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South America

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South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. [1]

596 relations: ABC countries, ABC islands (Lesser Antilles), Aconcagua, Adrián Villar Rojas, Afonso Pena International Airport, Africa, Age of Enlightenment, Agrarian society, Agriculture, Aguaruna people, Alacalufe, Alpaca, Altiplano, Amapá, Amazon basin, Amazon rainforest, Amazon River, American Civil War, Americas, Americas (terminology), Anaconda, Ancient Egypt, Andean Community, Andean states, Andes, Angel Falls, Antarctica, Antilles, Anusim, Arauco War, Arawak, Area, Argentina, Argentine Civil Wars, Argentine Confederation, Aruba, Asháninka, Asia, Asian people, Association football, Asunción, Atacama Desert, Atacama people, Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic slave trade, Autonomous University of Mexico State, Awá (Brazil), Axis powers, Aymara language, Aymara people, ..., Bahía Blanca, Bahia, Balance of trade, Banana, Banawá, Bariloche, Baseball, Basketball, Battle of the Atlantic, Battle of the River Plate, Bean, Belém, Belo Horizonte, Bering Strait, Beringia, Bibliography of South 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population, List of countries and dependencies by population density, List of countries by exports, List of countries by GDP (nominal), List of countries by GDP (PPP), List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita, List of countries by Human Development Index, List of ethnic groups of Africa, List of metropolitan areas in the Americas, List of urban areas by Jewish population, List of waterfalls by height, Llama, Longitude, Los Roques archipelago, Maceió, Machado de Assis, Machu Picchu, Mapuche, Mapuche language, Mar del Plata, Maracaibo, Margarita Island, Mario Vargas Llosa, Marrano, Marxism, Mate (drink), Mato Grosso, Matsés, Música sertaneja, Measles, Medellín, Mediterranean climate, Mediterranean Sea, Megalopolis, Mercosur, Meridian (geography), Mesozoic, Mestizo, Metropolitan Area of Bogotá, Metropolitan Region of Caracas, Michael Conniff, Military dictatorship, Minas Gerais, Ministro Pistarini International Airport, Mit'a, Moche culture, Monarchy, Monarchy of the United Kingdom, 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Sápara, São Luís, Maranhão, São Paulo, São Paulo (state), São Paulo Macrometropolis, São Paulo Metro, São Paulo–Congonhas Airport, São Paulo–Guarulhos International Airport, Second French Empire, Selk'nam people, Semi-arid climate, Semi-presidential system, Shinto, Shipibo-Conibo people, Shuar, Silver, Simón Bolívar, Slave ship, Slavery, Smallpox, Social inequality, South American cuisine, South American dreadnought race, South American Games, South American Plate, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Southeast Region, Brazil, Southern Cone, Southern Hemisphere, Southern Quechua, Soybean, Spain, Spaniards, Spanish American wars of independence, Spanish language, Species, Spiritism, Stanley, Falkland Islands, Staple food, Subtropics, Sucre, Sugar, Sugarcane, Summer, Supercontinent, Suriname, Suriname (Kingdom of the Netherlands), Syrians, Tancredo Neves International Airport, Tango, Tango music, Tapir, Tariff, Tayrona National Natural Park, Teddy Cobeña, Tennis, Tereré, Terrace (agriculture), Territory, The Guianas, Thermoelectric effect, Tierra del Fuego, Tin, Tiwanaku, Tobago, Tondero, Topography, Total war, Tourism, Transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil, Treaty of the Triple Alliance, Treaty of Tordesillas, Trelew, Trindade and Martin Vaz, Trinidad, Trinidad and Tobago, Tropical cyclone, Tropical forest, Tropical rainforest climate, Tropics, Tupi people, Typhus, Uncontacted peoples, Union of South American Nations, Unitarian Party, United Kingdom, United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata, United States, Urarina people, Uruguay, Uruguayan Civil War, Uruguayan War, UTC−02:00, UTC−05:00, Vallenato, Valparaíso, Vargas Era, Venezuela, Viceroyalty of Peru, Vicuña, Viracopos International Airport, Volleyball, W. E. B. Du Bois Institute, Wai-wai people, War of Independence of Brazil, War of the Confederation, War of the Pacific, Wari culture, Wayuu language, Wayuu people, Welsh language, Western culture, Western Hemisphere, Western world, Wheat, White people, Wind power, Wind shear, Winter, World, World War I, World War II, Xukuru, Yaghan people, Yagua people, Yanomami, Youth Olympic Games, Zambo, Zulia, 1998–2002 Argentine great depression, 19th century, 2016 Summer Olympics, 30th parallel south. Expand index (546 more) »

ABC countries

ABC countries, or ABC powers, is a term sometimes used to describe the South American countries of Argentina, Brazil and Chile, which are seen as three of the most powerful, most influential and wealthiest countries in South America.

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ABC islands (Lesser Antilles)

The ABC islands are the three western-most islands of the Leeward Antilles in the Caribbean Sea that lie north of Falcón State, Venezuela.

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Aconcagua

Aconcagua is the highest mountain outside Asia, at, and the highest point in the Southern Hemisphere.

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Adrián Villar Rojas

Adrián Villar Rojas (born 1980 in Rosario, Argentina) is an internationally exhibited Argentinian sculptor known for his elaborate fantastical works which explore notions of the Anthropocene and the end of the world.

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Afonso Pena International Airport

Afonso Pena International Airport is the main airport serving Curitiba, Brazil, located in the adjoining municipality of São José dos Pinhais.

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Africa

Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

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Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".

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Agrarian society

An agrarian society (or agricultural society) is any society whose economy is based on producing and maintaining crops and farmland.

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Agriculture

Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

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Aguaruna people

The Aguaruna (or Awajún, their endonym) are an indigenous people of the Peruvian jungle.

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Alacalufe

The Alacalufe, also known as the Kawésqar, Kaweskar, Alacaluf or Halakwulup (meaning "mussel eater" in Yaghan), are an indigenous people who live in Chilean Patagonia, specifically in the Brunswick Peninsula, and Wellington, Santa Inés, and Desolación islands of the western area of Tierra del Fuego.

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Alpaca

The Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) is a species of South American camelid, similar to, and often confused with the llama.

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Altiplano

The Altiplano (Spanish for "high plain"), Collao (Quechua and Aymara: Qullaw, meaning "place of the Qulla"), Andean Plateau or Bolivian Plateau, in west-central South America, is the area where the Andes are the widest.

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Amapá

Amapá is a state located in the northern region of Brazil.

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Amazon basin

The Amazon basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries.

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Amazon rainforest

The Amazon rainforest (Portuguese: Floresta Amazônica or Amazônia; Selva Amazónica, Amazonía or usually Amazonia; Forêt amazonienne; Amazoneregenwoud), also known in English as Amazonia or the Amazon Jungle, is a moist broadleaf forest in the Amazon biome that covers most of the Amazon basin of South America.

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Amazon River

The Amazon River (or; Spanish and Amazonas) in South America is the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world, and either the longest or second longest.

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American Civil War

The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.

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Americas

The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.

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Americas (terminology)

The Americas, also known as America,"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.

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Anaconda

Anacondas are a group of large snakes of the genus Eunectes.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Andean Community

The Andean Community (Comunidad Andina, CAN) is a customs union comprising the South American countries of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

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Andean states

The Andean states (Estados Andinos) are a group of nations in South America connected by the Andes mountain range.

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Andes

The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.

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Angel Falls

Angel Falls (Salto Ángel; Pemon language: Kerepakupai Meru meaning "waterfall of the deepest place", or Parakupá Vená, meaning "the fall from the highest point") is a waterfall in Venezuela.

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Antarctica

Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.

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Antilles

The Antilles (Antilles in French; Antillas in Spanish; Antillen in Dutch and Antilhas in Portuguese) is an archipelago bordered by the Caribbean Sea to the south and west, the Gulf of Mexico to the northwest, and the Atlantic Ocean to the north and east.

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Anusim

Anusim (אֲנוּסִים,; singular male, Anús, אָנוּס; singular female, Anusáh,, meaning "Coerced") is a legal category of Jews in halakha (Jewish law) who were forced to abandon Judaism against their will, typically while forcibly converted to another religion.

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Arauco War

The Arauco War was a long-running conflict between colonial Spaniards and the Mapuche people, mostly fought in the Araucanía.

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Arawak

The Arawak are a group of indigenous peoples of South America and of the Caribbean.

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Area

Area is the quantity that expresses the extent of a two-dimensional figure or shape, or planar lamina, in the plane.

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Argentina

Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.

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Argentine Civil Wars

The Argentine Civil Wars were a series of civil wars that took place in Argentina from 1814 to 1880.

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Argentine Confederation

The Argentine Confederation (Spanish: Confederación Argentina) is one of the official names of Argentina according to the Argentine Constitution, Article 35.

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Aruba

Aruba (Papiamento) is an island and a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the southern Caribbean Sea, located about west of the main part of the Lesser Antilles and north of the coast of Venezuela.

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Asháninka

The Asháninka or Asháninca are an indigenous people living in the rainforests of Peru and in the State of Acre, Brazil.

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Asia

Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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Asian people

Asian people or Asiatic peopleUnited States National Library of Medicine.

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Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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Asunción

Asunción is the capital and largest city of Paraguay.

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Atacama Desert

The Atacama Desert (Desierto de Atacama) is a plateau in South America (primarily in Chile), covering a 1000-km (600-mi) strip of land on the Pacific coast, west of the Andes mountains.

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Atacama people

The Atacama people, known as atacameños or atacamas in Spanish and kunzas, likan-antai or likanantaí in English, are an indigenous people from the Atacama Desert and altiplano region in the north of Chile and Argentina and southern Bolivia.

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Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.

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Atlantic slave trade

The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly to the Americas.

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Autonomous University of Mexico State

The Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México (UAEM) (Autonomous University of Mexico State) is a public university in the State of Mexico, Mexico.

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Awá (Brazil)

The Awá, or Guajá, are an indigenous people of Brazil living in the eastern Amazon rainforest.

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Axis powers

The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.

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Aymara language

Aymara (Aymar aru) is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara people of the Andes.

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Aymara people

The Aymara or Aimara (aymara) people are an indigenous nation in the Andes and Altiplano regions of South America; about 1 million live in Bolivia, Peru and Chile.

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Bahía Blanca

Bahía Blanca (English: White Bay) is a city in the southwest of the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, by the Atlantic Ocean, and is the seat of government of Bahía Blanca Partido.

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Bahia

Bahia (locally) is one of the 26 states of Brazil and is located in the northeastern part of the country on the Atlantic coast.

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Balance of trade

The balance of trade, commercial balance, or net exports (sometimes symbolized as NX), is the difference between the monetary value of a nation's exports and imports over a certain period.

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Banana

A banana is an edible fruit – botanically a berry – produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa.

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Banawá

The Banawá (also Banawa, Banavá, Jafí, Kitiya, Banauá) are an indigenous group living along the Banawá River in the Amazonas State, Brazil.

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Bariloche

San Carlos de Bariloche, usually known as Bariloche, is a city in the province of Río Negro, Argentina, situated in the foothills of the Andes on the southern shores of Nahuel Huapi Lake.

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Baseball

Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting and fielding.

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Basketball

Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.

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Battle of the Atlantic

The Battle of the Atlantic was the longest continuous military campaign in World War II, running from 1939 to the defeat of Germany in 1945.

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Battle of the River Plate

The Battle of the River Plate was the first naval battle in the Second World War and the first one of the Battle of the Atlantic in South American waters.

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Bean

A bean is a seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal food.

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Belém

Belém (Portuguese for Bethlehem), is a Brazilian city, the capital and largest city of the state of Pará in the country's north.

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Belo Horizonte

Belo Horizonte ("Beautiful Horizon") is the sixth-largest city in Brazil, the thirteenth-largest in South America and the eighteenth-largest in the Americas.

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Bering Strait

The Bering Strait (Берингов пролив, Beringov proliv, Yupik: Imakpik) is a strait of the Pacific, which borders with the Arctic to north.

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Beringia

Beringia is defined today as the land and maritime area bounded on the west by the Lena River in Russia; on the east by the Mackenzie River in Canada; on the north by 72 degrees north latitude in the Chukchi Sea; and on the south by the tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula.

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Bibliography of South America

This bibliography of South America is a list of English-language nonfiction books which have been described by reliable sources as in some way directly relating to the subject of South America, its history, geography, culture, people, etc.

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Biodiversity

Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.

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Black people

Black people is a term used in certain countries, often in socially based systems of racial classification or of ethnicity, to describe persons who are perceived to be dark-skinned compared to other populations.

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Bogotá

Bogotá, officially Bogotá, Distrito Capital, abbreviated Bogotá, D.C., and formerly known as Santafé de Bogotá between 1991 and 2000, is the capital and largest city of Colombia, administered as the Capital District, although often thought of as part of Cundinamarca.

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Bolivia

Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.

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Bonaire

Bonaire (pronounced or; Bonaire,; Papiamento: Boneiru) is an island in the Leeward Antilles in the Caribbean Sea.

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Bossa nova

Bossa nova is a genre of Brazilian music, which was developed and popularized in the 1950s and 1960s and is today one of the best-known Brazilian music genres abroad.

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Bouvet Island

Bouvet Island is an uninhabited subantarctic high island and dependency of Norway located in the South Atlantic Ocean at, thus putting it north of and outside the Antarctic Treaty System.

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Boxing

Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.

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Brasília

Brasília is the federal capital of Brazil and seat of government of the Federal District.

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Brazil

Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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Brazilian Expeditionary Force

The Brazilian Expeditionary Force or BEF (Força Expedicionária Brasileira; FEB) consisted of about 25,700 men arranged by the army and air force to fight alongside the Allied forces in the Mediterranean Theatre of World War II.

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Brazilian Highlands

The Brazilian Highlands or Brazilian Plateau (Planalto Brasileiro) are an extensive geographical region, covering most of the eastern, southern and central portions of Brazil, in all approximately half of the country's land area, or some 4,500,000 km² (1,930,511 sq mi).

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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British Overseas Territories

The British Overseas Territories (BOT) or United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs) are 14 territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom.

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Buenos Aires

Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina.

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Cañari

The Cañari (in Kichwa: Kañari) are an indigenous ethnic group traditionally inhabiting the territory of the modern provinces of Azuay and Cañar in Ecuador.

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Cacique

A cacique (feminine form: cacica) is a leader of an indigenous group, derived from the Taíno word kasikɛ for the pre-Columbian tribal chiefs in the Bahamas, the Greater Antilles, and the northern Lesser Antilles.

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Cajón

A cajón ("box", "crate" or "drawer") is a box-shaped percussion instrument originally from Peru, played by slapping the front or rear faces (generally thin plywood) with the hands, fingers, or sometimes various implements such as brushes, mallets, or sticks.

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Campinas

Campinas (Plains or Meadows) is a Brazilian municipality in São Paulo State, part of the country's Southeast Region.

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Cape Verde

Cape Verde or Cabo Verde (Cabo Verde), officially the Republic of Cabo Verde, is an island country spanning an archipelago of 10 volcanic islands in the central Atlantic Ocean.

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Capital city

A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.

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Caracas

Caracas, officially Santiago de León de Caracas, is the capital and centre of the Greater Caracas Area, and the largest city of Venezuela.

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Caribbean

The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.

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Caribbean Hindustani

Caribbean Hindustani is an Indo-Aryan language spoken as a lingua franca by Indo-Caribbeans and the Indo-Caribbean diaspora.

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Caribbean Plate

The Caribbean Plate is a mostly oceanic tectonic plate underlying Central America and the Caribbean Sea off the north coast of South America.

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Caribbean Sea

The Caribbean Sea (Mar Caribe; Mer des Caraïbes; Caraïbische Zee) is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere.

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Carlos Cruz-Diez

Carlos Cruz-Diez (born August 17, 1923 in Caracas) is a Venezuelan artist considered to be one of the greatest artistic innovators of the 20th and 21st centuries.

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Carmen Miranda

Carmen Miranda GCIH, OMC, born Maria do Carmo Miranda da Cunha (February 9, 1909 – August 5, 1955), was a Portuguese-born Brazilian samba singer, dancer, Broadway actress, and film star who was popular from the 1930s to the 1950s.

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Cartagena, Colombia

The city of Cartagena, known in the colonial era as Cartagena de Indias (Cartagena de Indias), is a major port founded in 1533, located on the northern coast of Colombia in the Caribbean Coast Region.

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Cassava

Manihot esculenta, commonly called cassava, manioc, yuca, mandioca and Brazilian arrowroot, is a woody shrub native to South America of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Caudillo

A caudillo (Old Spanish: cabdillo, from Latin capitellum, diminutive of caput "head") was a type of personalist leader wielding military and political power.

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Cayenne

Cayenne is the capital city of French Guiana, an overseas region and department of France located in South America.

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Cenepa War

The Cenepa War (January 26 – February 28, 1995), also known as the Alto Cenepa War, was a brief and localized military conflict between Ecuador and Peru, fought over control of an area in Peruvian territory (i.e. in the eastern side of the Cordillera del Cóndor, Province of Condorcanqui, Región Amazonas, Republic of Perú) near the border between the two countries (see map shown in the infobox).

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Central America

Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.

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Central Powers

The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).

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Chachapoya culture

The Chachapoyas, also called the "Warriors of the Clouds", was a culture of Andes living in the cloud forests of the Amazonas Region of present-day Peru.

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Chaco War

The Chaco War (1932–1935; Guerra del Chaco, Cháko Ñorairõ. Secretaría Nacional de Cultura de Paraguay) was fought between Bolivia and Paraguay over control of the northern part of the Gran Chaco region (known in Spanish as Chaco Boreal) of South America, which was thought to be rich in oil.

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Chavín culture

The Chavín culture is an extinct, prehistoric civilization, named for Chavín de Huantar, the principal archaeological site at which its artifacts have been found.

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Chavín de Huantar

Chavín de Huántar is an archaeological site in Peru, containing ruins and artifacts constructed beginning at least by 1200 BC and occupied by later cultures until around 400-500 BC by the Chavín, a major pre-Inca culture.

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Chayahuita language

Chayahuita is an indigenous American language spoken by thousands of native Chayahuita people in South America.

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Chile

Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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Chili pepper

The chili pepper (also chile pepper, chilli pepper, or simply chilli) from Nahuatl chīlli) is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. They are widely used in many cuisines to add spiciness to dishes. The substances that give chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and related compounds known as capsaicinoids. Chili peppers originated in Mexico. After the Columbian Exchange, many cultivars of chili pepper spread across the world, used for both food and traditional medicine. Worldwide in 2014, 32.3 million tonnes of green chili peppers and 3.8 million tonnes of dried chili peppers were produced. China is the world's largest producer of green chillies, providing half of the global total.

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Chiloé Archipelago

The Chiloé Archipelago (Archipiélago de Chiloé) is a group of islands lying off the coast of Chile, in the Los Lagos Region.

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Chimor

Chimor (also Kingdom of Chimor or Chimú Empire) was the political grouping of the Chimú culture that ruled the northern coast of Peru beginning around 850 and ending around 1470.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chinese language

Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.

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Christian

A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.

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Christianity

ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Cisplatina

Cisplatina Province or Cisplatine Province (Província Cisplatina) was a Brazilian province in existence from 1821 to 1828 created by the Luso-Brazilian annexation of the Oriental Province.

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Cisplatine War

The Cisplatine War, also known as the Argentine-Brazilian War, was an armed conflict over an area known as Banda Oriental or the "Eastern Strip (roughly present-day Uruguay) in the 1820s between the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata (as Argentina was then called) and the Empire of Brazil in the aftermath of the United Provinces' independence from Spain.

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Coat of arms

A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard.

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Cocama language

Cocama (Kokáma) is an indigenous language spoken by thousands of native people in western South America.

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Cocoa bean

The cocoa bean, also called cacao bean, cocoa, and cacao, is the dried and fully fermented seed of Theobroma cacao, from which cocoa solids and, because of the seed's fat, cocoa butter can be extracted.

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Coffee

Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

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Colombia

Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.

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Colombia–Panama border

The Colombia–Panama border is the 225 km (139-mile) long international boundary between Colombia and Panama.

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Colorado Party (Uruguay)

The Colorado Party (Partido Colorado, lit. "The Colored Party") is a political party in Uruguay.

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Commercial aviation

Commercial aviation is the part of civil aviation (both general aviation and scheduled airline services) that involves operating aircraft for hire to transport passengers or multiple loads of cargo.

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Commodity

In economics, a commodity is an economic good or service that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.

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Conquistador

Conquistadors (from Spanish or Portuguese conquistadores "conquerors") is a term used to refer to the soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire or the Portuguese Empire in a general sense.

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Constitutional monarchy

A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.

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Continent

A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.

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Continental shelf

The continental shelf is an underwater landmass which extends from a continent, resulting in an area of relatively shallow water known as a shelf sea.

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Converso

A converso (feminine form conversa), "a convert", (from Latin, "converted, turned around") was a Jew who converted to Roman Catholicism in Spain or Portugal, particularly during the 14th and 15th centuries, or one of their descendants.

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Copa América

Copa América (America Cup), known until 1975 as the South American Football Championship (Campeonato Sudamericano de Fútbol in Spanish and Campeonato Sul-americano de Futebol (Portugal) ou Copa Sul-Americana de Futebol (Brazil) in Portuguese), is an international men's football tournament contested between national teams from CONMEBOL.

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Copper

Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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Cotton

Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.

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Country

A country is a region that is identified as a distinct national entity in political geography.

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Coup d'état

A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.

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Crustacean

Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.

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Crypto-Judaism

Crypto-Judaism is the secret adherence to Judaism while publicly professing to be of another faith; practitioners are referred to as "crypto-Jews" (origin from Greek kryptos – κρυπτός, 'hidden').

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Cucurbita

Cucurbita (Latin for gourd) is a genus of herbaceous vines in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae, also known as cucurbits, native to the Andes and Mesoamerica.

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Cumbia

Cumbia folkloric rhythm and dance from Colombia.

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Curaçao

Curaçao (Curaçao,; Kòrsou) is a Lesser Antilles island in the southern Caribbean Sea and the Dutch Caribbean region, about north of the Venezuelan coast.

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Cusco

Cusco (Cuzco,; Qusqu or Qosqo), often spelled Cuzco, is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes mountain range.

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Cycling

Cycling, also called bicycling or biking, is the use of bicycles for transport, recreation, exercise or sport.

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Darién Gap

The Darién Gap is a break in the Pan-American Highway consisting of a large swath of undeveloped swampland and forest within Panama's Darién Province in Central America and the northern portion of Colombia's Chocó Department in South America.

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Debt of developing countries

The debt of developing countries refers to the external debt incurred by governments of developing countries, generally in quantities beyond the governments' ability to repay.

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Demographics of Africa

The population of Africa has grown rapidly over the past century, and consequently shows a large youth bulge, further reinforced by a low life expectancy of below 50 years in some African countries.

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Demographics of Chile

This article is about the demographic features of Chile, including population density, ethnicity, economic status and other aspects of the population.

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Demographics of South America

South America has an estimated population of 418,7 million (as of 2017) and a rate of population growth of about 0.6% per year.

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Desert

A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.

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Diaguita

The Diaguita people are a group of South American indigenous people native to the Chilean Norte Chico and the Argentine Northwest.

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Dreadnought

The dreadnought was the predominant type of battleship in the early 20th century.

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Duopoly

A duopoly (from Greek δύο, duo (two) + πωλεῖν, polein (to sell)) is a form of oligopoly where only two sellers exist in one market.

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Dutch language

The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.

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East Pomeranian dialect

East Pomeranian (Ostpommersch) is an East Low German dialect that is either moribund or used to be spoken in what was roughly Pomerania (now Northwestern Poland; previously part of Germany until the end of World War II) and today is also spoken in Brazil.

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Easter Island

Easter Island (Rapa Nui, Isla de Pascua) is a Chilean island in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, at the southeasternmost point of the Polynesian Triangle in Oceania.

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Economic inequality

Economic inequality is the difference found in various measures of economic well-being among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries.

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Ecuador

Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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Ecuadorian–Peruvian War

The Ecuadorian–Peruvian War, known locally as the War of '41 (Guerra del 41), was a South American border war fought between 5–31 July 1941.

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Empire of Brazil

The Empire of Brazil was a 19th-century state that broadly comprised the territories which form modern Brazil and (until 1828) Uruguay.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Entre Ríos Province

Entre Ríos (Between Rivers) is a central province of Argentina, located in the Mesopotamia region.

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Enxet

The Enxet are an indigenous people of about 17,000 living in the Gran Chaco region of western Paraguay.

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Ethanol

Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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European colonization of the Americas

The European colonization of the Americas describes the history of the settlement and establishment of control of the continents of the Americas by most of the naval powers of Europe.

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Evangelicalism

Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.

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Extratropical cyclone

Extratropical cyclones, sometimes called mid-latitude cyclones or wave cyclones, are low-pressure areas which, along with the anticyclones of high-pressure areas, drive the weather over much of the Earth.

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Falkland Islands

The Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) is an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean on the Patagonian Shelf.

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Falkland Islands sovereignty dispute

Sovereignty over the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) is disputed by Argentina and the United Kingdom.

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Falklands War

The Falklands War (Guerra de las Malvinas), also known as the Falklands Conflict, Falklands Crisis, Malvinas War, South Atlantic Conflict, and the Guerra del Atlántico Sur (Spanish for "South Atlantic War"), was a ten-week war between Argentina and the United Kingdom over two British dependent territories in the South Atlantic: the Falkland Islands, and its territorial dependency, the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.

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Federal Dependencies of Venezuela

The Federal Dependencies of Venezuela (Spanish Dependencias Federales de Venezuela) encompass most of Venezuela's offshore islands in the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Venezuela, excluding those islands which form the State of Nueva Esparta.

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Ferdinand VII of Spain

Ferdinand VII (Fernando; 14 October 1784 – 29 September 1833) was twice King of Spain: in 1808 and again from 1813 to his death.

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Fernando Botero

Fernando Botero Angulo (born 19 April 1932) is a Colombian figurative artist and sculptor.

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Fernando de Noronha

Fernando de Noronha is an archipelago of 21 islands and islets in the Atlantic Ocean, offshore from the Brazilian coast.

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Field hockey

Field hockey is a team game of the hockey family.

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FIFA Club World Cup

The FIFA Club World Cup is an international men's association football competition organised by the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.

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FIFA World Cup

The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.

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Flag

A flag is a piece of fabric (most often rectangular or quadrilateral) with a distinctive design and colors.

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Flags of South America

This is a gallery of flags of South American countries and affiliated international organizations.

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Florianópolis

Florianópolis is the capital and second largest city of the state of Santa Catarina, in the South region of Brazil.

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Fortaleza

Fortaleza (locally, Portuguese for Fortress) is the state capital of Ceará, located in Northeastern Brazil.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Francisco Ramírez (governor)

Francisco Ramírez, also known as "Pancho" Ramírez as well as "El Supremo Entrerriano" (1786 – 1821), was an Argentine governor of Entre Ríos during the Argentine War of Independence.

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Francisco Solano López

Francisco Solano López (24 July 1827 – 1 March 1870) was President of Paraguay from 1862 until his death in 1870.

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Frank McCann

Frank McCann is a U.S. Brazilianist expert in Brazilian military history.

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French Guiana

French Guiana (pronounced or, Guyane), officially called Guiana (Guyane), is an overseas department and region of France, on the north Atlantic coast of South America in the Guyanas.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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Futsal

Futsal is a variant of association football played on a hard court, smaller than a football pitch, and mainly indoors.

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G20

The G20 (or Group of Twenty) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union.

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G8+5

The Group of Eight + Five (G8+5) was an international group that consisted of the leaders of the heads of government from the G8 nations (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Russia), plus the heads of government of the five leading emerging economies (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa).

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Gabriel García Márquez

Gabriel José de la Concordia García Márquez (6 March 1927 – 17 April 2014) was a Colombian novelist, short-story writer, screenwriter and journalist, known affectionately as Gabo or Gabito throughout Latin America.

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Galápagos Islands

The Galápagos Islands (official name: Archipiélago de Colón, other Spanish name: Las Islas Galápagos), part of the Republic of Ecuador, are an archipelago of volcanic islands distributed on either side of the equator in the Pacific Ocean surrounding the centre of the Western Hemisphere, west of continental Ecuador.

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Gê peoples

Gê are the people who spoke Ge languages of the northern South American Caribbean coast and Brazil.

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Geary–Khamis dollar

The Geary–Khamis dollar, more commonly known as the international dollar (Int'l. dollar or Intl. dollar, abbreviation: Int'l$., Intl$. or Int$), is a hypothetical unit of currency that has the same purchasing power parity that the U.S. dollar had in the United States at a given point in time.

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Geopolitics

Geopolitics (from Greek γῆ gê "earth, land" and πολιτική politikḗ "politics") is the study of the effects of geography (human and physical) on politics and international relations.

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Georgetown, Guyana

Georgetown is the capital of Guyana, located in Region 4, which is also known as the Demerara-Mahaica region.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Gold

Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.

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Golf

Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible.

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Gran Sabana

La Gran Sabana (The Great Savanna) is a region in southeastern Venezuela, part of the Guianan savanna ecoregion.

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Great Depression

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.

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Greater Belo Horizonte

Greater Belo Horizonte is the name usually used to describe the Belo Horizonte metropolitan region, which is composed of 34 municipalities.

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Greater Buenos Aires

Greater Buenos Aires (Gran Buenos Aires, GBA), Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area or Buenos Aires Metropolitan Region refers to the urban agglomeration comprising the autonomous city of Buenos Aires and the adjacent 24 partidos (districts) in the Province of Buenos Aires.

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Greater Porto Alegre

The Metropolitan area of Porto Alegre is the 4th most populous in Brazil, with an estimated population of 4.0 million inhabitants.

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Greater Rio de Janeiro

Greater Rio de Janeiro, officially Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Region (Grande Rio, officially Região Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, in Portuguese) is a large metropolitan area located in Rio de Janeiro state in Brazil, the second largest in Brazil and third largest in South America.

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Greater São Paulo

The Greater São Paulo (Grande São Paulo) is a nonspecific term for one of the multiple definitions the large metropolitan area located in the São Paulo state in Brazil.

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Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.

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Guanaco

The guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is a camelid native to South America.

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Guaraní people

Guaraní are a group of culturally related indigenous peoples of South America.

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Guarani language

Guarani, specifically the primary variety known as Paraguayan Guarani (endonym avañe'ẽ 'the people's language'), is an indigenous language of South America that belongs to the Tupi–Guarani family of the Tupian languages.

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Guarania (music)

Guarania is a style of music created in Paraguay by musician José Asunción Flores in 1925 with the purpose of expressing the character of the Paraguayan people.

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Guerrilla warfare

Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.

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Guillermo Lora

Guillermo Lora (31 October 1922 – 17 May 2009) was a Trotskyist leader in Bolivia who was active in the Revolutionary Workers' Party (POR) from the early 1940s and was its best known leader.

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Guitar

The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that usually has six strings.

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Gulf Stream

The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension the North Atlantic Drift, is a warm and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and stretches to the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean.

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Guna people

The Guna, known as Kuna prior to an orthographic reform in 2010, and historically as Cuna, are an indigenous people of Panama and Colombia.

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Guyana

Guyana (pronounced or), officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is a sovereign state on the northern mainland of South America.

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Guyana (1966–1970)

Guyana was a predecessor to the modern-day Republic of Guyana and an independent state that existed between 1966 and 1970.

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Hacienda

An hacienda (or; or), in the colonies of the Spanish Empire, is an estate, similar in form to a Roman villa.

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Handball

Handball (also known as team handball, fieldball, European handball or Olympic handball) is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six outfield players and a goalkeeper) pass a ball using their hands with the aim of throwing it into the goal of the other team.

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Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Head of state

A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.

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Highway

A highway is any public or private road or other public way on land.

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History of Chile during the Parliamentary Era (1891–1925)

The Parliamentary Era in Chile began in 1891, at the end of the Civil War, and spanned until 1925 and the establishment of the 1925 Constitution.

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History of Spain (1810–73)

Spain in the 19th century was a country in turmoil.

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History of the Incas

The Inca state was known as the Kingdom of Cusco before 1438.

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House of Braganza

The Most Serene House of Braganza (Sereníssima Casa de Bragança), or the Brigantine Dynasty (Dinastia Brigantina), also known in the Empire of Brazil as the Most August House of Braganza (Augustíssima Casa de Bragança), is a dynasty of emperors, kings, princes, and dukes of Portuguese origin, a branch of the House of Aviz.

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Hugo Chávez

Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (28 July 1954 – 5 March 2013) was a Venezuelan politician who was President of Venezuela from 1999 to 2013.

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Hydroelectricity

Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.

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Iguazu Falls

Iguazú Falls or Iguaçu Falls (Cataratas del Iguazú; Chororo Yguasu; Cataratas do Iguaçu) are waterfalls of the Iguazu River on the border of the Argentine province of Misiones and the Brazilian state of Paraná.

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Inca Empire

The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, "The Four Regions"), also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America, and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century.

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Inca road system

The Inca road system was the most extensive and advanced transportation system in pre-Columbian South America.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indigenous languages of the Americas

Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.

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Indigenous peoples

Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.

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Indigenous peoples of South America

The indigenous peoples of South America are the Pre-Columbian peoples of South America and their descendants. These peoples contrast with South Americans of European ancestry. In Spanish, indigenous people are often referred to as indígenas or pueblos indígenas (lit. indigenous peoples). They may also be called pueblos nativos or nativos (lit. native peoples). The term aborigen (lit. aborigine) is used in Argentina, and pueblos aborígenes (lit. aboriginal peoples) is commonly used in Chile. The English term "Amerindian" (short for "Indians of the Americas") is often used in the Guianas. People of mixed European and indigenous descent are usually referred to as mestizos. It is believed that the first human populations of South America either arrived from Asia into North America via the Bering Land Bridge, and migrated southwards or alternatively from Polynesia across the Pacific. The earliest generally accepted archaeological evidence for human habitation in South America dates to 14,000 years ago, the Monte Verde site in Southern Chile. The descendents of these first inhabitants would become the indigenous populations of South America. Before the Spanish colonization of the Americas, many of the indigenous peoples of South America were hunter-gatherers, and indeed many still are, especially in the Amazonian area. Others, especially the Andean cultures, practised sophisticated agriculture, utilized advanced irrigation and kept domesticated livestock, such as llamas and alpacas. In the period after the initial arrival of Europeans in 1492 the indigenous population of South America fell rapidly due to a variety of factors, such as disease and warfare. In the present day, there are two South American countries where indigenous peoples constitute the largest ethnic group. These are Peru, where 45% are indigenous, and Bolivia, where 62% of people identify as feeling a part of some indigenous group. South American indigenous peoples include.

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Indigenous peoples of the Americas

The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.

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Inflation

In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.

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Influenza

Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.

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Internal conflict in Peru

The Peru's internal War on Terror, beginning in 1980, is an ongoing armed conflict between the government of Peru and some terrorist organizations such as the insurgent People's Guerilla Army (Ejército Guerrillero Popular), armed wing of the Communist Party of Peru (known as Shining Path or "PCP-SL") and the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement which was also involved in the conflict from 1982 to 1997.

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Intertropical Convergence Zone

The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), known by sailors as the doldrums, is the area encircling Earth near the Equator, where the northeast and southeast trade winds converge.

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Iron ore

Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.

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Irrigation

Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.

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Isla Aves

Isla de Aves (Spanish for "Island of Birds" or "Birds Island"), or Aves Island, is a Caribbean dependency of Venezuela.

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Isla de Providencia

Isla de Providencia or Old Providence is a mountainous Caribbean island part of the Colombian department of Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina and the municipality of Providencia and Santa Catalina Islands, lying midway between Costa Rica and Jamaica.

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Isthmus of Panama

The Isthmus of Panama (Istmo de Panamá), also historically known as the Isthmus of Darien (Istmo de Darién), is the narrow strip of land that lies between the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean, linking North and South America.

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Itaipu Dam

The Itaipu Dam (Barragem de Itaipu, Represa de Itaipú) is a hydroelectric dam on the Paraná River located on the border between Brazil and Paraguay.

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Italian Campaign (World War II)

The Italian Campaign of World War II consisted of the Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war in Europe.

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Italian language

Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.

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Italian Social Republic

The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana,; RSI), informally known as the Republic of Salò (Repubblica di Salò), was a German puppet state with limited recognition that was created during the later part of World War II, existing from the beginning of German occupation of Italy in September 1943 until the surrender of German troops in Italy in May 1945.

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Italians

The Italians (Italiani) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula.

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Jaguar

The jaguar (Panthera onca) is a wild cat species and the only extant member of the genus Panthera native to the Americas.

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Japan

Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Japanese language

is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.

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Japanese new religions

Japanese new religions are new religious movements established in Japan.

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Javanese language

Javanese (colloquially known as) is the language of the Javanese people from the central and eastern parts of the island of Java, in Indonesia.

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Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos

The Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos are located in Santa Cruz department in eastern Bolivia.

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Jivaroan peoples

Jivaroan peoples refers to groups of indigenous peoples in the headwaters of the Marañon River and its tributaries, in northern Peru and eastern Ecuador.

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João Guimarães Rosa

João Guimarães Rosa (27 June 1908 – 19 November 1967) was a Brazilian novelist, short story writer and diplomat.

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Jorge Luis Borges

Jorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges Acevedo (24 August 1899 – 14 June 1986) was an Argentine short-story writer, essayist, poet and translator, and a key figure in Spanish-language literature.

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José de San Martín

José Francisco de San Martín y Matorras (25 February 1778 – 17 August 1850), known simply as José de San Martín or El Libertador of Argentina, Chile and Peru, was an Argentine general and the prime leader of the southern part of South America's successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire who served as the Protector of Peru.

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Juan Manuel de Rosas

Juan Manuel de Rosas (30 March 1793 – 14 March 1877), nicknamed "Restorer of the Laws", was a politician and army officer who ruled Buenos Aires Province and briefly the Argentine Confederation.

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Juan Perón

Juan Domingo Perón (8 October 1895 – 1 July 1974) was an Argentine army lieutenant general and politician.

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Juliana Republic

The Juliana Republic was declared in the imperial Brazilian province of Santa Catarina on July 24, 1839, and lasted only until November 15, 1839.

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Junta (Peninsular War)

In the Napoleonic era, junta was the name chosen by several local administrations formed in Spain during the Peninsular War as a patriotic alternative to the official administration toppled by the French invaders.

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Juris

The Juris were a tribe of South American Indigenous people, formerly occupying the country between the rivers Içá (lower Putumayo) and Yapura, north-western Brazil.

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Kaieteur Falls

Kaieteur Falls is the world's largest single drop waterfall by the volume of water flowing over it.

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Kayapo

The Kayapo (Portuguese: Caiapó) people are indigenous peoples in Brazil, from the plain islands of the Mato Grosso and Pará in Brazil, south of the Amazon Basin and along Rio Xingu and its tributaries.

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King Edward Point

King Edward Point (also known as KEP) is the capital of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, on the northeastern coast of the island of South Georgia.

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Kingdom of Araucanía and Patagonia

The Kingdom of Araucanía and Patagonia (Reino de la Araucanía y de la Patagonia; Royaume d'Araucanie et de Patagonie, sometimes referred to as New France) was a proposed state and kingdom conceived in the 19th century by a French lawyer and adventurer named Orélie-Antoine de Tounens.

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Kingdom of Brazil

Not to be confused with Empire of Brazil The Kingdom of Brazil (Reino do Brasil) was a constituent kingdom of United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves.

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Kingdom of the Netherlands

The Kingdom of the Netherlands (Koninkrijk der Nederlanden), commonly known as the Netherlands, is a sovereign state and constitutional monarchy with the large majority of its territory in Western Europe and with several small island territories in the Caribbean Sea, in the West Indies islands (Leeward Islands and Lesser Antilles).

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Korea

Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.

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Korean Confucianism

Korean Confucianism is the form of Confucianism that emerged and developed in Korea.

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La Guajira Department

La Guajira is a department of Colombia.

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La Paz

La Paz, officially known as Nuestra Señora de La Paz (Our Lady of Peace), also named Chuqi Yapu (Chuquiago) in Aymara, is the seat of government and the de facto national capital of the Plurinational State of Bolivia (the constitutional capital of Bolivia is Sucre).

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Lake Maracaibo

Lake Maracaibo (Lago de Maracaibo) is a large brackish tidal bay (or tidal estuary) in Venezuela and an "inlet of the Caribbean Sea." It is sometimes considered a lake rather than a bay or lagoon.

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Lake Titicaca

Lake Titicaca (Lago Titicaca, Titiqaqa Qucha) is a large, deep lake in the Andes on the border of Bolivia and Peru.

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Languages of South America

The languages of South America can be divided into three broad groups.

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Latin America

Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.

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Latin American Boom

The Latin American Boom (Boom Latinoamericano) was a literary movement of the 1960s and 1970s when the work of a group of relatively young Latin American novelists became widely circulated in Europe and throughout the world.

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Latin American integration

The integration of Latin America has a history going back to Spanish American and Brazilian independence, when there was discussion of creating a regional state or confederation of Latin American nations to protect the area's newly won autonomy.

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Latin American literature

Latin American literature consists of the oral and written literature of Latin America in several languages, particularly in Spanish, Portuguese, and the indigenous languages of the Americas as well as literature of the United States written in the Spanish language.

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League (unit)

A league is a unit of length.

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Lebanese people

The Lebanese people (الشعب اللبناني / ALA-LC: Lebanese Arabic pronunciation) are the people inhabiting or originating from Lebanon.

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Leticia Incident

The Leticia Incident, also called the Leticia War or the Colombia–Peru War (1 September 1932 – 24 May 1933), was a short-lived armed conflict between Colombia and Peru over territory in the Amazon rainforest.

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Libertadores

Libertadores ("Liberators") refers to the principal leaders of the Latin American wars of independence from Spain and Portugal.

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Light skin

Light skin is a naturally occurring human skin color, which has little eumelanin pigmentation and which has been adapted to environments of low UV radiation.

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Lima

Lima (Quechua:, Aymara) is the capital and the largest city of Peru.

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Lima metropolitan area

The Lima metropolitan area (Área Metropolitana de Lima, also known as Lima Metropolitana), is an area formed by the conurbation of the Peruvian cities of Lima (the nation's capital) and Callao.

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Line 15 (São Paulo Metro)

Line 15 (Silver) is a line of the São Paulo Metro.

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List of cities in South America

This is a list of cities in South America.

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List of continents by GDP (nominal)

This article includes a list of continents of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the market value of all final goods and services from a continent in a given year.

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List of continents by population

This is a list of all major continents' population.

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List of countries and dependencies by area

This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.

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List of countries and dependencies by population

This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population.

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List of countries and dependencies by population density

This is a list of countries and dependent territories ranked by population density, measured by the number of human inhabitants per square kilometer.

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List of countries by exports

This is a list of countries by merchandise exports, based on The World Factbook of the CIA.

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List of countries by GDP (nominal)

Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.

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List of countries by GDP (PPP)

This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).

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List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita

Three lists of countries below calculate gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita, i.e., the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year.

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List of countries by Human Development Index

This is a list of all the countries by the Human Development Index as included in a United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Report.

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List of ethnic groups of Africa

The ethnic groups of Africa number in the thousands, with each population generally having its own language (or dialect of a language) and culture.

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List of metropolitan areas in the Americas

This is a list of the fifty most populous metropolitan areas in the Americas as of 2015, the most recent year for which official census results, estimates or projections are available for every major metropolitan area in the Americas.

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List of urban areas by Jewish population

This article provides incomplete lists of various Jewish populations worldwide.

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List of waterfalls by height

The following is a list of waterfalls of the world by height.

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Llama

The llama (Lama glama) is a domesticated South American camelid, widely used as a meat and pack animal by Andean cultures since the Pre-Columbian era.

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Longitude

Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.

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Los Roques archipelago

Los Roques archipelago is a federal dependency of Venezuela consisting of approximately 350 islands, cays, and islets in a total area of 40.61 square kilometers.

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Maceió

Maceió is the capital and the largest city of the coastal state of Alagoas, Brazil.

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Machado de Assis

Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis, often known by his surnames as Machado de Assis, Machado, or Bruxo do Cosme VelhoVainfas, p. 505.

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Machu Picchu

Machu Picchu (or,, Machu Pikchu) is a 15th-century Inca citadel situated on a mountain ridge above sea level.

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Mapuche

The Mapuche are a group of indigenous inhabitants of south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia.

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Mapuche language

Mapuche or Mapudungun (from mapu 'land' and dungun 'speak, speech') is a language isolate spoken in south-central Chile and west central Argentina by the Mapuche people (from mapu 'land' and che 'people').

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Mar del Plata

Mar del Plata is an Argentine city in the southeast part of Buenos Aires Province located on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean.

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Maracaibo

Maracaibo is a city and municipality in northwestern Venezuela, on the western shore of the strait that connects Lake Maracaibo to the Gulf of Venezuela.

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Margarita Island

Margarita Island (Isla de Margarita) is the largest island in the Venezuelan state of Nueva Esparta, situated off the northeastern coast of the country, in the Caribbean Sea.

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Mario Vargas Llosa

Jorge Mario Pedro Vargas Llosa, 1st Marquess of Vargas Llosa (born March 28, 1936), more commonly known as Mario Vargas Llosa, is a Peruvian writer, politician, journalist, essayist and college professor.

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Marrano

Marranos were Jews living in the Iberian Peninsula who converted or were forced to convert to Christianity during the Middle Ages yet continued to practice Judaism in secret.

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Marxism

Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.

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Mate (drink)

Mate (sometimes spelled maté in English though not in Spanish or Portuguese), also known as chimarrão or cimarrón, is a traditional South American caffeine-rich infused drink, that was first consumed by the Guaraní and also spread by the Tupí people.

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Mato Grosso

Mato Grosso (– lit. "Thick Bushes") is one of the states of Brazil, the third-largest by area, located in the western part of the country.

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Matsés

The Matsés or Mayoruna are an indigenous people of the Peruvian and Brazilian Amazon.

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Música sertaneja

Música sertaneja or Sertanejo is a music style that had its origins in the countryside of Brazil in the 1920s.

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Measles

Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.

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Medellín

Medellín, officially the Municipality of Medellín (Municipio de Medellín), is the second-largest city in Colombia and the capital of the department of Antioquia.

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Mediterranean climate

A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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Megalopolis

A megalopolis (sometimes called a megapolis; also megaregion, or supercity) is typically defined as a chain of roughly adjacent metropolitan areas, which may be somewhat separated or may merge into a continuous urban region.

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Mercosur

Mercosur (also known as Mercosul or Ñemby Ñemuha) is a South American trade bloc established by the Treaty of Asunción in 1991 and Protocol of Ouro Preto in 1994.

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Meridian (geography)

A (geographical) meridian (or line of longitude) is the half of an imaginary great circle on the Earth's surface, terminated by the North Pole and the South Pole, connecting points of equal longitude.

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Mesozoic

The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.

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Mestizo

Mestizo is a term traditionally used in Spain, Latin America, and the Philippines that originally referred a person of combined European and Native American descent, regardless of where the person was born.

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Metropolitan Area of Bogotá

Metropolitan Area of Bogotá is the metropolitan area of the Colombian capital city of Bogotá, usually used for statistical analysis or technical use.

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Metropolitan Region of Caracas

Metropolitan Region of Caracas (MRC) or Greater Caracas (GC) (Región Metropolitana de Caracas; RMC or Gran Caracas; GC) is the urban agglomeration comprising the Metropolitan District of Caracas and the adjacent 11 municipalities over Miranda and Vargas state in Venezuela.

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Michael Conniff

Michael Lee Conniff (b. 1942) is a historian of Latin America, who specializes on modern Brazil and Panama.

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Military dictatorship

A military dictatorship (also known as a military junta) is a form of government where in a military force exerts complete or substantial control over political authority.

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Minas Gerais

Minas Gerais is a state in the north of Southeastern Brazil.

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Ministro Pistarini International Airport

Ministro Pistarini International Airport (Aeropuerto Internacional Ministro Pistarini), known as Ezeiza International Airport owing to its location in the Ezeiza Partido in Greater Buenos Aires, is an international airport south-southwest of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, the capital city of Argentina.

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Mit'a

Mit'a was mandatory public service in the society of the Inca Empire.

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Moche culture

The Moche civilization (alternatively, the Mochica culture or the Early, Pre- or Proto-Chimú) flourished in northern Peru with its capital near present-day Moche, Trujillo, Peru from about 100 to 700 AD during the Regional Development Epoch.

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Monarchy

A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.

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Monarchy of the United Kingdom

The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories.

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Montevideo

Montevideo is the capital and largest city of Uruguay.

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Motorsport

Motorsport or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting events which primarily involve the use of motorised vehicles, whether for racing or non-racing competition.

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Muisca

The Muisca are an indigenous group of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense, Colombia, that formed the Muisca Confederation before the Spanish conquest.

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Muisca Confederation

The Muisca Confederation was a loose confederation of different Muisca rulers (zaques, zipas, iraca and tundama) in the central Andean highlands of present-day Colombia before the Spanish conquest of northern South America.

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Mulatto

Mulatto is a term used to refer to people born of one white parent and one black parent or to people born of a mulatto parent or parents.

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Music of Brazil

The music of Brazil encompasses various regional musical styles influenced by African, European and Amerindian forms.

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Music of Latin America

The music of Latin America refers to music originating from Latin America, namely the Romance-speaking countries and territories of the Americas and the Caribbean south of the United States.

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Napoleonic Wars

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.

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Natal, Rio Grande do Norte

Natal ("Christmas") is the capital and largest city of the state Rio Grande do Norte, located in northeastern Brazil.

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National Library of Brazil

The Biblioteca Nacional do Brasil (English: National Library of Brazil) is the depository of the bibliographic and documentary heritage of Brazil. It is located in Rio de Janeiro,the Capital of Brazil from 1822-1960, more specifically at Cinelândia square. The largest library in Latin America and the 7th largest in the world, its collections include about 9 million items. It organized the first library science courses in Latin America and its staff has led the modernization of library services, including the development of online databases.

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National Party (Uruguay)

The National Party (Partido Nacional, PN), also known as the White Party (Partido Blanco), is a major right-wing conservative political party in Uruguay, currently the major opposition party to the ruling Frente Amplio government.

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Nazca culture

The Nazca culture (also Nasca) was the archaeological culture that flourished from beside the arid, southern coast of Peru in the river valleys of the Rio Grande de Nazca drainage and the Ica Valley.

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Nazca Lines

The Nazca Lines are a series of large ancient geoglyphs in the Nazca Desert, in southern Peru.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Neoliberalism

Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.

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New World

The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).

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Norte Chico civilization

The Norte Chico civilization (also Caral or Caral-Supe civilization)The name is disputed.

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North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.

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Northern Hemisphere

The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is north of the Equator.

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Norway

Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.

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Nuclear power

Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.

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Nuclear power plant

A nuclear power plant or nuclear power station is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor.

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Nueva canción

Nueva canción ((standard European) or (American) 'new song') is a social movement and musical genre in Iberian America and the Iberian peninsula, characterized by folk-inspired styles and socially committed lyrics.

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Oceania

Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.

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Olinda

Olinda, is an historic city in the Brazilian state of Pernambuco, located on the country's northeastern Atlantic Ocean coast, in Greater Recife (capital of Pernambuco State). It has a population of 389,494 people, covers, and has a population of 9 inhabitants per square kilometer. It is noted as one of the best-preserved colonial cities in Brazil. Olinda features a number of major tourist attractions, such as a historic downtown area (World Heritage Site), churches, and the Carnival of Olinda, a popular street party, very similar to traditional Portuguese carnivals, with the addition of African influenced dances. Unlike in Rio de Janeiro and Salvador, in Olinda, admission to Carnival is free. All the festivities are celebrated on the streets, and there are no bleachers or roping. There are hundreds of small musical groups (sometimes featuring a single performer) in many genres.

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Olympic Games

The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.

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Operation Condor

Operation Condor (Operación Cóndor,also known as Plan Cóndor, Operação Condor) was a campaign of political repression and state terror in Latin American countries involving intelligence operations and assassination of opponents, mainly civilians, originally planned by the CIA.

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Orinoco

The Orinoco River is one of the longest rivers in South America at.

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Orthodoxy

Orthodoxy (from Greek ὀρθοδοξία orthodoxía "right opinion") is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion.

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Oswaldo Guayasamín

Oswaldo Guayasamín (July 6, 1919 – March 10, 1999) was an Ecuadorian master painter and sculptor of Quechua and Mestizo heritage.

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Overseas department

An overseas department (département d’outre-mer or DOM) is a department of France that is outside metropolitan France.

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Pablo Neruda

Ricardo Eliécer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto (12 July 1904 – 23 September 1973), better known by his pen name and, later, legal name Pablo Neruda, was a Chilean poet-diplomat and politician.

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Pacific Ocean

The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.

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Paleozoic

The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.

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Palestinians

The Palestinian people (الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī), also referred to as Palestinians (الفلسطينيون, al-Filasṭīniyyūn, פָלַסְטִינִים) or Palestinian Arabs (العربي الفلسطيني, al-'arabi il-filastini), are an ethnonational group comprising the modern descendants of the peoples who have lived in Palestine over the centuries, including Jews and Samaritans, and who today are largely culturally and linguistically Arab.

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Pampas

The Pampas (from the pampa, meaning "plain") are fertile South American lowlands that cover more than and include the Argentine provinces of Buenos Aires, La Pampa, Santa Fe, Entre Ríos and Córdoba; all of Uruguay; and the southernmost Brazilian State, Rio Grande do Sul.

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Pan-American Highway

The Pan-American Highway is a network of roads measuring about in total length.

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Panama

Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.

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Panama Canal

The Panama Canal (Canal de Panamá) is an artificial waterway in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean.

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Pangaea

Pangaea or Pangea was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras.

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Paracas culture

The Paracas culture was an Andean society existing between approximately 800 BCE and 100 BCE, with an extensive knowledge of irrigation and water management and that made significant contributions in the textile arts.

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Paraguay

Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.

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Paraguayan War

The Paraguayan War, also known as the War of the Triple Alliance and the Great War in Paraguay, was a South American war fought from 1864 to 1870 between Paraguay and the Triple Alliance of Argentina, the Empire of Brazil, and Uruguay.

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Paramaribo

Paramaribo (nickname: Par′bo) is the capital and largest city of Suriname, located on the banks of the Suriname River in the Paramaribo District.

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Paranaguá

Paranaguá (Great Round Sea, in Tupi) is a city in the state of Paraná in Brazil.

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Paraná River

The Paraná River (Río Paraná, Rio Paraná, Ysyry Parana) is a river in south Central South America, running through Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina for some.

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Pará

Pará is a state in northern Brazil traversed by the lower Amazon River.

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Parliamentary republic

A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).

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Pasillo

Pasillo (hallway or aisle) is a Colombian genre of music extremely popular in the territories that composed the 19th century Viceroyalty of New Granada and Gran Colombia: Born in Gran Colombia, spread in the territory, especially Ecuador (where it is considered the national musical style), and to a lesser extent in the mountainous regions of Venezuela and Panama.

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Patagonia

Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile.

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Patriot (Spanish American independence)

Patriots (Patriotas) was the name that the people of the Spanish America who rebelled against Spanish control during the Spanish American wars of independence called themselves.

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Pedro I of Brazil

Dom Pedro I (English: Peter I; 12 October 1798 – 24 September 1834), nicknamed "the Liberator", was the founder and first ruler of the Empire of Brazil.

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Pedro II of Brazil

Dom Pedro II (English: Peter II; 2 December 1825 – 5 December 1891), nicknamed "the Magnanimous", was the second and last ruler of the Empire of Brazil, reigning for over 58 years.

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Pehuenche

Pehuenche (or Pewenche, people of the "pehuen" or "pewen" in Mapudungun) are an indigenous people of South America.

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Peninsular War

The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire (as well as the allied powers of the Spanish Empire), the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Portugal, for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars.

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Perito Moreno Glacier

The Perito Moreno Glacier is a glacier located in the Los Glaciares National Park in southwest Santa Cruz Province, Argentina.

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Peru

Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.

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Peru–Bolivian Confederation

The Peru–Bolivian Confederation was a short-lived state that existed in South America between 1836 and 1839.

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Petroleum

Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.

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Phenotype

A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).

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Pink tide

"Pink tide" (marea rosa, onda rosa) and "turn to the Left" (Sp.: vuelta hacia la izquierda, Pt.: Guinada à Esquerda) are phrases used in contemporary 21st century political analysis in the media and elsewhere to describe the perception of a turn towards left wing governments in Latin American democracies straying away from the neo-liberal economic model.

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Piranha

A piranha or piraña, a member of family Characidae in order Characiformes, is a freshwater fish that inhabits South American rivers, floodplains, lakes and reservoirs.

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Pisco

Pisco is a colorless or yellowish-to-amber colored brandy produced in winemaking regions of Peru and Chile.

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Platine War

The Platine War (18 August 1851 – 3 February 1852) was fought between the Argentine Confederation and an alliance consisting of the Empire of Brazil, Uruguay, and the Argentine provinces of Entre Ríos and Corrientes.

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Political prisoner

A political prisoner is someone imprisoned because they have opposed or criticized the government responsible for their imprisonment.

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Polo

Polo is a team sport played on horseback.

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Population

In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.

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Porto Alegre

Porto Alegre (local; Joyful Harbor) is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul.

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Portugal

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.

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Portuguese colonization of the Americas

Portugal was the leading country in the European exploration of the world in the 15th century.

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Portuguese language

Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.

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Prefectures in France

A prefecture (préfecture) in France may refer to.

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Presidential system

A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.

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Protestantism

Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

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Puerto Toro

Puerto Toro is a hamlet on the eastern coast of Navarino Island, Chile.

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Punta del Este

Punta del Este is the second city of Uruguayhttp://www.lanacion.com.ar/1439666-tips-gasoleros-para-veranear-en-punta-del-este and the most important resort town in South America, the Punta area 220,000 residents add to a peak of over 600,000 people during the summer season, while year-round the town receives one million tourists.

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Purchasing power parity

Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.

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Quechua people

The Quechua people are the indigenous peoples of South America who speak any of the Quechua languages.

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Quechuan languages

Quechua, usually called Runasimi ("people's language") in Quechuan languages, is an indigenous language family spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Andes and highlands of South America.

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Quito

Quito (Kitu; Kitu), formally San Francisco de Quito, is the capital city of Ecuador, and at an elevation of above sea level, it is the second-highest official capital city in the world, after La Paz, and the one which is closest to the equator.

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Ragamuffin War

The Ragamuffin War (Portuguese: Guerra dos Farrapos or, more commonly Revolução Farroupilha) was a Republican uprising that began in southern Brazil, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul in 1835.

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Rail transport

Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.

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Rain

Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then becomes heavy enough to fall under gravity.

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Rawson, Chubut

Rawson (originally "Trerawson" from Welsh) is the capital of the Argentine province of Chubut, in Patagonia.

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Río de la Plata Basin

The Río de la Plata basin (Cuenca del Plata, Bacia do Prata), more often called the River Plate basin in scholarly writings, sometimes called the Platine basin or Platine region, is the hydrographical area in South America that drains to the Río de la Plata.

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Recession

In economics, a recession is a business cycle contraction which results in a general slowdown in economic activity.

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Recife

Recife is the fourth-largest urban agglomeration in Brazil with 3,995,949 inhabitants, the largest urban agglomeration of the North/Northeast Regions, and the capital and largest city of the state of Pernambuco in the northeast corner of South America.

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Regions of France

France is divided into 18 administrative regions (région), including 13 metropolitan regions and 5 overseas regions.

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Republic of Entre Ríos

The Republic of Entre Ríos was a short-lived republic in South America in the early nineteenth century.

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Rio de Janeiro

Rio de Janeiro (River of January), or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas.

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Rio de Janeiro (state)

Rio de Janeiro is one of the 27 federative units of Brazil.

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Rio de Janeiro Light Rail

Rio de Janeiro Light Rail (VLT do Rio de Janeiro) is a modern light rail system serving Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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Rio de Janeiro–Galeão International Airport

Rio de Janeiro–Antonio Carlos Jobim International Airport, popularly known by its original name Galeão International Airport, is the main airport serving Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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Rio Grande

The Rio Grande (or; Río Bravo del Norte, or simply Río Bravo) is one of the principal rivers in the southwest United States and northern Mexico (the other being the Colorado River).

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Rio Grande do Sul

Rio Grande do Sul (lit. Great Southern River) is a state located in the southern region of Brazil.

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Riograndense Republic

The Riograndense Republic, often called Piratini Republic (República Rio-Grandense, literally "Great River Republic", or República do Piratini), was a de facto state that seceded from the Empire of Brazil roughly coinciding with the present state of Rio Grande do Sul.

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Riograndenser Hunsrückisch German

Riograndenser Hunsrückisch, spoken in parts of Brazil, is a Moselle Franconian variety derived primarily from the Hunsrückisch dialect of West Central German.

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Robinson Crusoe Island

Robinson Crusoe Island (Isla Róbinson Crusoe), formerly known as Más a Tierra (Closer to Land), is the second largest of the Juan Fernández Islands, situated west of San Antonio, Chile, in the South Pacific Ocean.

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Rock en español

Rock en español (Spanish-language rock) is a term used widely in the English-speaking world to refer any kind of rock music featuring Spanish vocals.

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Rosario, Santa Fe

Rosario is the largest city in the province of Santa Fe, in central Argentina.

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Royalist (Spanish American independence)

The royalists were the Latin American and European supporters of the various governing bodies of the Spanish Monarchy, during the Spanish American wars of independence, which lasted from 1808 until the king's death in 1833.

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Rugby football

Rugby football refers to the team sports rugby league and rugby union.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago

The Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago (Arquipélago de São Pedro e São Paulo) is a group of 15 small islets and rocks in the central equatorial Atlantic Ocean.

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Salar de Uyuni

Salar de Uyuni (or Salar de Tunupa) is the world's largest salt flat at 10 582 square kilometers (4 086 sq mi).

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Salvador, Bahia

Salvador, also known as São Salvador, Salvador de Bahia, and Salvador da Bahia, is the capital of the Brazilian state of Bahia.

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Samba

Samba is a Brazilian musical genre and dance style, with its roots in Africa via the West African slave trade and African religious traditions, particularly of Angola and the Congo, through the samba de roda genre of the northeastern Brazilian state of Bahia, from which it derived.

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San Andrés (island)

San Andrés is a Colombian coral island in the Caribbean Sea.

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San Ignacio Miní

San Ignacio Miní was one of the many missions founded in 1632, in Argentina, by the Jesuits in what the colonial Spaniards called the Province of Paraguay of the Americas during the Spanish colonial period.

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Santa Catarina (state)

Santa Catarina (Saint Catherine) is a state in the southern region of Brazil.

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Santa Cruz de la Sierra

Santa Cruz de la Sierra ('Holy Cross of the Mountain Range'), commonly known as Santa Cruz, is the largest city in Bolivia and the capital of the Santa Cruz department.

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Santa Marta

Santa Marta, officially Distrito Turístico, Cultural e Histórico de Santa Marta ("Touristic, Cultural and Historic District of Santa Marta"), is a city in Colombia.

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Santiago

Santiago, also known as Santiago de Chile, is the capital and largest city of Chile as well as one of the largest cities in the Americas.

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Santiago Metro

The Santiago Metro (Metro de Santiago) is the underground railway network serving the city of Santiago, Chile.

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Santiago Metropolitan Region

Santiago Metropolitan Region (Región Metropolitana de Santiago) is one of Chile's 15 first-order administrative divisions.

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Santos Dumont Airport

Santos Dumont Airport is the second major airport serving Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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Santos, São Paulo

Santos (Saints) is a municipality in the Brazilian state of São Paulo, founded in 1546 by the Portuguese nobleman Brás Cubas.

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Sápara

The Sápara, also known as Zápara or Záparo, are an indigenous people native to the Amazon rainforest along the border of Ecuador and Peru.

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São Luís, Maranhão

São Luís (Saint Louis) is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Maranhão.

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São Paulo

São Paulo is a municipality in the southeast region of Brazil.

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São Paulo (state)

São Paulo is one of the 26 states of the Federative Republic of Brazil and is named after Saint Paul of Tarsus.

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São Paulo Macrometropolis

The São Paulo Macrometropolis (Macrometrópole Paulista), also known as Expanded Metropolitan Complex is a Brazilian megalopolis that emerged through the existing process of conurbation between the São Paulo's metropolitan areas located around the Greater São Paulo, with more than 30 million inhabitants, or 74 percent of São Paulo State's population, is one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world.

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São Paulo Metro

The São Paulo Metro (Metropolitano de São Paulo), commonly called the Metro or Companhia do Metropolitano de São Paulo (CMSP), is one of the rapid transit companies that serves the city of São Paulo, alongside São Paulo Metropolitan Trains Company (CPTM) and ViaQuatro, forming the largest metropolitan rail transport network of Latin America.

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São Paulo–Congonhas Airport

São Paulo/Congonhas Airport is one of the four commercial airports serving São Paulo, Brazil (Campo de Marte Airport, Viracopos International Airport, and São Paulo–Guarulhos International Airport being the other three).

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São Paulo–Guarulhos International Airport

São Paulo/Guarulhos–Governador André Franco Montoro International Airport, often referred to as GRU Airport, or simply GRU, is the primary international airport serving São Paulo.

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Second French Empire

The French Second Empire (Second Empire) was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.

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Selk'nam people

The Selk'nam, also known as the Onawo or Ona people, are an indigenous people in the Patagonian region of southern Argentina and Chile, including the Tierra del Fuego islands.

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Semi-arid climate

A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.

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Semi-presidential system

A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible for the legislature of a state.

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Shinto

or kami-no-michi (among other names) is the traditional religion of Japan that focuses on ritual practices to be carried out diligently to establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient past.

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Shipibo-Conibo people

The Shipibo-Conibo are an indigenous people along the Ucayali River in the Amazon rainforest in Perú.

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Shuar

The Shuar are an indigenous people of Ecuador and Peru.

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Silver

Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.

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Simón Bolívar

Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar Palacios Ponte y Blanco (24 July 1783 – 17 December 1830), generally known as Simón Bolívar and also colloquially as El Libertador, was a Venezuelan military and political leader who played a leading role in the establishment of Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Panama as sovereign states, independent of Spanish rule.

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Slave ship

Slave ships were large cargo ships specially converted for the purpose of transporting slaves.

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Slavery

Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.

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Smallpox

Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.

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Social inequality

Social inequality occurs when resources in a given society are distributed unevenly, typically through norms of allocation, that engender specific patterns along lines of socially defined categories of persons.

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South American cuisine

South American cuisine has many influences, due to the ethnic fusion of South America.

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South American dreadnought race

A naval arms race among Argentina, Brazil and Chile—the most powerful and wealthy countries in South America—began in the early twentieth century when the Brazilian government ordered three "dreadnoughts", formidable battleships whose capabilities far outstripped older vessels in the world's navies.

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South American Games

The South American Games (also known as ODESUR Games; Spanish: Juegos Sudamericanos; Portuguese: Jogos Sul-Americanos), formerly the Southern Cross Games (Spanish: Juegos Cruz del Sur) is a regional multi-sport event held between nations from South America, organized by the South American Sports Organization (Organización Deportiva Sudamericana, ODESUR).

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South American Plate

The South American Plate is a tectonic plate which includes the continent of South America and also a sizeable region of the Atlantic Ocean seabed extending eastward to the African Plate creating the Mid-Atlantic Ridge The easterly side is a divergent boundary with the African Plate forming the southern part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

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South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (SGSSI) is a British Overseas Territory in the southern Atlantic Ocean.

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Southeast Region, Brazil

The Southeast Region of Brazil (Região Sudeste do Brasil) is composed by the states of Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.

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Southern Cone

The Southern Cone (Cono Sur, Cone Sul) is a geographic and cultural region composed of the southernmost areas of South America, south of and around the Tropic of Capricorn.

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Southern Hemisphere

The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator.

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Southern Quechua

Southern Quechua (Quechua: Urin qichwa, quechua sureño), or simply Quechua (Qichwa or Qhichwa), is the most widely spoken of the major regional groupings of mutually intelligible dialects within the Quechua language family, with about 6.9 million speakers.

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Soybean

The soybean (Glycine max), or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.

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Spain

Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Spaniards

Spaniards are a Latin European ethnic group and nation.

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Spanish American wars of independence

The Spanish American wars of independence were the numerous wars against Spanish rule in Spanish America with the aim of political independence that took place during the early 19th century, after the French invasion of Spain during Europe's Napoleonic Wars.

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Spanish language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.

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Species

In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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Spiritism

Spiritism is a spiritualistic religion codified in the 19th century by the French educator Hippolyte Léon Denizard Rivail, under the codename Allan Kardec; it proposed the study of "the nature, origin, and destiny of spirits, and their relation with the corporeal world".

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Stanley, Falkland Islands

Stanley (also known as Port Stanley) is the capital of the Falkland Islands.

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Staple food

A staple food, or simply a staple, is a food that is eaten routinely and in such quantities that it constitutes a dominant portion of a standard diet for a given people, supplying a large fraction of energy needs and generally forming a significant proportion of the intake of other nutrients as well.

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Subtropics

The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.

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Sucre

Sucre is the constitutional capital of Bolivia, the capital of the Chuquisaca Department and the 6th most populated city in Bolivia.

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Sugar

Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.

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Sugarcane

Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.

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Summer

Summer is the hottest of the four temperate seasons, falling after spring and before autumn.

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Supercontinent

In geology, a supercontinent is the assembly of most or all of Earth's continental blocks or cratons to form a single large landmass.

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Suriname

Suriname (also spelled Surinam), officially known as the Republic of Suriname (Republiek Suriname), is a sovereign state on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America.

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Suriname (Kingdom of the Netherlands)

Suriname was a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands between 1954 and 1975.

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Syrians

Syrians (سوريون), also known as the Syrian people (الشعب السوري ALA-LC: al-sha‘ab al-Sūrī; ܣܘܪܝܝܢ), are the inhabitants of Syria, who share a common Levantine Semitic ancestry.

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Tancredo Neves International Airport

Belo Horizonte - Tancredo Neves/Confins International Airport, formerly called Confins International Airportis the primary international airport serving Belo Horizonte.

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Tango

Tango is a partner dance which originated in the 1880s along the River Plate (Río de Plata), the natural border between Argentina and Uruguay.

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Tango music

Tango is a style of music in 4 time that originated among European immigrant populations of Argentina and Uruguay (collectively, the "Rioplatenses").

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Tapir

A tapir is a large, herbivorous mammal, similar in shape to a pig, with a short, prehensile nose trunk.

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Tariff

A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between sovereign states.

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Tayrona National Natural Park

The Tayrona National Natural Park (Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona) is a protected area in the Colombian northern Caribbean region and within the jurisdiction of the Department of Magdalena and from the city of Santa Marta.

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Teddy Cobeña

Teddy Cobeña Loor (born 16 April 1973 in Portoviejo) is a figurative expressionist sculptor with a surrealist component.

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Tennis

Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).

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Tereré

Tereré or Tererê (of Guaraní origin) is an infusion of yerba mate (botanical name Ilex paraguariensis), similar to mate but prepared with cold water and ice rather than with hot, and in a slightly larger vessel.

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Terrace (agriculture)

In agriculture, a terrace is a piece of sloped plane that has been cut into a series of successively receding flat surfaces or platforms, which resemble steps, for the purposes of more effective farming.

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Territory

A territory is an administrative division, usually an area that is under the jurisdiction of a state.

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The Guianas

The Guianas, sometimes called by the Spanish loan-word Guayanas (Las Guayanas), are a region in north-eastern South America which includes the following three territories.

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Thermoelectric effect

The thermoelectric effect is the direct conversion of temperature differences to electric voltage and vice versa via a thermocouple.

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Tierra del Fuego

Tierra del Fuego (Spanish for "Land of Fire") is an archipelago off the southernmost tip of the South American mainland, across the Strait of Magellan.

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Tin

Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.

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Tiwanaku

Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco or Tiahuanacu) is a Pre-Columbian archaeological site in western Bolivia.

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Tobago

Tobago is an autonomous island within the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago.

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Tondero

Tondero is a dance and guitar rhythm from Peru that developed in the country's northern coastal region (Piura–Lambayeque).

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Topography

Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.

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Total war

Total war is warfare that includes any and all civilian-associated resources and infrastructure as legitimate military targets, mobilizes all of the resources of society to fight the war, and gives priority to warfare over non-combatant needs.

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Tourism

Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.

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Transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil

The transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil occurred with the strategic retreat of Queen Maria I of Portugal, Prince Regent John, also referred to as Dom João or Dom João VI, and the Braganza royal family and its court of nearly 15,000 people from Lisbon on November 29, 1807.

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Treaty of the Triple Alliance

The Treaty of the Triple Alliance was a treaty which allied the Empire of Brazil and the Republics of Argentina and Uruguay against the Republic of Paraguay.

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Treaty of Tordesillas

The Treaty of Tordesillas (Tratado de Tordesilhas, Tratado de Tordesillas), signed at Tordesillas on June 7, 1494, and authenticated at Setúbal, Portugal, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between the Portuguese Empire and the Crown of Castile, along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands, off the west coast of Africa.

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Trelew

Trelew (from tref "town" and the name of the founder) is a city in the Chubut Province of Argentina.

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Trindade and Martin Vaz

Trindade and Martin Vaz (Trindade e Martim Vaz) is an archipelago located in the Southern Atlantic Ocean about east of the coast of Espírito Santo, Brazil, which it constitutes a part of.

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Trinidad

Trinidad is the larger and more populous of the two major islands of Trinidad and Tobago.

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Trinidad and Tobago

Trinidad and Tobago, officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island sovereign state that is the southernmost nation of the West Indies in the Caribbean.

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Tropical cyclone

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.

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Tropical forest

Tropical forests are forested landscapes in tropical regions: i.e. land areas approximately bounded by the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, but possibly affected by other factors such as prevailing winds.

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Tropical rainforest climate

A tropical rainforest climate, also known as an equatorial climate, is a tropical climate usually (but not always) found along the equator.

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Tropics

The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.

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Tupi people

The Tupi people were one of the most important indigenous peoples in Brazil.

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Typhus

Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.

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Uncontacted peoples

Uncontacted people, also referred to as isolated people or lost tribes, are communities who live, or have lived, either by choice (people living in voluntary isolation) or by circumstance, without significant contact with modern civilization.

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Union of South American Nations

The Union of South American Nations (USAN; Unión de Naciones Suramericanas, UNASUR; União de Nações Sul-Americanas, UNASUL; Unie van Zuid-Amerikaanse Naties, UZAN; and sometimes referred to as the South American Union) is an intergovernmental regional organization comprising twelve South American countries.

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Unitarian Party

Unitarianists or Unitarians (in Spanish, Unitarios) were the proponents of the concept of a unitary state (centralized government) in Buenos Aires during the civil wars which shortly followed the Declaration of Independence of Argentina in 1816.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves

The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves was a pluricontinental monarchy formed by the elevation of the Portuguese colony named State of Brazil to the status of a kingdom and by the simultaneous union of that Kingdom of Brazil with the Kingdom of Portugal and the Kingdom of the Algarves, constituting a single state consisting of three kingdoms.

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United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata

The United Provinces of the Río de la Plata (Provincias Unidas del Río de la Plata), earlier known as the United Provinces of South America (Provincias Unidas de Sudamérica), a union of provinces in the Río de la Plata region of South America, emerged from the May Revolution in 1810 and the Argentine War of Independence of 1810–1818.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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Urarina people

The Urarina are an indigenous people of the Peruvian Amazon Basin (Loreto) who inhabit the valleys of the Chambira, Urituyacu, and Corrientes Rivers.

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Uruguay

Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.

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Uruguayan Civil War

The Uruguayan Civil War, also known in Spanish as the Guerra Grande ("Great War"), was a series of armed conflicts between the leaders of Uruguayan independence.

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Uruguayan War

The Uruguayan War (10 August 1864 – 20 February 1865) was fought between Uruguay's governing Blanco Party and an alliance consisting of the Empire of Brazil and the Uruguayan Colorado Party, covertly supported by Argentina.

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UTC−02:00

UTC−02:00 is a time offset that subtracts 2 hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).

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UTC−05:00

UTC−05:00 is a time offset that subtracts five hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).

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Vallenato

Vallenato, along with cumbia, is a popular folk music of Colombia.

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Valparaíso

Valparaíso is a major city, seaport, and educational center in the commune of Valparaíso, Chile.

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Vargas Era

The Vargas Era (Portuguese: Era Vargas) is the period in the history of Brazil between 1930 and 1945, when the country was under the dictatorship of Getúlio Vargas.

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Venezuela

Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).

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Viceroyalty of Peru

The Viceroyalty of Peru (Virreinato del Perú) was a Spanish colonial administrative district, created in 1542, that originally contained most of Spanish-ruled South America, governed from the capital of Lima.

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Vicuña

The vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) or vicuna (both, very rarely spelled vicugna) is one of the two wild South American camelids which live in the high alpine areas of the Andes, the other being the guanaco.

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Viracopos International Airport

Viracopos/Campinas International Airport (sometimes referred to as São Paulo/Campinas) is an international airport serving Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil.

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Volleyball

Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net.

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W. E. B. Du Bois Institute

The W. E. B. Du Bois Institute for African and African-American Research is located at Harvard University and was established in 1969.

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Wai-wai people

The Wai-wai (also written Waiwai or Wai Wai) are a Carib-speaking ethnic group of Guyana and northern Brazil.

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War of Independence of Brazil

The War of Independence of Brazil (also known as the Brazilian War of Independence) was waged between the newly independent Brazilian Empire and United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves which had just undergone the Liberal Revolution of 1820.

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War of the Confederation

The War of the Confederation (Guerra de la Confederación) was a conflict between the Peru-Bolivian Confederation and a coalition of Argentina and the United Restorative Army, composed of Chile and North Peruvian dissidents, from 1836 to 1839.

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War of the Pacific

The War of the Pacific (Guerra del Pacífico), also known as the Salpeter War (Guerra del Salitre) and by multiple other names (see the etymology section below) was a war between Chile on one side and a Bolivian-Peruvian alliance on the other.

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Wari culture

The Wari (Huari) were a Middle Horizon civilization that flourished in the south-central Andes and coastal area of modern-day Peru, from about AD 500 to 1000.

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Wayuu language

The Wayuu language, or Goajiro (Wayuu: Wayuunaiki), is spoken by 305,000 indigenous Wayuu people in northwestern Venezuela and northeastern Colombia on the Guajira Peninsula.

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Wayuu people

Wayuu (also Wayu, Wayúu, Guajiro, Wahiro) is a Native American ethnic group of the Guajira Peninsula in northernmost part of Colombia and northwest Venezuela.

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Welsh language

Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.

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Western culture

Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.

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Western Hemisphere

The Western Hemisphere is a geographical term for the half of Earth which lies west of the prime meridian (which crosses Greenwich, London, United Kingdom) and east of the antimeridian.

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Western world

The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.

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Wheat

Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.

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White people

White people is a racial classification specifier, used mostly for people of European descent; depending on context, nationality, and point of view, the term has at times been expanded to encompass certain persons of North African, Middle Eastern, and South Asian descent, persons who are often considered non-white in other contexts.

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Wind power

Wind power is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators for electricity.

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Wind shear

Wind shear (or windshear), sometimes referred to as wind gradient, is a difference in wind speed and/or direction over a relatively short distance in the atmosphere.

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Winter

Winter is the coldest season of the year in polar and temperate zones (winter does not occur in the tropical zone).

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World

The world is the planet Earth and all life upon it, including human civilization.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Xukuru

The Xukuru (Xucuru) are an indigenous people of Brazil, with a population of approximately 8,500, living in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

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Yaghan people

The Yaghan, also called Yagán, Yahgan, Yámana, Yamana, or Tequenica, are one of the indigenous peoples of the Southern Cone, who are regarded as the southernmost peoples in the world.

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Yagua people

Yagua people are an indigenous people in Colombia and northeastern Peru, numbering approximately 6,000.

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Yanomami

The Yanomami, also spelled Yąnomamö or Yanomama, are a group of approximately 35,000 indigenous people who live in some 200–250 villages in the Amazon rainforest on the border between Venezuela and Brazil.

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Youth Olympic Games

The Youth Olympic Games (YOG) is an international multi-sport event organized by the International Olympic Committee.

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Zambo

Zambo and cafuzo are racial terms used in the Spanish and Portuguese empires and occasionally today to identify individuals in the Americas who are of mixed African and Amerindian ancestry (the analogous English term, sambo, is considered a slur).

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Zulia

Zulia State (Estado Zulia) is one of the 23 states of Venezuela.

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1998–2002 Argentine great depression

The 1998–2002 Argentine Great Depression was an economic depression in Argentina, which began in the third quarter of 1998 and lasted until the second quarter of 2002.

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19th century

The 19th century was a century that began on January 1, 1801, and ended on December 31, 1900.

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2016 Summer Olympics

The 2016 Summer Olympics (Jogos Olímpicos de Verão de 2016), officially known as the Games of the XXXI Olympiad and commonly known as Rio 2016, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 5 to 21 August 2016 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with preliminary events in some sports beginning on 3 August.

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30th parallel south

The 30th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 30 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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Redirects here:

America do Sul, América do Sul, Aouth america, List of national capitals in South America, Politics of South America, Prehistory of South America, S. America, South America (continent), South America (region), South American, South American capital cities, South American continent, South Americans, South Americas, South Amerika, South america, South american capital cities, South amerika, South-America, South-American, Southamerica, Southamerican, Southamericans, Southern America, Tourism in South America.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_America

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