pelicans are a genus of large water birds that make up the family Pelecanidae.

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Petroglyph

Petroglyphs are images created by removing part of a rock surface by incising, picking, carving, or abrading, as a form of rock art.

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Pickup truck

A pickup truck is a light-duty truck having an enclosed cab and an open cargo area with low sides and tailgate.

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Pima people

The Pima (or Akimel O'odham, also spelled Akimel O'otham, "River People", formerly known as Pima) are a group of Native Americans living in an area consisting of what is now central and southern Arizona.

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Pimería Alta

The Pimería Alta (upper land of the Pimas), an area of the 18th century Sonora y Sinaloa Province in the Viceroyalty of New Spain, encompassed parts of what are today southern Arizona in the United States and northern Sonora in Mexico.

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Pinniped

Pinnipeds, commonly known as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals.

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Pitiquito

Pitiquito is a small town in Pitiquito Municipality in the northwest of the Mexican state of Sonora.

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Plan of Agua Prieta

The Plan of Agua Prieta (Spanish: Plan de Agua Prieta) was a manifesto, or plan, drawn up by three revolutionary generals of the Mexican Revolution, declaring themselves in revolt against the government of President Venustiano Carranza.

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Pliocene

The Pliocene (also Pleiocene) Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58 million years BP.

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Plutarco Elías Calles

Plutarco Elías Calles (September 25, 1877 – October 19, 1945) was a Mexican Freemason, general and politician.

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Plutarco Elías Calles Municipality

Plutarco Elías Calles (named for General Plutarco Elías Calles) is a municipality in the northwest of the Mexican state of Sonora.

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Polka

The polka is originally a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas.

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Porfirio Díaz

José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori (15 September 1830 – 2 July 1915) was a Mexican general and politician who served seven terms as President of Mexico, a total of three and a half decades, from 1876 to 1880 and from 1884 to 1911.

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Portulaca oleracea

Portulaca oleracea (common purslane, also known as verdolaga, red root, or pursley) is an annual succulent in the family Portulacaceae, which may reach in height.

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Postal codes in Mexico

Postal codes in Mexico are issued by SEPOMEX (Servicio Postal Mexicano) (Mexican Postal Service).

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Pre-Columbian era

The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.

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Presidio

A presidio (from the Spanish, presidio, meaning "jail" or "fortification") is a fortified base established by the Spanish in areas under their control or influence.

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.

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Puebla

Puebla, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Puebla (Estado Libre y Soberano de Puebla) is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.

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Pueblo Mágico

The Programa Pueblos Mágicos (Spanish) ("Magical Towns Programme") is an initiative led by Mexico's Secretariat of Tourism, with the support from other federal agencies, to promote a series of towns around the country that offer visitors a "magical" experience – by reason of their natural beauty, cultural richness, traditions, folklore, historical relevance, cuisine, art crafts and great hospitality.

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Puerto Libertad, Sonora

Puerto Libertad is a town and port of the Mexican state of Sonora, Mexico located on the north coast of the Gulf of California, in the municipality of Pitiquito.

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Puerto Peñasco

Puerto Peñasco (Geʼe Ṣuidagĭ) is a resort town located in Puerto Peñasco Municipality in the northwest of the Mexican state of Sonora, from the border with the U.S. state of Arizona.

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Punta Chueca

Punta Chueca (Seri: Socaaix) is a Seri town located on the Gulf of California in the Mexican state of Sonora.

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Quail

Quail is a collective name for several genera of mid-sized birds generally placed in the order Galliformes.

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Quiriego

Quiriego is a small town and the county seat of the Municipality of Quiriego, located in the southeast of the Mexican state of Sonora.

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Radio Sonora

Radio Sonora is the state radio network of the Mexican state of Sonora.

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Rarámuri

The Rarámuri or Tarahumara are a group of Indigenous people of the Americas living in the state of Chihuahua in Mexico.

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Rattlesnake

Rattlesnakes are a group of venomous snakes of the genera Crotalus and Sistrurus of the subfamily Crotalinae (the pit vipers).

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Reform War

The War of the Reform (Guerra de Reforma) in Mexico, during the Second Federal Republic of Mexico, was the three-year civil war (1857 - 1860) between liberals who had taken power in 1855 under the Plan of Ayutla, and conservatives resisting the legitimacy of the government and its radical restructuring of Mexican laws, known as La Reforma.

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Roadrunner

The roadrunners (genus Geococcyx), also known as chaparral birds or chaparral cocks, are two species of fast-running ground cuckoos with long tails and crests.

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Rodolfo Campodónico

Rodolfo Campodónico (full name Rodolfo Víctor Manuel Pío Campodónico Morales) was one of the first composers of waltzes in Mexico.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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San Carlos Nuevo Guaymas

San Carlos is a beachfront subdivision within the port city of Guaymas, in the northern state of Sonora in Mexico.

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San Dieguito Complex

The San Dieguito Complex is an archaeological pattern left by early Holocene inhabitants of Southern California and surrounding portions of the Southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico.

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San Felipe de Jesús

San Felipe de Jesús is the municipal seat of San Felipe de Jesús Municipality in the center of the Mexican state of Sonora.

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San Ignacio Río Muerto

San Ignacio Río Muerto is a small town surrounded by San Ignacio Río Muerto Municipality in the southwest of the Mexican state of Sonora.

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San Javier, Sonora

San Javier is a town in San Javier Municipality, in the Mexican state of Sonora.

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San Luis Río Colorado

San Luis Río Colorado is a city and its surrounding municipality lying in the northwestern corner of the state of Sonora, Mexico.

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San Miguel de Horcasitas

San Miguel de Horcasitas is a town in San Miguel de Horcasitas Municipality, in the Mexican state of Sonora.

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San Pedro River (Arizona)

The San Pedro River is a northward-flowing stream originating about south of the international border south of Sierra Vista, Arizona, in Cananea Municipality, Sonora, Mexico.

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Sardine

"Sardine" and "pilchard" are common names used to refer to various small, oily fish in the herring family Clupeidae.

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Sáric

Sáric (Ṣaʼalk) is a small town in Sáric Municipality, located in the extreme north of the Mexican state of Sonora.

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Scalping

Scalping is the act of cutting or tearing a part of the human scalp, with hair attached, from the head of an enemy as a trophy.

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Scuba diving

Scuba diving is a mode of underwater diving where the diver uses a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba) which is completely independent of surface supply, to breathe underwater.

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Sea lion

Sea lions are sea mammals characterized by external ear flaps, long foreflippers, the ability to walk on all fours, short, thick hair, and a big chest and belly.

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Seafood

Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans.

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Seahorse

Seahorse (also written sea-horse and sea horse) is the name given to 54 species of small marine fishes in the genus Hippocampus.

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Second French intervention in Mexico

The Second French Intervention in Mexico (Sp.: Segunda intervención francesa en México, 1861–67) was an invasion of Mexico, launched in late 1861, by the Second French Empire (1852–70).

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Senate of the Republic (Mexico)

The Senate of the Republic, (Senado de la República) constitutionally Chamber of Senators of the Honorable Congress of the Union (Cámara de Senadores del H. Congreso de la Unión), is the upper house of Mexico's bicameral Congress.

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September 11 attacks

The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.

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Seri language

Seri (Seri: cmiique iitom) is an indigenous language spoken by between 716La situación sociolingüística de la lengua seri en 2006.

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Seri people

The Seri are an indigenous group of the Mexican state of Sonora.

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Seriola dorsalis

Seriola dorsalis, the California yellowtail is a species of ray-finned fish of the family Carangidae.

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Shamanism

Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.

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Sierra Madre Occidental

The Sierra Madre Occidental is a major mountain range system of the North American Cordillera, that runs northwest–southeast through Northwestern and Western Mexico, and along the Gulf of California.

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Sinaloa

Sinaloa, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Sinaloa (Estado Libre y Soberano de Sinaloa), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.

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Sinophobia

Anti-Chinese sentiment, Sinophobia (from Late Latin Sinae "China" and Greek φόβος, phobos, "fear"), or Chinophobia is a sentiment against China, its people, overseas Chinese, or Chinese culture.

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Skirt steak

Skirt steak is a cut of beef steak from the plate.

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Society of Jesus

The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.

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Sonora Institute of Technology

The Sonora Institute of Technology (in Instituto Tecnológico de Sonora, ITSON) is a Mexican public university based in Ciudad Obregón, Sonora, with satellite campuses in Guaymas and Navojoa.

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Sonora River

Río Sonora (Sonora River) is a 402-kilometer-long river of Mexico.

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Sonoran Desert

The Sonoran Desert is a North American desert which covers large parts of the Southwestern United States in Arizona and California and of Northwestern Mexico in Sonora, Baja California, and Baja California Sur.

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Sonoyta

Sonoyta, Sonora is a town in the northern Mexican state of Sonora.

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Sorghum

Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae.

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Southwestern United States

The Southwestern United States (Suroeste de Estados Unidos; also known as the American Southwest) is the informal name for a region of the western United States.

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Sovereign state

A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.

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Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire

The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, or the Spanish–Aztec War (1519–21), was the conquest of the Aztec Empire by the Spanish Empire within the context of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

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Spanish missions in the Sonoran Desert

The Spanish missions in the Sonoran Desert are a series of Jesuit Catholic religious outposts established by the Spanish Catholic Jesuits and other orders for religious conversions of the Pima and Tohono O'odham indigenous peoples residing in the Sonoran Desert.

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Sponge

Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts.

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Sylvia Aguilar Zéleny

Sylvia Aguilar Zéleny is a novelist and short story writer born in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, in 1973.

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Syria

Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

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Tamale

A tamale (tamal, tamalli) is a traditional Mesoamerican dish made of masa or dough (starchy, and usually corn-based), which is steamed in a corn husk or banana leaf.

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Tattoo

A tattoo is a form of body modification where a design is made by inserting ink, dyes and pigments, either indelible or temporary, into the dermis layer of the skin to change the pigment.

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Telephone numbering plan

A telephone numbering plan is a type of numbering scheme used in telecommunication to assign telephone numbers to subscriber telephones or other telephony endpoints.

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Tequila

Tequila is a regional distilled beverage and type of alcoholic drink made from the blue agave plant, primarily in the area surrounding the city of Tequila, northwest of Guadalajara, and in the highlands (Los Altos) of the central western Mexican state of Jalisco.

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Territorial evolution of Mexico

Mexico has experienced many changes in territorial organization during its history as an independent state.

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Tesgüino

Tesgüino is a corn beer made by the Tarahumara Indians of Sierra Madre in Mexico.

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Tiburón Island

Tiburón Island is the largest island in the Gulf of California and the largest island in Mexico, with an area of.

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Tohono O'odham

The Tohono O’odham are a Native American people of the Sonoran Desert, residing primarily in the U.S. state of Arizona and the Mexican state of Sonora.

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Tortilla

A tortilla) is a type of thin, unleavened flatbread, typically made from corn or wheat. In Spanish, "tortilla" means "small torta", or "small cake". It was first made by the indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica prior to European contact. The Aztecs and other Nahuatl speakers call tortillas tlaxcalli.Nahuatl Dictionary. (1997). Wired Humanities Project. University of Oregon. Retrieved August 29, 2012, from.

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Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (Tratado de Guadalupe Hidalgo in Spanish), officially titled the Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Limits and Settlement between the United States of America and the Mexican Republic, is the peace treaty signed on February 2, 1848, in the Villa de Guadalupe Hidalgo (now a neighborhood of Mexico City) between the United States and Mexico that ended the Mexican–American War (1846–1848).

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Tubutama

Tubutama is a town in Tubutama Municipality, in the north-west of the Mexican state of Sonora.

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Tucson, Arizona

Tucson is a city and the county seat of Pima County, Arizona, United States, and home to the University of Arizona.

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United States Border Patrol

The United States Border Patrol (USBP) is an American federal law enforcement agency.

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Universidad de Sonora

The University of Sonora (Universidad de Sonora, abbreviated as Unison) is a public university in the northwestern state of Sonora, Mexico that has a strong research program.

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Ures

Ures is a small city and a municipality in the Mexican state of Sonora.

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USS Cyane (1837)

The second USS Cyane was a sloop-of-war in the United States Navy during the Mexican-American War.

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Utah

Utah is a state in the western United States.

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Vícam

Vícam is a town in the Mexican state of Sonora located in the municipio of Guaymas.

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Venustiano Carranza

Venustiano Carranza Garza (29 December 1859 – 21 May 1920) was one of the main leaders of the Mexican Revolution, whose victorious northern revolutionary Constitutionalist Army defeated the counter-revolutionary regime of Victoriano Huerta (February 1913-July 1914) and then defeated fellow revolutionaries after Huerta's ouster.

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Vicente Fox

Vicente Fox Quesada, (born 2 July 1942) is a Mexican businessman and politician who served as the 55th President of Mexico from December 1, 2000 to November 30, 2006.

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Viceroy

A viceroy is a regal official who runs a country, colony, city, province, or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory.

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Villa Hidalgo, Sonora

Villa Hidalgo Municipality is a municipality, in the north-east of the Mexican state of Sonora.

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VivaAerobús

Aeroenlaces Nacionales, S.A. de C.V., trading as VivaAerobus, is a Mexican low-cost airline fully owned by the biggest bus company group in Mexico, IAMSA.

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Volaris

Volaris, legally Concesionaria Vuela Compañía de Aviación, S.A.B. de C.V. (BMV: VOLARA), is a Mexican low-cost airline based in Santa Fe, Álvaro Obregón, Mexico City with its hub in Guadalajara, Mexico City, and Tijuana, and focus cities in Cancun, Los Angeles, and Monterrey.

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Volleyball

Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net.

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Waltz

The waltz is a ballroom and folk dance, normally in time, performed primarily in closed position.

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William Walker (filibuster)

William Walker (May 8, 1824 – September 12, 1860) was an American physician, lawyer, journalist and mercenary who organized several private military expeditions into Latin America, with the intention of establishing English-speaking slave colonies under his personal control, an enterprise then known as "filibustering".

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Wollastonite

Wollastonite is a calcium inosilicate mineral (CaSiO3) that may contain small amounts of iron, magnesium, and manganese substituting for calcium.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Yaqui

The Yaqui or Yoeme are an Uto-Aztecan ethnic group who inhabit the valley of the Río Yaqui in the Mexican state of Sonora and the Southwestern United States.

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Yaqui music

Yaqui music is the music of the Yaqui tribe and people of Arizona and Sonora.

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Yaqui River

The Yaqui River (Río Yaqui in Spanish) (Hiak Vatwe in the Yaqui or Yoeme language) is a river in the state of Sonora in northwestern Mexico.

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Yécora, Sonora

Yécora is a small town, and its surrounding municipality of the same name, in the Mexican state of Sonora, located at Latitude.

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Yucatán Peninsula

The Yucatán Peninsula (Península de Yucatán), in southeastern Mexico, separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico, with the northern coastline on the Yucatán Channel.

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Zinc

Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.

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1000 (number)

1000 or one thousand is the natural number following 999 and preceding 1001.

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1824 Constitution of Mexico

The Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States of 1824 (Constitución Federal de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos de 1824) was enacted on October 4 of 1824, after the overthrow of the Mexican Empire of Agustin de Iturbide.

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Redirects here:

California-Sonora Gold Belt, California–Sonora Gold Belt, Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora, Free and Sovereign State of Sonora, ISO 3166-2:MX-SON, MX-SON, Norte Sonora, Sonora (Mexico : State), Sonora (State), Mexico, Sonora (state), Sonora Mexico, Sonora, Mexico, Sonora/translated.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sonora

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