226 relations: AC'97, Ad Lib, Inc., Advanced Communications Riser, Advanced Gravis Computer Technology, Advanced Linux Sound Architecture, Aerosmith, AES3, Amiga, Amplitude, Analog Devices, Analog hole, Analog signal, Analog-to-digital converter, Apple II, Apple II sound cards, Apple IIGS, Apple Inc., Asus, Audio bit depth, Audio codec, Audio mixing (recorded music), Audio signal, Audio signal processing, Audio Stream Input/Output, Aureal Semiconductor, Auzentech, Behavior Tech Computer, Behringer, Black, Blue, Brown, Bus (computing), C-Media, CD-ROM, Codec, Commodore 64, Commodore International, Compact Cassette, Comparison of analog and digital recording, Computer, Computer compatibility, Computer program, Consumer Electronics Show, Conventional PCI, Covox Speech Thing, Creative Technology, Cross-platform Audio Creation Tool, Data compression, DCF77, Device driver, ..., Didaktik, Digital Compression System, Digital signal (signal processing), Digital signal processor, Digital-to-analog converter, DIN connector, Direct memory access, DirectMusic, DirectSound, Disc jockey, DJ controller, Dolby Digital, DOS, Duplex (telecommunications), E-mu Systems, Effects unit, Electro Scientific Industries, Electronic music, Enhanced Graphics Adapter, Ensoniq, Environmental Audio Extensions, Expansion card, ExpressCard, FM Towns, FM-7, Focusrite, Fourier transform, Frequency modulation synthesis, Fujitsu, Full motion video, Function generator, Game port, General MIDI, Gold (color), Gravis Ultrasound, Hard disk drive, HDMI, Home computer, HT Omega, IBM Music Feature Card, IBM PC compatible, IBM PCjr, IEEE 1284, IEEE 1394, Indie Built, Industry Standard Architecture, Intel, Intel High Definition Audio, Joystick, King's Quest, Lenovo, Lime (color), Line level, Linux distribution, Linux kernel, Live PA, Loudspeaker, Loudspeaker enclosure, Low-level programming language, M-Audio, Macintosh, Media Vision, Media Vision Pro AudioSpectrum, Micro Channel architecture, Microphone, Microsoft Windows, Middleware, MIDI, Midway Games, Miles Sound System, Mockingboard, MOD (file format), Moonsound, Mortal Kombat II, Motherboard, MPU-401, MSX, Multimedia, Multimedia PC, NEC, Onkyo, Open Sound System, OpenAL, Operating system, Orange (colour), PC Card, PC speaker, PC System Design Guide, PC-8800 series, PC-9800 series, PCI Express, Personal Computer Memory Card International Association, Phasor (sound synthesizer), Philips SAA1099, Phone connector (audio), Phonograph, Pink, PLATO (computer system), Polyphony, Preamplifier, PreSonus, Prism, Professional audio, Programmable sound generator, Pulse-code modulation, Pulse-width modulation, Quadraphonic sound, RadioShack, RCA connector, RealSound, Realtek, Retro Gamer, Revolution X, Roland Corporation, Roland MT-32, Roland Sound Canvas, Sample-based synthesis, Sampling (signal processing), Sierra Entertainment, Signal, Signal-to-noise ratio, Silpheed, Silver (color), Softmodem, Sound Blaster, Sound chip, Sound effect, Speech recognition, Speech synthesis, Square wave, Steinberg, Steinberg Cubase, Steinberg Nuendo, Stereophonic sound, Subwoofer, Sun Microsystems, Surround sound, Synthesizer, Tandy 1000, Tandy Graphics Adapter, Teleconference, Terminate and stay resident program, Texas Instruments SN76489, Texture (music), TOSLINK, Total Recorder, Trident Microsystems, Turtle Beach Corporation, Universal Audio Architecture, Unix, USB, VIA Technologies, Video card, Video game, Video Graphics Array, Vinyl emulation software, Virtual Studio Technology, Voice over IP, Wavetable synthesis, White noise, Windows 2000, Windows Server 2003, Windows Vista, Windows XP, Wing Commander II: Vengeance of the Kilrathi, Workstation, Yamaha Corporation, Yamaha YM2151, Yamaha YM3526, Yamaha YM3812, Yamaha YMF262, Yamaha YMF278, ZX Spectrum, 44,100 Hz, 5.1 surround sound, 7.1 surround sound. Expand index (176 more) » « Shrink index
AC'97 (Audio Codec '97; also MC'97 for Modem Codec '97) is an audio codec standard developed by Intel Architecture Labs in 1997.
Ad Lib, Inc. was a Canadian manufacturer of sound cards and other computer equipment founded by Martin Prevel, a former professor of music and vice-dean of the music department at the Université Laval.
The Advanced Communications Riser, or ACR, is a form factor and technical specification for PC motherboard expansion slots.
Advanced Gravis Computer Technology, Ltd. was a manufacturer of computer peripherals and hardware.
Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA) is a software framework and part of the Linux kernel that provides an application programming interface (API) for sound card device drivers.
Aerosmith is an American rock band.
AES3 (also known as AES/EBU) is a standard for the exchange of digital audio signals between professional audio devices.
The Amiga is a family of personal computers introduced by Commodore in 1985.
The amplitude of a periodic variable is a measure of its change over a single period (such as time or spatial period).
Analog Devices, Inc., also known as ADI or Analog, is an American multinational semiconductor company specializing in data conversion and signal processing technology, headquartered in Norwood, Massachusetts.
The analog hole (also known as the analog loophole) is a fundamental and inevitable vulnerability in copy protection schemes for noninteractive works in digital formats which can be exploited to duplicate copy-protected works that are ultimately reproduced using analog means.
An analog signal is any continuous signal for which the time varying feature (variable) of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity, i.e., analogous to another time varying signal.
In electronics, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC, A/D, or A-to-D) is a system that converts an analog signal, such as a sound picked up by a microphone or light entering a digital camera, into a digital signal.
The Apple II (stylized as Apple.
The Apple II had limited inherent sound capabilities until the Apple //gs shipped in 1986.
The Apple IIGS (styled as II), the fifth and most powerful model of the Apple II family, is a 16-bit personal computer produced by Apple Computer, Inc.
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.
AsusTek Computer Inc. (stylised as ASUSTeK or ΛSUS) is a Taiwanese multinational computer and phone hardware and electronics company headquartered in Beitou District, Taipei, Taiwan.
In digital audio using pulse-code modulation (PCM), bit depth is the number of bits of information in each sample, and it directly corresponds to the resolution of each sample.
An audio codec is a codec (a device or computer program capable of encoding or decoding a digital data stream) that encodes or decodes audio.
In sound recording and reproduction, audio mixing is the process of combining multitrack recordings into a final mono, stereo or surround sound product.
An audio signal is a representation of sound, typically as an electrical voltage for analog signals and a binary number for digital signals.
Audio signal processing or audio processing is the intentional alteration of audio signals often through an audio effect or effects unit.
Audio Stream Input/Output (ASIO) is a computer sound card driver protocol for digital audio specified by Steinberg, providing a low-latency and high fidelity interface between a software application and a computer's sound card.
Aureal Semiconductor Inc. was an American electronics manufacturer, best known throughout the mid-late 1990s for their PC sound card technologies including A3D and the Vortex (a line of audio ASICs.) The company was the reincarnation of the, at the time, bankrupt Media Vision Technology.
Auzentech was a Korean computer hardware manufacturer that specialized in high-definition audio equipment and in particular PC sound cards.
Behavior Tech Computer (BTC) manufactures many computer accessories including keyboards, webcams and mouse devices; they used to manufacture optical drives but decided to leave the market and sold their Optical Division to Foxconn.
Behringer is an audio equipment company founded by the Swiss engineer Uli Behringer in 1989, in Willich, Germany.
Black is the darkest color, the result of the absence or complete absorption of visible light.
Blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments in painting and traditional colour theory, as well as in the RGB colour model.
Brown is a composite color.
In computer architecture, a bus (a contraction of the Latin omnibus) is a communication system that transfers data between components inside a computer, or between computers.
C-Media Electronics, Inc. is a Taiwan computer hardware company that manufactures processors for PC audio and USB storage, and wireless audio devices.
A CD-ROM is a pre-pressed optical compact disc which contains data.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
A codec is a device or computer program for encoding or decoding a digital data stream or signal.
The Commodore 64, also known as the C64 or the CBM 64, is an 8-bit home computer introduced in January 1982 by Commodore International (first shown at the Consumer Electronics Show, in Las Vegas, January 7–10, 1982).
Commodore International (or Commodore International Limited) was an American home computer and electronics manufacturer founded by Jack Tramiel.
The Compact Audio Cassette (CAC) or Musicassette (MC), also commonly called the cassette tape or simply tape or cassette, is an analog magnetic tape recording format for audio recording and playback.
Sound can be recorded and stored and played using either digital or analog techniques.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
A family of computer models is said to be compatible if certain software that runs on one of the models can also be run on all other models of the family.
A computer program is a collection of instructions for performing a specific task that is designed to solve a specific class of problems.
CES (formerly an acronym for Consumer Electronics Show but now the official name) is an annual trade show organized by the Consumer Technology Association.
Conventional PCI, often shortened to PCI, is a local computer bus for attaching hardware devices in a computer.
The Covox Speech Thing is an external audio device attached to the computer to output digital sound.
Creative Technology Ltd. is a Singapore-based global company headquartered in Jurong East, Singapore.
Cross-platform Audio Creation Tool (XACT) is an audio programming library and engine released by Microsoft as part of the DirectX SDK.
In signal processing, data compression, source coding, or bit-rate reduction involves encoding information using fewer bits than the original representation.
DCF77 is a German longwave time signal and standard-frequency radio station.
In computing, a device driver is a computer program that operates or controls a particular type of device that is attached to a computer.
The Didaktik was a series of home computers based on the clones of Intel 8080 and Zilog Z80 processors produced in former Czechoslovakia.
Digital Compression System, or DCS, is a sound system developed by Williams Electronics.
In the context of digital signal processing (DSP), a digital signal is a discrete-time signal for which not only the time but also the amplitude has discrete values; in other words, its samples take on only values from a discrete set (a countable set that can be mapped one-to-one to a subset of integers).
A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor (or a SIP block), with its architecture optimized for the operational needs of digital signal processing.
In electronics, a digital-to-analog converter (DAC, D/A, D2A, or D-to-A) is a system that converts a digital signal into an analog signal.
A DIN connector is an electrical connector that was originally standardized in the early 1970s by the Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN), the German national standards organization.
Direct memory access (DMA) is a feature of computer systems that allows certain hardware subsystems to access main system memory (Random-access memory), independent of the central processing unit (CPU).
DirectMusic is a deprecated component of the Microsoft DirectX API that allows music and sound effects to be composed and played and provides flexible interactive control over the way they are played.
DirectSound is a deprecated software component of the Microsoft DirectX library for the Windows operating system.
A disc jockey, often abbreviated as DJ, is a person who plays existing recorded music for a live audience.
DJ controllers are devices used to help DJs mix music with DJ software using knobs, encoders, jog wheels, faders, backlit buttons, touch strips, and other components.
Dolby Digital is the name for audio compression technologies developed by Dolby Laboratories.
DOS is a family of disk operating systems.
A duplex communication system is a point-to-point system composed of two or more connected parties or devices that can communicate with one another in both directions.
E-MU Systems was a software synthesizer, audio interface, MIDI interface, and MIDI keyboard manufacturer.
An effects unit or effects pedal is an electronic or digital device that alters the sound of a musical instrument or other audio source.
Electro Scientific Industries, Inc. (ESI) is an American high technology company headquartered in the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area, more specifically in Washington County, in the unincorporated Cedar Mill area north of Beaverton, U.S.A. It is a developer and supplier of photonic and laser systems for microelectronics manufacturers.
Electronic music is music that employs electronic musical instruments, digital instruments and circuitry-based music technology.
The Enhanced Graphics Adapter (EGA) is an IBM PC computer display standard from 1984 that superseded and exceeded the capabilities of the CGA standard introduced with the original IBM PC, and was itself superseded by the VGA standard in 1987.
Ensoniq Corp. was an American electronics manufacturer, best known throughout the mid-1980s and 1990s for its musical instruments, principally samplers and synthesizers.
The Environmental Audio Extensions (or EAX) are a number of digital signal processing presets for audio, present in Creative Technology Sound Blaster sound cards starting with the Sound Blaster Live and the Creative NOMAD/Creative ZEN product lines.
In computing, the expansion card, expansion board, adapter card or accessory card is a printed circuit board that can be inserted into an electrical connector, or expansion slot, on a computer motherboard, backplane or riser card to add functionality to a computer system via the expansion bus.
ExpressCard, initially called NEWCARD, is an interface to connect peripheral devices to a computer, usually a laptop computer.
system is a Japanese PC variant, built by Fujitsu from February 1989 to the summer of 1997.
The FM-7 ("Fujitsu Micro 7") is a home computer created by Fujitsu, first released in 1982, sold in Japan and Spain.
Focusrite plc (formerly Focusrite Audio Engineering Ltd.) is an English audio equipment manufacturer based in High Wycombe, England.
The Fourier transform (FT) decomposes a function of time (a signal) into the frequencies that make it up, in a way similar to how a musical chord can be expressed as the frequencies (or pitches) of its constituent notes.
Frequency modulation synthesis (or FM synthesis) is a form of sound synthesis where the timbre of a simple waveform (such as a square, triangle, or sawtooth) called the carrier, is changed by modulating its frequency with a modulator frequency that is also in the same or similar audio range, so that a more complex timbre results.
is a Japanese multinational information technology equipment and services company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.
A full motion video (FMV) is a video game narration technique that relies upon pre-recorded video files (rather than sprites, vectors, or 3D models) to display action in the game.
A function generator is usually a piece of electronic test equipment or software used to generate different types of electrical waveforms over a wide range of frequencies.
The game port, originally introduced on the Game Control Adapter, is a device port that was found on IBM PC compatible and other computer systems throughout the 1980s and 1990s.
General MIDI or GM is a standardized specification for electronic musical instruments that respond to MIDI messages.
Gold, also called golden, is a color.
Gravis UltraSound or GUS is a sound card for the IBM PC compatible system platform, made by Canada-based Advanced Gravis Computer Technology Ltd.
A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive or fixed disk is an electromechanical data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material.
HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia Interface) is a proprietary audio/video interface for transmitting uncompressed video data and compressed or uncompressed digital audio data from an HDMI-compliant source device, such as a display controller, to a compatible computer monitor, video projector, digital television, or digital audio device.
Home computers were a class of microcomputers entering the market in 1977, and becoming common during the 1980s.
HT Omega is an audio hardware manufacturing company based in Ontario, California.
The IBM Music Feature Card (simply referred to as the IBM PC 'Music Feature' by IBM) and sometimes abbreviated as the IBM MFC, or just IMFC: is a professional-level sound card for the PC, and used the 8-bit ISA bus.
IBM PC compatible computers are computers similar to the original IBM PC, XT, and AT, able to use the same software and expansion cards.
The IBM PCjr (read "PC junior") was IBM's first attempt to enter the home computer market.
IEEE 1284 is a standard that defines bi-directional parallel communications between computers and other devices.
IEEE 1394 is an interface standard for a serial bus for high-speed communications and isochronous real-time data transfer.
Indie Built, Inc. (formerly Access Software, Inc.) was an American video game developer based in Salt Lake City, Utah.
Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) is a retronym term for the 16-bit internal bus of IBM PC/AT and similar computers based on the Intel 80286 and its immediate successors during the 1980s.
Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.
Intel High Definition Audio (also called HD Audio or development codename Azalia) is a specification for the audio sub-system of personal computers.
A joystick is an input device consisting of a stick that pivots on a base and reports its angle or direction to the device it is controlling.
King's Quest is a graphic adventure game series created by the American software company Sierra Entertainment.
Lenovo Group Ltd. or Lenovo PC International, often shortened to Lenovo (formerly stylized as lenovo), is a Chinese multinational technology company with headquarters in Beijing, China and Morrisville, North Carolina.
Lime, also called lime green, lime-green, or bitter lime, is a color that is a shade of green, so named because it is a representation of the color of the citrus fruit called limes.
Line level is the specified strength of an audio signal used to transmit analog sound between audio components such as CD and DVD players, television sets, audio amplifiers, and mixing consoles.
A Linux distribution (often abbreviated as distro) is an operating system made from a software collection, which is based upon the Linux kernel and, often, a package management system.
The Linux kernel is an open-source monolithic Unix-like computer operating system kernel.
Live PA (meaning Live Public Address, or Live Personal Appearance) is the act of performing live electronic music in settings typically associated with DJing, such as nightclubs, raves, and more recently dance music festivals.
A loudspeaker (or loud-speaker or speaker) is an electroacoustic transducer; which converts an electrical audio signal into a corresponding sound.
A loudspeaker enclosure or loudspeaker cabinet is an enclosure (often box-shaped) in which speaker drivers (e.g., loudspeakers and tweeters) and associated electronic hardware, such as crossover circuits and, in some cases, power amplifiers, are mounted.
A low-level programming language is a programming language that provides little or no abstraction from a computer's instruction set architecture—commands or functions in the language map closely to processor instructions.
M-Audio (formerly Midiman) is a business unit of inMusic Brands that designs and markets digital audio and MIDI interfaces, keyboards and MIDI controllers, synthesizers, loudspeakers, studio monitors, digital DJ systems, microphones, and music software.
The Macintosh (pronounced as; branded as Mac since 1998) is a family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984.
Media Vision was an American electronics manufacturer of primarily computer sound cards and CD-ROM kits, operating from 1990 to approximately 1995 in Fremont, California.
The Media Vision Pro AudioSpectrum (commonly referred to as "PAS") family of personal computer sound cards included the original 8-bit Pro AudioSpectrum (1991), the 8-bit Pro AudioSpectrum Plus, 16-bit Pro AudioSpectrum 16, Pro AudioSpectrum 16 Basic and 16-bit Pro Audio Studio.
Micro Channel architecture, or the Micro Channel bus, was a proprietary 16- or 32-bit parallel computer bus introduced by IBM in 1987 which was used on PS/2 and other computers until the mid-1990s.
A microphone, colloquially nicknamed mic or mike, is a transducer that converts sound into an electrical signal.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
Middleware is computer software that provides services to software applications beyond those available from the operating system.
MIDI (short for Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is a technical standard that describes a communications protocol, digital interface, and electrical connectors that connect a wide variety of electronic musical instruments, computers, and related music and audio devices.
Midway Games Inc. (formerly Midway Manufacturing and commonly known as Midway) was an American video game developer and publisher.
Miles Sound System (MSS), formerly known as Audio Interface Library (AIL), is a sound software system primarily for video games and used mostly as an alternative for low-end audio chipsets.
The Mockingboard (the name is a pun on the Mockingbird) is a sound card for the Apple II family of microcomputers built by Sweet Micro Systems.
MOD is a computer file format used primarily to represent music, and was the first module file format.
Moonsound is the name of a sound card released for the MSX home-computer system at the Tilburg computer fair in 1995.
Mortal Kombat II (commonly abbreviated as MKII) is a fighting game originally produced by Midway for the arcades in.
A motherboard (sometimes alternatively known as the mainboard, system board, baseboard, planar board or logic board, or colloquially, a mobo) is the main printed circuit board (PCB) found in general purpose microcomputers and other expandable systems.
The MPU-401, where MPU stands for MIDI Processing Unit, is an important but now obsolete interface for connecting MIDI-equipped electronic music hardware to personal computers.
MSX is a standardized home computer architecture, first announced by Microsoft on June 16, 1983, and marketed by Kazuhiko Nishi, then Vice-president at Microsoft Japan and Director at ASCII Corporation.
Multimedia is content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, video and interactive content.
The Multimedia PC (MPC) was a recommended configuration for a personal computer (PC) with a CD-ROM drive.
is a Japanese multinational provider of information technology (IT) services and products, headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
is a Japanese consumer electronics manufacturer, specializing in premium home cinema and audio equipment, including receivers, surround sound speakers and other portable devices.
The Open Sound System (OSS) is an interface for making and capturing sound in Unix and Unix-like operating systems.
OpenAL (Open Audio Library, Open but not as in open-source) is a cross-platform audio application programming interface (API).
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
Orange is the colour between yellow and red on the spectrum of visible light.
In computing, PC Card is a configuration for computer parallel communication peripheral interface, designed for laptop computers.
A PC speaker is a loudspeaker built into most IBM PC compatible computers.
The PC System Design Guide (also known as the PC 97, PC 98, PC 99, or PC 2001 specification) is a series of hardware design requirements and recommendations for IBM PC compatible personal computers, compiled by Microsoft and Intel Corporation during 1997–2001.
The, commonly shortened to PC-88, are a brand of Zilog Z80-based home computers released by Nippon Electric Company (NEC) in 1981 in Japan, where it became very popular.
The, commonly shortened to PC-98, is a lineup of Japanese 16-bit and 32-bit personal computers manufactured by NEC from 1982 through 2000.
PCI Express (Peripheral Component Interconnect Express), officially abbreviated as PCIe or PCI-e, is a high-speed serial computer expansion bus standard, designed to replace the older PCI, PCI-X, and AGP bus standards.
The Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) was a group of computer hardware manufacturers, operating under that name from 1989 to 2009/2010.
Phasor is a stereo music, sound and speech synthesizer created by Applied Engineering for the Apple II family of computers.
The Philips SAA1099 sound generator was a 6-voice sound chip used by some 1980s devices, notably.
A phone connector, also known as phone jack, audio jack, headphone jack or jack plug, is a family of electrical connectors typically used for analog audio signals.
The phonograph is a device for the mechanical recording and reproduction of sound.
Pink is a pale red color that is named after a flower of the same name.
PLATO (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operations) was the first generalized computer-assisted instruction system.
In music, polyphony is one type of musical texture, where a texture is, generally speaking, the way that melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic aspects of a musical composition are combined to shape the overall sound and quality of the work.
A preamplifier (preamp or "pre") is an electronic amplifier that converts a weak electrical signal into an output signal strong enough to be noise-tolerant and strong enough for further processing, or for sending to a power amplifier and a loudspeaker.
PreSonus Audio Electronics, Inc. (often known and styled as PreSonus) is an American manufacturer of professional audio equipment and software, used to create, record, mix, and master music and other audio.
In optics, a prism is a transparent optical element with flat, polished surfaces that refract light.
Professional audio, abbreviated as pro audio, refers to both an activity and a category of high quality, studio-grade audio equipment.
A programmable sound generator, or PSG, is a sound chip that generates sound waves by synthesizing multiple basic waveforms, and often some kind of noise generator (all controlled by writing data to dedicated registers in the sound chip, hence the name) and combining and mixing these waveforms into a complex waveform, then shaping the amplitude envelope of the resulting waveform using attack, decay, sustain, and release time periods, so that the resulting waveform then mimics a certain kind of sound.
Pulse-code modulation (PCM) is a method used to digitally represent sampled analog signals.
Pulse-width modulation (PWM), or pulse-duration modulation (PDM), is a modulation technique used to encode a message into a pulsing signal.
Quadraphonic (or Quadrophonic and sometimes Quadrasonic) sound – equivalent to what is now called 4.0 surround sound – uses four channels in which speakers are positioned at the four corners of the listening space, reproducing signals that are (wholly or in part) independent of one another.
RadioShack, formally RadioShack Corporation, is the trade name of an American retailer founded in 1921, which operates a chain of electronics stores.
An RCA connector, sometimes called a phono connector or (in other languages) Cinch connector, is a type of electrical connector commonly used to carry audio and video signals.
RealSound is a patented (US US5054086 A) technology for the PC created by Steve Witzel of Access Software during the late 1980s.
Realtek Semiconductor Corp., is a fabless semiconductor company situated in the Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu, Taiwan.
Retro Gamer is a British magazine, published worldwide, covering retro video games.
Revolution X is an arcade rail shooter game developed and published by Midway in, featuring the rock band Aerosmith.
is a Japanese manufacturer of electronic musical instruments, electronic equipment and software.
The Roland MT-32 Multi-Timbre Sound Module is a MIDI synthesizer module first released in 1987 by Roland Corporation.
Roland/Edirol Sound Canvas lineup is a series of General MIDI based PCM sound modules and PC sound cards primarily intended for computer music usage, created by Japanese manufacturer Roland Corporation.
Sample-based synthesis is a form of audio synthesis that can be contrasted to either subtractive synthesis or additive synthesis.
In signal processing, sampling is the reduction of a continuous-time signal to a discrete-time signal.
Sierra Entertainment, Inc. (formerly On-Line Systems and later Sierra On-Line, Inc.) was an American video game developer and publisher based in Bellevue, Washington.
A signal as referred to in communication systems, signal processing, and electrical engineering is a function that "conveys information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon".
Signal-to-noise ratio (abbreviated SNR or S/N) is a measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise.
is a video game developed by Game Arts and designed by Takeshi Miyaji.
Silver or metallic gray is a color tone resembling gray that is a representation of the color of polished silver.
A softmodem (software modem) is a modem with minimal hardware that uses software running on the host computer, and the computer's resources (especially the central processing unit, random access memory, and sometimes audio processing), in place of the hardware in a conventional modem.
The Sound Blaster family of sound cards was the de facto standard for consumer audio on the IBM PC compatible system platform, until the widespread transition to Microsoft Windows 95, which standardized the programming interface at application level (eliminating the importance of backward compatibility with Sound Blaster), and the evolution in PC design led to onboard motherboard-audio, which commoditized PC audio functionality.
A sound chip is an integrated circuit (i.e. "chip") designed to produce sound.
A sound effect (or audio effect) is an artificially created or enhanced sound, or sound process used to emphasize artistic or other content of films, television shows, live performance, animation, video games, music, or other media.
Speech recognition is the inter-disciplinary sub-field of computational linguistics that develops methodologies and technologies that enables the recognition and translation of spoken language into text by computers.
Speech synthesis is the artificial production of human speech.
A square wave is a non-sinusoidal periodic waveform in which the amplitude alternates at a steady frequency between fixed minimum and maximum values, with the same duration at minimum and maximum.
Steinberg GmbH (Steinberg Media Technologies GmbH) is a German musical software and equipment company based in Hamburg.
Cubase is a digital audio workstation developed by Steinberg for music and MIDI recording, arranging and editing.
Nuendo is a digital audio workstation (DAW) developed by Steinberg for music recording, arranging, editing and post-production.
Stereophonic sound or, more commonly, stereo, is a method of sound reproduction that creates an illusion of multi-directional audible perspective.
A subwoofer (or sub) is a woofer, or a complete loudspeaker, which is dedicated to the reproduction of low-pitched audio frequencies known as bass and sub-bass.
Sun Microsystems, Inc. was an American company that sold computers, computer components, software, and information technology services and created the Java programming language, the Solaris operating system, ZFS, the Network File System (NFS), and SPARC.
Surround sound is a technique for enriching the sound reproduction quality of an audio source with additional audio channels from speakers that surround the listener (surround channels).
A synthesizer (often abbreviated as synth, also spelled synthesiser) is an electronic musical instrument that generates electric signals that are converted to sound through instrument amplifiers and loudspeakers or headphones.
The Tandy 1000 was the first in a line of more-or-less IBM PC compatible home computer systems produced by the Tandy Corporation for sale in its RadioShack chain of stores.
Tandy Graphics Adapter (TGA) is a computer display standard for an IBM PC compatible video subsystem that improved on IBM's Color Graphics Adapter (CGA) technology.
A teleconference or teleseminar is the live exchange and mass articulation of information among several persons and machines remote from one another but linked by a telecommunications system.
Regarding computers, a terminate and stay resident program (commonly referred to by the initialism TSR) is a computer program that uses a system call in DOS operating systems to return control of the computer to the operating system, as though the program has quit, but stays resident in computer memory so it can be reactivated by a hardware or software interrupt.
The SN76489 Digital Complex Sound Generator (DCSG) is a TTL-compatible programmable sound generator chip from Texas Instruments.
In music, texture is how the tempo, melodic, and harmonic materials are combined in a composition, thus determining the overall quality of the sound in a piece.
TOSLINK (from Toshiba Link TOSLINK Transmitter Module specifications.) is a standardized optical fiber connector system.
Total Recorder is digital audio editor software from High Criteria, Inc.
Trident Microsystems was a fabless semiconductor company that in the 1990s was a well-known supplier of graphics chipsets used in video cards and on motherboards for desktop PCs and laptops.
Turtle Beach Corporation is an American sound card and headset manufacturer.
Universal Audio Architecture (UAA) is an initiative unveiled in 2002 by Microsoft to standardize the hardware and class driver architecture for audio devices in modern Microsoft Windows operating systems.
Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.
USB (abbreviation of Universal Serial Bus), is an industry standard that was developed to define cables, connectors and protocols for connection, communication, and power supply between personal computers and their peripheral devices.
VIA Technologies Inc., is a Taiwanese manufacturer of integrated circuits, mainly motherboard chipsets, CPUs, and memory.
A video card (also called a display card, graphics card, display adapter or graphics adapter) is an expansion card which generates a feed of output images to a display (such as a computer monitor).
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device such as a TV screen or computer monitor.
Video Graphics Array (VGA) is the display hardware first introduced with the IBM PS/2 line of computers in 1987, following CGA and EGA introduced in earlier IBM personal computers.
Vinyl emulation software allows the user to physically manipulate the playback of digital audio files on a computer using the turntables as an interface, thus preserving the hands-on control and feel of DJing with vinyl.
Virtual Studio Technology (VST) is an audio plug-in software interface that integrates software synthesizer and effects in digital audio workstations.
Voice over Internet Protocol (also voice over IP, VoIP or IP telephony) is a methodology and group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet.
Wavetable synthesis is a sound synthesis technique used to create periodic waveforms.
In signal processing, white noise is a random signal having equal intensity at different frequencies, giving it a constant power spectral density.
Windows 2000 (codenamed NT 5.0) is an operating system for use on both client and server computers.
Windows Server 2003 is a server operating system produced by Microsoft and released on April 24, 2003.
Windows Vista (codenamed Longhorn) is an operating system by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, tablet PCs and media center PCs.
Windows XP (codenamed Whistler) is a personal computer operating system that was produced by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems.
Wing Commander II: Vengeance of the Kilrathi is the first sequel in Chris Roberts' Wing Commander science fiction space combat simulator franchise of computer games, produced by Origin Systems.
A workstation is a special computer designed for technical or scientific applications.
() is a Japanese multinational corporation and conglomerate with a very wide range of products and services, predominantly musical instruments, electronics and power sports equipment.
The Yamaha YM2151, also known as OPM (FM Operator Type-M) is an eight-channel, four-operator sound chip.
The YM3526, a.k.a. OPL (FM Operator Type-L), is a sound chip developed by Yamaha as a low-cost nine channel, two operator FM synthesis chip.
The Yamaha YM3812, also known as the OPL2, is a sound chip created by Yamaha Corporation in 1985 and famous for its wide use in IBM PC-based sound cards such as the AdLib, Sound Blaster and Pro AudioSpectrum (8bit), as well as several arcade games by Nichibutsu, Toaplan and others.
The Yamaha YMF262, also known as the OPL3 (OPL is an acronym for FM Operator Type-L), is an FM synthesis sound chip released by Yamaha Corporation in early 1990s.
The Yamaha YMF278B, also known as the OPL4 (OPL is an acronym for FM Operator Type-L), is a sound chip that incorporates both FM synthesis and sample-based synthesis (often incorrectly called "wavetable synthesis").
The ZX Spectrum is an 8-bit personal home computer released in the United Kingdom in 1982 by Sinclair Research.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
In digital audio, 44,100 Hz (alternately represented as 44.1 kHz) is a common sampling frequency.
5.1 surround sound ("five-point one") is the common name for six channel surround sound audio systems.
7.1 surround sound is the common name for an eight-channel surround audio system commonly used in home theatre configurations.
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